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(1. School of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Huazhong University of SCI&TECH, Wuhan, 430074, China; 2. School of Applied Geophysics & Space Information, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074,China) Abstract This paper introduces the p-q-r instantaneous power voltage for load and shunt compensator as current source theory firstly, and then an improved p-q-r theory is proposed. Based compensating the harmonics, reactive current in load. The other on this theory, it presents a composite control strategy of unified is direct control strategy in which series compensator work as power quality conditioner (UPQC), which is the combination of the sinusoidal current source shunt compensator as sinusoidal ordinary direct and indirect control strategy. An algorithm of voltage source. The power factor of power line can be unity calculating the compensation current and the compensation voltage because of series compensation current having the same phase are introduced. A principle analysis of the proposed control strategy with system voltage and the load can get balance, rated sinusoidal is described in particular. Meanwhile the control formulas on the p-q-r coordinate are deduced in detail. The control schematic voltage. Employing this strategy, series compensator isolate the diagram based on these formulas is presented. Simulation results voltage disturbance between power line and load as well as shunt show that, when the UPQC applying such control strategy is used for compensator prevent the reactive power, harmonic and neutral the compensation of the nonlinear and unbalance three-phase current on the load side into power line .Additionally, another four-wire system, the harmonic current, reactive power of loads as benefit from the direct control strategy is that it is not necessary to well as neutral current are compensated well, load voltage get change the work mode when power line dumping or restoring, balanced and rated, power factor of power source is about unity, for shunt compensator all along is controlled as sinusoidal which verified the effectiveness of applying such control strategy in UPQC. voltage source .[4]- [8] Key word improved p-q-r theory three-phase four-wire system This paper presents a method of detecting compensation signals UPQC the composite control strategy and a control scheme based on it. Because the p-q-r transformation is sophisticated, this paper presents a improved INTRODUCTION p-q-r algorithm, which simplify the calculations. Based on the The use of nonlinear and impact loads bring about harmonics improved p-q-r theory, the calculating method of compensating and reactive power loading variance in power system, which has current and voltage are proposed. With introducing its principle a strong impact on the other loads in the same system. and control schematic diagram in detail, a composite control Employment of UPQC (unified power quality conditioner) could strategy combining of the ordinary direct and indirect control decrease impact on transmission and distribution harmonics and neutral-line current caused by unbalance and nonlinear load, strategy is presented, too. Simulation results using MATLAB/ enhance custom power quality meanwhile supply balance and SIMULINK show that the harmonic current and reactive power sinusoidal voltage to load and enhance power distribution of load as well as neutral current are compensated well .So the reliability [1]-[3] proposed strategy is feasible and effective. Fig.1 shows the circuit configuration of the proposed UPQC, THE IMPROVED P-Q-R THEORY which is a three-phase four-wire UPQC, being formed of series compensator and shunt compensator. Usually there are two Voltage at three-phase a-b-c coordinates can be transformed control scheme of UPQC,one is most used ,known as indirect to - -0 as control strategy, in which series compensator work by way of 1 1 1 voltage source compensating mainly voltage distortion and 2 2 fundamental wave deviation supplying rated balance sinusoidal e ea ea 2 3 3 1 0 e eb 0 eb 3 2 2 ec ec e0 1 1 1

2 If rotating 2 2

1

axis in - -0 with

(t ) to the direction of

the e ,which is the components of voltage space vector the - coordinate, we get the axis rotate with

1

e in

(t ) to

1-4244-0655-2/07/$20.002007 IEEE

1060

e

with

2

e2

such as the system voltage and current vector, x p and xq include the dc and ac components, while xr include only ac components. The dc components come from the positive sequence component of x , as well as the ac components from negative sequence and harmonic components of it. The value of dc components of xq is decided by its phase-shifted angle with the positive sequence component of reference voltage.[9]- [11] From above analyses it can be seen that the calculation of p-q-r transformation is sophisticated. Especially, if p-q-r coordinate reference earef , ebref and ecref are sinusoidal and balanced, as shown in Fig.2(c) ,the components in axis after transformation are satisfied with (5)

e

ref ref

(t ) to the direction of voltage space vector ,as well as 0 r axis formed by rotating 0 axis with 2 (t ) in coordinate, q axis being seen the axle center , where 2 (t )

arcsin e0 and e e 0

0

e2

e2

shown in Fig.2(a) and(b). For the rotating voltage or current space vector x , when choosing and ea eb and ec as the coordinate reference wave, the x components in p-q-r coordinates defined by (2) e e e0

xp xq xr e

0

and 0

e e e0 e e e

e e e0 e

0

x x x0

0

3E sin t 3E cos t 0

0 e

0

(5)

