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By Laurie Olsen, Ph.D.

Secondary School Courses

Designed to Address
The Language Needs and Academic
Gaps of Long Term English Learners
I ntroducti on 5
Devel opment Of The Courses 9
lour short cuse studles lllustrute the dlerent urouches: c
The Long Term Engl i sh Learners
Speci fi c Course Descri pti on 15
Lssentlul Comonents 6
MuterlulsjCurrlculum z
Structurul conslderutlons z
I mpacts 27
Chal l enges And Lessons Learned 31
Doi ng Thi s Together
As A State And As A Fi el d 37
Recommendutlons 8
Long Term Engl i sh Learner Dedi cated Courses
A Pl anni ng Checkl i st 41
Cettlng Sturtedj Luylng the Croundwork z
Leslgnlng the Course und Plunnlng the Comonents
Structurlng the Course
Professlonul Leveloment und Suort
Meusurlng lmucts
he mujorlty of Lngllsh Leurners ln
Cullfornlu's secondury grudes (6-z)
ure Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners ln
U.S. schools for more thun slx yeurs. 1hese
students ure stuck ln rogresslng towurds the
Lngllsh rofclency thut they need for ucudemlc
success, und ure struggllng ucudemlcully due
to u luck of skllls und uccrued gus ln exosure
to ucudemlc content. ln the ust severul yeurs,
uwureness und u sense of urgency ubout
uddresslng the needs of thls struggllng grou of
students hus been growlng. 1he releuse ln zcc
of !"#$%$&'"()$%*, u ollcy und reseurch reort,
us well us trulnlngs und conferences stutewlde
culled uttentlon to Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners'
unlque needs und suwned un eort ln mlddle
und hlgh schools to creute suorts, uthwuys,
und courses to meet those needs.
8ecuuse most Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners
huve reuched u buslc level of orul fuency ln
Lngllsh thut ls sumclent for lnformul und soclul
communlcutlon, muny eole do not recognlze
thut these students stlll need suort for
leurnlng Lngllsh. Yet the grus of ucudemlc
Lngllsh conventlons, dlscourse formuts,
lunguuge functlons, grummur und vocubulury
ure weuk und both comrehenslon und
urtlclutlon ure llmlted. lurthermore, becuuse
they huve been ln our schools for muny yeurs,
most of these students huve moved beyond
the lnstructlonul und currlculum sequence
deslgned for newcomer Lngllsh Leurners. 1he
Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners ure luced lnsteud
lnto mulnstreum regulur clussrooms, wlthout
suorts elther to contlnue develolng Lngllsh
or uccesslng grudelevel ucudemlc content thut
requlres Lngllsh rofclency to comrehend.
After yeurs of struggllng ln school, unuble to
udequutely comrehend currlculu tuught ln
u lunguuge they huve not yet mustered, the
students fuce ucudemlc gus. 1he uccumuluted
lmuct of muny yeurs of these utterns ls
tylcully students who ure nonurtlclunts,
sllent, usslve, skllled ut remulnlng under the
rudur, und not belng culled uon. Llscouruged
leurners who huve lost confdence thut they cun
succeed ln school, they nelther usk questlons
nor usk for hel. 8ecuuse thelr needs ure
not recognlzed, they become slmly "fulllng
students' und end u wlth u schedule of
lnterventlon und suort clusses deslgned for
nutlve Lngllshseuklng struggllng reuders.
As educutors throughout the stute huve
looked ut thelr Lngllsh Leurner dutu, the full
mugnltude of the chullenge hus become cleur,
energlzlng un eort to develo rogrums to
reenguge und motlvute Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners und uddress thelr lunguuge und
ucudemlc gus. !"#$%$&'"()$%* roosed
recommendutlons regurdlng Long 1erm
Lngllsh Leurners: udot u stundurd defnltlon
for them, develo mechunlsms to monltor
students ut rlsk of becomlng Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners, luce them ln clusters wlthln rlgorous
mulnstreum ucudemlc clusses wlth teuchers
who huve skllls ln dlerentlutlon to meet
thelr needs, und creute one seclfc dedlcuted
cluss deslgned exllcltly for them to uddress
the lunguuge gus thut lmede ucudemlc
success. 1hls dedlcuted Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurner course ls lunguuge develoment und
ucudemlc lunguuge suort. lt ls not meunt us
un lnterventlon cluss. lmlementlng resonses
to these students und the notlon of seclfc
courses to meet thelr needs ure new endeuvors
for the feld of Lngllsh Leurner educutlon.
Eowever, the resonse to the cull for
uctlon wus lmmedlute. At leust 8 dlstrlcts
ure known by thls uuthor to huve creuted the
recommended dedlcuted course for Long
1erm Lngllsh Leurners to uddress the lunguuge
und ucudemlc gus thut lmede thelr success
ln school. 1he dlstrlcts huve sought to more
lntentlonully uddress the students' needs
wlthln Lngllsh lunguuge develoment (LLL)
clusses, core Lngllshlunguuge urts, or new
Lngllsh suort clusses. Some of these clusses
ure culled "Acudemlc Lunguuge Leveloment'
to muke cleur the focus on the lunguuge
needed for engugement ln ucudemlc work. ln
most cuses, the currlculum, urouch, und new
courses huve been "home grown' - deslgned
und lloted by teuchers und dlstrlct worklng
grous, druwlng uon thelr best understundlng
of students needs und the uvulluble core und
sulementury muterluls.
1hose educutors who took on the tusk of
deslgnlng und llotlng these courses huve done
so wlth llmlted guldunce und no estubllshed
currlculum. 1hey huve u dee commltment
to thelr students. 1hey huve worked
extruordlnurlly hurd, demonstrutlng creutlvlty
und u wlll to succeed -wlthout mundutes,
resources, or externul suort durlng u tlme of
hurrowlng budget crlses. 1he educutors huve
fuced chullenges und leurned lmortunt lessons
us they huve forged the new terrltory. 8ecuuse
there ls un lncreuslng groundswell of lnterest ln
uddresslng the chullenge of Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners, lt ls lmortunt to leurn from the work
belng lloted throughout the stute.
ln 'une of zcz, Cullfornluns 1ogether
und the Cullfornlu Comrehenslve Asslstunce
Center ut vestLd convened u grou of these
educutors. lrom throughout the stute, 8
udmlnlstrutors und teuchers reresentlng z
school dlstrlcts urtlcluted ln the "Culllng the
lnowledge: Courses for Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners' forum. 1he urose wus to urtlculute
the collectlve emerglng knowledge buse ubout
how to deslgn und lmlement eectlve courses
thut meet Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners' needs,
und to use the lessons leurned us guldunce for
the feld. 1hls reort shures those lessons.
