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# LVDT 1. What is residual voltage in LVDT? Output voltage at the null position is ideally zero.

But because of harmonics in the excitation voltage and stray capacitance coupling between primary and secondary usually some nonzero voltage exists at null voltage. This is called residual voltage. If it is less than 1 % of full scale output voltage ( which is the normal case) it is in the acceptable limits. 2. Why LVDT is called linear and differential? The magnitude of the output voltage is proportional to the distance moved by the core (up to its limit of travel), which is why the device is described as having a "linear" response to displacement. The coils are connected in reverse series, so that the output voltage is the difference (hence "differential") between the two secondary voltages. 3. What does LVDT stand for? LVDT Linear Variable Differential Transformer LVDT Linear Variable Differential Transducer LVDT Linear Variable Displacement Transducer LVDT Linear Voltage Differential Transformer LVDT Linear-Velocity Displacement Transformer LVDT Low Voltage Differential Transceiver LVDT Low Voltage Differential Transducer 4. What does LVDT measures? LVDTs are commonly used for position feedback in servomechanisms, and for automated measurement in machine tools and many other industrial and scientific applications Translates linear motion into electrical signals 5. What is a LVDT and in what machine is it used?

An LVDT is a linear displacement transducer. The letters stand for Linear Variable Differential Transformer. An LVDT will output a voltage that is proportional to it's linear displacement. You can use this voltage to determine linear position. 6. How to Condition an LVDT Signal The output from an LVDT is an alternating current signal that is difficult to interpret because its phase changes as the actuator moves about its mid-point. Signal-conditioning electronics convert the raw data into a voltage or current that is directly proportional to the distance moved. 7. How LVDT Transducers Work An LVDT, or linear variable differential transformer, is a type of transformer used for measuring linear displacement. LVDT transducers convert one type of energy to another. The LVDT transducer, or device used to transfer electricity from one circuit to another, contains three coils positioned around a tube. The LVDT center-positioned coil is the primary, and the two outer coils act as secondary coils. The LVDTs cylindrical core, which attaches to the object whose position is to be measured, slides along the tubes axis. Position sensors attached to the LVDT are used to measure object movements as small as a few millionths of an inch. 8. Applications of LVDT Crankshaft Balancer Low-cost LVDT, with refined signal conditioning, resolves to a millionth of an inch for this automotive crankshaft balancer. Testing Soil Strength DCDT measures soil sample deformation under load to determine soil strength. Pill Making Machine In making tablets from medicinal powder, dual LVDTs control pill weight & thickness. "Brain Probing" Medical Device Special AC LVDT is critical part of this medical instrument that assists with brain surgery. Replacing the "Fastar" Our AC LVDTs could be a fitting replacement for the "Fastar" variable inductor device. Product Inspection Machine

Using our small-package LVDTs, these machines check the final dimensions on flat-panel displays. Automation Assembly Equipment These assembly systems increase production efficiencies and use our LVDTs for automated part inspection. Force Generation System Providing direct feedback of a piston, our DCDT helps to control static position and dynamic excitation in a system that tests automotive suspension structures. Portable Friction Welder Friction welds are produced by spinning one metal object at very high RPM against another while simultaneously moving the two pieces closer together; an LVDT measures the distance between the approaching metals. Robotic Cleaner A hydraulic oil compatible LVDT is used to continuously monitor fluid level as part of leak detection system. Borehole Extensometer Borehole depth measurement is simplified using a DC LVDT in a robust extensometer design. Octane Analyzer An LVDT provides displacement feedback of an air cylinder on a Waukesha engine; this is done to measure engine knock and determine octane ratings for different fuel mixtures. Bottle Height Inspection Height measurement during a bottle assembly process is critical in assuring uniform product; an LVDT replaces limit switches for higher resolution on bottle inspection machinery. Scanning Laser Tomography Who doesn't get jittery waiting for that puff of air in a glaucoma test??? A relatively new laser scanning system, that uses an LVDT for precise optic positioning, eliminates the air rush altogether. Automotive Suspension System

The low cost and ruggedness of an AC LVDT is ideal for a revolutionary type of active control suspension system for large trucks and buses. Dollar Bill Thickness in ATM Machines High precision and repeatability are essential in detecting the number of bills dispensed by an ATM. Robotic Manipulator Joystick control is enhanced by DC LVDTs used in 3 axes for heavy equipment robotics.