e0 ref

e e

where, E is the root-square value of phase voltage. Hence equation 2 can be rewritten as (6) xp sin t cos t 0 xq cos t sin t 0 0 0 1 xr

x x x0

pqr

x x x0

(6)

xq xr where x

0

0 0 x

2

3 x

2 0

If the system voltage space vector v is chosen as the coordinate reference and the system current is i ,the instantaneous active power p , instantaneous reactive power qq on the q axis and instantaneous reactive power qr on the r axis can be described as vpip p

qq qr p2 v p ir v p iq

2 qq

This is the improved p-q-r transformation formula. The sine and cosine items could be obtained through the Phase Lock Loop. Obviously, this improved p-q-r transform is simpler than the direct p-q-r transform. THE CONTROL SYSTEM

vsa

vsb

vsc

isa

vla

vcb

isb v lb

vca i1a

i1b

v1a

v1b

isc vlc

vcc

i1c

v1c

1 Vdc 2 1 Vdc 2

qr2

In this case, the concept of instantaneous active power and instantaneous reactive power becomes clearer. iq and ir and are orthogonal with the p axis and reference voltage v , having no effect on active power. The q axis and r axis relate to reactive

(q )

r

1

vr ir

(t) e

e

1

(t)

e0

2 (t)

p

1 (t)

vq iq

The compensating purpose of UPQC includes two aspects. One is assuring the balance and rated loads voltage even if sag, wave, distortion or unbalance occurred in source voltages, the other is that to supply the power line of balanced and sinusoidal current with same phase as the source positive voltage even if loads current are reactive, distortion or unbalance. Thus under the ideal situation, both source currents and load voltages are balance and sinusoidal with the same phase as source positive voltage. If chose the positive sequence components of source voltage

eref

v p ip

(t)

vsa

condition, from equation (3) we can know that both source currents and load voltages are include only the dc components on p axis after p-q-r transform. This method has definite physical significance and can simplify the calculation thus the compensating purpose of UPQC can be direct described as that to compensate the AC component at p axis , q axis components and r axis component of source currents and load voltages so that both of them have only dc components This paper chose

(a)

(b)

power. The q axis lies on - coordinates, having something to do with phase-shifted angle with the reference voltage and harmonic wave deviated from it, other than the r axis relates to zero sequence components, such as zero sequence voltage and or the neutral current. Generally speaking, to a measured vector x ,

1061

* Vdc Vdc

ref

RL1 L L 0 0 RL1 L

phase as the a phase voltage, thus t can be got by the PLL of the a phase voltage, then sin t and cos t can be calculated out. In the following analysis, supposing that X = [xa xb xc ]T

X

0

7 8

Li1q Li1 p L1 di1r dt L1 L1

[xa x x0 ]

RL1i1 p RL1i1q 14

X pqr

[x p xq xr ]T

Where x may be voltage or current in the system, X is their vectors, such as V1 = [v1a v1b v1c ]T A. Series Compensator Control

RL1i1r

Fig.3 shows the series compensator equivalent circuit. For the series compensator, according the control purpose, its primary side voltage should be the difference between source voltage and rated load voltage, and its current be in phase with positive sequence source voltage. Because of choosing the positive sequence component of source voltage as the coordinate reference voltage, the dc component of loads active current comes from its positive sequence component, which should be in-phase with supply current. So it can be seen that supply current should offer load the positive sequence current component , namely should contain the ilp ,Because of choosing the positive sequence component of source voltage as the coordinates reference voltage, the dc component of active current of loads comes from its positive sequence component ,which should be in-phase with supply current. So it can be seen that supply current should offered load the positive sequence current component ,namely isp should contain the ilp .In addition supply current should contain the active current which is consumed by the compensator as well as maintain voltage constant on dc side . Because the value of C1 is very small, current flowing through it as well as the series transformer magnetization current can be neglected. Considering the transformer ration n2 : n1 N ,the current supplied by series compensator can be calculated by (10). * i1*p isp / N ilp / N I comp

i1*q i

* 1r * isq / N

ilp

I comp

v

* vlq

* lp

ilp

vcp

* i1p i1 p

* v1p

vsp

0

i1q

i1*q 0

ilr

i1*r 0

L1

L1

* v1q

vsq

0

* vlr

vcq

vcr

* v1r

vsr

V

* c

* vcp * k PI [ N (vlp

v v

* cq * cr

k PI [ N (v k PI [ N (v

* lq

* lr

* v1p * v1q * v1r * vcp * vcq * vcr

0 0

10

Li1q Li1 p

i /N

* sr

16

Where I comp is used for compensating the active powers that the converter and condenser consume, which can get by measuring the voltage of condenser. All mentioned dc components can obtain from the LPF. It can be seen from Fig.3 that the output voltage V1 can be described as (11)

