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SISTEM BILANGAN

I. DEFINISI
System bilangan (number system) adalah suatu cara untuk mewakili besaran dari suatu item fisik. Sistem bilanan yang banyak dipergunakan oleh manusia adalah system biilangan desimal, yaitu sisitem bilangan yang menggunakan 10 macam symbol untuk mewakili suatu besaran.Sistem ini banyak digunakan karena manusia mempunyai sepuluh jari untuk dapat membantu perhitungan. Lain halnya dengan komputer, logika di komputer diwakili oleh bentuk elemen dua keadaan yaitu off (tidak ada arus) dan on (ada arus). Konsep inilah yang dipakai dalam sistem bilangan binary yang mempunyai dua macam nilai untuk mewakili suatu besaran nilai. Selain system bilangan biner, komputer juga menggunakan system bilangan octal dan hexadesimal.

II. Teori Bilangan


1. Bilangan Desimal Sistem ini menggunakan 10 macam symbol yaitu 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,dan 9. system ini menggunakan basis 10. Bentuk nilai ini dapat berupa integer desimal atau pecahan. Integer desimal : adalah nilai desimal yang bulat, misalnya 8598 dapat diartikan : 8 x 103 5 x 102 9 x 101 8 x 100 = 8000 = 500 = = 90 8 8598 position value/palce value absolute value

Absolue value merupakan nilai untuk masing-masing digit bilangan, sedangkan position value adalah merupakan penimbang atau bobot dari masing-masing digit tergantung dari letak posisinya, yaitu nernilai basis dipangkatkan dengan urutan posisinya.

Pecahan desimal : Adalah nilai desimal yang mengandung nilai pecahan dibelakang koma, misalnya nilai 183,75 adalah pecahan desimal yang dapat diartikan : 1 x 10 2 8 x 10
1

= 100 = 80 = = = 3 0,7 0,05

3 x 10 0 7 x 10 1 5 x 10 2

183,75

2. Bilangan Binar Sistem bilangan binary menggunakan 2 macam symbol bilangan berbasis 2digit angka, yaitu 0 dan 1. Contoh bilangan 1001 dapat diartikan :

1001 1 x 2 0= 1 0 x 2 1= 0 0 x 2 2= 0 1 x 2 3= 8 10 (10) Operasi aritmetika pada bilangan Biner : a. Penjumlahan Dasar penujmlahan biner adalah : 0+0=0 0+1=1 1+0=1 -

1+1=0

dengan carry of 1, yaitu 1 + 1 = 2, karena digit terbesar

ninari 1, maka harus dikurangi dengan 2 (basis), jadi 2 2 = 0 dengan carry of 1 contoh :

1111 10100 + 100011 atau dengan langkah : 1+0 1+0 =1 =1

1+1 1+1+1

= 0 dengan carry of 1 =0

1+1

= 0 dengan carry of 1

1 0

b. Pengurangan Bilangan biner dikurangkan dengan cara yang sama dengan pengurangan bilangan desimal. Dasar pengurangan untuk masing-masing digit bilangan biner adalah : 0-0=0 1-0=1 1-1=0 01=1 Contoh : 11101 1011 10010 dengan borrow of 1, (pijam 1 dari posisi sebelah kirinya).

dengan langkah langkah : 11 01 101 11 10 =0

= 1 dengan borrow of 1

=0 =0 =1 1 0 0 1 0

c. Perkalian Dilakukan sama dengan cara perkalian pada bilangan desimal. Dasar perkalian bilangan biner adalah : 0x0=0 1x0=0 0x1=0 1x1=1 contoh Desimal Biner

14 12 x 28 14

1110 1100 x 0000 0000 1110 + 1110 10101000 +

168

d. pembagian

Pembagian biner dilakukan juga dengan cara yang sama dengan bilangan desimal. Pembagian biner 0 tidak mempunyai arti, sehingga dasar pemagian biner adalah : 0:1=0 1:1=1 Desimal 5 / 125 \ 25 10 25 25 0 Biner 101 / 1111101 \ 11001 101 101 101 0101 101 0

3. Bilangan Oktal Sistem bilangan Oktal menggunakan 8 macam symbol bilangan berbasis 8 digit angka, yaitu 0 ,1,2,3,4,5,6,7. Position value system bilangan octal adalah perpangkatan dari nilai 8. Contoh : 12(8) = (10) 2x80=2 1 x 8 1 =8 10 Jadi 10 (10) Operasi Aritmetika pada Bilangan Oktal a. Penjumlahan Langkah-langkah penjumlahan octal : tambahkan masing-masing kolom secara desimal rubah dari hasil desimal ke octal tuliskan hasil dari digit paling kanan dari hasil octal

kalau hasil penjumlahan tiap-tiap kolom terdiri dari dua digit, maka digit paling kiri merupakan carry of untuk penjumlahan kolom selanjutnya.

