Anda di halaman 1dari 52

MARINE STRUCTURES CORROSION AND METHODS OF PREVENTION

CORROSION PREVENTION ASSOCIATION LONDON, LONDON 30TH MARCH 2011

PRESENTED BY: JIM PRESTON

Corrosion Prevention Association

INTRODUCTION
Corrosion & Accelerated Low Water Co os o cce e ated o ate Corrosion (ALWC) Introduction to Cathodic Protection (CP) Galvanic Anodes versus Impressed Current CP of Steel in Concrete Project Examples and Case Study j p y Conclusions

Corrosion Prevention Association

CORROSION
All metals, except Gold, will corrode with time, to try t t and f d form a stable oxide compound t bl id d C Corrosion rate d i depends on the metal and i d h l d its environment. Guidance on corrosion rates given in BS63491:2000 Maritime Structures Part 1: Code of practice for general criteria.

Corrosion Prevention Association

ACCELERATED LOW WATER CORROSION

Corrosion Prevention Association

ALWC: Background
Many established forms of localised corrosion, including microbial corrosion Since early 1980s increasing reports in UK of corrosion just above LAT Quoted range of corrosion rates of 0.3-4.0 mm/side/year Is it new? Influencing Factors? 2005 CIRIA report
Corrosion Prevention Association

Identification

Corrosion Prevention Association

Location
Sheet Piles In-pans & outpans Increasingly identified in the band LAT-Mid tide LAT Mid U Piles: More prevalent on outl t t pans? Geographic Location
Corrosion Prevention Association

INTRODUCTION O UC O
Humphrey Davy used galvanic anodes in 1824 Th Thomas Edi Edison used i d impressed current i 1890 d t in Established standards - BS 7361: Part 1 : 1991 - BS EN 13174: 2001 - DNV RP 401 : 2005 CP well established & proven for steel in sea water Mandated for Offshore Installations and Pipelines CP of R i f CP f Reinforced C d Concrete M i Marine S Structures Common
Corrosion Prevention Association

INTRODUCTION: GALVANIC

2ePile O2+2H2O 4OH2eAl++ Anode

Corrosion Prevention Association

INTRODUCTION : IMPRESSED
+ dc power supply

O2+2H2O 4Cl4OH2Cl2 2H2O O2+4H+

Corrosion Prevention Association

GALVANIC OR IMPRESSED CURRENT? THE CASE FOR GALVANIC ANODES


No power supplies No electricity bill No cabling Less to go wrong Less frequent inspection & monitoring

Corrosion Prevention Association

Galvanic Anodes For Installation to Sheet G l i A d F I ll i Sh Piles: Al/Zn/In Alloy Most Common
Corrosion Prevention Association

GALVANIC OR IMPRESSED CURRENT? THE CASE FOR IMPRESSED CURRENT


Longer anode lif L d life For new build 50% less capital cost Accurate Instant Off potentials Less anodes to install OK if high seawater resistivity OK if high bed level (close to mid tide)
Corrosion Prevention Association

G GALVANIC O IMPRESSED C OR SS CURRENT? THE CASE FOR IMPRESSED CURRENT

Corrosion Prevention Association

Anodes Durable but Lightweight


Corrosion Prevention Association

MMO Coated Ti Anode on GRP shield with steel insert


Corrosion Prevention Association

MMO Coated Ti Anode for Tubular Piles


Corrosion Prevention Association

Cabling must run from anodes to T-R

Corrosion Prevention Association

Typical Transformer Rectifier Transformer-Rectifier

Corrosion Prevention Association

DOES IT WORK?

Corrosion Prevention Association

DOES IT WORK?

Visual condition of pile after 3 months


Corrosion Prevention Association

LIMITATIONS
Top of Pile High Tide Mid Tide Low Tide Full F ll Protection Bed Level Some Protection

Corrosion Prevention Association

Corrosion Prevention Association

Corrosion Prevention Association

Corrosion Prevention Association

Corrosion Prevention Association

GALVANIC OR IMPRESSED CURRENT? SUMMARY


Most UK ports retro-fitting CP use galvanic anodes Impressed current used for new ports or extensive upgrading Impressed current used i estuarine ports I d t d in t i t with high water resistivity or shallow water depths

Corrosion Prevention Association

CP OF STEEL IN CONCRETE
Exposure to seawater, spray will result in chloride ingress, frequently structures are exposed to chloride levels way beyond safe limits. Mid-tide to top of splash zone is the best environment for corrosion (Cl- & O2 present). ) Cathodic Protection systems to stop corrosion of steel i concrete: t prevent i f t l in t to t this:-

Corrosion Prevention Association

CP OF STEEL IN CONCRETE
Cathodic Protection systems to stop corrosion of steel in concrete: to prevent this:-

Corrosion Prevention Association

Example of I i i E l f Incipient A d Eff Anode Effect

Corrosion Prevention Association

CP OF STEEL IN CONCRETE
Impressed Current Systems p y Anode types can be: Conductive C d i coatings (not suitable for marine i ( i bl f i conditions) Conductive Cementitious Coatings Ti Mesh / Sprayed Concrete Overlay p y y Discrete Anodes Ribbon A d Ribb Anodes

Corrosion Prevention Association

CP OF STEEL IN CONCRETE
Impressed Current Systems p y Anode types can be: Conductive C d i coatings (not suitable for marine i ( i bl f i conditions) Conductive Cementitious Coatings Ti Mesh / Sprayed Concrete Overlay p y y Discrete Anodes Ribbon A d Ribb Anodes

Corrosion Prevention Association

CP FOR NEW STRUCTURES

Corrosion Prevention Association

CASE STUDY : PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE & STEEL


Existing 1960s jetty Combination of existing reinforced concrete pile and pre-stressed concrete piles Existing steel piles New steel piles 30-year life extension required

Corrosion Prevention Association

SOUTH HOOK LNG JETTY

SOUTH HOOK LNG JETTY

SOUTH HOOK LNG JETTY

SOUTH HOOK LNG JETTY

SOUTH HOOK LNG JETTY

SOUTH HOOK LNG JETTY

SOUTH HOOK LNG JETTY

SOUTH HOOK LNG JETTY

SOUTH HOOK LNG JETTY

ZONE 1

ZONE 2

ZONE 3

Corrosion Prevention Association

SOUTH HOOK LNG JETTY

SOUTH HOOK LNG JETTY


Power supply & Monitoring equipment

Corrosion Prevention Association

SOUTH HOOK LNG JETTY

SOUTH HOOK LNG JETTY

SOUTH HOOK LNG JETTY

Corrosion Prevention Association

SOUTH HOOK LNG JETTY

CONCLUSIONS
CP is a useful tool in providing corrosion prevention in marine environments i i i i There is an extensive track record of using CP to prevent corrosion by ALWC, primarily using galvanic anodes Impressed current is used for new build steel piling or for ports in brackish waters CP is widely used to prevent reinforcement corrosion, often using impressed current systems, but galvanic system are increasingly being used
Corrosion Prevention Association