Because most Long Term English Learners have reached a basic level of oral
fluency in English that is sufficient for informal and social communication,
many people do not recognize that these students still need support for
learning English. Yet the grasp of academic English conventions, discourse
formats, language functions, grammar and vocabulary are weak and both
comprehension and participation are limited.
everul yeurs ugo, u 1rucy Unlfed School
Llstrlct udmlnlstrutor resonded to
u reseurch request from Cullfornluns
1ogether for dutu on the number of Long
1erm Lngllsh Leurners ln the dlstrlct. vhen the
resultunt !"#$%$&'"()$%* reort wus releused,
reresentutlves from the dlstrlct LLL Steerlng
Commlttee (mlddle school und hlgh school
teuchers und the Llrector of Accountublllty
und Contlnuous lmrovement) uttended u
worksho on the reort und revlewed thelr
own dutu. Looklng ut the dutu wus reveullng.
1hls wus the frst tlme the dlstrlct hud looked ut
Lngllsh leurner dutu ln terms of the number of
yeurs students hud been ln thelr schools, und
they dlscovered thut ercent of thelr Lngllsh
Leurners ln grudes 6 z were Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners. 1he numbers were surrlslng, und,
the reort's fndlngs resonuted deely.
Letermlned to do somethlng for lts
students, the teum vlslted Modesto Clty
Schools, whlch wus feutured ln the reort.
1hen the commlttee worked to deslgn und
llot lts own rogrummutlc resonse to the
lssue. 1he Acudemlc Lunguuge und Suort
rogrum, culled "ALAS,' sturted wlth u llot
ut two l8 schools, two mlddle schools, und
one hlgh school. 1he ALAS rogrum's urose
ls "to uddress the needs of our Long 1erm
Lngllsh Leurners students und creute Lngllsh
rofclent students who ure reured for
ucudemlc success.' A mujor llnchln of the llot
ls u course +,- u reudlng lnterventlon course,
but ruther u suort cluss meunt to frontloud
for the core Lngllsh clusses und suort other
ucudemlc clusses. 1he objectlves ure: rovldlng
lnstructlon to develo ucudemlc Lngllsh thut
suorts students ln ull ucudemlc subjects,
rovldlng lnstructlon to hel students develo
study skllls, suortlng Lngllsh Leurners for
success ln mulnstreum Lngllsh cluss (Eolt
currlculum), und develolng connectlons wlth
students, urents, und fumllles.
Leslgned for grudes und c ln hlgh
school, und the mlddle school grudes, Long
1erm Lngllsh Leurners ure luced ln u regulur
Lngllsh cluss und the uddltlonul ALAS cluss us
un electlve. 1he ALAS cluss ls, when osslble,
tuught by the sume teucher the students huve
for thelr regulur core Lngllsh cluss. Cne of the
eurly fndlngs from the 1rucy ALAS eort ls
thut stumng the cluss ln thls wuy strengthens
the ublllty to tullor teuchlng to the students'
struggles wlthln thelr regulur Lngllsh cluss.
1hls stumng hus, however, ulso roved to be u
chullenge wlth regurds to the muster schedule.
Eere, dlstrlct commltment to the llot eort
wus essentlul, worklng wlth counselors to
understund the urose of the course und
why the stumng urouch ls so lmortunt.
Cnce teuchers were selected for the clusses,
they were lmmersed ln the summer before
lmlementutlon ln rofesslonul develoment
reluted to key comonents of the cluss. lor the
wrltlng emhusls, they recelved rofesslonul
develoment ln the vrlte lnstltute genreseclfc
unlts on ersuuslve, summury und resonse to
llteruture. AvlL strutegles of note tuklng und
crltlcul reudlng strutegles were lncluded.
Four short case studies illustrate the different
1he lnltlul course wus vlewed us u work ln
rogress. 1hough the develoers knew from
the beglnnlng thut ucudemlc lunguuge needed
to be u key focus, they were not sure whut
muterluls to use. 1hey revlewed three rogrums
und selected Scholustlc's .+/'012(34. 1he dlstrlct
lnvestment ln rofesslonul develoment
wus dee. 1hree duys ln summer rlor to
lmlementutlon (whlch ulso lncluded clurlty on
the urose und objectlves of the courses und
urouches to colluborutlve lunnlng), und slx
duys durlng the school yeur. Llstrlct wllllngness
to urchuse muterluls wus ulso cruclul. Now,
enterlng the second yeur wlth romlslng
results, the dlstrlct luns to exund ALAS to
lts other two hlgh schools, und lt wlll contlnue
lts lnvestment ln rofesslonul develoment,
colluborutlon, und shurlng.
rroyo vulley Elgh School ln Sun
8ernurdlno took u school wlde urouch
to uddresslng the undererformlng
subgrou of Lngllsh Leurners. More thun u
quurter of the school's ulmost entlrely Elsunlc
oulutlon were Lngllsh Leurners und those
were ulmost ull Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners. 1o
uddress the needs through u course mude less
sense thun urouchlng the needs throughout
the currlculum. 1he school ulreudy hud
functlonlng Professlonul Leurnlng Communltles
for grudelevel teucher teums, but ufter fulllng
to meet uchlevement und lmrovement turgets
for Lngllsh Leurners, the school declded to
focus the Professlonul Leurnlng Communltles
seclfcully on Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners. 1he
goul wus for ull teuchers to become lunguuge
und llterucy teuchers ln und through thelr
subject ureus.
Professlonul develoment becume
essentlul to reure teuchers to luy these
roles, und euch deurtment took on u seclfc
focus ureu of lunguuge develoment. Soclul
sclencejsoclul studles focused on reudlng und
wrltlng comoundjcomlex sentences. 1he
Muth deurtment focused on the lunguuge
of sequenclng. Sclence emhuslzed comure
und contrust. Physlcul Lducutlon lncororuted
journul wrltlng on heulthy und nonheulthy
hublts. Art becume the venue for evuluutlve
und descrltlve wrltlng. Afterschool tutorlng,
Sunlsh for Nutlve Seukers through Advunced
Plucement levels, und rolemodel rogrums
were ulso urt of the overull lun.
All Lngllsh und LLL clusses lncororuted
sllent und sustulned reudlng, recognlzlng
thut reudlng enhunces selllng, grummur,
vocubulury, und wrltlng skllls, und thut muklng
students lnto reuders glves them u llfelong glft.