Contoh : Desimal Oktal

21 87 + 108

25 127 + 154 5 10 + 7 10 1 10 = 12 10 = = = = 1 10 14 8 58 18

2 10 + 2 10 + 1 10 = 5 10

b. Pengurangan Pengurangan Oktal dapat dilaukan secara sama dengan pengurangan bilangan desimal. Contoh : Desimal Oktal

108 87 21

154 127 25 48 -78 18 -18 +88 (borrow of) = 5 8 =28 = 08

5 8 - 2 8- 1 8

c. Perkalian Langkah langkah : kalikan masing-masing kolom secara desimal

rubah dari hasil desimal ke octal tuliskan hasil dari digit paling kanan dari hasil octal kalau hasil perkalian tiap kolol terdiri dari 2 digit, maka digit paling kiri merupakan carry of untuk ditambahkan pada hasil perkalian kolom selanjutnya.

Contoh : Desimal Oktal 16 14 12 x 28 14 + 168 16 14 x 70 16 1 10 x 6 10 1 10 x 1 10 16 14 x 70 16 + 250 7 10 + 6 10 = 13 10 = 15 8 1 10 + 1 10 = 2 10 = 2 8 = 6 10 =68 14 x 70 4 10 x 6 10 = 24 10 = 30 8

4 10 x 1 10 + 3 10 = 7 10 = 7 8

= 1 10 = 1 8

d. Pembagian -

Desimal 12 / 168 \ 14 12 48 48 0

Oktal 14 / 250 \ 16 14 110 110 0 14 8 x 6 8 = 4 8 x 6 8 = 30 8 1 8 x 6 8= 6 8 + 110 8 14 8 x 1 8 = 14 8

4. Bilangan Hexadesimal Sistem bilangan Oktal menggunakan 16 macam symbol bilangan berbasis 8 digit angka, yaitu 0 ,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,Edan F Dimana A = 10, B = 11, C= 12, D = 13 , E = 14 dan F = 15 Position value system bilangan octal adalah perpangkatan dari nilai 16. Contoh : C7(16) = (10) 7 x 16 0 C x 16 1 199 Jadi 199 (10) = 7 = 192

Operasi Aritmetika Pada Bilangan Hexadesimal a. Penjumlahan Penjumlahan bilangan hexadesimal dapat dilakukan secara sama dengan penjumlahan bilangan octal, dengan langkah-langkah sebagai berikut : Langkah-langkah penjumlahan hexadesimal : -

tambahkan masing-masing kolom secara desimal rubah dari hasil desimal ke hexadesimal tuliskan hasil dari digit paling kanan dari hasil hexadesimal kalau hasil penjumlahan tiap-tiap kolom terdiri dari dua digit, maka digit paling kiri merupakan carry of untuk penjumlahan kolom selanjutnya.

Contoh : Desimal hexadesimal

2989 1073 + 4062

BAD 431 + FDE D 16 + 1 16 = 13 10 + 110 = 14 10 = E 16 A 16 + 3 16 = 10 10 + 3 10 = 13 10 =D 16 B16 + 4 16 = 1110 + 4 10 = 15 10 = F 16

b. Pengurangan Pengurangan bilangan hexadesimal dapat dilakukan secara sama dengan pengurangan bilangan desimal.

