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CONSEJERA DE EDUCACIN

Direccin General de Participacin e Innovacin Educativa

Identificacin del material AICLE


TTULO Al Andalus

NIVEL LINGSTICO SEGN MCER IDIOMA

A2.1

Ingls

REA / MATERIA

Ciencias Sociales. Geografa e Historia

NCLEO TEMTICO

Los territorios hispnicos bajo dominacin musulmana en la Edad Media. La secuencia pretende hacer un balance histrico de la evolucin del imperio islmico en la pennsula ibrica, su consolidacin y su legado en la cultura, el arte y la vida cotidiana en Andaluca.

GUIN TEMTICO

FORMATO

Material didctico en formato PDF

CORRESPONDENCIA CURRICULAR AUTORA TEMPORALIZACIN APROXIMADA

2 de Educacin Secundaria

M ngeles Crespo Fernndez 5 sesiones, ms una propuesta de trabajo de investigacin y un cuestionario de autoevaluacin de contenidos y destrezas. Competencia lingstica (C1): Lectura de textos diversos. Competencia en el conocimiento e interaccin con el medio fsico (C2): Anlisis de distintos mapas. Competencia cultural y artstica (C3): Anlisis y comentario de diversas imgenes. Competencia social y ciudadana (C4): Desarrollo de habilidades sociales para el trabajo en equipo. Competencia en el tratamiento de la informacin (C5): Realizacin de un pequeo catlogo de fotografas de restos andaluses pertenecientes al patrimonio local. Competencia para aprender a aprender (C6): Desarrollo de estrategias para organizar e integrar los conocimientos adquiridos. Competencia para la autonoma e iniciativa personal (C7): Desarrollo de iniciativas en la realizacin de debates, trabajos individuales y en grupo.

COMPETENCIAS BSICAS

OBSERVACIONES

Cada sesin puede realizarse de manera independiente y su duracin podra exceder una hora lectiva. Por ello se aconseja la seleccin de actividades, de acuerdo con el grado de motivacin e implicacin del alumnado, sus intereses, ritmo de aprendizaje y otras caractersticas especficas del grupo-clase. La secuencia est diseada para atender a la diversidad en el aula, de manera que en cada sesin podrn encontrarse actividades con diferente grado de dificultad.

Material AICLE 2 de ESO: Al Andalus

Tabla de programacin AICLE


- Identificar y localizar los procesos y acontecimientos histricos relevantes en la historia del mundo - Adquirir y emplear el vocabulario especfico que proporcionan las Ciencias Sociales - Realizar tareas en equipo y participar en actividades de grupo con una actitud constructiva - Desarrollar actitudes de respeto hacia otras culturas y momentos histricos - Conocer nuestro patrimonio artstico y cultural y valorarlo - Comprender y expresarse de manera adecuada en una lengua extranjera - Lectura e interpretacin de imgenes y mapas - Obtencin de informacin de fuentes diversas - Localizacin en el espacio y en el tiempo - Conocimiento de las manifestaciones artsticas ms relevantes - Etapas de la historia de Al Andalus: marco espacial y cronolgico. - Sociedad y economa de Al Andalus. - Principales manifestaciones del arte andalus y sus caractersticas. - La herencia andalus en nuestra cultura. - Cuestionar la validez de las fuentes histricas - Identificar obras de arte de Al-Andalus - Dar instrucciones para seguir un itinerario - Elaboracin de textos breves. - Actividades de aprendizaje cooperativo. - Pequea investigacin sobre el patrimonio local y comunicacin oral de los resultados FUNCIONES: - Contrastar opiniones - Comunicar impresiones a una amplia audiencia - Rebatir argumentos CONTENIDOS LINGSTICOS ESTRUCTURAS: In about X years... In command of... As a result... By that time, Youd rather... I think so/I dont think so The main reasons for this are It can be proved that... Therefore, Consequently However Thus LXICO: former, elective, overthrown, de-throne, supporters, in revenge, biased, political domain, Caliphate, Ummayad, Abbasid, Jews, Mozarabs, neighbourhood, tributary state, ground plan, muqarna whitewashed... VERBS: To build stable institutions, overthrow, dethrone, wash in blood, defeat, surrender, enslave, land. It dates from... To be under the control of...

OBJETIVOS

CONTENIDOS DE CURSO / CICLO

TEMA

MODELOS DISCURSIVOS

TAREAS

CRITERIOS DE EVALUACIN

C1: Adquiere un vocabulario especfico de la propia materia. Adquiere vocabulario bsico en lengua inglesa C2: Reconoce la importancia del medio fsico en el desarrollo histrico. C3: Desarrolla destrezas para observar y analizar las obras de arte como resultante de un determinado contexto histrico. C4:Desarrolla una actitud participativa para trabajar en equipo C5:Obtiene informacin de fuentes escritas, grficas y visuales C6: Desarrolla estrategias para organizar y recuperar la informacin, tales como esquemas conceptuales, listas de vocabulario en lengua inglesa C7: Desarrolla destrezas para trabajar en equipo.

Material AICLE 2 de ESO: Al Andalus

AL ANDALUS

CONTENTS 1. Did Muslims invade the Iberian peninsula? 2. What happened?. 3. Society and economy. 4. A walk through Qurtaba and Gharnata. 5. Legacies of Al Andalus Project: Going for a walk Test yourself!

Material AICLE 2 de ESO: Al Andalus

Session 1: GETTING STARTED DID MUSLIMS TRULY INVADE THE IBERIAN PENINSULA?

What do you think? Do you think that Muslims invaded the Iberian Peninsula? Give reasons to justify your opinion: I think so, because I dont think so, because It can be proved that... Therefore, Consequently So However Thus

Material AICLE 2 de ESO: Al Andalus

What other evidence do you have? ........................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... ...........................................................................................................................