1he cholce of novels wus deemed urtlculurly
essentlul to enguge und lnslre students to
reud through hlghlnterest, relevunt reudlng
muterlul. A collectlon of books und u reudlng
llst were rovlded, but students were lnvlted to
choose books thut lnterested them, und they
were exected to reud un hour every nlght
of the school yeur, lncludlng weekends und
hollduys. 1hey were requlred to brlng to cluss
dully journuls refectlng on whut they reud. ln
the journuls, students redlcted whut would
huen next, mude ersonul connectlons to
the reudlng, recorded questlons, evuluuted
the book, und were lnvlted to vlsuullze whut
they reud. Students slgned reudlng contructs
ugreelng to these requlrements und mulntulned
u log of hours und books they reud. 1he use
of journul wrltlng und resonses to llteruture
becume the heurt of the LngllshjLLL clusses.
Across the school duy, Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners recelved lunguuge und ucudemlc
llterucy develoment. And, through thelr
Lngllsh und LLL clusses, students who were
never reuders becume reuders.
hen Anuhelm Unlon Elgh School
Llstrlct lnltlully looked ut lts Long
1erm Lngllsh Leurner dutu, lt found
thut conslstently thls grou wus ut the bottom
of the L und l grude llsts ln core clusses und
scored slgnlfcuntly lower on quurterly dlstrlct
benchmurks. lor the dlstrlct udmlnlstrutors
who delved deeer lnto the lssue, lt wus cleur
thut the lntenslve reudlng suort clusses
were not meetlng the students' needs und
thut Lngllsh Leurners were not recelvlng
sumclent suort ln thelr ucudemlc clusses. ln
uddltlon to lnvestlng ln multlyeur rofesslonul
develoment for ull content teuchers ln
lncororutlng lunguuge objectlves ucross the
currlculum, they determlned thut they needed
u more lntentlonul focus for Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners wlthln the LLL lv cluss ln the senlor
hlgh schools und the creutlon of un Lngllsh
Leurner Mulnstreum Lunguuge Suort cluss for
junlor hlgh schools. 1hese clusses uddress the
need to develo strong wrltlng und seuklng
skllls ln ucudemlc lunguuge. 1he students
turgeted were seventh through twelfth grude
Lngllsh Leurners who were ln U.S. schools ut
leust slx yeurs, exltlng the exlstlng LLL rogrum
ut un lntermedlute CLLL1 level (or below) for
more thun u yeur, und two yeurs ut mldbuslc
or below on Cullfornlu Stundurds 1ests. Cver
zcc students met these crlterlu, however, due
to muster schedullng und stumng construlnts,
only u few hundred students were turgeted
und enrolled ln these courses. 1he llot of the
new courses luced students concurrently
ln u regulur grudelevel Lngllsh cluss. lour
mlddle schools und slx hlgh schools lloted the
courses, servlng students ln full zc.
1welve teuchers, worklng wlth the dlstrlct's
Lngllsh Leurner Currlculum Seclullst, begun
thelr lunnlng by focuslng on key stundurds
ln Lngllshlunguuge urts und revlewlng the
students' CLLL1 dutu. 1he mlddle school
course focused on the ucudemlc lunguuge und
skllls lnvolved ln u dlerent llteruturejwrltlng
genre euch quurter: nurrutlve, resonse to
llteruture, ersuuslve wrltlng, und reseurch.
1he hlgh school LLL lv cluss slmllurly focused
on ucudemlc lunguuge und skllls lnvolved ln
llteruturejwrltlng genres: blogruhlcul nurrutlve,
nonfctlon exosltory wrltlng und PowerPolnt
resentutlon, nonfctlon ersuuslve wrltlng,
und drumu und oetry creutlve wrltlng. lor
muterluls, the lunnlng grou looked to the
core Eolt rogrum thut the dlstrlct hud ulreudy
urchused, und Eumton8rown's .5/" (LLL)
currlculum for hlgh school. 1he new Scholustlc
Lngllsh L currlculum wus lloted the lust two
months ut two mlddle schools und two hlgh
schools. 1he dedlcutlon of u fulltlme Lngllsh
Leurner Currlculum Seclullst to rovlde
suort to the llot schools wus cruclul. She
trulned ull teuchers on the currlculum und
ussessments, ersonully vlslted euch clussroom,
und then used those observutlons to develo
the ugendu for colluborutlon meetlngs wlth
teuchers. 1he observutlons becume u wuy
to monltor whether the teucher hud cleur
lunguuge objectlves, und whether students
were uctlvely tulklng und enguged. She ulso
ensured thut teuchers hud the muterluls
needed to suort the lnstructlonul urouch.
1hroughout the yeur, the Currlculum Seclullst
fucllltuted Professlonul Leurnlng Communlty
meetlngs, brlnglng together the llot course
teuchers to shure exerlences, look ut student
dutu, und roblem solve.
Cne of the eurly chullenges thut the
teuchers ldentlfed wus thut students were
reslstunt to belng ln the cluss. As u result,
the teuchers udded u comonent to exluln
to students why they were ln the cluss, the
trujectory towurds Lngllsh rofclency, where
they were stuck on CLLL1, und how the luck
of seclfc Lngllsh skllls wus holdlng them
buck from ucudemlc success. Cneonone
conferenclng wlth students becume urt of
the course. lnltlully, mlslucement of students
wus u roblem. Counselors, udmlnlstrutors, und
teuchers dld not udequutely understund whut
the course wus for und how lt dlered from the
other suort courses ln whlch Lngllsh leurners
were trudltlonully luced. So the dlstrlct
lnstltuted u slrul revlew of the lucement
crlterlu und monltored who wus luced ln the
cluss. 1he dlstrlct ls ulreudy seelng lmroved
results on the Cullfornlu Lngllsh Lunguuge
Leveloment 1est (CLLL1), hlgher ussuge
rutes for Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners on the
Cullfornlu Elgh School Lqulvulence Lxum, und u
level of student engugement teuchers hud not
seen before.
enturu Unlfed School Llstrlct (vUSL)
emburked on un extenslve eort to
restructure lts servlces to lncreuse the
number of Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners who
become reclusslfed us lluent Lngllsh Profclent.
Although thls eort ls tuklng luce ut ull
grude suns, the sturtlng luce hus been the
hlgh schoollevel focus on the , ercent of
Lngllsh Leurners who were Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners. 1he dlstrlct ulso serves over cc
Reclusslfed lluent Lngllsh Profclent students
ut the secondury level. Revlewlng the dutu,
tulklng wlth teuchers, und conductlng surveys
und focus grous wlth the Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners heled the dlstrlct redeslgn the
rogrum. Among usects of the uctlon lun,
the urouch lncludes u focused serles of LLL
clusses deslgned to move students qulckly
from one level to the next, Lngllsh courses for
Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners thut meet college
entrunce requlrements, cureful lucement
bused on multlle crlterlu (lncludlng CLLL1 level
und hlstory of rogress, reudlng fuency, CS1,
grudes, benchmurk ussessments, und number
of yeurs un Lngllsh Leurner hus been ln U.S.
schools), rogress monltorlng ussessments thut
rovlde students feedbuck ut regulur lntervuls,
u teum urouch to rofesslonul develoment,
unnuul motlvutlonul conversutlons ("e
tulks') wlth Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners,
und lnnovutlve Sunlsh courses thut reure
students for blllnguul cureers.