Contoh : Desimal hexadesimal

4833
1575

12E1 627 CBA 16 10 (pinjam) + 1 10 - 710 = 10 10 = A 16

3258

14 10 - 7 10 - - 1 10 (dipinjam) = 11 10 =B 16 1610 (pinjam) + 2 10 - 610 = 12 10 = C 16

1 10 1 10 (dipinjam) 0 10 = 0 16

c. Perkalian Langkah langkah : kalikan masing-masing kolom secara desimal rubah dari hasil desimal ke octal tuliskan hasil dari digit paling kanan dari hasil octal kalau hasil perkalian tiap kolol terdiri dari 2 digit, maka digit paling kiri merupakan carry of untuk ditambahkan pada hasil perkalian kolom selanjutnya.

Contoh : Desimal Hexadesimal

172 27 x 1204 344 + 4644 -

AC 1B x 764 C 16 x B 16 =12 10 x 1110= 84 16

A16 x B16 +816 = 1010 x 1110+810=7616

AC 1B x 764 AC C16 x 116 = 1210 x 110 =1210=C16 A16 x 116 = 1010 x110 =1010=A 16 AC 1B x 764 AC + 1224 616 + C16 = 610 + 1210 = 1810 =12 16 716+A16 +116 = 710 x 1010 + 110=1810 = 1216

D. Pembagian Contoh : Desimal 27 / 4646 \ 172 27194 189 54 54 hexadesimal 1B / 1214 \ AC 10E 144 1440 1B 16 x C16 = 2710 x 10 10 = 3240 10 =14416 1B16xA16 = 2710x1010=27010= 10E16

III. Konversi Bilangan


Konversi bilangan adalah suatu proses dimana satu system bilangan dengan basis tertentu akan dijadikan bilangan dengan basis yang alian.

Konversi dari bilangan Desimal 1. Konversi dari bilangan Desimal ke biner Yaitu dengan cara membagi bilangan desimal dengan dua kemudian diambil sisa pembagiannya. Contoh : 45 (10) = ..(2) 45 : 2 = 22 + sisa 1 22 : 2 = 11 + sisa 0 11 : 2 = 5 + sisa 1 5 : 2 = 2 + sisa 1 2 : 2 = 1 + sisa 0 101101(2) ditulis dari bawah ke atas

2. Konversi bilangan Desimal ke Oktal Yaitu dengan cara membagi bilangan desimal dengan 8 kemudian diambil sisa pembagiannya Contoh : 385 ( 10 ) = .(8) 385 : 8 = 48 + sisa 1 48 : 8 = 6 + sisa 0 601 (8)

3. Konversi bilangan Desimal ke Hexadesimal -

Yaitu dengan cara membagi bilangan desimal dengan 16 kemudian diambil sisa pembagiannya Contoh : 1583 ( 10 ) = .(16) 1583 : 16 = 98 + sisa 15 96 : 16 = 6 + sisa 2 62F (16)

Konversi dari system bilangan Biner 1. Konversi ke desimal Yaitu dengan cara mengalikan masing-masing bit dalam bilangan dengan position valuenya. Contoh : 1001 1 x 2 0= 1 0 x 2 1= 0 0 x 2 2= 0 1 x 2 3= 8 10 (10)

2. Konversi ke Oktal Dapat dilakukan dengan mengkonversikan tiap-tiap tiga buah digit biner yang dimulai dari bagian belakang. Contoh : 11010100 (2) = (8) 11 010 100

3 diperjelas : -

100 = 0 x 2 0 = 0 0x21=0 1x22=4 4 Begitu seterusnya untuk yang lain.

3. Konversi ke Hexademial Dapat dilakukan dengan mengkonversikan tiap-tiap empat buah digit biner yang dimulai dari bagian belakang. Contoh : 11010100 1101 0100 D 4

Konversi dari system bilangan Oktal 1. Konversi ke Desimal Yaitu dengan cara mengalikan masing-masing bit dalam bilangan dengan position valuenya.

Contoh : 12(8) = (10) 2x80=2 1 x 8 1 =8 10 Jadi 10 (10) 2. Konversi ke Biner Dilakukan dengan mengkonversikan masing-masing digit octal ke tiga digit biner. -

Contoh : 6502 (8) .. = (2)

2 = 010 0 = 000 5 = 101 6 = 110 jadi 110101000010

3. Konversi ke Hexadesimal Dilakukan dengan cara merubah dari bilangan octal menjadi bilangan biner kemudian dikonversikan ke hexadesimal. Contoh : 2537 (8) = ..(16) 2537 (8) = 010101011111 010101010000(2) = 55F (16) Konversi dari bilangan Hexadesimal