Historians collect evidence of the past from a wide range of sources such as documents, photographs, buildings and other objects. You may know many things about Al Andalus1 already. Make true sentences using the following words:

Include the following chunks: ...was under the control of... In X ...crossed... in command of... ...established... In about X years... Tariq and Musa Straits of Gibraltar Al Andalus

1 the name of the Iberian Peninsula under the Muslim Empire Material AICLE 2 de ESO: Al Andalus

Write your sentences here: ............................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................. What would it happen if? Train your imagination. Listen to the instructions and imagine you were living in a very far away country in a remote time

What would you do? Finish the story with a happy end

Now tell your partner your ending for the story. Finally, compare the different endings in a whole class brainstorm.

Material AICLE 2 de ESO: Al Andalus

UNCOVERING WOMEN IN HISTORY 1. Listen and read. Your teacher will explain the words in red beforehand. Listen ONCE. What is the text about? Listen TWICE. What are the names of the places and people mentioned? Listen THREE TIMES. Fill in the gaps in the text. SOURCE A: The PEOPLE1 did not have stable institutions or loyal supporters. Fights for the throne were common. The monarchy was elective, so it was not (a)__________ to encourage foreign intervention. The court of PLACE1 was run by King PEOPLE2, elected after the death of PEOPLE3. But the supporters of PEOPLE4 s clan were not (b)__________ with this situation, and helped the Moorish armies. They had expected Muslims to help them to overthrow the King, and then, return to PLACE. But they miscalculated the situation. The Muslim commander of PLACE2, PEOPLE5 led no more than (c)__________ men, mostly Berbers from northern PLACE3, across the straits of PLACE4 in (d) _____________________________ SOURCE B: Florinda, daughter of Count Don Julian resided at the court of Toledo, following the Spanish custom of the upper classes who sent their children to the capital to be educated. She used to swim naked in the waters of the Tagus3. One hot day King Rodrigo, walking along the shore, noted the beauty of the young innocent virginal lady. He unfortunately fell in love with Florinda, and as a result she lost her chastity there and then.

Battle of Guadalete

ROMANCE DE LA CAVA FLORINDA De una torre de palacio se sali por un postigo la Cava son sus doncellas con gran fiesta y regocijo. Metiose en un jardn cerca de un espeso sombro de jazmines y arrayanes de pmpanos y racimos. Junto a una fuente que vierte por seis caos de oro fino cristal y perlas sonoras

Material AICLE 2 de ESO: Al Andalus

We dont know whether the act was a shared passion or rape. Her father was furious, and wanted bloody revenge. At that time, the family was organized around blind obedience to the father and worship of the chastity of women. In revenge, D. Julian called the Moorish troops who dethroned Don Rodrigo, whose body mysteriously disappeared in the battle.

entre espadaas y lirio, reposaron las doncellas buscando solaz y alivio al fuego de mocedad y a los ardores de esto. Daban agua sus brazos, y tentada de su fro, fue la Cava la primera que desnud sus vestidos. En la sombreada alberca su cuerpo brilla tan lindo que al que todas las dems como sol ha oscurecido. Pens la Cava estar sola, pero la ventura quiso que entre unas espesas yedras la mirara el rey Rodrigo. Puso la ocasin el fuego en el corazn altivo, y Amor, batiendo sus alas, abrsole de improviso. De la prdida de Espaa fue aqu funesto principio una mujer sin ventura y un hombre de amor rendido. Florinda perdi su flor, el rey padeci el castigo; ella dice que hubo fuerza, l que gusto consentido. Si dicen quien de los dos la mayor culpa ha tenido, digan los hombres la Cava, y las mujeres Rodrigo.

Answer these questions: What are the differences between Source A and Source B? ............................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................. Both sources agree on... Source A disagrees with source B, because...
3

Tajo

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Material AICLE 2 de ESO: Al Andalus

According to source A: Why did the Muslims come to the Iberian Peninsula? ........................................................................................................................... According to source B: Why did the Muslims come to the Iberian Peninsula? ........................................................................................................................... What do you think about the story of Florinda? ........................................................................................................................... Do you think the story of Rodrigo and Florinda is true? Why? ........................................................................................................................... The story was well-known in those days. How do you think it spread? ........................................................................................................................... How does news spread nowadays? ........................................................................................................................... In your opinion, which is the most likely hypothesis to explain the arrival of the Arabs in the Iberian peninsula? Give detailed reasons for your decision. ........................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... ...........................................................................................................................

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Sources can often be biased (one sided) and may not always be reliable. Information may be used to promote the ideas of a particular organisation. This is known as propaganda. Write a dialogue between Florinda and King Rodrigo with a different end - one that would have changed our history.

Alternate history - called uchronia - is defined as a time that did not exist, a non-time history. In writing an alternate history, the author makes the conscious choice to change something in our past. The story alters history as it is known. It is used by some professional historians when using carefully reasoned speculations on what might have happened if... as a tool of academic historical research.

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Material AICLE 2 de ESO: Al Andalus

Session 2: WHAT DID HAPPEN?. HISTORY OF AL ANDALUS 1. Before reading this information, make sure that you understand the vocabulary: A plane can land in an airport, a ship can land on a shore, an spacecraft can land on the Moon. A seven-year action is an action that takes seven years. You are defeated by your opponents in a match, battle, competition if you lose the match, battle or competition. Polical domain means political field. A country is ruled by someone when this country is under this persons control. Appointed means selected. Overthrow is to cause the downfall of the rulers. A tributary state is a state which has to pay taxes to another one. Surrender means to capitulate. Enslave means to bring into slavery. A principality is a territory ruled by a prince.

