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By: Dr. P.R. Palodhi GOD IS THE LIGHT of the heavens and the earth Light upon Light; God guides unto His Light whom He will. And God strikes similitude for men, and God has knowledge of everything (Quran, 24:35). Verily, His are the creation and the command (Quran, 7:54) No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is all over. (Quran, 6:103) Thus omnipotent and omniscient God reveals Himself as supraliminal Light existing beyond the access and lan of His creations. It is from this transcendent Luminous Center the Ideals of Creation has emanated; and existing creation (i.e. manifested lights, celestial bodies, fire, water, metals, woods, and fleshes etc) sustains itself by obeying the ordained Laws of the Creator. And God revealed that He creates like one who creates not (see: Quran, 16:17-20; 22:73; 25:3). He created humankind as the vicegerent on earth (Q, 2:30; 38:26); man has been endowed with the faculty of intellect that can only receive, adapt and transmit and does not create the laws of Truth by which the Creation is being sustained. Truths behind the manifest creations are independent of the human minds. Finite human knowledge is never adequate to cope with infinite truths of spiritual world, but in born natural urges do not allow man to stay away from entering into the mysteries of the unlimited. Thus various reflections of human intellects merely testify by degrees the relative sapience of Homo sapiens sapiens to an unseen Supreme Arbiter. In this pursuit, on one hand, believing Truth-seekers acquire knowledge (ulu al-ilm, Q, 3:18, 16: 27; 58:11) in order to gravitate toward the Truths. On the other, human defiance to God tends to make truth by inventing gimmicks that compete for the appearance of truth. Mere facts perceived by mans horizontal enquiry cannot grasp the infinite dimensions of Divine omnipotence that transcends our earthly senses of perception limited by time and space. Finite man tries to fathom infinite Truths of Creation based upon ideas of his mental resources and relativity of rational thinking. But, if the idea itself ensues from denial of Truth i.e. Word of God discontinuity upends between human concept and Divine reality and human wanderlusts end up in the chaos of increasing contradictions. And the contradictions are not abolished unless the idea is Truth. Hence God reveals the root ideas to help man gravitate in the direction of Truth. Gods Revelation in Prophetic religions comes by integrating vertical consciousness with horizontal awareness of man, and invites man to participate in the knowledge of Creation. Holistic knowledge from God has a rational part knowable by all human beings since God has made them accessible through rational reasoning. Human beings have access to knowledge only up to the limit which God has permitted to know (Q, 2: 255); man only can patiently persevere (Q, 2: 153) to attain such knowledge with right choice of conduct and faith in Divine omnipotence. Such knowledge being in its essence supra-individual, universal and transcendent - it demands purity in vision and Intelligence which is direct and not discursive, asking than boasting, and capacitated to go much further than the temporal human point of views. And when our searches are grounded upon the path revealed by the God, retrospect gravitates toward the realm of spiritual world the abode of eternal wisdom. And then

the deductions are not made from the sensory to the Universal, rather starts from the latter in order to understand the former.