1. Konversi ke Desimal Yaitu dengan cara mengalikan masing-masing bit dalam bilangan dengan position valuenya.

Contoh : C7(16) = (10) 7 x 16 0 C x 16


1

= 192 199

Jadi 199 (10) 2. Konversi ke Oktal Dilakukan dengan cara merubah dari bilangan hexadesimal menjadi biner terlebih dahulu kemudian dikonversikan ke octal. -

Contoh : 55F (16) = ..(8) 55F(16) = 010101011111(2) 010101011111 (2) = 2537 (8)

Latihan : Kerjakan soal berikut dengan benar ! 1. Sebutkan dan jelaskan empat macam system bilangan ! 2. Konversikan bilangan berikut : a. 10101111(2) = .(10) b. 11111110(2) = .(8) c. 10101110101 = (16)

3. Konversi dari : a. ACD (16) = (8) b. 174 (8) = ..(2)

4. BC1 2A X 5. 245 (8) : 24 (8) =..(8)

Excess-3 binary-coded decimal (XS-3), also called biased representation or Excess-N, is a numeral system used on some older computers that uses a pre-specified number N as a biasing value. It is a way to represent values with a balanced number of positive and negative numbers. In XS-3, numbers are represented as decimal digits, and each digit is represented by four bits as the BCD value plus 3 (the "excess" amount):

The smallest binary number represents the smallest value. (i.e. 0 Excess Value) The greatest binary number represents the largest value. (i.e. 2 N+1 Excess Value 1)

To encode a number such as 127, then, one simply encodes each of the decimal digits as above, giving (0100, 0101, 1010). The primary advantage of XS-3 coding over BCD coding is that a decimal number can be nines' complemented (for subtraction) as easily as a binary number can be ones' complemented; just invert all bits. In addition, when the sum of two XS-3 digits is greater than 9, the carry bit of a four bit adder will be set high. This works because, when adding two numbers that are greater or equal to zero, an "excess" value of six results in the sum. Since a four bit integer can only hold values 0 to 15, an excess of six means that any sum over nine will overflow. Adding Excess-3 works on a different algorithm than BCD coding or regular binary numbers. When you add two XS-3 numbers together, the result is not an XS-3 number. For instance, when you add 1 and 0 in XS-3 the answer seems to be 4 instead of 1. In order to correct this problem, when you are finished adding each digit, you have to subtract 3 (binary 11) if the digit is less than decimal 10 and add three if the number is greater than or equal to decimal 10 (thus causing the number to wrap).

Boolean Algebra
The logic we apply in studying digital systems is based on a definition of truth made popular by Greek philosopher Aristotle (384 BC322 BC). To Aristotle, truth had two possible values: true or false: nothing is ever both true and false at the same time; nothing ever contradicts itself; and everything is what it is. In fact, Aristotles system of truth devised four laws: 1. The law of identity: which states that A is A; in other words, A = A. o If its raining outside, then its raining outside. o If you are in college, then you are in college. o If you are happy, then you are happy.

2. The law of non-contradiction: which says A is not non-A; in other words, A = not (not A). o A happy person is not unhappy. o An indoor pool is not outdoors. o If you are a student you are not a non-student. 3. The law of excluded middle: which says that either A is true or not A is true. o Either you are beautiful or you are not beautiful. o Either the sky is blue or it is not blue. o Either your friend is pregnant or she is not pregnant. 4. The law of inference: which says that you can arrive at one fact from other facts. o If you are in college, and everyone in college is a student, then you are a student. o If proteins are chains of amino acids, and amino acids are coded from genes, then proteins are coded from genes. o If you drive drunk, and everyone who drives drunk breaks the law, then you break the law. About 2000 years after Aristotles work, an English mathematician named George Boole (18151864) turned Aristotle's logic into an algebra. 90 years later, a Masters student at MIT, Claude Shannon (19162001), proved that Booles algebra can be applied to electrical systems. This brief history is part of the reason you are studying digital systems with logic algebra today. Let's start our exploration of Boolean algebra with three scenarios. And through these three scenarios, we will demonstrate ten basic facts concerning Boolean algebra. For our first scenario, imagine that my friend Francois wants to eat a fruit and asks you to bring him an apple OR a banana. In that case you have four choices: Apple False False True True Banana False True False True Francois's whish is granted False True True True COMMENT You brought him neither You brought him a banana You brought him an apple You brought him both