Al Andalus was the Arabic name given to the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims in the period between 711 and 1492. Under the orders of the Umayyad Caliph, Tariqs troops landed at Gibraltar in 711. They spread through Spain and crossed the Pyrenees and occupied parts of southern France, but were defeated by Frank Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in 732. As a political domain Al Andalus can be broken down into the following periods: - the dependent Emirate (c.711-750): Al Andalus was ruled by governors (emirs) appointed by the Caliph in Damascus. - the Emirate of Cordova (c. 750929): In 750, the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyads and the exiled prince established himself as the Emir of Cordoba. He refused to submit to the Abbasid caliph, as the Abbasid forces had killed most of his family. - the Caliphate of Cordova (9291031): Abd-al-Rahman III, proclaimed himself Caliph, competing with the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad. This is considered the Golden Age, which ended because of civil wars at the beginning of the 11th

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century. - the Taifa kingdoms (1031-1212) : Independent states as a result of Al Andalus break up - Sevilla, Granada, Badajoz, Valencia, Toledo, Zaragoza etc. They were governed by local dynasties. They were too weak to defend themselves against Christians, who had spread from their initial strongholds in Asturias. Over the following centuries, Al Andalus became a province of the northern African dynasties (Almoravids, Almohads and Marinids) fragmented into a number of minor states, most notably the Kingdom of Granada. During its history, Al Andalus existed in conflict with Christian kingdoms to the north. In 1238, the Kingdom of Granada officially became a tributary state to the Kingdom of Castile, then ruled by King Ferdinand III. In 1492, Granada surrendered to Queen Isabella I of Castile, who along with her husband were known as The Catholic Monarchs, concluding Al Andalus as a political entity. By this time, 100,000 Muslims had died or been enslaved, 200,000 emigrated, and 200,000 remained as the residual population. Many of the Muslim elite, who had been given the area of the Alpujarras mountains, as a principality, found life under Christian rule intolerable and went back to north Africa.

Rulers of Al Andalus Abd-al-Rahman I Hisham I al-Hakam I Abd-al-Rahman II Muhammad I al-Mundhir Abdallah Abd-al-Rahman III al-Hakam II Hisham II Amirid dictators: al-Mansur Abdul-Malik Taifa Kings Almoravid empire Almohad empire 976-1002 1002-1008 1009-1090 1090-1147 1147-1212 756-788 788-796 796-822 822-852 852-886 886-888 888-912 912-961 961-976 976-1009

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Material AICLE 2 de ESO: Al Andalus

Using the information above, complete the following timeline:


PERIOD Invasions TIME SIGNIFICANTS EVENTS

711-732

Battle of Guadalete Governor appointed by the caliph in Damascus.

Emirate of Cordova

756-929

Taifa kingdoms

Almoravids, Almohads, Marinids

10851238 12381492 Officially became a tributary state to the Kingdom of Castile

Kingdom of Granada

Use these pieces of information:

Dependent Emirate 711-756 Umayyad prince exiled in Cordova refused to submit to the Abbasid caliph Caliphate of Cordova Battle of Poitiers Al Andalus became a province of the northern African dynasties 1031-1085 Golden Age Officially became a tributary state to the Kingdom of Castile 929-1031

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Dont get lost in History! Make your own timeline using these historical facts. Dont forget to write the date : Beginning of the independent caliphate of Al Andalus. Hijrah. End of the Umayyad dinasty. Beginning of the Caliphate of Cordova. End of the Abbasid period. Arrival in the Peninsula of Tariqs troops. Beginning of the Early Caliphate.

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Material AICLE 2 de ESO: Al Andalus

HOW TO ANALYZE A HISTORICAL MAP Historians use maps as historical evidence. Maps are facts in time and space. The map is one of the oldest forms of nonverbal communication. Humans were probably drawing maps before they were writing texts. Lets see :

Work with a partner who does not know where you live. Tell them your route from school to home. Be as precise as possible. You can say:

From the front door/back door... Turn left/right... Go down... At the end of the street... Go straight on/keep on... Stop at the corner/the shop/the crossroad...

Can you do it without using your hands? Now, explain the same journey using a paper and pen. Is it easier? Congratulations, youve just discovered the importance of a map!

Making sense of maps Title: Like a newspaper headline, the title of a map should tell the reader what, where, and when about the map. Legend: There must be a key that explains the symbols used by the cartographer. Without this information, a map is difficult to understand. Elements of the physical and cultural landscape on a map: What areas of the world does the map show? Type of map: What does the map feature? Do you see land? Water? Trade routes? Political systems? Other features?

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Relationship with the historical background: What other information do you need to interpret the map? Main idea/s of the map,as a conclusion

What can you say about this map? Why it is difficult to interpret this map?

Following the steps above, discuss these maps. Which period is represented in each one?

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Material AICLE 2 de ESO: Al Andalus

Almohad empire

Map 1:

Map 2:

Map 3:

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Session 3: SOCIETY AND ECONOMY IN AL ANDALUS Make sure that you understand this key vocabulary: Something is made up of different parts, areas or sections. I am happy in my new job, though I have to work harder than before. The group of languages derived from Latin are Romance languages. The people who live in my neighbourhood 4 are my neighbours. A tax is money you pay to support the State. In the Islamic religion, fasting is compulsory for everyone during Ramadan with exemptions for elderly or ill people, pregant women and children under seven. A disabled person is a person who has special Berber physical needs (eg. no legs, blind etc.)

1. First Listening make a note of key words:

4 Campo de la Verdad, Triana, Albayzin, Barrio de la Via, La Orden, El Perchel, La Alameda, El Puche, Santo Domingo, San Jos Artesano, are neighbourhood9 in Andalusia.

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Material AICLE 2 de ESO: Al Andalus

Second Listening - add more information

Compare your notes with your partner. Now, re-write the text using your notes.