A. REVEALED KNOWLEDGE OF CREATION: A revelation from Him Who created the earth and the heavens on high. (Q, 20:4) It is We Who have created you: why will you not witness the Truth? (Q, 56:57); Do they see nothing in the government of the heavens and the earth, and all that God has created? (Q, 7: 185) i. Creation of the heavens and earth: He Who created the heavens and the earth and all that is between, in Six Days (Q, 7:54; 11:7; 25:59; 32:4; 50:38; 57:4) and is firmly established on the Throne of authority (Q, 25:59). He created earth in two Days, placed therein firm hills rising above, blessed it and measured therein its sustenance in four Days (Q, 41: 9-10). He turned to heaven when it was like smoke; He called it and also to earth to come together willingly or unwillingly. They both came willingly in obedience (Q, 41:11). Initially the heavens and earth were joined together as one piece and God clove them asunder (Q, 21:30). He created seven Firmaments and of the earth a similar number (Q, 65:12); seven heavens are in harmony of layers, one above the other (Q, 67:3). He completed the seven heavens in two Days; the lowest heaven is adorned with lights and protected by Guards (Q, 41:12). He constructed heaven with power and expanding it (Q, 51:47); He raised the vault of heaven high (with all celestial bodies perfectly placed in, without any visible pillars; and established the Balance and Equilibrium that is transgressed by none (Q, 13:2, 55:7-8; 79:27- 28). He created alternation of the Night and Day (Q, 10:6); He made the sun and the moon (which follow a regular path) to be of service to man (Q, 71:16; 14:33); and set the fair dispositions of the stars (Q, 37:6) and the constellations of the Zodiac (Q, 15:16). To Him belong the East and West (Q, 2:115); He is the Lord of the two Easts (i.e. the two extremes from where the sun appears to rise in summer and in winter) and the Lord of the two Wests (i.e. the two extremes where the sun appears to set in summer and in winter (Q, 55:17). God created the heavens and the earth, and all between them in Truth (Q, 14:19) and for their just ends (Q, 15: 85) and for a term appointed (Q, 46:3). Everything that is in the heavens and the earth is dependent on Him (Q, 55:29). He preserves and guards His creation without sleep and slumber; He knows what happens to them in Here and what will happen to the in Hereafter; none can encompass His knowledge except that He wills and no one can intercede with Him save by His permission; without any fatigue He is in control of every phenomenon (Q, 2:255). God repeatedly informed about initial Six Days/Periods of Creation in all Abrahamic religions (Judeo-Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Islam). Here we must note that the Day of God is different from the day of man based upon sun; as we reflect to exact revealed word for Day Ayyam in Arabic (In Heb. Yom), it denotes long periods or ages rather than 24 hours. Quran has also pointed to the fact that the span of Gods Day changes depending on perspective it relates to. Thus coming of a Lords decree on earth and its ascent for retribution takes in a Day of God which is 1000 years (Q, 22: 47; 32:5); and also Bible (II Peter, 3:8) reminded us not to be ignorant of the fact that one day is with the Lord as a thousand years. But the time-span of Gods Day changes in another perspective: when Angels and spirits (Ruuh) ascend unto Him again in a Day of God which is 50,000 years in human sense of reckoning (Q, 70: 4).

ii. Earth is made as the resting place and the Trial Ground for pre-humans (Jinns) and humans (Insaan): The earth was created in two Days (Q, 41:9). God caused us to grow from the earth (Q, 11:61). He created Death and Life, that He may try who is the best in deed (Q, 67:2). He created living things out of water (Q, 21:30), and all things in pairs that earth produces (Q, 36:36). And among His marvels is the earth a resting place for life with canopy of Sky, from where rain comes and produces foods for all the creatures (Q, 2:22, 2:29; 13:3; 55:10). And God furnished the earth with firm mountains so that it quakes not (Q, 31:10), He spread out earth for His creatures with fruits, corns, fodders and sweet-smelling plants (Q, 55:10-12; 80:26-32). He sent forth the two great bodies of water, one palatable and sweet and the other saltish; they meet each other -- yet there