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INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

This topic was earlier well known as Industrial Fermentation or Industrial Microbiology. An industrial fermentation is based on exploiting the capacity for chemical conversion of microbial cells or enzymes to produce high value organic molecules economically, from inexpensive biomass materials. AQUEOUS MEDIUM MICROBIAL INOCULUM REACTOR-PURE CULTURETEMP, pH, control. Agitation, oxygen input

SEPARATOR-

PROCESS

ORGANIC PRODUCT EXAMPLES:

AQUEOUS WASTE

ANTIBIOTICS, VITAMINS, AMINO ACIDS ORGANIC ACIDS, ENZYMES, OILS, FATTY ACIDS, COLOURS, FLAVORS, POLY-SACCHARIDES

Successful bioprocesses are developed largely by appropriate reactor design, instrumentation and control involved in fermentation and also on the ability to recover the product in its pure form from the bioreactor in an economical way. High value metabolic products like antibiotics; vaccines, hormones and enzymes are obtained by culturing animal, plant and microbial cells in bioreactors under controlled conditions. Design of modern bioreactors especially suited for recombinant microorganisms, plant cells and animal cell culture poses special problems. The unique features of bioprocesses are that the products of bioprocesses exist in very dilute solutions and also the bio-molecules are sensitive to a wide variety of parameters such as pH, temperature, shear stress and oxygen concentration. This also poses problems in downstream processing. Advanced instrumentation makes it possible to monitor and control fermentation parameters accurately. Biological processes can thus be made less empirical and more amenable to precise control, which in turn will lead to greater reproducibility. Very significant jumps in yields and productivity are achieved in the manufacture of bioactive microbial metabolites not only through improved microbial strains but also through an ability to monitor and control the process and parameters through sophisticated

instrumentation. This is more important for processes involving microbes obtained by recombinant DNA techniques, the performance is entirely dependent upon accurate control of the fermentation environment achieved by maintaining a precise control over the supply of nutrients and the reaction pressure (to prevent the shedding of the cloned genes), and by preventing the reversion of the strain to a non-productive wilde type.

Table 1: 1. HUMAN HEALTH: 1.1 ANTIBIOTICS 1.3 r-VACCINES

INDUSTRIAL BIOTCHNOLOGY

1.2 IMMUNODIAGNOSTIC KITS 1.4 BIOCHEMICALS

2. ANIMAL HEALTH: 2.2 DIAGNOSTICS

2.1 ACQUACULTURE 2.3 VACCINES

3. AGRICULTURE: 3.2 DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS

3.1 TISSUE CULTURE 3.3 BIOREACTER FOR SOMATIC EMBRYO

4. BIOPROCES INDUSTRIES: 4.2 BIOLEACHING OF ORES 4.4 LIGNOCELLULOSE PROCESS

4.1 INDUSTRIAL ENZYMES 4.3 BIOMETHANATION

Table 2: BIOPROCESS ENGINEERING: 1. BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING 2. INSTRUMENTATION 3. DOWNSTREAM ENGINEERING

Table 3: 1. DEVELOPMENT OF PROCESS PLANTS 3. T.P. IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION 5. BIOREACTORS: ANIMAL CELL CULTURES 7. BIOTRANSFORMATIONS

AREAS OF BIOCHEMICAL ENG: 2. SIMULATION-SOFTWARE

4. NOVEL BIOREACTORS

6. BIOREACTOR: PLANT TISSUE CULTURE

8. ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECH: PROCESS ENG.

9. PETROLEUM AND MINERAL PROCESSING BIOTECHNOLOGY

10. BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CELLS