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2.a Finish each sentence about society in Al Andalus: Society in Al Andalus was... Society in Al Andalus could be divided into... We can say that Al Andalus was tolerant in religious matters because... Each religious group... Non-Muslims should... Non-Muslims can... Massive conversion was due to... Jews... 2.b Make new sentences using the following words: could Jews tax group neighbourhoods never the Non-Muslims they in did the Muslims pay lived not religion usually Al-Andalus can

How many sentences can you make? How many words can you include in each sentence? 2.c Complete the diagram using the underlined words in the text:
SOCIETY IN AL-ANDALUS
NON-MUSLIMS (DIMNES)

3.Read and complete the text using the words below: Al Andalus tax tolerant veil marry

monotheistic

freedom

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Did you know... Jews and Christians had some a__________ under Muslim rule, providing they obeyed certain rules. They were not slaves and were able to contribute to society and culture. But they had several obligations. They had to: acknowledge Islamic superiority pay a b__________ avoid blasphemy not try to convert Muslims On the contrary, they : were not allowed to carry weapons could not receive an inheritance from a Muslim could not c__________ a Muslim woman (but the reverse was acceptable) could not give evidence in an Islamic court Public processions were restricted. Many Christians assimilated parts of Muslim culture. Some learned Arabic, some adopted the same clothes as their rulers (some Christian women even started wearing the d__________); some took Arabic names. The main reason why the Muslim rulers tolerated rival faiths is that Judaism and Christianity were e__________ faiths, so their members were worshipping the same God. But not all the Muslim rulers were f__________. Al-Mansur imposed strict restrictions. The position of non-Muslims in g__________ deteriorated substantially from the middle of the 11th century as the rulers became more strict and Islam came under greater pressure from outside.

4. The economy of Al Andalus. Check this vocabulary: restored: strength: lay: skilled labor: flourished: brought back to original condition. the quality of being strong. be found in having special skill or training grew stronger

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Now, read the text and look at the table each time you hear a word in green. A modern agricultural system became central to economic life. The introduction of new crops (sugar cane, rice, citrus fruit, apricots, cotton, aubergines and saffron) and extensive irrigation, transformed private farming into a new global industry exported everywhere.

During the ninth and tenth centuries new Persian agricultural techniques were introduced, old irrigation systems restored, and new ones developed. Industrial water mills (see picture) were built in Al Andalus between the 11th and 13th centuries. East Mediterranean fruits, as well as grain, olives, and rice, were important crops. Productivity, at least in the irrigated valleys and huertas of parts of the south and east, was apparently higher than in western Europe. The real strength of Al Andalus lay in its cities, with their productive economies, skilled labor, technological development, and learning. They excelled in the production of silk and other textiles, ceramics, leather work, armaments, and some types of fine steelwork. Al Andalus had proportionately more artisans in its cities than any other part of western Europe at that time. Commerce flourished.

5. Think What were the main characteristics of the economy of Al Andalus?

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Session 4: MOSQUES AND PALACES 1. Compare with your partner and share the information.
Do you know... STUDENT A

The period of the Caliphate is seen by Muslims writers as the a__________ __________ of Al Andalus. During the tenth century the state, society, and culture of Al Andalus were more advanced than anything to be found in Christian western Europe. The studies in philosophy, astronomy, mathematics, botany, and medicine carried out by the intellectual elite of Muslim Hispania between the mid-tenth and twelfth centuries have earned standard references in medieval history textbooks. Economic achievements were equally b__________. Above all other cities, the capital, Cordova, was the urban showplace of the caliphate. With a population of perhaps c__________, it eventually overtook Constantinople as the largest and most prosperous city in Europe. Within the islamic world, Cordova was one of the leading cultural centres. The work of its most important d__________ and scientists (Abulcasis, Avicena and Averroes) had a major influence on the intellectual life of medieval Europe. From the earliest days, the Umayyads wanted to be seen as intellectual rivals to the Abbasids. Cordova had e__________ and educational institutions to rival Baghdads. Although there was a clear rivalry between the two powers, freedom to travel between the two caliphates was allowed which helped spread new f__________ and innovations over time. In the 10th century, the city of Cordova had g__________ mosques, 60,000 palaces, and 70 libraries, the largest of which had up to h__________ books. Muslim cities such as Cordova had advanced domestic water systems with public baths, drinking fountains, piped drinking water supplies, and widesrpead private and public toilets and bathing facilities. The first i__________ __________ were built in Cordova, which also had the first facilities and waste containers for litter collection.

STUDENT B Do you know... The period of the 1__________ is seen by Muslims writers as the Golden Age of Al- Andalus. During the 2__________ century the state, society, and culture of Al-Andalus were more 3__________ than anything to be found in Christian western Europe. The studies in philosophy, astronomy, mathematics, botany, and medicine carried out by the intellectual elite of Muslim Hispania between the mid-tenth and twelfth centuries have earned standard references in medieval history textbooks. Economic achievements were equally impressive. Above all other cities, the capital,4__________ was the urban showplace of the caliphate. With a population of perhaps 500,000, it eventually overtook Constantinople as the largest and most prosperous city in Europe. Within the islamic world, Cordova was one of the 5__________ __________ __________. The work of its most important philosophers and scientists (Abulcasis, Avicena and Averroes) had a major influence on the intellectual life of medieval Europe. From the earliest days, the Umayyads wanted to be seen as intellectual rivals to the Abbasids. Cordova had libraries and educational institutions to rival Baghdads. Although there was a clear 6__________ between the two powers, freedom to travel between the two caliphates was allowed which helped spread new ideas and innovations over time. In the 10th century, the city of Crdoba had 700 mosques, 7__________ palaces, and 70 libraries, the largest of which had up to 600,000 books. Muslim cities such as Cordova had advanced domestic water systems with 8__________ __________, drinking fountains, piped drinking water supplies, and widespread private and public toilets and bathing facilities. The first street lamps were built in Crdoba, which also had the first facilities and waste containers for litter collection.

