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DEVELOPMENTAL CURRICULUM PAPER MODELS OF CURRICULUM

By Muhammad Anand Ardhiansyah RistaWahyuMahanani Sri Mariyati DanantyVinartika NaafiAisya 10317244003 10317244005 10317244017 10317244019 10317244027

FACULTY OF MATHEMATHIC AND SCIENCE YOGYAKARTA STATE UNIVERSITY 2012

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

Naturally, we as a nation Indonesia is proud to be a part of the Republic of Indonesia. Indonesia is an agricultural country with natural resources and inherit the abundant natural resources of qualified number 1 in the world. Unfortunately Indonesia is known as a country that is less able to process their own natural potential because of the potential of human resources that are less competent. Therefore, the government is planning to accelerate the "Millennium Development Goals" which was originally planned to be achieved in 2020 accelerated to 2015. Millennium Development Goals is the era of free trade or globalization era, the era of competition quality or quality, qualified people will be able to advance and sustain their existence. Therefore, the construction and development of human resources is needed in national development. As we know, Indonesia is a country made up of thousands of islands with different cultures and ethnicities. For that reason it needs adjustment or equalization vision, mission, and strategy to progress and develop simultaneously. In this case, the national education system has one important component in the implementation of the curriculum, since the curriculum is an educational component referenced by each educational unit. Curriculum created by a centralized government and applied to all children across the country nation of Indonesia. School as an educational unit in each area with a wealth of diverse natural, and with the potential of different regions. As a component of school teachers who are competent in a particular subject and adjust the duty outlined curriculum, and develop appropriate local potential and the potential of the school and students. However, in many cases found a lack of understanding of school principals and teachers to the curriculum. This is evident from the persistence of the teachers who guided textbooks sold in the market, as we know textbooks are designed with a full portion, meaning the content in excess of the curriculum so that teachers often feel short of time in the delivery of content in a particular subject. B. Problems 1. How the Lewiss model of curriculum development? 2. How the Tylers model of curriculum development? 3. How the Tabas model of curriculum development? 4. How the KTSP model of curriculum development?

C.The Aims 1. To know the Lewiss model of curriculum development. 2. To know the Tylers model of curriculum development. 3. To know the Tabas model of curriculum development. 4. To know the KTSP model of curriculum development.

CHAPTER II CONTENT

A. Definition of Curriculum The curriculumcomesfrom But the Latin"curicula" which originallymeant activities

aroadforcartsorrace.

intermsof educationtranslate intoroads,businesses,

toachieve the goalof teaching. There are so many model of curriculum. In this paper, we will discuss four models of curriculum. There are Lewis, Tyler, Hilda Taba, and KTSP model of curriculum. 1. Tyler Curriculum Model The curricullum develophment based on tyler is the foundation of curriculum in this era. He has four quastion that must be answerd to make a curricullum, the question are the fondation of curricullum. The answer and result from the question is a curricullum. His theory was based on four fundamental questions: 1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? 2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? 3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? 4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained? (Tyler 1949: 1) The first question is about the aim from schools, firstly schools must determine the aim for their schools, so the next steps will support the purpose of school.Determine the purpose of setting goals is the first step. In this objective must describe the direction of education purosed, what kind of skills students should possess after school. The curriculum formulation objectives is highly dependent on the theories and philosophies of education adopted by developers, based on various input. There are three classifications of purpose from Tyler curriculum that emphasizes mastery of the concepts and theories of science (dicipline oriented). The purpose pegembangan curriculum that emphasizes personal or humanistic models (student centered). The curriculum purpose that emphasis on improving people's lives (society centered.)