V1

dX pqr dt

Series compensator control block diagram can be gotten from (15) and (16),as shown in Fig.4. B. Shunt Compensator Controller

1 Vdc 2 1 Vdc 2

dI VC L1 1 dt 0

0 0 0

RL1 I1

0 0 X pqr 0

VC

L1 d I S N dt

X dt

0

RL1 IS N

11

v2 b

v2 a

i2 a i2 b

i2c

i3a

v2c

i3c

i3b

vla vlb

vlc

C pqr

12

Fig.5 shows the shunt compensator equivalent circuit. According the control purpose, ideal load voltage should be

1062

sinusoidal , balance and in-phase with the positive sequence component of source voltage ,which is supplied by shunt compensator .On the other hand ,because the source supply only the dc current component ilp for the load ,the harmonic and reactive current of load have to be supplied by shunt compensator ,thus the output current of shunt compensator can be expressed by (17) * i3 p ilp

* i3 q

* and v2r can be transformed to 0 coordinate and modulate with SVPWM, or transformed to abc coordinate and modulate with SPWM.

. SIMULATION RESULT The simulations with MATLAB/SUMLINK were performed for the purpose of analyzing the operation of the proposed system. The power circuit is modeled as a three-phase four-wire system. The circuit parameters that were used are shown in Tab.1. The simulations take into account two working conditions. One is shown in Fig.7.Under this condition, source is under

vlp

* vlp

ilp ilr

17

* 3r

It can be seen from Fig.5 that the output voltage and current can be described as (18) and (19) dI 18 V2 Vl L2 2 RL 2 I 2 dt

I2

380

ilp

* i2 p

* v2p

C2

C2

d Vl dt

i2 p i2q

* i2q

L2

I3

19

- -0 and using

C2

vlq

* vlq

L2

* v2q

v2 p v2 q v2 r vlp vlq vlr Li2q Li2p L2 di2r dt L2 L2 di2p dt di2q dt RL 2 i2p RL 2 i2q

0

0

ilq

vlr

* lr

ilr i * 2r i2r

* v2r

20

RL 2 i2r

0

C2

0 0 0 0 0

vl p vlq vlr

i3 p i3q i3r

21

voltage and load is balanced R-L, whose parameter are shown in Tab.1. Fig.7 a shows the source voltage and load voltage . The source voltage is under voltage ,but the voltage maintains rated value by the support of shunt compensator .From Fig.7(b)and(c) we can know that the output current of shunt compensator supplying the load for reactive current ,at the same time ,the component of source current on p axis isp compensates the dc component of load active current ilp ,as shown in Fig.7(d).From Fig.7(f),we can see that UPQC has realized its functions. The

Tab. 1 Circuit parameter of the UPQC

i i i

* 2p * 2q * 2r

22 and

k PI (v k PI (v vlr )

* k PI (i2 p * lp * lq

23

vlp ) vlq )

Source voltage

DC-Link

i i i

* 3p

C2 vlq C2 vlp k PI (v

* lr

* 3q

22

* 3r

v* p 2 v v

* 2q * 2r

Li2 q Li2 p k PI (i

* 2r

i2 p ) i2 q )

Switching Freq. Filter L,C Switching Freq. transformer Balance R-L load

Peak value,264V,50Hz Peak.value,358V,311V and 264V, 50Hz C 6600 F 768V L2 2mH , C2 100 F

10kHz

L1 5.8mH , C1 33 F 10kHz n2 : n1 3.464 ,7kVA R 8 , L 25mH a phase, R 10 , L 30mH b phase, R 8 , L 25mH c phase, R 6 , L 20mH nonlinear load,25kVA

k PI (i i2 r )

* 2q

23

Load

We can get the shunt compensator control block diagram from * * (22) and (23), as shown in Fig.6. The output voltage order v2p , v2q

other simulation results are shown in Fig.8.UPQC works under the condition of unbalance source voltage and nonlinear with unbalance load, whose parameters are shown in Tab.1

1063

d e (f) Fig.7 The simulation waveforms when source voltage is under voltage with balanced L-R loads.(a) source voltage and load voltage.(b)the q axis component of load current and output current of shunt compensator.(c)the r axis component of load current and output current of shunt compensator.(d) the p axis component of load current and source current.(e) the given value and actual value of output voltage of series compensator.(f) voltage and current of a phase.

h

Mag (% of Fundamental)

Fig.8 Simulation waveforms when source voltage is unbalanced with nonsinusoidal and unbalanced loads.(a) source voltage and load voltage.(b) load current.(c) the p axis ac component of load current and p axis component output current of shunt compensator.(d) the q axis component of load current and output current of shunt compensator.(e) the r axis component of load current and output current of shunt compensator.(f) the p axis component of load current and source current.(g) the given value and actual value of output voltage of series compensator on p axis.(h) the given value and actual value of output voltage of series compensator on q axis.(i) the given value and actual value of output voltage of series compensator on r axis.(j) voltage and current of a phase.(k) frequency spectrum of load current.((l) frequency spectrum of source current.(m) frequency spectrum of load voltage.