is an inviolable obstruction between them that they do not transgress (Q, 25:53, 27:61, 35:12, 55: 19-20). And among His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the variations in languages and colours (Q, 30:22). God placed all that is in the earth as an ornament so that He may try them (Q, 18:7); He tests every Soul by evil and by good by way of trial, and every Soul must return to God (Q, 21:35). God does but make a trial for us in a little manner of game well within reach of our hands and our lances, that He may test, who fears Him. (Q, 5:94). From a single Soul [nafsi-wwaahida] God created former and latter people (Q, 31:28; 39:6; 49:13). God fashioned us in stages [or phases] and produced from the earth, growing gradually (Q, 71:14). Before creation of human [Insaan] there has been a long period of time, when Insaan was not even mentioned? (Q, 76:1). God begins the process of creation, and repeats it, that He may reward with justice those who believe and are righteous in their deeds (Q, 10.4). God created and strengthened many generations of former people; and when He willed, He replaced them completely by people who were of the same kind (Q, 76:28). Thus God raised latter ones from posterity of other people. (Q, 6:133). From a single soul [nafsi-wwaahida], God created its mate and from them twine hath spread abroad a multitude of men [rijaalan] and women [nisaa] (Q, 4:1). He created for them faculties of hearing, sight, feeling and understanding (Q, 23:78). Thus Soul [nafsun] has been multiplied by giving proportion, order and inspiration as to its wrong and its right, and only he succeeds that purifies it. And he fails that corrupts it. (Q, 91: 7-10). All creatures, in the heavens and on earth belong to God (Q, 10:66). God created before Jinn races from fire (Q, 15:27). Later, when God decided to create a vicegerent on earth, Angels were already aware of a population that lived on earth by mischief and bloodshed (Q, 2:30). And Jinns tried to steal the secrets of heaven, but found it filled with stern guards and flaming fires (Q, 72:8); though some among the Jinn race believed in God (Q, 72:1& 11), but many used to utter atrocious lies about God and ascribe partners as equal to God (Q, 72:2 & 4). Had the pagan Jinns remained on the right Way, God certainly would have bestowed on them Rain in abundance. (Q, 72:16). Many generations of old [Awwaliin] were destroyed for their evil; and later generations followed them. Thus God dealt with men of sin. (Q, 77: 16-18; 7:38). Thus He made this earth as a place to draw together and a receptacle both for the living and the dead (Q, 77: 25-26). After fashioning Adam, God commanded and all Angels prostrated to him (Q, 15:30). But Iblis a Jinn (Q, 18:50) defied Gods Will by denying to prostrate before the man created from earthly clay (Q, 15:33), and thus he became an outcast with a Curse (Q, 15:34). But Iblis asked for a respite (Q, 15:36), and God grated him respite till the Day of Judgment (Q, 15:35); then he challenged God that in this period he will mislead everyone from Gods Path except His true followers (Q, 7:12-17; 15: 39; 38: 83). God gave him not only respite until the Day of Judgment but also allowed him to mutually share wealth and children (with Adamites); and liberty to assault or arouse or deceive all those who follow him and choose his way (Q, 17:

63-64). But he cannot have authority over the true servants of God (Q, 17: 65). God warned Adam that Iblis is the enemy to him and his wife, so they should not land themselves into misery by letting Iblis to deceive them (Q, 20: 117). Initially Adam (and his wife) was placed in the Garden blessed with provisions where they would neither go hungry, nor go naked, nor suffer from thirst, nor from the suns heat (Q, 20: 118-119). But Adam and his wife fell into spell of Satan Iblis when Satan whispered evil to them (Q, 20: 120-121), thus they disobeyed God and fell into error. As a result, both lines of Adam and Satan all together were ousted from the blessed Garden; and God enjoined enmity between them in their wandering on earth (Q, 2:36; 20: 123): but those will not go astray who follow Guidance of God; while the life will be narrowed down for those who turn away from Gods Message (Q, 20:124). Thus many generations were destroyed amid whose dwellings later generations walked (Q, 20:128). Consequently this