With reference to the above curriculum goals, the resources that can be used as a reference in the development of the curriculum, according to Tyler, the views and considerations of the expert disciplines, individual student, and contemporary social life. Determine the Learning Experience, learning experience is the interaction of student activities with environtment, and how the students react to the environment. The learning experience is not identical with the content of the lesson, but it inhern the learning experience has been teaching is cover the material that should be learnt by student. several principles that must be followed in determining the learning experience, that is: 1) Must be in accordance with the objectives to reach. 2) every student must satisfy the learning experience. 3) every design learning experiences student should involve . 4) The experience of learning could reach more than one goal. Experience Experiential learning can be made in the form or in the form of program subjects. While this type of organizing learning experiences can be vetikal or horizontally. Vertically means one type of experiential learning is done in a variety of different grade levels. Its means that repeating these types of learning experiences. While organizing horizontally which connects the learning experience in a field of study (subjects) with other materials learning experience that is still in one level. Tyler proposed three principles to organize learning experiences to be effective, namely sustainability, The order of the content (sequence), Integration. Continuity means that the constant repetition types of learning experiences to shape the ability to set up student. The process of evaluation is essentially the process of determining to what extend the educational objective are actually being realize by the program of curriculum and instruction. Evaluasi is find out what degree of achievement of objectives. Criteria for achievement of this goal by look the change in student behavior in accordance with the purpose that will achieved. Assessment should be carried out using more than one tools.

This is the chart of Tyler curriculum development


Student source Sociaty source material source

The temporary purpose

Filter by educational phyloshopi

Filter by learning psychology

The best instructional purpose

Selecting learning experient

organizing learning experient

Directing learning experient

evaluating learning experient

There are some strength and weekness from objective models, The strength of objective model are : 1. If the purpose of curricullum is the first step, the strategy and direction will follow to reach the purpose. 2. The models provides a blueprint for the development of curriculum. 3. Moving from a stantment of objective to the determination of content and methods to achieve those objective. The weekness of Tyler model are : 1. The model and Tyler rasional dont adequately explain where the curriculum objective come from. 2. The model can not account for the many and complex outcomes of learning. 3. The structure of knowleage is such that it cannot be expressed in term of prespecified performance.

2. Lewis Curriculum Model In this model Lewis adopt an administrative approach to develop curriculum. This model named as administrative model or line staff because the opinion of development arise from administrator education and use administrative procedure. In this case, the administrator means they who expert in educational such as curriculum developer, directorial of educational and another person or team who expert in education. In the scheme describe the lewis administrator model curriculum.

As shown in Figure 3, the selection of educational goals and objectives is influenced by (1) external forces, including legal requirements, research data, professional associations, and state guidelines, and (2) bases of curriculum, such as society, learners, and knowledge. Curriculum design involves decisions made by the responsible curriculum planning group(s) for a particular school center and student population. Having collected and analyzed essential data and identified goals and objectives, curriculum planners create or select a general patterna curriculum designfor the learning opportunities to be provided to students Curriculum implementation involves decisions regarding instruction. Various teaching strategies are included in the curriculum plan so that teachers have options. Instruction is thus the implementation of the curriculum plan. There would be no reason for developing curriculum plans if there was no instruction. Curriculum plans, by their very nature, are efforts to guide and direct the nature and character of learning opportunities in which students participate. All curriculum planning is worthless unless it influences the things that students do in school. Saylor argues that curriculum planners must see instruction and teaching as the summation of their efforts. Curriculum evaluation involves the process of evaluating expected learning outcomes and the entire curriculum plan.

3. Hilda Taba Curriculum Model Hilda Taba was born on December 7, 1902 at Kooraste , Estonia ( Russia ) . He was the first child from nine children. His father Robert Taba , is a teacher at his elementary school .Many models of curriculum development, one of them is expressed by Hilda Taba . According to Hilda Tabas opinion, "a curriculum is a plan for learning, therefore what is know about the learning process and the development of individual has bearing on the shaping of the curriculum ".So the curriculum is a lesson plan in which contains important substances that include material of learning ,learning objectives ,methods , and evaluation that related or connected to each other .Besides the curriculum should recognize the potential and development needs of students or individual students first. Curriculum approach by Taba is modifying basic model of Tyler to be more representative. Hilda Taba found essentially that every curriculum is a way to prepare children to participate as productive members in society. Taba theory believe that teachers are the primary factor in the development of curriculum . The teacher in curriculum development as an innovator.