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2. Whats the difference between the three images?

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A WALK THROUGH QURTABA 5 put in The Great Mosque of Cordova today is a Roman Catholic Cathedral. Originally it was built as a mosque on the location (and partly using materials) of a Christian Visigothic Church, but it was turned into a church, with a Gothic cathedral inserted in the center of the large Moorish building after 1236. The building was begun in approximately AD 600 as the Christian Visigothic church of St. Vincent. Later the Emir Abd ar-Rahman I bought the church, and it was reworked over two centuries. The building is notable for its giant arches, with columns of jasper, marble and granite. These were made from pieces of the Roman temple which had occupied the site previously, as well as other destroyed Roman buildings. The double arches, were a new introduction to architecture, and supported the high ceiling. The double arches consist of a lower horseshoe arch and an upper semi-circular arch.

modified

quartz

important example

The mihrab is a masterpiece of architectural art, with geometric, calligraphic and flowing designs of plants. In Cordova, the capital of Al- Andalus, the Great Mosque was the heart of the capital.

5 Arabic

name for Cordova Material AICLE 2 de ESO: Al Andalus

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The main hall of the mosque was used for several purposes: as a central hall for teaching and to manage law and order. The prayer hall was large and flat with timber ceilings. The walls of the mosque had Quranic inscriptions written on them. Its main characteristics are : an open court (Orange tree courtyard), colourful mosaics, and windows of coloured glass.

The mosque itself was built in four stages, because each Caliph contributed to it. It is seen as a landmark of Islamic architecture.

2. Check if you understood the above, answer these questions: Was the Mosque built with recycled materials? What was the Mosques main architectural innovation? Why was the Mosque so important? What are its main characteristics? Was it built at once? Why? Is it true that over the years people from different religions have prayed in the same site but at different times?
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A WALK THROUGH GHARNATA6 a fortified defensive structure The Alhambra (Arabic: Al-amra , literally the red fortress), a palatine city: palaces, fortress and citadel (alcazaba), constructed during the mid 14th century by the Moorish rulers of the Kingdom of Granada in Al-Andalus, occupying the top of the hill of Sabika on the southeastern border of the city of Granada. The literal translation of Alhambra, reflects the color of the red clay of the surroundings of which the fort is made. The buildings of the Alhambra were originally whitewashed; however, the buildings seen today are reddish. The Alhambra did not have a master plan for the total site as it is a result of many construction phases.

The Alhambras alcazaba is a strongly fortified position, enclosed by a wall, with thirteen towers, some defensive and some providing vistas for the inhabitants. The Alcazaba housed the guards and their families.

Arabic name for Granada.

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The palatial zone consisted of several palaces. The palaces had the same structure as normal houses did, only they were bigger and more richly decorated. The palaces had balconies, courts, gardens and alleys in a setting in which vegetation and water played an essential role. The palace buildings are quadrangular, with all the rooms opening on to a central court. Each palace included its own baths and small oratories, which the residents used for their daily mandatory prays.

Columns, muqarnas and stalactite-like ceiling decorations a peared in the interiors of palaces. Calligraphy, vegetal and geometrical patterns in arabesques and painted tiles are largely used as panelling for the walls. The Alhambra is made up of gardens, fountains, streams, and a mosque. It was designed to reflect the very beauty of Paradise itself, even though the exterior was left plain and austere.

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4. Read - TRUE or FALSE? Use a link from the list below. a. The Alhambra was the Great Mosque in Granada. b. The Alhambra has an irrigation system composed of acequias for the gardens. c. Water was consider a luxury item then. d. The Alhambra was built using rich materials. e. The Alhambra is paved with coloured tiles. f. The Alhambra was discovered in the 19th century by European scholars and travelers. g. The Alhambra is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. h. The Alhambra was surrounded by olive trees in the past. i. Courtyards are shaded by a variety of trees and cooled by fountains and channels. j. Tesellation inspired Eschers work. k. The Alhambra inspired Washington Irvings Tales.

Eschers work

Look at the list of resources and pick ONE which you think will help you to answer the questions. You must be able to justify your decision: www.alhambra-patronato.es www.alhambra.org www.cervezasalhambra.es www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alhambra www.alhambrasl.com: www.alhambraint.com: 5. In turns, describe the following pictures to your partner. He/she must guess from the list which one you are talking about. Dont show your partner the picture they must guess. The following vocabulary and structures might be useful. Try www.diccionariovisual.net, if you need it.

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VOCABULARY stalactite vaulting marble fortress-like stone tower whitewashed floor plan timber richness symmetry facade depiction carved interlacing massive worship ceiling vault
horse-shoe arch

STRUCTURES It is a building mosque... palace...which detail in a.... It is made of stone wood It was built in...(where?) It was built in...(when?) in the Xth century Its small big massive It is a sculpture painting an architecture It depicted... It has X parts, that are... It was used for... used as... It has a rich austere decoration

Take notes, when your partner is describing each picture: Picture 1: Picture 2:

Picture 3:

Picture 4:

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STUDENT A:

VOCABULARY stalactite vaulting marble fortress-like stone tower whitewashed floor plan timber richness symmetry facade depiction carved interlacing massive worship ceiling vault
horse-shoe arch

STRUCTURES It is a building mosque... palace...which detail in a.... It is made of stone wood It was built in...(where?) It was built in...(when?) in the Xth century Its small big massive It is a sculpture painting an architecture It depicted... It has X parts, that are... It was used for... used as... It has a rich austere decoration

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STUDENT B:

VOCABULARY stalactite vaulting marble fortress-like stone tower whitewashed floor plan timber richness symmetry facade depiction carved interlacing massive worship ceiling vault
horse-shoe arch