Table 1

In Boolean algebra, we use the plus sign (+) to mean OR. Hence, since Francois's request was Apple OR Banana, we can rewrite it as Apple + Banana. We can also rewrite your four choises as False + False = False False + True = True True + False = True -

True + True = True One further step that we take is to let TRUE = 1 and FALSE = 0, which allows us to further rewrite your four choices as Axiom 1. 0 + 0 = 0 Axiom 2. 0 + 1 = 1 Axiom 3. 1 + 0 = 1 Axiom 4. 1 + 1 = 1 Notice that in Boolean algebra 1 + 1 = 1. This is because 1 stands for TRUE and TRUE + TRUE = TRUE. What this also means is that Boolean numbers and binary numbers arent the same. In binary arithmetic 1 + 1 = 10. Binary numerals is just a translation of the decimal system; Boolean algebra is about logic. Anyway, lets continue to our second scenario. Now lets apply the same Francois situation to another operator: AND. This time Francois wants to make smoothie and asks you to bring him an apple AND a banana. You still have four choices and each one of them will affect Francoiss wish. Apple False False True True Banana False True False True Francois's whish is granted False False False True COMMENT You brought him neither You brought him a banana You brought him an apple You brought him both

Table 2

Because Francois specified that he needed an apple AND a banana, you will only satisfy his command by bringing both. For the AND operator, we use the symbol in Boolean algebra. Hence, we can rewrite your four choices as Axiom 5. Axiom 6. Axiom 7. Axiom 8. 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 = = = = 0 0 0 1

If you think of the AND operator as the multiplication operator in normal algebra, then you are right on the money. They are not the same, but they work the same way.

Now lets proceed to our third and final scenario. Imagine this time that Francois is allergic to apple and tells you that no matter what you do, do NOT bring apple into the house. In this final case you only have two choices which of course will affect Francois. Apple Francoiss wish is granted False True True False Table 3 For the NOT operator we use the apostrophe (). Hence, we rewrite your two choices as Axiom 9. 0 = 1 in Boolean algebra 0 is the opposite of 1. Axiom 10. 1 = 0 in Boolean algebra 1 is the opposite of 0. The ten choices you just made regarding the different situations of Francois are known as the basic facts (or axiom if you want to be fancy) of Boolean algebra. Most textbooks write these facts as complementary pairs to show socalled duality. For mere mortals like you and me, this complementary to show duality business simply means that in Boolean algebra if a statement is true then its opposite is also true. Your professor may not like that I am telling you that complementary means opposite, but trust me thats all you need to know. Below are the five opposite pairs. (I call them complements just to stay on the good side of your professor. But feel free to call them opposites.) AND () A 1 A=1 A=0 complement complement complement complement complement OR(+) A 0 A = 0 A = 1

To show you how this complement stuff works, I have rearranged the ten axioms in pair of opposites. Notice that I get the opposite of an expression by swapping 0 and 1, and by swapping and +. 1+1=1 1+0=1 0+1=1 0+0=0 0 1 complement complement complement complement complement complement 00=0 01=0 10=0 11=1 1 0

As you will find out soon, the duality of the complements (i.e., the fact that the opposite of a true statement is also true) makes it easy to simplify expressions in Boolean algebra. But -

before I show you, here is a list of convenient truths (textbooks call them theorems) that we get from manipulating the basic facts (axioms) above. Dont try to memorize the list. If you cant see why something in the list is true, just replace the letters with 0s and 1s and they will make sense; for example, A + 0 = A is true because if you replace A with 1 you get 1 + 0 = 1 and if you replace A with 0 you get 0 + 0 = 0. You see how easy it is? Theorem 1. Theorem 2. Theorem 3. Theorem 4. Theorem 5. Theorem 6. A+0=A A+1=1 A+A=A A + A = 1 ( A ) = A A+B=B+A A + (B + C) = (A + B) Theorem 7. +C A (B + C) = A B + Theorem 8. AC Theorem 9. (A + B) = A B Theorem 10. A + A B = A + B Theorem 11. A + A B = A Theorem 12. A B + A B = A Theorem 13. A B + A C + B C = A B + A C A1=A A0=0 AA=A A A = 0 AB=BA A (B C) = (A B) C A + B C = (A + B) (A + C) (A B) = A + B A (A + B) = A B A (A + B) = A (A + B) (A + B) = A (A+B) (A+C) (B+C) = (A+B) (A+C) Identities Null elements Sameness/Idempotency Complements Involution Commutative Associative Distributive DeMorgans theorem DeMorgans theorem Absorption/Covering Combining Consensus