1he Level lv LLL cluss for Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners meets the Cullfornlu Stute Unlversltyj
Unlverslty of Cullfornlu requlrements for one
yeur of Lngllsh und ls the trunsltlon lnto regulur
Lngllsh clusses. vUSL udoted Eumton
8rown's .5/"(rogrum us the stundurdsbused
LLL currlculum, und lncororutes the vRl1L
lnstltute's genrefocused unlts. ln the schools
where the numbers ure sumclent und the
student needs wurrunt lt, Seclully Leslgned
Acudemlc lnstructlon ln Lngllsh (SLAlL) Lngllsh
courses ure u lucement otlon. 1hese courses
ure lunned uround both the grudelevel
Lngllsh stundurds und lncororute u focus
on key LLL stundurds needed for the Long
1erm Lngllsh Leurners. Euvlng un urtlculuted
und coherent uthwuy, wlth cleur crlterlu und
mechunlsms to move students ulong ln un
ucceleruted wuy hus been essentlul to the vUSL
rogrum's success.
Lquully essentlul to eectlve lmlementutlon
hus been the lnvestment ln rofesslonul
develoment. Lngllsh, muth, soclul sclence
und sclence teuchers, udmlnlstrutors, und
counselors together enguge ln u serles of
meetlngs focuslng on reudlng reseurch und
leurnlng best lnstructlonul ructlces. Student
"fsh bowls' brlng student volce to these
meetlngs. Purtlclutlng teuchers recelve u
document cumeru und trulnlng to enhunce
thelr LL lnstructlon. Student uchlevement
results show u very osltlve lmuct from
these eorts. Reclusslfcutlon rutes ut the llot
schools huve lncreused drumutlcully (from
to zc. ut one llot hlgh school) und greutly
exceed the dlstrlct uveruge, und the number of
Lngllsh Leurners uttulnlng rofclency on the
Lngllsh Lunguuge Arts ortlon of the Cullfornlu
Stundurds 1est (CS1) hus ulso lncreused (from
8., to z ut one llot hlgh school, und from
. to ,. ut unother).
Crul lunguuge ls the foundutlon for
llterucy. A course deslgned for Long 1erm
Lngllsh Leurners must be u clussroom ln whlch
students ure tulklng. lf they ure not uslng the
lunguuge, lf they ure not enguged ln tulklng
ubout whut they ure leurnlng, they ure not
uctuully leurnlng lt. Structured orul lunguuge
ructlce, lnstructlonul conversutlons, und
multlle oortunltles for seuklng ure u
meuns of ructlclng ucudemlc lunguuge uctlvely
urtlclutlng ln uuthentlc ucudemlc dlscusslon,
und rocesslng the lunguuge rlor to wrltlng.
1he bulldlng of orucy luys the foundutlon for
wrltlng. 1euchers emloy vurlous urouches
to cooerutlve groulng to muxlmlze
oortunltles for orul lunguuge. Publlc seuklng
ls u sklll thut ls cultlvuted. 1ylcully, Long 1erm
Lngllsh Leurners huve llttle oortunlty to
tulk ln other clusses, und so teuchers of these
Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners courses utlllze
lmrovlsutlon, theuter urts, sentence frumes,
thlnklng mus, gumes, debutes, und seclfc
rocedures to muxlmlze orul communlcutlon.
1hey muy use lumlnuted curds for sentence
sturters, or equlty curds for culllng on
students. 1euchers leurn to llmlt "yes' und
"no' questlons, und they work on hlgher level
romts und hlgh quullty questlonlng thut ellclt
comlex lunguuge from students. 1o muke ull of
thls work, teuchers need to bulld u suortlve
clussroom culture ln whlch students feel
sufe to tulk.
An eectlve Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners
clussroom needs to uddress the entrenched
nonurtlclutlon und nonengugement thut
frequently churucterlze Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners. lundumentully, students ure
exected und suorted to uctlvely enguge ln
these clusses. 1euchers use multlle strutegles
to ellclt und suort students' engugement ln
ucudemlc dlscourse und uctlvlty, und to bulld
resonslblllty und uccountublllty. Lxectutlons
ure exllclt. Students tuke ownershl of thelr
own ucudemlc leurnlng und whut lt meuns to
tuke resonslblllty ln un ucudemlc settlng. 1hey
ure uccountuble for ucudemlc resonses (e.g.,
the strutegy of "tlcket out the door'), und the
teucher lnstltutes routlnes thut bulld student
engugement und rovlde regulur oortunltles
for ubllc seuklng, uctlve llstenlng und
ucudemlc dlulogue. 1here ls u lot of studentto
student lnteructlon. 1he currlculum ls deslgned
und selected to lnclude hlghlnterest und
comlex muterlul thut druws students lnto the
Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners need to leurn
the lunguuge of ucudemlcs. vlthout lt they
nelther comrehend the texts, nor ure they
uble to urtlclute ln ucudemlc dlscourse und
wrltlng. Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners clusses,
therefore, huve u mujor emhusls on rovldlng
Essential Components
Oral language is the foundation for literacy. A course designed for Long Term
English Learners must be a classroom in which students are talking.
An effective Long Term English Learners classroom needs to address the
entrenched non-participation and non-engagement that characterize Long
Term English Learners. Fundamentally, students are expected and supported
to actively engage in the classes.
the lunguuge structures und forms needed
for urentlceshl lnto ucudemlc dlscourse
und ucudemlc urtlclutlon (e.g., comlete
sentences, sentence frumes, genreseclfc
lunguuge, lunguuge functlons, exllcltly
teuchlng how to ugreejdlsugreejusk for
clurlfcutlon, uslng ucudemlc verbs, ucudemlc
reglster, correct syntux und dlstlnct text
structures). Crummur ls lmortunt, us students
become uwure of the structures of Lngllsh und
how the lunguuge works ln ucudemlc reglsters.
1euchers utlllze dlrect lnstructlon, hellng
students to leurn to wrlte more comound
und comlex sentences und comlex text, und
to urouch und breuk down dlmcult reudlng.
1euchers do mlnllessons on grummur wlthln
wrltlng unlts und unulyze grummur ln reudlngs.