earth has been peopled by both the Jinns and the humans (in language of Revelation: rijaalum-minal-Jinni and rijaalim-minal- insiya Q, 72:6); there were persons among humankind who took shelter with the persons among the Jinns. But they increased them in folly (Q, 72: 6); Assembly of Jinns did take much toll of men (Q, 6: iii. Creation of Insaan (modern man): Before probing into the special earthly and earthy creation humankind i.e. Insaan we find that in Surah An-Nis (Q, 4:1), God is addressing to people of earth (naasut-taquu) to remind that all are created from a SINGLE SOUL. As regard origin of life on earth, when Quran mentions that God sends water to give life to animals and men, instead of Insaan words like anaasiyya and basharan (Q, 25:49; 25:54) have been revealed to denote men. God created man [basharan] from sounding clay; Adam was a perfect basharam [basharam sawiyya] (Q, 15:28-29). God created Adam and his mate originally in heaven without biological parents (Q, 2:31-34); then they were placed in blessed Garden upon earth (Q, 2:35). Revelation informed that only after creations of Jinns and Adam, the Insaan have been raised from clay (Q, 15:26-33). God indeed offered the Trust to the heavens and the earth and mountain; but they refused to undertake it: but man [Insaan] undertook it: -and was indeed unjust and foolish (Q, 33: 72). By (the Token of) Time (through the ages), Verily Man (Insaan) is in loss, Except such as have Faith, and do righteous deeds, and (join together) in the mutual teaching of Truth, and of Patience and Constancy. (Q, Surah: al-'Asr) He fashioned Insaan from the quintessence of clay; thereafter placing him as a drop of sperm in a place of rest, firmly fixed, then made the sperm into a clot of congealed blood; then of that clot made (fetus) lump; then out of that lump bones and clothed the bones with flesh; then another creature was developed out of it. (Q, 23:12-14). He made mans mate female so that he might take rest in her, and she could bear his offspring (Q, 7:189). He created Inssan in the best of moulds and could as well abase him to be the lowest of the low (Q, 95:4-5). He made Insaan (human) to be the vicegerent on earth (Q, 2:30; 7:10). God has bestowed upon man not only all the means for his physical nourishment but has provided him also all the guidance man needs for the development of his self (Q, 10:57-58; 17:82; 41:2). He taught him a clear and perspicuous way of expression and distinguished him from all others by giving him the ability to express with intelligent speech and the use of pen (Q, 55:4; 96:4). But whatever capacity the

humans or pre-human Jinns may earn, with that they cannot penetrate the secrets of heaven and earth except which God permits (Q, 55:33). In various places God reminded that present world is inhabited by both Jinns and humans in this context a very significant Revelation is: God extended a tribe of Jinns the freedom to share wealth and children with Adamites (Qur'an, 17:64). Jinns were created before from fire who used to deny God by inventing extravagant lies (Q, 72: 2 & 4), and later Adam was created from clay as a perfected basharan by upgrading consciousness of both horizontal living on earth and vertical consciousness towards God. Thereafter God created Insaan. As we turn to the finally created version of conscious man -- we find that the word INSAAN in Quran came in Arabic dual number; to form dual in Arabic, ( an) is added at the end of singular (in case of construct its nn is dropped). Following are the verses on INSAAN with two ins: 4:28; 11:9; 14: 34; 15:26; 15:27; 16:4; 17:11 (twice); 17:67; 17:83; 17:100; 18:54; 19:66; 19:67; 21:37; 22:66; 23:13; 29:8; 31:14; 32:7; 33:72; 36:77; 39:8; 39:49; 41:49; 41:51; 42:48 (twice); 46:15; 50:16; 51:56; 55:3; 55:14; 70:19; 75:3; 75:10; 75:13; 75:14; 75:36; 76:1; 76:2; 79:35; 80:17; 80:24; 82:6; 84:6; 86:5; 89:15; 89:23; 90:4; 95:4; 96:2; 96:5; 96:6; 99:3; 100:6; and 103:2 and three citations of Insun in verse: 55:39, 56 & 74. Thus we find that there are 60 citations of the word Insaan in Quran; in verse (6:128) we find ins is used to ascribe mans consciousness to which Jinns have taken much toll. Very significantly, after two primal creations Jinns and Adam, when Quran uses the word Insaan in dual (Insaan = two ins, consciousness) to denote earthly humankind, it is suggestive of a conglomeration