I know that was a long list, but its a good idea to at least read through it once. Nobody memorizes this thing. As you simplify more and more Boolean expressions, they will come to you. Its as I said: we derive all of them from the axioms. Now, let me show you an example where we use the theorems to simplify an expression. Given F = A B + A B + A B, simplify F. Solution: F= = = = A B + A (B + B) A B + A (1) A B + A A+B we factor out the A using the distributive law (theorem 8) from theorem 4 we know that B + B = 1 (complements) from theorem 1 we know that A 1 = A (identity) finally, from theorem 10 we know that A + A B = A + B

Therefore F = A + B! Here are a few more examples. You can do them first and then check your work against mine for reinforcement. Show that A + B C = (A + B) (A + C) is true. -

Solution: We will simplify the right side of the equation to make it look like the left side. A + B C (A + B) (A + C) A A + A C + B A + B After expanding (think FOIL from algebra C class) From theorem 3 we know that A A = A A+AC+BA+BC (Idempotency) After factoring out the A (just like in normal A (1 + C + B) + B C algebra) From theorem 2 we know that 1 plus anything A (1) + B C is 1 From theorem 1 we know that A 1 = A A+BC (Identity) Voila!

Logic NOT
The NOT gate is an electronic circuit that performs negation. The output of the NOT Boolean operator is true when the input is false, and the output is false when the input is true. Hence, all NOT does is take an operand and negate it. For the sake of argument let us analyze a sentence that uses the word NOT: Good is NOT evil. A philosopher will tell us the absence of good does not necessitate the presence of evil. However that may be, our concern here is not meaning. Our concern is the statement. As we show in Table 1, the operand Good can be in two possible states: either it is present or it is not present. As such, we must evaluate the statement for two possibilities. We show the complete evaluation in Table 2. Possibilities Good COMMENT Case 1 Case 2 False Good is absent True Good is present

Table 1: possible input conditions

Good

Evil

COMMENT

FALSE TRUE Good is absent -

TRUE FALSE Good is present Table 2: Truth Table of complete evaluation

It is typical in engineering to use 1 instead of TRUE and 0 instead of FALSE. Therefore we rewrite the data from Table 2 in Table 3 accordingly. Good Evil COMMENT 0 1 Good is absent 1 0 Good is present

Table 3: Truth Table of complete evaluation

For greater detail on the logic significance of the word NOT, read the Boolean Algebra article.

Physical Implementation
In order to apply the principles of Boolean algebra to create real machines that can think and make decisions, we have had to find ways to physically implement the logic operators AND, OR, NOT, etc. To that end, modern day engineering uses transistor networks called logic gates. Hence, a logic gate is actually a group of transistors so arranged as to behave as a Boolean operator. From a circuit complexity perspective, the most basic logic gate is the NOT gate (aka the Inverter). The NOT gate is made of two transistors, as shown in Figure 1. In theory a NOT gate is really just one transistor. But in practice microchip manufacturers use a pair of transistors to construct the NOT gate.

Figure 1: Interactive transistor circuit of the NOT logic operator

Transistors
The use of transistors to build logic gates is quite modern. Before transistors we used other devices, such as vacuum tubes (aka thermionic valves). And very soon we may use DNA, or some other abundant material. There are many types of transistors. Our circuit in Figure 1, for example, uses complementary metaloxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Our choice of CMOS is arbitrarily based on the fact that CMOS is by far the dominant technology in use today. The dominance is due to how well CMOS performs in all the important categories: fabrication cost, packing density, loading capacity (i.e. fanout), operational speed (i.e. propagation delay), noise margin, and power dissipation (i.e. green technology). There is of course more to transistors than can be presented here; especially since transistors are used for more than just digital systems. And so we refer you to any good microelectronics textbook.