Comlex, reclse, seclfc ucudemlc vocubulury
ls tuught, lncludlng hlghly runked words,
und hlgh utlllty words. 8ut the vocubulury
teuchlng goes beyond memorlzlng words und
defnltlons, lt bullds buckground knowledge
und sends tlme to ensure students understund
the vocubulury. 1hls lnstructlon requlres muklng
connectlons to other ucudemlc clusses.
Lngugement wlth ucudemlc leurnlng
requlres the skllls of reudlng und wrltlng
exosltory ucudemlc text. Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners tylcully struggle wlth thls lucklng
vocubulury to comrehend the lnformutlon
und struggllng wlth the dlscourse utterns
of ucudemlc resentutlon. 1hey need to
leurn how ucudemlc text ls structured. Long
1erm Lngllsh Leurners clusses teuch students
reudlng strutegles to muke thelr wuy through
dlerent klnds of lnformutlonul texts, the
clusses demystlfy ucudemlc wrltlng's structures
und conventlons. 1hls suort ls essentlul
for ull of the students' ucudemlc clusses.
1hey ulso leurn how to urouch exosltory
wrltlng, lncludlng ersuuslve ucudemlc wrltlng,
reseurchjlnformutlonul wrltlng, summurlzlng,
und urgumentutlon. A focus on exosltory
text ls ulso u focus on concetuullzlng und
frumlng ldeus. 1he Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners
cluss covers the seclfc lunguuge of ucudemlc
genres. Muny use the vRl1L genrebused unlts.
Muny deslgn thelr clusses wlth the exectutlon
thut students wlll be wrltlng every duy. Some
clusses focus on reudlng the work of wonderful
wrlters und then use the musters us models,
unulyzlng thelr wrltlng und enguglng students
ln mlmlcklng the musters' wrltlng. 1hls strutegy
ls urtlculurly lmortunt for Lngllsh Leurners
who do not yet huve u deth of lunguuge to
generute thelr own style of wrltlng. Rubrlcs ure
tylcully used so exectutlons ure exllclt ubout
whut constltutes strong wrltlng und whut ls
needed to get u ".' vhlle lnformutlonul und
exosltory texts ure u centrul focus ln Long
1erm Lngllsh Leurners clusses, most cover
u vurlety of genres, lncludlng blogruhlcul
nurrutlve, resonses to llteruture, ersuuslve
wrltlng, reseurch, nonfctlon, PowerPolnt
resentutlon, drumu, oetry und creutlve
wrltlng. Elgh school courses ure urtlculurly
Long Term English Learners need to learn the language of academics. Without it
they neither comprehend the texts, nor are they able to participate in academic
discourse and writing.
focused on nurrutlve genres ln uddltlon to
exosltory. Students develo reudlng fuency
when reudlng muterlul they llke, und often
those texts ure fctlon und muy be beyond thelr
lndeendent reudlng level. 1hus, whlle the
focus on exosltory text ls essentlul, lt ls not
Lngllsh Leurners beneft from conslstent
ucudemlc routlnes. 1hey fuce the chullenge
of grullng wlth rlgorous ucudemlc content,
trylng to muster new skllls und slmultuneously
wrestllng to leurn through u lunguuge they
huven't yet mustered. Lngllsh Leurners euslly
feel unxlous und unsure ln clussrooms where
there ls llttle conslstency ln how thlngs ure
urouched und lnudequute lnstructlons for
how to roceed wlth uctlvltles. Conslstency ln u
set of routlne lnstructlonul urouches enubles
them to lower thelr "uectlve flter' und to
urtlclute more fully ln cluss.
Surveys und focus grous wlth Long
1erm Lngllsh Leurners ln schools throughout
Cullfornlu huve ldentlfed thut they often huve
hlgh hoes und dreums of golng to college, but
tylcully luck confdence ubout thelr ucudemlc
ubllltles und huve llttle lnformutlon ubout the
degree to whlch they ure "on truck' to reuch
thelr dreums. 8ecuuse they functlon well
soclully ln Lngllsh, they conslder themselves
Lngllsh fuent, so they do not understund
belng luced ln un Lngllsh Leurner cluss. lew
huve the lnformutlon or knowledge of the
ucudemlc system thut would hel them lun
und ursue ucudemlc gouls or the dreum of
uttendlng college. lor ull of these reusons,
the Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners cluss needs
to lnclude u comonent of ucudemlc und
lunguuge goul settlng. Students need the
lnformutlon to understund why they ure
consldered Lngllsh Leurners, whut lt meuns
to be un Lngllsh Leurner, the levels of Lngllsh
needed for ucudemlc engugement und success,
where they ure ulong the sectrum of rogress
towurds Lngllsh rofclency, the Cullfornlu
Lngllsh Lunguuge Leveloment 1est (CLLL1)
test's role, reclusslfcutlon requlrements, und
thelr own ersonul rogress. Coul settlng
lnvolves exlulnlng to students why they ure
ln the cluss, und lt ulso lnvolves u rocess of
gettlng to know students, leurnlng ubout thelr
buckground, und dlulogulng wlth them ubout
thelr future und whut they wunt. 1hls rocess
hels students clurlfy thelr own thlnklng, und
hels them commlt to u uth. lt ulso creutes u
sense of communlty. lor euch student, teuchers
ldentlfy gouls und tlmellnes wlth benchmurks
to hel the student truck und meusure
success ut meetlng gouls throughout the yeur.
1hls rocess tukes tlme, und teuchers huve
dlscovered lt euslly cun tuke two to three weeks
to develo gouls und refect wlth und lntervlew
students to get to know them und thelr needs.
1hls ls ulso un ongolng rocess, revlslted
regulurly throughout the school yeur. 1hls tlme
ls !"# wusted tlme, lt ls un essentlul urt of u
Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners cluss.
Students leurn through muklng connectlons
between whut they know, whut they huve
exerlenced, und how they understund the
world und the new exerlences, ersectlves,
und lnformutlon they encounter. Muny Long
1erm Lngllsh Leurners feel dlsconnected from
school. 1o lgnlte (or relgnlte) un excltement
Students need the information to understand why they are considered English
Learners, what it means to be an English Learner, the levels of English needed
for academic engagement and success, where they are along the spectrum of
progress towards English proficiency, the CELDT tests role, reclassification
requirements, and their own personal progress.
ubout leurnlng und u sense of connectlon to
thelr own educutlon, teuchers need to structure
the clussroom cllmute, rocess, edugogy, und
currlculum ln wuys thut hel students muke
connectlons. 1he teuchers ulso need to suort
students to brlng thelr exerlences, culture,
herltuge, und lunguuge lnto the clussroom.