of two consciousnesses. The implied sense of two ins becomes apparent when we find that conscience of humankind is clearly marked by the two different apprehensions of God: (I) Those cling to Jinn-like paganism by disbelieving and rejecting the specific idea of God and His Revelation but rely on vagaries of myths, math and metaphors based upon fancied abstractions and generalization of Godhood. (II) And others believe in specific idea of God Who reveals universally consistent religious guidance to the chosen Prophets. iv. Purpose behind creation of mankind: Each entity of creation exists by fulfilling the respective purpose of the God: sun never forgets to shed light, earth does not forget to grow plants; honey bees do not forget to make honey. But, does human (Insaan) know if Creator has any purpose behind creation of mankind? From Gods Revelation we come to know that manifest creations exist by submitting their wills to the Creator these enfold entities right from beginning to end of the expanding universe: heavenly creations like myriads of Angels under Gods command (Quran, 3:18; 35:1); celestial members like Sun, Moon, Stars etc (Q, 7:54; 21:33); and earthly creations like fundamental units which are the building blocks of living and non-living things (Q, 16:48; 18:37; 21:16), and individual organ of the body (Q, 41: 20-23) through which Soul could express its self-will. All such members of heaven and earth obey the God ordained laws perpetually. Thus every aspect of creation is dependent on God and measured out (Q, 54:49) such that everything falls into a pattern with a defined order and proportions (Q, 25:2; 39:5; 87:2) and definite end (Q, 15:85; 30:8). Every created thing is allowed to function as a part of the whole; has its own inherent laws of behaviour, but never arrant autocratic, because God has power

over all things (Q, 24:45) and thus patterns of behaviour have been endowed by the God and are strictly limited (Q, 39:62). As regard submission of will to God Revelation informs that -- there is an exception in case of Jinn and human; Jinns like men can choose their path of conduct (see foot note, Pickthal, page 216) [1]. The Souls of Jinn and human have free wills. God has granted them a period of freedom to flourish with various choices (Q, 3:186; 11: 15-16; 20:131) of their self-will; but alongside the Gods Message comes recurrently in successive Prophetic religions (Q, 3:3; 3:33; 3:187). In every nation God raised a messenger, proclaiming serve God and shun false gods (Q, 16: 36) so that every generation has the options to know the difference between the Way that leads to God and the waywardness from Gods Path. People are free to choose between them; either they may follow the Path of God, or may deny God's guidance for Hereafter by living for the sole priorities of life in 'Here'. By such Trial upon earth God identifies those who follow the Messengers of God (Q, 2:143), and tests their patience, perseverance and steadfastness in serving the cause of God (Q, 3:142; 47: 31) within limits of earthly capacities (Q, 5: 94). And the consequence of 'God denial' is perishing after a brief worldly gains and pleasures of this life (Q, 9:55; 9:85). Whoso seeketh as religion other than Submission to God: it will not be accepted from him, and he will be a loser in the Hereafter. (Q, 3:85). God creates not without purpose (Q, 75:36). God created Jinns and men [Insaan] so that they serve God (Q, 51:56). He begins the process of creation, and repeats it; then all shall be brought back to Him (Q, 30:11). Every good and evil deed of individual is being recorded by Angels in Illiyin and Sijjin (Q, 83: 6; 8). After completion of the trial of this earthly life, the Day of Judgment shall come; every dead one from past to present shall again be made alive to the perfection of their very tips of finger (Q, 75: 3-4). And the Book of Deeds will be placed before every one to see what is recorded therein; and God will not treat with injustice (Q, 18: 49). After the Final judgment, the righteous dutiful shall live in perpetual enjoyment of the heavenly bliss; and evil will be the End of those who do evil by rejecting the Signs of God (Q, 30:10). But best for the righteous is the Home in the HEREAFTER. Will ye not understand? (Q, 7: 169). Perpetual is the enjoyment thereof and the shade therein: such is the End of the righteous; and