Hilda Taba on the basis of the data to develop a model that is known as inductive model upside down . It said the model upside down because of the development of the curriculum is not preceded by the arrival of concepts deductively . In Hilda Taba curriculum before implementing further steps , first find the data from the field by conducting experiments that are then compiled on the basis of the theory of real results , not held until execution . There are five step of curriculum development according the Tabas Model A. Make the unit-unit of experimentwith teachers. There are several steps in the development of curriculum in this step : 1. Diagnosis Needs In this step, the development of curriculum begins with determining needs of students through the diagnosis of a variety of deficiencies ( deficiencies ) , and differences in student background 2. Objective Formulate At this stage is setting goals that include some aspects of which are concepts, ideas , and skills that will be learned . 3. Curriculum Content Selection The selection of curriculum content according to the purpose for previous step. Content selection is not only based on the goals to be achieved , but also have to consider the terms of the validity and give more benefit for students. 4. Organizing the content Through the selection ,then determined curriculum that prepared the order , so look at the curriculum or what class it should be given . 5. Choosing a learning experience At this stage determined the learning experiences of students in order to achieve objectives of the curriculum . 6. Organizing learning experience . Teacher then determine how to package learning experiences that have determined that the packages into the activity, students were invited as well , so that they have a responsibility to implement learning activities . 7. Determining the evaluation tools and procedures to be students.

In the determination of the teacher evaluation tool to select a variety of techniques that can be done to assess student achievement , whether the student has reached the goal or not . 8. Testing the balance of curriculum content. This test needs to be done to see the correspondence between the content , learning experiences , and types of student learning . B. Test the unit-unit of experiment In this step we must try to apply the curriculum in various situation and several kinds of student to know the validity of the curriculum. C. Revise and Consolidation In this step we must revise the curriculum based on the data that collected in previous step to make the perfect curriculum development. D. Developing curriculum frame In this step there are many question that must be answer: 1. Is the content of curriculum precise? 2. Is the content arranges logically? 3. Is the learning process give more competencies and intellectual development to student? 4. Is the basic concept have been accommodate?

E. Implementation and Desimilation. In this step the curriculum apply in many school that in various place and find the difficulties of each teacher in teaching and learning process. Tabas Curriculum development Make the unit-unit of experimentwith teachers 1. Diagnosis Needs 2. Objective Formulate 3. Curriculum Content Selection 4. Organizing the content 5. Choosing a learning experience 6. Organizing learning experience 7. Determining the evaluation tools and Developing curriculum frame procedures to be students. 8. Testing the balance of curriculum content. Implementation and Desimilation.

Test the unit-unit 4. KTSP Curriculum Model of experiment

Revise and Consolidation

According Mulyasa (2007), The meaning of KTSP is Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (Curriculum Education Unit), which was developed in accordance with the level of educational units, the potential of the school or district, or local school characteristics, socio-cultural community, and the characteristics of learners. Given the variety of potential-student characteristics and school or district, and the social and cultural life of local communities in accordance with the natural resources and wealth of human resources led to the development of KTSP curriculum should have the characteristics or the individual's typical of each region to each unit of education or school. Curriculum development is different from one school to another school is a demanding teacher and creativity play an active role in the elaboration and development of the curriculum taking into account the existing potential. Both facilities where media and learning methods must be developed and included in the curriculum as a guide, and

bookmarks for successful learning occurs in accordance with the curriculum that has been developed. In the Standar Nasional Pendidikan (National Education Standards), (SNP Article 1, paragraph 15) defines operational SBC as a curriculum drawn up, developed and implemented by each educational unit that is ready and able to develop with regard Law. 20 of 2003 on National Education System Article 36: Curriculum development is done by reference to the National Education Standards to achieve national education purposes. The curriculum at all levels and types of education developed with the principle of diversification according to the educational unit, the potential of the area and learners. Curriculum levels of elementary and secondary education unit developed by the school and the school committee based on the competency standards and content standards and curriculum guides created by BSNP. This curriculum is a curriculum that entrust education strategies are in units of the smallest and closest to the students, the school and the teachers are more aware of the potential, the demands and needs of the students in their respective regions. Therefore, teachers need competent, critical thinking, and can see the opportunity to explore the creative potential of the students and the local area.