Specific Gravity Sensor Fluids used in the PC board wave soldering industry must be monitored by their specific gravity; this is done by linking an LVDT to the mechanical float assembly of a S/G probe. Weighing Systems Load cells and other types of weighing equipment, such as check weighing systems, can benefit from the infinite resolution and high accuracy of an LVDT. Servo Valve Positioning LVDTs can be used to measure spool position in a wide range of servo valve applications. Typically, the units are positioned over an isolation tube, isolated from the pressurized environment.

Hydraulic Cylinder Displacement LVDTs are used extensively to provide displacement feedback for hydraulic cylinders. Several mounting configurations, both internal and external, are discussed.

Can Differential Pressure Sensors be used for measuring Suction Pressure? Yes, if the sensor has a positive range connect the negative side port to the suction pressure and leave the positive port open to ambient air pressure.

What does Bidirectional Measurement mean? The output signal is scaled over a pressure range which can vary by an equal amount in the positive and negative direction, e.g. -15 to +15 mbar = 0 to 10 Volts dc. What is a Square Root Extraction Output? Differential pressure sensors are often used to indirectly measure flow. The relationship of flow to differential pressure is a square root function. In order to improve resolution at the lower end of the pressure range where there is a larger change in flow, a square root extraction will provide a modified output which is linear with flow rather than pressure. What is Maximum Overpressure? This is the highest permittable pressure difference without damaging functionality or integrity of the transmitter. Some overpressure specifications will also include a "no effect on performance" statement. Some overpressure ratings are directional, typically the positive overpressure rating will be higher than the negative side. What is the Maximum Line Pressure? This is the highest pressure that can be applied to both pressure connectors at the same time. If a differential pressure exists between two pressure connections, the total pressure on the high/positive side would be considered for the purposes of assessing line pressure. The line pressure is an indicator of the mechanical integrity of all materials, welds and seals used in the construction of the transmitter. Types of pressure Sensor Absolute pressure sensor, Gauge pressure sensor, Vacuum pressure sensor, Differential pressure sensor, Sealed pressure sensor. Pressure-sensing technology Piezoresistive strain gauge Capacitive Electromagnetic Piezoelectric Optical Potentiometric

## Resonant Thermal Ionization Applications of Pressure Transducers

Pressure sensing Altitude sensing Flow sensing Level / depth sensing Leak testing Ratiometric Correction of Transducer Output What is instrumentation amplifier?

Instrumentation amplifiers commonly known as INAMPS are differantial amplifiers having high input impedane, low output impedance. the gain of inamps are also very high. basically the the circuit consists of 3 opamps, two of them are voltage followers and one differantial amplifier. Properties of OperationAmplifier An op amp is made from transistors, resistors and capacitors. It is enclosed in a "chip". A basic instrumentation amp is made of 2 op-amps. you can't have a single op-amp perform as good as a instrumentation amp, although it can perfrom the same task. An i-amp has much better CMMR (common-mode rejection) and a higher input impedance. Schering Bridge A Schering Bridge is a bridge circuit used for measuring an unknown electrical capacitance and its dissipation factor. The dissipation factor of a capacitor is the the ratio of its resistance to its capacitive reactance. The Schering Bridge is basically a four-arm alternating-current (AC) bridge circuit whose measurement depends on balancing the loads on its arms. Figure 1 below shows a diagram of the Schering Bridge. Balancing of a Schering Bridge is independent of frequency.