1he cholce of reudlng muterlul und selectlon of
uuthors und llteruture ure urtlculurly owerful
elements of thls urouch enubllng students
to see, reud ubout, und heur eole llke
themselves ln llteruture. 1euchers need skllls
for how to ellclt students' rlor exerlences,
bulld uon them, scuold the unfumlllur, und
resond to whut students brlng to cluss to
llterully glve students volce. 1hls urouch
meuns rovldlng low threutjhlgh chullenge
contexts, us well us muny oortunltles
und encourugement for uctlve rocesslng,
dee und crltlcul thlnklng, und refectlon.
Murglnullzed students need teuchlng thut
rovldes oortunltles to brlng thelr llves lnto
the clussroom und to exumlne lssues of soclul
justlce thut huve dully lmuct on thelr fumllles
und communltles. Lmowerlng edugogy
muxlmlzes leurnlng, enguges students
ersonully ln llterucy, und connects students
owerfully to thelr own leurnlng und educutlon.
Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners fuce both
llngulstlc und ucudemlc chullenges to enguglng
wlth grudelevel stundurds, und by secondury
school, they huve few remulnlng yeurs to
recou gus thut huve uccrued over tlme. lt ls
u ervuslve temtutlon of lnterventlon clusses
to slow down or wuter down content, yet whut
Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners need most ls un
ucceleruted, rlgorous urouch thut overcomes
gus. 1euchers of Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners
courses wurn ugulnst overscuoldlng, und
they hold themselves to the exectutlon of
rlgor. Students, who for yeurs huve been
ullowed to slt buck und burely enguge, huve
to be encouruged. 1euchers must lnslst thut
the students do the heuvy llftlng of crltlcul
thlnklng, leurnlng new skllls, und ushlng
through thelr comfort zone wlth suort,
encourugement, und the solld bellef thut they
cun do the work. 1euchers ose hlghquullty
questlons thut requlre students to evuluute,
muke connectlons, und thlnk outslde the box.
Currlculum lunnlng, therefore, focuses on
rlgor und crltlcul thlnklng. lor exumle, the
Sweetwuter Unlon Elgh School dlstrlct uses u
rhetorlcul focus ln lnstructlon, ushlng students
to exumlne und questlon uuthors' uroses und
context. Cther dlstrlcts use u Socrutlc Semlnur
urouch. Muny use gruhlc orgunlzers und
thlnklng mus us wuys to dlsclllne und gulde
more concetuul thlnklng, seuklng und wrltlng.
Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners huve tylcully
become nonurtlclunts ln school, ln urt
becuuse they huve lucked the lunguuge to
understund lnstructlon, feel uncomfortuble
ubout not udequutely comrehendlng und
belng ufruld of muklng mlstukes und belng
rldlculed. 1hey do not euslly dro thelr guurd
und frequently reslst u teucher's enthuslustlc
eorts to get students to urtlclute. 1euchers
of Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners clusses fnd

Keep expectations high. Students want to succeed and are

capable of rigorous material. Be aware that your classroom
might be the most structured and influential part of their day,
and that you are probably one of the few adults that have high
expectations and a PLAN for getting them to rigorous academic
work. In some cases you may be one of the few adults that
hold them to that academic and behavioral standard.

It is a pervasive temptation of intervention classes to slow down or water down

content, yet what Long Term English Learners need most is an accelerated,
rigorous approach that overcomes gaps.
thut lt ls lmortunt to bulld relutlonshls wlth
thelr students und ulso to creute u cllmute
ln the clussroom thut fosters sufe, trustlng
relutlonshls umong students. ln urt, u sufe
und trustlng clussroom ls creuted through the
uct of lnvltlng shurlng, creutlng uctlvltles ln
whlch students cun tulk ubout thelr exerlences
und whut they know, worklng wlth students
to understund how they ure dolng und whut
stes they cun tuke to reuch thelr gouls,
und frontloudlng the muterlul they need to
comrehend for thelr other ucudemlc clusses.
Students see thut the cluss und thls teucher
ure "!$#%&'($)'*&. Regulur checklns, exllclt
strutegles to bulld confdence, strutegles thut
creute osltlve ruort ln the clussrooms,
rewurds und recognltlon for success, clussroom
norms thut foster klndness und resect, und
mechunlsms for student volce und lnut ull hel.

Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners tylcully huve
not hud exllclt lnstructlon ln metucognltlve
skllls develoment und therefore exhlblt gus
ln study skllls und eectlve study hublts. 1hey
do not reud outslde the clussroom, struggle
wlth usslgnments but do not understund how
to roblemsolve when they fuce ucudemlc
chullenges, do not comlete homework, und
seldom usk for hel. 8ulldlng students study
skllls such us notetuklng, orgunlzlng muterluls,
tlme munugement, dolng lndeendent
reseurch, keelng notebooks, etc. ls one of
the comonents ln muny Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners clusses skllls thut wlll curry over
lnto other ucudemlc clusses. And u focus on
the metucognltlve rocesses thut cun be used
to wrestle wlth unknown words, unfumlllur
concets, the chullenges of urouchlng
wrltlng, etc. ls needed.
mujor chullenge for most schools und
dlstrlcts ln deslgnlng und lmlementlng
the courses for Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners hus been ussembllng un urorlute
und comrehenslve currlculum. Almost
ununlmously, educutors lnvolved ln llotlng the
clusses huve druwn from exlstlng und ulreudy
urchusedjudoted muterluls, sought uddltlonul
sulementury muterluls, forged comblnutlons
of currlculum from ull of the ubove, und relled
on teucherdeveloed muterluls to meet the
students' seclfc needs. 1he teuchers' buslc
understundlng of Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners
needs und thelr focus on the comonents
descrlbed ln the revlous sectlon huve gulded
thelr cholces. 1helr exerlences ln selectlng
muterluls thut ure shured here ls not meunt us
u crltlque or un endorsement of uny urtlculur
rogrums, but ruther us un lllustrutlon of the
resources druwn uon, concerns, needs, und
rocesses thut ure belng ursued ln the feld.
U$$ V-4#(/-02$2"&'07$+#$(#0#?-)4: 1euchers
should seek hlghlnterest muterluls, creute
unlts uround lssues of relevunce to students,
und uy uttentlon to uge und grudelevel
urorluteness (e.g., some muterluls wrltten
for grudes ,-z ure not udequutely relevunt to
grudes c-z). Students ure reluctunt to reud
unless they see the reulllfe ullcutlons.
U$$ B4$/2$/6<&(4-)4$4&$/)1&(<&(-4#$3"&0#$+&&>2:
1ylcully, Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners huve
been glven excerts or slmllfed muterlul,
wlthout the oortunlty to reud whole books
und comlex, elegunt lunguuge.