A. The foundationof KTSP KTSPis based onthe Actand regulationsas follows: Undang-Undang No. 20 Tahun 2003 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional Presentedon National Education Standards(SNP) consistingatasacontent standards, processes, competency, education, infrastructure and facilitiesmanagement, finance, andeducationassessmentplanmust be upgradedperiodically. Here isa compulsory subjectin thecurriculum ofelementary and secondary education: Religious Education, Civics, English, Mathematics, Science, Socialand

CulturalArts, Physical Education and Sport, skills andlocal content. Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 19 Tahun 2005 tentang Standar Nasional Pendidikan Presentedonthe operationalcurriculadeveloped basedcompetency standards(Standar Kelulusan/SKL) and content standards.

SKLcoversgraduatequalificationcapabilitieswhich

includeattitudes,

knowledge,

skills,whereas thescope of thestandardcoversthe content ofthe materialand the level ofcompetencyas outlined in thecriteria forthe competence ofgraduates, be

materialcompetenceassessment, fulfilledlearners.

competencesubjectsandsyllabusshouldto

Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional No. 22 Tahun 2006 tentang Standar Isi Setonthe contentstandardsforelementary and secondaryeducation unitcalledcontent standards, the scope ofthe materialcoversat leasta minimallevel of

competenceandtoachieveminimalcompetencyina particulareducation level. Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional No. 23 Tahun 2006 tentang Standar Kompetensi Lulusan SKLminimalset abouteachgroup of subjectsand subjectsthat lead toKD Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional No. 24 Tahun 2006 tentang Pelaksanaan Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional No. 22 dan 23

B.

The purposeof KTSP In general,formemandirikanandempoweringeducation unitsthrough the provision

ofauthority(autonomy)

to

educational

institutionsandencourage

schoolstomake

decisionsinpastisipatifin curriculum development. General Purpose: 1. Improvingthe

quality

of

educationthroughself-relianceand

initiativein

developingschoolcurriculum,manage, and empowerthe resources available. 2. Increasecommunityawareness ofthe schoolandcurriculum

developmentthroughshared decision-making. 3. Increasinghealthy competitionamongeducational unitabout the qualityof

educationto be achieved. Ifwe look KTSPcurriculumdevelopmentbeginslawsand regulationsoveruntilit

becomesthe formulationof learning objectivescontained therein. Then thedetermination ofcontent standardsand standardizedprocesses developedby eachteachereducation

unitlevelineach subject. C. Development Principles of KTSP

KTSP is a curriculum model that was developed based on the following principles: 1. Centered on the potential, progress, needs, and interests of Students and the Environment In this case, the curriculum was developed using the basis that the learning activities that take place are central position played by learners. Learners have the competence to become a man who is faithful and devoted to God Almighty , noble , healthy , knowledgeable, skilled, creative, independent and democratic citizenship and responsible which will develop. The development of learner competencies tailored to the potential, progress , needs, and interests of the environment . 2. Diverse and integrated The curriculum was developed by taking into account the diversity of learner characteristics, environmental conditions, levels and types of education, religion, ethnicity and culture, customs, socio-economic status and gender. The integration of existing substances derived from the charge required curriculum, local content, and the development of self- organized in a meaningful and sustainable linkages between substance .