Fig.8(a) shows the source and load voltage under this condition. It is obviously that load voltage is balance and rated after compensation. Because load current is unbalance and contain harmonic component ,the output current of shunt compensator i3 p , i3q and i3r include the current component generated by the

unbalance and nonlinearity of load ,which known as ilp , ilq and ilr , as shown in Fig.8(c), (d) and(e).For the series compensator ,its output voltage vcp , vcq and vcr are the difference between source voltage and rated load voltage ,which described as the given * * * value of compensator voltage vcp , vcq and vcr . Fig.8(k), (l) and

1064

(m) shows the frequency spectrum of load current, source current and load voltage respectively. The THD of source current is 0.38%, which is better than that of load current. The load voltage is rated with low THD value. As shown in Fig.7 and Fig.8,it can be seen that UPQC performance well when proposed control strategy is supplied in it. . CONCLUSION This paper describes a new control strategy used in a proposed UPQC, which mainly compensate voltage sag and swell, reactive power, and harmonics. To simply the calculation, this paper improves the ordinary p-q-r theory. Based on the improved p-q-r theory, the control strategy, combining the ordinary direct and indirect control strategy, is proposed. The block diagram of control system is proposed in particular. The simulation results shows that, when unbalance and nonlinear occur in load current or unbalance and sag in source voltage ,the above control algorithms eliminate the impact of distortion and unbalance of load current on the power line, making the power fact of it unity. Meanwhile, the series compensator isolate the loads voltages and source voltage, shunt compensator provide three-phase balanced and rated voltages of sine for loads. All above mentioned have realized the function of UPQC. REFERENCES

[1] H.Fujit and H. Akagi The unified power quality conditioner: The integration of series and shunt-active filters,IEEE Trans. On Power Electronics, vol. 13, no.2, pp.315322,Mar.1998 B.Han, B.Bae ,H. Kim, and S.baek, Combined Operation of Unified Power-Quality Conditioner with Distributed Generation, IEEE Trans. On Power Delivery, vol.21,no.1, pp.330-338,January 2006

[2]

Y. Chen, X. Zha, and J. Wang, Unified power quality conditioner (UPQC): The theory, modeling and application, in Proc. Power System Technology Power Con Int. Conf., vol. 3, 2000, pp. 13291333. [4] ZHU Pengcheng, LI Xun,KANG Yong,and CHEN Jian,Study of control strategy for a unified power quality conditioner, Proceedings of the CSEE, vol.24,pp.67-73,Aug.2004. [5] Xun Li, Pengcheng Zhu, Yinfu Yang, and Jian Chen,A New Controlled Scheme for Series-Parallel Compensated UPS System .IEMDC'03. Madison WI, USA. 2003. vol.2, pp. 1133~1136 [6] da Silva,S.A.O., Donoso-Garcia, P.F.,Cortizo, P.C., and Seixas P.F.,A comparative analysis of control algorithms for three phase line-interactive UPS systems with series-parallel active power-line conditioning using SRF method, PESC00. 18-23 June 2000.vol.2 ,pp.1023~1028 [7] Monteiro, L.F.C.; Aredes, M.,and Moor Neto, J.A.,A control strategy for unified power quality conditioner IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics(ISIE '03) ,9-11 June 2003 , vol.1,pp.391~ 396 [8] Chen Jian,Dai Ke,LI Xun,ZHU Pengcheng,and Liu Peiguo, SeriesParallel Compensated UPS with Double Converters, Journal of Power Supply vol.1,pp.262~271, Jan. 2003. [9] Hyosung Kim,F.Blaabjerg, B.Bak-Jensen, and Jaeho Choi, Instantaneous power compensation in three-phase systems by using p-q-r theory, IEEE Trans. On Power Electronics, vol.17, pp.701-710,Sept. 2002 [10] Hyosung Kim,F.Blaabjerg ,and B.Bak-Jensen,Spectral analysis of instantaneous powers in single-phase and three-phase systems with use of p-q-r theory, IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, vol.17,pp.711-720,Sept. 2002 [11] M.C.Benhabib, S.Saadate, New control approach for four- wire active power filter based on the use of synchronous reference frame, Electric Power System Research,vol.73,pp. 353-362,2005

[3]

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