STRUCTURES It is a building mosque... palace...which detail in a.... It is made of stone wood It was built in...(where?) It was built in...(when?) in the Xth century Its small big massive It is a sculpture painting an architecture It depicted... It has X parts, that are... It was used for... used as... It has a rich austere decoration

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6. Finally, using the pattern we studied in the previous unit, analyze one or two pictures that you have chosen from the list. I. Description If it is architecture you should focus on: 1. Type of building: Is it a palace, a mosque...? Is it the whole building or just a detail, some part of it? 2. Function: Why was it built? What was it for? 3. Materials: What was it made of? Stone, plaster, wood? 4. What supporting (walls, pillars, columns) and supported elements (arches, vaults, domes) can you see? What are they like? 5. What type of roof sustains the building? Is there any vault, dome, flat roof? 6. What is the decoration like? Can you tell anything about type, theme, location...Is the ornamention simple or not? If it is a sculpture you should focus on: 1. Type: round, relief ... 2. Theme: What is represented? 3. Material: stone, wood, clay, bronze ... 4. Technique: carving, modelling ... 5. Meaning: 6. Location: Where is the sculpture? If it is a painting you should focus on: 1. Theme: 2. Medium: fresco, tempera, watercolors, pastels, oils, pastel, wax, collage, engraving ... 3. Support: wall, table linen ... 4. Perspective 5. Line, light, color

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II. Data (if known): Style School or period Author Title III. Discuss Relationship with the cultural context Importance in the total production of the artist. Significance in the history of art. You dont need to answer all these questions. Art is not to fulfill long questionaries and label works of art. Art is to enjoy and get to know the intentions behind an artists creation. This pattern can help you to focus on important details.

Session 5: PAST STILL RESOUNDS. LEGACIES OF AL ANDALUS Caliph Abd-ar-Rahman III had collected libraries of books and granted patronage to scholars of medicine and other sciences. Later, Al-Hakam II built a university and libraries in Cordova, which became one of the worlds leading centres of medicine and philosophical debate. However, when Al-Hakams son Hisham II took over, real power was ceded to Al-Mansur, a distinctly religious man whose disapproval of the sciences of astronomy and logic , meant that many books which had been preserved and collected at great expense were burned publicly. However, their legacy didnt go with them... Nowadays there are still several words in our language with an Arabic root. For example: Guadalquivir, derived from al-Wadi al-Kabir or Great River, in Arabic You can click on: www.juntadeandalucia.es/averroes/ies_boabdil/departamentos/vocab-arabe.htm There are some other Muslim legacies that we are going to focus on.

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In groups of six, complete this table individually: Influence 1: Influence 2: Influence 3: Influence 4: Influence 5: Influence 6: Each member of the group has a clue, and the rest should guess the influence/ heritage/legacy from Al Andalus. In turns, ask your partners questions. You cannot say the word/s in red as it is forbidden! If you say the forbidden word/s in red, you will be fined and out of the game.

PROJECT GOING FOR A WALK In groups of four or five, you are going to go for a walk in your city. You should bring your camera, but taking pictures is not allowed everywhere. You should ask for permission in advance.

You can visit the City Museum in order to see the most important remains of our Muslim past in your town. Afterwards you will have to show the pictures to the whole class and talk about them. The pattern we use for analyzing artworks can be also useful for you this time. Give your visual catalogue a title.

Your classmates will be divided in groups of four. Each one has to focus on one of the following aspects of the presentation and take notes, to suggest areas for improvement:

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Student 1: Content What information was new to the listener and what wasnt? Student 2: Visuals Did the talk help you to understand the pictures? Could it be done in another way? Did the talk match the photographs? Student 3: Structure and organisation Did the presentation follow a logical sequence? Was the time equally divided among all the pictures? Was it well organised? Student 4: Language, grammar, vocabulary, style How clear was the language? Did errors interfere with the message? Was the language appropriate? Was it too informal or too formal?

Each student will grade their part on a scale of 1-5 (where 1 is unsatisfactory and 5 is excellent). They will give feedback to presenters.

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OVERVIEW 1. After studying this unit, complete: a__________ is the Arabic name for the Iberian Peninsula under Muslim occupation. The history of Al Andalus dates from b__________, when Tariqs troops landed in the peninsula, to c__________, when the Catholic Monarchs defeated the Kingdom of Granada. The history of Al Andalus can be divided in four main periods: the dependent Emirate (from d____ to ____): the Emirate of Cordova (from e____ to____): the Caliphate of Cordova (from f____ to____): the Taifa kingdoms (from g____ to____): Over the next centuries, Al Andalus became a province of the northern African h__________ (Almoravids, Almohads and Marinids) fragmented into a number of minor states, most notably the i__________of__________. The maximum political and religious authority was the j__________. Abd-al-Rahman III, proclaimed himself independent Caliph, competing with Baghdad. The society of Al Andalus was made up of k__________ main groups: Christians, Muslims and Jews. Each group inhabited a different l__________ in the cities. The economy was rich and flourishing, focused on m__________, where craftmanship was specially developed. New techniques, irrigation and new n__________ were introduced in the countryside. Historians consider the period from early 8th century to late 12th century, as the o______ ______. Al Andalus was the center of islamic civilization, while the rest of Europe was in the Dark Ages. p__________ was the capital of the empire, and one of the most populated and important cities in the West. It was also an important q__________ centre. Philisophers, scientist, musicians and poets lived in the city. Several beautiful buildings remain in Andalusia as good samples of Islamic art in the peninsula. There are some r__________ from Al Andalus still alive in our culture: Vocabulary Arabic numerals Music Chess Gazpacho Anyone who goes for a walk in Andalusian cities can still find Islamic s__________.