the End of Unbelievers is the Fire. (Q, 13: 35) B. GOD JUDJES CONDUCTS OF EACH INDIVIDUAL SOUL: From Revelation we conceive that the Soul imparts self will to individual which is expressed categorically by the conducts of life. Since man cannot know anything more about Soul than what God permits, we have to reflect upon the relevant verses in the Quran: It is God Who creates you and takes your Soul at death. (Q, 16:70); By the Soul, and the proportion and order given to it; and its inspiration as to its wrong and its right truly he succeeds that purifies it, and he fails that corrupt it. (Q, 91: 7-10). It was We Who created man (Insaan), and We know what dark suggestions his Soul makes to him. (Q, 50:16) There is no Soul but has a protector over it (Q, 86: 4); And there will come forth every Soul: with each will be an angel to drive, and an angel to bear witness. (Q, 50: 21); Every Soul draws the meed of its act on none but itself: no bearer of burdens can bear the

burden of another. (Q, 6: 164); At length, when death approaches one of you, Our angels take his Soul, and they never fail in their duty. (Q, 6:61); On the Day of Judgment when every Soul will be confronted with all the good deeds it has done, and all the evil it has done... (Q, 3:30); every Soul will be recompensed fully for all its actions, and none will be unjustly dealt with. (Q, 16: 111) Concept of Soul (Nafsun) should not be confused with Ruuh (grossly translated as Spirit) which is rather a ground for Soul. Ruuh is the innermost phase of mans being, an organ of spiritual light, whereby man may rise into apprehension of God: by His command doth God send the Ruuh (Spirit) of inspiration to any of His servants He pleases. (Q, 40:15). On the contrary, as regard Nafsun (Soul) God reveals: Every Soul will be held in pledge for its deeds. (Q, 74:38). Unlike animals, human Souls are unique by virtue of its three different states: (i) that incites to evil (Nafse Ammarah, Q, 12:54); (ii) reproving from which moral state is generated (Nafse Lawwama, Q, 73:3); and (iii) the Soul at rest beginning of the spiritual state (Nafse Mutmainnah, Q, 89: 28-31). Thus after the SOUL joins the BODY, it turns it into human being, whereby the Soul becomes the ruler of an individuals body-spirit-soul existence. Al-Ghazali - one of the greatest Islamic Scholar, has explained (see: Haque, Amber, pp. 367-8, 2004) the Nafs into three categories based on the Quran: Nafs Ammarah which "exhorts one to freely indulge in gratifying passions and instigates to do evil", Nafs Lawammah which is "the conscience that directs man towards right or wrong", and Nafs Mutmainnah which is "a self that reaches the ultimate peace." As an analogy between psychology and politics, he compared the SOUL to that of a king running a kingdom, arguing that the bodily organs are like the artisans and workers, intellect is like a wise vizier, desire is like a wicked servant, and anger is like the police force. He argued that a king can correctly run the state of affairs by turning to the wise vizier, turns away from the wicked servant, and regulating the workers and the police; and that in the same way, the soul is balanced if it keeps anger under control and makes the intellect dominate desire. He argued that for a soul to reach perfection, it needs to evolve through several stages: sensuous (like a moth which has no memory), imaginative (lower animal), instinctive (higher animal), rational (transcends animal stage and apprehends objects beyond the scope of his senses) and divine (apprehends reality of spiritual things).

[Republished from my publication:] .

References: 1. Pickthall, M.M. 2000 (reprint). The meaning of Holy Quran, UBSPD, New Delhi 2. Haque, Amber (2004), "Psychology from Islamic perspective: contributions of early Muslim scholars and challenges to contemporary Muslim psychologists", Journal of Religion & Health 43 (4) * All cited and referred verses are from: The Holy Quran Translated by Abdullah Yusuf Ali. (Transliteration in Roman Script by M.A.H. Eliyasee With Original Arabic Text / English translation by Abdullah Yusuf Ali). Islamic Book Srevice. New Delhi 110002, India. 2000. ISBN: 81-85738-04-1 And also from: The Meanings of the Holy Quran - An explanatory translation by Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall. 2000 (reprint). UBSPD, New Delhi. ISBN: 81-7476-005-9