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Saint Marys University Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya Graduate School School of Health Sciences

IN PARTIAL FULLFILMENT OF THE COURSE REQUIREMENTS IN MSN-AHN 201: ADVANCE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY

Submitted by: MARK JOSEPH S. TUNAC, RN Student

Submitted to JHORDIN JAMES C. MONTEGRICO, RN, MSN Instructor

MSN-AHN 201: Advance Pathophysiology and Pharmacology


Etiology: Autoimmune pancreatic cell destruction Islet cell transplant Destruction of beta cells of islet of Langerhans of the Pancreas

Failure to produce insulin and/or insulin resistance Insulin/ OHA Exercise

Increased ketones

Production of Excess glucagon

Acidosis Production of glucose from protein and fat storage

Elevated blood glucose

Acetone breath

Wasting of Lean body mass

Increased osmolarity due to glucose Polyphagia Polydipsia Polyuria

Fatigue

Weight Loss

Chronic elevation in blood glucose

Glycoprotein in cell wall deposits Weight loss

Small vessel disease


Submitted by: Mark Joseph S. Tunac, RN

Accelerated atherosclerosis

Impaired immune function


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MSN-AHN 201: Advance Pathophysiology and Pharmacology


Small vessel disease Accelerated atherosclerosis Impaired immune function

Diabetic Neuropathy Dialysis/ Transplant

Increased LDL

Hypertension

Infection Delayed wound healing

Loss of Vision/ blindness

Laser Therapy

End-stage renal failure

Charcot changes in joints Autonomic neuropathy

Numbness and tingling in the extremities

Diabetic foot ulceration Dry-cracked skin

Wasting of intrinsic muscles

Foot care

Gastroparesis

Symmetrical loss of protective sensation

Impotence

Neurogenic bladder

LEGEND:

Manifestations

Management

Pathophysiology

Submitted by: Mark Joseph S. Tunac, RN

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MSN-AHN 201: Advance Pathophysiology and Pharmacology


How beta cells are destroyed by immune function? (Etiology of Diabetes Milletus) Study shows that a protein-based enzyme found in beta cells, 12-LO (12-Lipoxygenase) produces specific lipids that cause inflammation and can lead to the death of beta cells. Other literature suggests that environment factor is one of many causes of beta cell destruction, this when a person exposed to a virus or other factors, the body will start autoimmune response that will eventually lead to destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas.

References: Frizzell, J. P. (2001). Handbook of Pathophysiology. Springhouse Corporation. Porth, C. (2006). Essentials of Pathophysiology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Black, J. M., & Hawks, J. (2005). Medical-Surgical Nursing: Clinical Management for Positive Outcome (7th ed., Vol. II). Elsevier Inc. McCann, J. (2000). Diseases (3rd ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers. Eastern Virginia Medical School (2010, February 5). Possible source of beta cell destruction that leads to Type 1 diabetes.ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 11, 2012, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/02/100204204442.htm Stone, C., & Humphries, R. L. (2004). CURRENT Emergency Diagnosis & Treatment (5th ed.). McGraw Hill Text.

Submitted by: Mark Joseph S. Tunac, RN

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