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TEST YOURSELF!
Tick the correct answer
My opinion

SKILLS
Listening I can understand my teachers instructions. I can understand my teachers definitions. I can take notes. I can follow my classmatespresentation. Reading into sources I can distinguish the main ideas from secondary information. I can get information from a text and critize the authors view. I can analyze an artwork. Writing I can write imaginary short stories and dialogues. I can write full correct sentences about a topic. I can write short commentaries about art. Speaking I can predict historical events. I can share information to complete a task. I can make an oral presentation of a photo catalogue. Interaction I listen to someone else talking in silence. I respect the others work. I can work in a group to complete a task. I can give and receive feedback for peer assessment.

My teachers opinion

Not yet

Not yet

CONTENTS
I know about the periods of the History of Al Andalus. I know how the different social groups lived in Al Andalus I know about the innovations introduced in economy. I know the characteristics of Islamic art. I know there can be different approaches to History. What I like in this unit....................................................................................... What I have learned is.................................................................................... What I have to improve is:.............................................................................

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SOURCES

Front page Tiles


http://farm1.static.flickr.com/54/151771998_24ca0985c5.jpg

Getting started Alcazaba. Almeria


http://www.arteyfotografia.com.ar/contenido/objetos/ea/a2/ec/eaa2ec569534d6ec0d05fa5fb60906f24ecdec87/mini_500_1448_1259953347832317.jpg

Medina Azahara. Cordova.


http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3172/3048203629_fb47c26035.jpg

Alcazaba. Malaga
http://www.malagaturismo.com/opencms/opencms/turismo/img/imgcontenido/quever/historia/malagaenlahistoria/vistaalcazaba01.jpg

Arabic public baths. Jan.


http://sobreespana.com/2008/12/12/jaen-la-ciudad-del-santo-reino/

Mosque of Almonaster
From Wikipedia

Torre del Oro. Sevilla


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/95/Sevilla_Torre_del_oro.JPG

Alhambra
http://www.google.es/imgres?imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c6/Vista_de_la_Alhambra.jpg&imgrefurl=http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fi

Light bulb
http://www.irreverendos.com/wp-content/uploads/2006/10/bombillaweb.jpg

Cloud of words
Wordle.net

Battle of Guadalete
http://sobrecadiz.com/2008/08/24/tariq-y-la-batalla-del-guadalete/

What happened? Text about the history of Al Andalus


from Wikipedia

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How to analyze a map inspired in


http://historymatters.gmu.edu/mse/maps/question5.html http://www.learner.org/courses/worldhistory/support/activities_1.pdf

Smiling face
http://www.humoristas.org/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/guinio.jpg

Map: Caliphate c. 1000


http://www.google.es/imgres?imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8a/CordovanCaliphate1000.png&imgrefurl=http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CordovanCaliphate1000. png&usg=__GSb4bKTdm9aM4m9oSBAVKuFRyco=&h=532&w=870&sz=20&hl=es&start=1&it

Iberian peninsula in 1050


http://www.google.es/imgres?imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8e/ChristianKingdomsin1050.jpg&imgrefurl=http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:ChristianKingdomsin1050. jpg&usg=__azMeGUAfcnv-z1zG6WRxWqSx8jg=&h=1374&w=1398&sz=631&hl=

Map: Amoravid Empire and Almohad dynasty and surrounding states, c. 1200.
from Wikipedia

Map: Spread of Islam


http://cptransitive.com/images/thumb/1/16/Islam750.jpg/590px-Islam750.jpg

Romance de la Cava Florinda.


Flor nueva de romances viejos. Ramn Menndez Pidal

Text inspired in
Adapted translated article by Manuel Liao Rivera http://www.tarifaweb.com/aljaranda/num29/art11.htm http://fuoro.espacioblog.com/post/2010/07/22/la-cava-florinda-y-invasion-arabe

Economy and society Text about economy and society


Adapted from Wikipedia and Stanley Payne, THE LIBRARY OF IBERIAN RESOURCES ONLINE A History of Spain and Portugal, Volume 1, Chapter 2

Berber
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_8JH8UNyycVE/RsW1ozv3r_I/AAAAAAAAAbQ/rpkh7KWX0S8/s320/2_643_ cbaSYA4aZC.jpg

Text about Non-Muslims


Adapted from www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/spain_1.shtm

A walk through Qurtaba and Garnata Mosque of Cordova, 10th century


http://cvc.cervantes.es/ACTCULT/mezquita_Cordova/indice.htm

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Mosque of Cordova, 19th century


http://cvc.cervantes.es/ACTCULT/mezquita_Cordova/fichas/generales/mezquita_ampliacion08.htm

Mosque of Cordova, 21th century


http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3523/3312219506_5f14db88e6.jpg?v=0

Inside the dome and mirhab, mosque of Cordova


from Wikipedia

Columns. Mosque of Cordova


http://www.google.es/imgres?imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f8/Andalusien_2003_15.jpg&imgrefurl=http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Andalusien_2003_15.jpg&usg=__ND Lo7KuPtS3pAJPleQ1Oro5FvMs=&h=1024&w=1280&sz=518&hl=es&start=1&itbs=1&tbnid=o_H7NhyjUcY UsM:&tbnh=120&tbnw=150&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmezquita%2Bde%2BCordova%26hl%3Des%26safe %3Dactive%26sa%3DG%26as_st%3Dy%26tbs%3Disch:1,iur:fmc

Ground plan. Mosque of Cordova


cvc.cervantes.es/ACTCULT/mezquita_Cordova/fichas/generales/etapas.htm

Vault. Mosque of Cordova.


http://cvc.cervantes.es/ACTCULT/mezquita_Cordova/fichas/mezquita_c/mezquita_ampliacion26f.htm