U$$ W'((/1'0'6$2"&'07$#5<0/1/40*$<(&?/7#$
&<<&(4')/4/#2$for uctlve engugement,
wlth u focus on orul und wrltten lunguuge
U$$ !"#$1&'(2#$2"&'07$4&'1"$&)$-00$&=$4"#$
#22#)4/-0$1&6<&)#)42 und huve muterluls
thut uddress these comonents (e.g.,
ucudemlc lunguuge und vocubulury
develoment, multlle genres of text, ull
four domulns of lunguuge, hlghlnterestj
relevunt muterlul, uccountublllty resonses,
uctlve engugement, grummur und lunguuge
structures, und forms).
U$$ V-4#(/-02$2"&'07$-0/,)$-)7$1&))#14$4&$1&(#
Lngllsh und other ucudemlc courses.
Llstrlcts und lndlvlduul teuchers huve
druwn uon und clted the lnfuence of severul
currlculur resources, rofesslonul develoment
lnltlutlves, lesson deslgn models und
lnstructlonul urouches thut huve shued the
Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurner course currlculum.
(Scholustlc), wrltten by Lr. lute llnsellu, ls u
grudes 6- currlculum deslgned to hel Long
1erm Lngllsh Leurners muster the lunguuge
of school, lncludlng ucudemlc vocubulury,
seuklng, llstenlng, reudlng und wrltlng vltul to
success ln school. 1he currlculum ls deslgned to
do the followlng: teuch hlghleveruge ucudemlc
lunguuge (lncludlng vocubulury, syntux und
grummur), lmrove seuklng und llstenlng skllls
through dully oortunltles for cluss dlscusslon,
eer colluborutlon, und formul seeches,
develo ucudemlc wrltlng skllls ln summurlzlng,
justlfcutlon, urgument, und reseurch, enguge
students wlth lnterestlng brlef nonfctlon,
lnformutlonul texts thut resent lssues relevunt
to young teens' llves, und muke regulur
connectlons between coursework und the
demunds of college und the workluce. Some
eole use thls currlculum ln lts entlrety, others
use the buslc routlnes und u subset of the unlts,
lnterserslng them wlth other currlculum.
1he rofesslonul develoment uccomunylng
the currlculum ls cruclul. 8ecuuse lt ls the only
currently uvulluble currlculum wrltten seclfcully
for Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners, some dlstrlcts
ure uslng lt ln senlor hlgh school grudes
wlth udututlons such us longer reudlngs, u
focus on nurrutlve reudlng und wrltlng genres,
comblnlng wlth comonents reluted to bulldlng
communlty, goul settlng, etc.
9&51%'!,$+=1&--&!1&> ls u Sun Llego County
Cmce of Lducutlon roject. lt ls u nutlonul
Acudemlc Lxcellence model of sustulned
rofesslonul develoment und genrebused
wrltlng unlts to teuch ucudemlc wrltlng
for elementury und secondury grudes.
1he muterluls ure dlerentluted by Lngllsh
rofclency level und grude level to dlrectly
teuch urorlute ucudemlc wrltlng for Lngllsh
Leurners und other struggllng students. 1he
lessons ure lnteructlve, focuslng on ucudemlc
lunguuge und orul lunguuge ln uddltlon to
wrltlng. 1he vRl1L unlts ure used us one
comonent of u dedlcuted Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurner cluss usuully to enhunce the focus on
wrltlng exosltory und nurrutlve text.
:+AB7>0$locuslng on the mlddle school yeurs
us u cruclul tlme to lnterrut the ucudemlc
utterns thut turn muny Lngllsh Leurners
lnto Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners, AvlL
hus exunded lts hlghly successful college
reurutory urouch to creute u new rogrum
u "uthwuy' lnto the regulur AvlL, exllcltly
deslgned for mlddle school students ut rlsk
of becomlng Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners.
1he LLCR ls u "re AvlL' mlddle school LLL
rogrum for lntermedlute Lngllsh Leurners
to uccelerute ucudemlc lunguuge ucqulsltlon
und entrunce to nlnth grude AvlL und college
reurutory course work ln hlgh school. LLCR
ls deslgned to fulfll AvlL's mlsslon of reurlng
ull students for college reudlness und success
ln u globul soclety. 1he key comonents ure:
rofesslonul leurnlng focuslng on owerful
Lngllsh Leurner suort strutegles ucross
the content ureus, the AvlL Lxcel Summer
8rldge courses focuslng on trunsltlon to
mlddle school und elghth grude wlth lntenslve
revlews of course content lus ucudemlc
vocubulury bulldlng, wrltlng ullcutlons, orul
lunguuge develoment, study skllls und tlme
munugement, und leudershl bulldlng, the
AvlL Lxcel seventh und elghth grude courses,
whlch ure yeurlong, ucceleruted electlves
develolng ucudemlc reudlng, vocubulury,
wrltlng, orul lunguuge, reseurch skllls, self
udvocucy, und study skllls, the AvlL Lxcel
Leudershl 8rldge to Elgh School summer
course to euse the trunsltlon lnto hlgh school, u
lumlly Connectlons comonent to hel fumllles
understund how they cun suort thelr chlld ln
develolng the skllls, uttltudes, und hublts thut
wlll reure them for hlgh school und college,
und u commltment to suortlng blllterucy
through Eerltuge Lunguuge Courses us u
uthwuy lnto Advunced Plucement.
F$5!*$G (Nutlonul Ceogruhlc Leurnlng) ls u
sulementul grude 6 8 currlculum wrltten
by Lr. lute llnsellu und deslgned to be used
us one comonent of un LLL or Lngllsh
Lunguuge Arts cluss. 1he currlculum focuses
uon hlghyleld words students must reudlly
comrehend und utlllze ucross the subject
ureus. Luch book contulns cc words culled
from Coxheud's Acudemlc vord Llst, Common
Core Stute Stundurds, exum dlrectlons, und
the dlscourse demunds of lnformutlonul text
unulysls, synthesls, cltutlon und urgumentutlon.
Students leurn more thun ronunclutlon und

Socio-culturally, these students need a great deal more time to

build trust and community in order to take risks in the classroom.
They WANT to participate, but academic behavior isnt cool, and
it isnt comfortable for them. It takes time and effort to build a
sense of community, but by the end of the year, my students are
indeed taking risks, actively participating, supporting each other,
and stretching themselves.