Alternate Design
Below we show three additional typical constructions of the NOT gate. Each of the constructions presents specific conveniences to designers. If you are very new to digital systems design, you may not understand the importance of the figures below. Still, we include them in this article for the people who may need them.

Logic
The AND gate is an electronic circuit that performs logical conjunction. The output of the AND Boolean operator is true only when all the inputs are true. Otherwise, the output is false. Through a short and simple analysis you can determine what a statement that uses the word AND is truly saying. We illustrate with the following statement: Water is the product of Hydrogen AND Oxygen. The statement tells us that the existence of Water depends on the existence of two objects: Hydrogen and Oxygen. Now each of these two objects can be in two possible definitive states: either an object exists or it does not exist. Consequently we have four possible conditions, which we list in Table 1 below by row. Condition Hydrogen exists Oxygen exists Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 False False True True False True False True COMMENT neither exists only oxygen exists only hydrogen exists both exist

Table 1: possible input conditions

You can list the possibilities however you want; you will still end up with four different cases. Try it if you want.

Once we list the possible input conditions, we can proceed by adding a column for water as in Table 2. Hydrogen exists Oxygen exists Water exists False False False True True True False True

Table 2: Empty water column To fill the column for Water, we simply do exactly as the original statement says: Water is the product of Hydrogen AND Oxygen. So for example, the first row for water must be false since the statement did not say we can produce water out of nothing. We fill all the rows in Table 3 below. Notice that water is shown to exist only when both Hydrogen and Oxygen exist. Hydrogen exists Oxygen exists Water exists False False True True False True False True False False False True Comments can't make water out of nothing oxygen alone is not water hydrogen alone is not water now we have water

Table 3: Truth Table of Water = Hydrogen AND Oxygen

Logic AND
The AND gate is an electronic circuit that performs logical conjunction. The output of the AND Boolean operator is true only when all the inputs are true. Otherwise, the output is false. Through a short and simple analysis you can determine what a statement that uses the word AND is truly saying. We illustrate with the following statement: Water is the product of Hydrogen AND Oxygen. The statement tells us that the existence of Water depends on the existence of two objects: Hydrogen and Oxygen. Now each of these two objects can be in two possible definitive states: either an object exists or it does not exist. Consequently we have four possible conditions, which we list in Table 1 below by row. Condition Hydrogen exists Oxygen exists COMMENT Case 1 False False neither exists Case 2 Case 3 False True True False only oxygen exists only hydrogen exists

Case 4

True

True

both exist

Table 1: possible input conditions

You can list the possibilities however you want; you will still end up with four different cases. Try it if you want. Once we list the possible input conditions, we can proceed by adding a column for water as in Table 2. Hydrogen exists Oxygen exists Water exists False False True True False True False True

Table 2: Empty water column To fill the column for Water, we simply do exactly as the original statement says: Water is the product of Hydrogen AND Oxygen. So for example, the first row for water must be false since the statement did not say we can produce water out of nothing. We fill all the rows in Table 3 below. Notice that water is shown to exist only when both Hydrogen and Oxygen exist. Hydrogen exists Oxygen exists Water exists False False True True False True False True False False False True Comments can't make water out of nothing oxygen alone is not water hydrogen alone is not water now we have water

Table 3: Truth Table of Water = Hydrogen AND Oxygen

Transistors
The use of transistors to build logic gates is quite modern. Before transistors we used other devices, such as vacuum tubes (aka thermionic valves). And very soon we may use DNA, or some other abundant material. There are many types of transistors. Our circuits in figures 1, 2 and 3, for example, use complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Our choice of CMOS is arbitrarily based on the fact that CMOS is by far the dominant technology in use today. The dominance is due to how well CMOS performs in all the important categories: fabrication cost, packing density, loading capacity (i.e. fan-out), operational speed (i.e. propagation delay), noise margin, and power dissipation (i.e. green technology). There is of course more to transistors than can be presented here; especially since transistors are used for more than just digital systems. And so we refer you to any good microelectronics textbook.

Alternate Design
Below we show three additional typical constructions of the AND gate. Each of the constructions presents specific conveniences to designers. If you are very new to digital systems design, you may not understand the importance of the figures below. Still, we include them in this article for the people who may need them.