Qadi inside the Mosque.


vc.cervantes.es/ACTCULT/mezquita_Cordova/fichas/mezquita_b/mezquita_ampliacion19.htm

Maqsura. Mosque of Cordova.


http://farm1.static.flickr.com/28/51141035_42f974f4ba.jpg?v=0

Facade. Mosque of Cordova.


http://cvc.cervantes.es/actcult/mezquita_Cordova/fichas/mezquita_d/mezquita_ampliacion45.htm http://farm1.static.flickr.com/32/51119857_d403e35302.jpg http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3244/2423029731_944cecdf56.jpg

Wooden timber
http://www.fundacionsuma.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/1223300217_0.jpg

Narrow street in Cordova.


http://farm1.static.flickr.com/8/10511415_c05ed503a3.jpg

Columns. Alhambra.
http://www.google.es/imgres?imgurl=http://farm1.static.flickr.com/138/377249057_a7465e00f8. jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.flickr.com/photos/shapeshift/377249057/&usg=__J50GQmrjLOCInJVUMrZgmhN Imvc=&h=500&w=339&sz=165&hl=es&start=236&itbs=1&tbnid=4v4Hi9zQjm62yM:&tbnh=130&tbnw=88& prev=/images%3Fq%3DCordovan%2Bandalusi%26start%3D220%26hl%3Des%26sa%3DN%26gbv%3D2 %26as_st%3Dy%26ndsp%3D20%26tbs%3Disch:1,iur:f

Hall of the Kings. Alhambra.


http://www.google.es/imgres?imgurl=http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_2pvWH_NNW3s/Sv29hreTGWI/ AAAAAAAAEY0/1-Bu8ljiRI4/s000/Sultanes%2Bgranadinos%2Bbveda%2BSala%2Bde%2B

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Reyes%2BAlhambra%2B2.jpg&imgrefurl=http://fonsado.blogspot.com/2009_11_01_archive. html&usg=__2oRwMH3dSD

Fountain of the Lions. Alhambra


http://www.google.es/imgres?imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b8/Patio_de_los_ Leones.jpg&imgrefurl=http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Patio_de_los_Leones.jpg&usg=__PToXYJgHXp9lj1W-r9j3YpqKFe4=&h=2232&w=3000&sz=1040&hl=es&start=18&sig2=4yKGW8j0CRy1BJ6 wIk15Gw&tbnid=IgE7v3gdInFCwM:&tbnh=111&tbnw=150&ei=abBSTKr8I9O6jAfMofTCBA&prev=/image s%3Fq%3Dleones%2Balhambra%26hl%3Des%26sa%3DG%26biw%3D1268%26bih%3D680%26as_st %3Dy%26tbs%3Disch:1,iur:f0,822&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=793&vpy=238&dur=2268&hovh=112&hovw=15 0&tx=80&ty=71&page=2&ndsp=20&ved=1t:429,r:17,s:18&biw=1268&bih=680

Muqarna vault.
http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2680/4168264781_97d973ceb5.jpg

Balcony of Lindaraja.
http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2505/3891891549_bb9783aeda.jpg

The Partal
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4e/Alhambra-El_Partal-1.jpg

Tiles. Alhambra
http://www.flickr.com/photos/19524580@N00/2227710/

Eschers work
http://www.dartmouth.edu/~matc/math5.pattern/lesson7art.html

Medina Azahara
http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3172/3048203629_fb47c26035.jpg

Lattice
http://www.google.es/imgres?imgurl=http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3245/2922339228_be82edd7d4. jpg&imgrefurl=http://flickr.com/photos/9911372%40N02/2922339228&usg=__tsyb_EO71y_CgEqV-cRDr E8H0C0=&h=500&w=375&sz=142&hl=es&sta

Giralda
From Wikipedia

Mirhab. Mosque of Cordova.


http://www.google.es/imgres?imgurl=http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2241/2700116300_aa52274be5. jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.flickr.com/photos/vincodecuir/2700116300/&usg=__uCwV8TBlyUI58dYGW1k8 YiMhVQE=&h=500&w=488&sz=221&hl=es&start=52&tbnid=QUbevrJMOL4UCM:&tbnh=161&tbnw=157 &prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmirhab%2Bmezquita%2BCordova%26hl%3Des%26sa%3DG%26biw%3D126 8%26bih%3D680%26gbv%3D2%26tbs%3Disch:10,1600&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=829&vpy=201&dur=128 &hovh=227&hovw=222&tx=123&ty=173&ei=R0FVTIvCNNG6jAfdko3DBA&page=4&ndsp=18&ved=1t:42 9,r:4,s:52&biw=1268&bih=680

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Legacies of Al Andalus Maimonides


From Wikipedia

Medieval map.
http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/f0gtOrKIkr-GFfRdX5uJEg

Surgical instruments
http://www.google.es/imgres?imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dc/ Zahrawi1.png&imgrefurl=http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Zahrawi1.png&usg=__1_ NGJo5skRYAnPXxyCO_j3nZdzM=&h=477&w=305&sz=157&hl=es&start=0&tbnid=YVe64_ kDEN4zeM:&tbnh=128&tbnw=82&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dabulcasis%26hl%3Des%26sa%3 DG%26biw%3D1268%26bih%3D680%26gbv%3D2%26as_st%3Dy%26tbs%3Disch:1,iur:f&i tbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=140&vpy=158&dur=3081&hovh=129&hovw=82&tx=103&ty=106&ei=Qd BVTPOEBomH4QaRnt2mBQ&page=1&ndsp=5&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0

Gazpacho
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/83/Tomato_gazpacho.jpg

Knights playing chess


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6d/KnightsTemplarPlayingChess1283.jpg

Project Peers assessment cards for students presentations


Diana Hicks

Definitions
www.wordreference.com

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