3. Responsive

to

the

development

of

knowledge,

technology,

and

the

Arts

Science, technology, and art growing dynamically. Curriculum have awareness of such developments, so that the curriculum gives students a learning experience to follow and utilize science, technology, and art . 4. Relevant to the needs of life In curriculum development involving stakeholders which aims to ensure the relevance of education to the needs of the existence of social life, the business world , and the world of work . 5. Comprehensive and Sustainable The substance possessed curriculum covers all dimensions of competence, scholarly study, and subjects were presented simultaneously across levels of education. 6. Lifelong Learning The curriculum gives a reflection of the relationship between the elements of formal, informal and non-formal with due regard to the conditions and demands of the evolving environment in line with human development. Thus be driven curriculum development process, acculturation, and empowering learners last a lifetime . 7. Balance between national and regional interests

Regional and national interests complement and empower line with the motto Unity in Diversity. And passage of the curriculum noticed two things are to build a society that nation and state .

D. The components and structure of the KTSP


-

Component of the KTSP consist of : 1. The purpose of education unit level This objective refers to the educational level of the education unit, which is divided

into: - The purpose of primary education - The purpose of secondary education - The purpose of vocational secondary education 2. The structure and content of the SBC The structure of the education unit level curriculum (KTSP) is located on the content standards developed from a group of subjects such as religion and noble character, citizenship and personal, science and technology, aesthetics and physical exercise and health . The charge of the education unit level curriculum (KTSP) form subjects, local content, and self-development activities. In addition, there is a rising class, penjurusan, and graduates, as well as life skills -based education, local and global excellence . 3. Education Calendar Compiled based on the needs, characteristics of the school , the needs of learners and society. 4. Syllabus design and implementation of teaching The syllabus is a description of the standard of competence and basic competences that will be developed further into lesson plans adopted in teaching and learning activities . Structure KTSP In dokumentatif KTSP components encapsulated in the I and II document. 1. Document I - CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Contains background , development objectives and principles of development. - CHAPTER II EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES Contains educational purpose, the school's vision, mission schools and school goals.

- CHAPTER III STRUCTURE AND CONTENT CURRICULUM Encompassing the pelajran, local content , self-development activities , setting learning burden, rising grade and graduation, selection of majors, life skills, education -based local and global excellence . - CHAPTER IV EDUCATION CALENDAR . 2. Document II Loading syllabus based SK and KD were developed.

CHAPTER III CONCLUTION AND SUGGESTION

A. CONCLUTION The curriculum development base in tyler model has four question to make it, there are ,What educational purposes should the school seek to attain, what educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purpose, how can these educational experiences be effectively organized, and how can we determine whether these purposes are being attained. Lewis and Tyler models are almost same with uses deductive approach. In this models make a plan or master plan before make the instruction, its different with Hilda Taba model. Taba use inductive approach, it means model curriculum that make analyze and diagnose the student need then develop the curriculum in order to make curriculum that appropriate with student need. For the KTSP models more emphasize for the level unit education. The Government is only give standard competency that have to be explore and innovate with the teacher in order to explore the potential districts or the wealth of natural resources. . B. SUGGESTION Every models of curriculum have strengthness and weakness, so we are as a future teacher should understand many models of curriculum in order to successes the aim of education effective and efficiently.

REFFERENCE

Kaber, Achasius. 1988. Pengembangan Kurikulum. Jakarta :Departemen Pendidikandan Kebudayaan DirektoratJenderal Pendidikan Tinggi Proyek Pengembangan Lembaga Pendidikan Kependidikan. Lunenburg, Fred C. 2011. Curriculum Development: Deductive Models. America : Sam Houtson University Mulyasa. 2007. Kurikulum Tingkat SatuanPendidikan. Bandung : PT. RemajaRosdakarya. Muslich, Masnur. 2007. Kurikulu Tingkat SatuanPendidikan. Jakarta :BumiAksara Rusman. 2009. ManajemenKurikulum. Jakarta : PT. Gajah GrafindoPersada. Tyler, Ralp W.1949. Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. London : University of Chicago Press