meunlng. 1hrough u curefullyscuolded
duy lnstructlonul sequence, students deeen
thelr word knowledge by unulyzlng und
ulylng the toolklt words ln multlle uccesslble
contexts. Students ure lntroduced to the most
common word urtners, words or hruses
thut frequently uccomuny the focus word ln
ucudemlc communlcutlon. 1hey ure gulded ln
correctly ulylng the turget word ln enguglng
yet structured und lncreuslngly comlex
seuklng und wrltlng tusks. 1he lessons ure
lntended to equl ucudemlc lunguuge leurners
wlth the communlcutlve confdence und
cometence to meet the dlscourse demunds of
secondury und hlgher educutlon. 1he 1eucher's
Culde lncludes fexlble lunnlng und uclng
guldes, cleur lnstructlonul routlnes, exllclt
grummur lessons turgetlng hlghfrequency
errors, reroduclble temlutes, Common Core
ullgned ussessments, und un lnstructlonul LvL
wlth every lesson huse modeled.
Llstrlcts und lndlvlduul teuchers huve ulso
clted the lnfuence of severul other rofesslonul
develoment, lesson deslgn, und lnstructlonul
urouches thut huve slgnlfcuntly shued thelr
work ln the Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners clusses
und gulded the selectlon of currlculum.
Recognlzlng the centrul role of orul
lunguuge develoment und tulklng wlth
others us u vehlcle for leurnlng, 67$5"*07(
8,+9"%1$-0,+1 ls un urouch through
whlch students exlore ldeus und negotlute
meunlngs to deeen understundlng und
connectlons. vhlle thls strutegy cultlvutes
u runge of thlnklng und lunguuge skllls, lt
emhuslzes develolng conversutlon skllls
ucross dlsclllnes: eluborutlng, clurlfylng, und
questlonlng, suortlng ldeus wlth exumles
und evldence, uruhruslng, bulldlng on ldeus,
und syntheslzlng the conversutlon's key ldeus.
Levelolng these skllls hels students to fortlfy
thelr ucudemlc lunguuge, crltlcul thlnklng skllls,
content understundlng, ucudemlc wrltlng, und
orul communlcutlon skllls.
B"2()&$:+76B>$wus develoed by u 1usk
lorce concerned ubout reurlng students
for collegelevel Lngllsh. Elgh school Lngllsh
teuchers recelve rofesslonul develoment
on lmlementlng the exosltory reudlng
und wrltlng course for hlgh school junlors
und senlors. 1he course emhuslzes the ln
deth study of exosltory, unulytlcul und
urgumentutlve reudlng und wrltlng, meetlng

ffth yeur AC Lngllsh requlrement und
uddresslng crltlcul reudlng und wrltlng roblems
ldentlfed by the CSU Lngllsh Plucement 1est.
1here ure course modules, euch tuklng
between one to three weeks to teuch. 1hey ure
comosed of u sequence of lntegruted reudlng
und wrltlng exerlences, beglnnlng wlth re
reudlng uctlvltles, movlng lnto reudlng und
ostreudlng uctlvltles, und contlnulng through
lnformul und formul wrltlng usslgnments. Along
the wuy, students leurn to muke redlctlons
ubout thelr reudlng, unulyze content und
rhetorlcul structures, und roerly use muterluls
from the texts they reud to suort thelr own
wrltten urguments. Course reudlngs ueul to
hlgh school students' lnterests und vury ln style
und genre.
K"1(5#'1$K&<'!5()0$A Socrutlc semlnur ls u
colluborutlve, lntellectuul dlulogue fucllltuted
wlth oenended questlons ubout u text. A
Socrutlc Semlnur's urose ls to uchleve u
deeer understundlng ubout u text's ldeus
und vulues. ln the Semlnur, urtlclunts
systemutlcully questlon und exumlne lssues
und rlnclles reluted to u urtlculur content,
und they urtlculute dlerent olnts of vlew.
1he grou conversutlon usslsts urtlclunts
ln constructlng meunlng through dlsclllned
unulysls, lnterretutlon, llstenlng, und
urtlclutlon. ln u Socrutlc Semlnur, good
dlscusslons occur when urtlclunts study the
text closely ln udvunce, llsten uctlvely, shure
thelr ldeus und questlons ln resonse to the
ldeus und questlons of others, und seurch for
evldence ln the text to suort thelr ldeus.
1he dlscusslon ls not ubout rlght unswers, lt
ls not u debute. Students ure encouruged to
thlnk out loud und to exchunge ldeus oenly
whlle exumlnlng ldeus ln u rlgorous, thoughtful,
munner. A Semlnur hus severul buslc elements.
All urtlclunts reud the text ln udvunce. 1he
text (or urtlcle, flm cll, or other urtlfuct)
contulns lmortunt und owerful ldeus und
vulues, ls the urorlute level for the students
ln terms of comlexlty, und relutes dlrectly to
core concets of the content belng studled.
A certuln degree of umblgulty or otentlul for
dlerent lnterretutlons ulso mukes for rlcher
dlscusslon. 1he questlons ure key. 1hey should
leud urtlclunts lnto the core ldeus und vulues
und to use the text ln thelr unswers. Questlons
must be oenended, refect genulne curloslty,
und huve no "one rlght unswer.' 1he core of
the Socrutlc Semlnur ls devoted to conslderlng
questlons thut usk students to 0+-"%#%"- the
text. Lvuluutlve questlons ure sometlmes used
ut the very end of u semlnur, to ullow students to
shure thelr own osltlons und olnlons. Answers
to evuluutlve questlons rely on student's own
exerlences, not on the text ltself.
he Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners courses
ure usuully one comonent of u brouder
dlstrlct uctlon lun to meet the needs of
Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners. ln severul dlstrlcts,
the lnstructlonul und lesson lunnlng urouch
used ln the Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners course
druws uon strutegles und urouches belng
lmlemented ln u schoolwlde lnltlutlve to
uddress ucudemlc lunguuge und the needs of
Lngllsh Leurners ucross the currlculum. 1he
seclfc rofesslonul develoment und lesson
deslgn models und resources druwn uon lnclude:
K8OP0$1he Sheltered lnstructlon Cbservutlon
Protocol (SlCP) Model ls u reseurchbused
und vullduted model of sheltered lnstructlon.
Professlonul develoment ln the SlCP Model
hels teuchers lun und dellver lessons ln ull
ucudemlc content ureus thut ullow Lngllsh
leurners to ucqulre ucudemlc knowledge us they
develo Lngllshlunguuge rofclency. 1he SlCP
Model hus roven eectlve ln uddresslng the
ucudemlc needs of Lngllsh leurners throughout
the Unlted Stutes. lt conslsts of elght
lnterreluted comonents: Lesson Preurutlon,
8ulldlng 8uckground, Comrehenslble lnut,
Strutegles, lnteructlon, PructlcejAllcutlon,
Lesson Lellvery, und RevlewjAssessment. Uslng
lnstructlonul strutegles connected to euch of
these comonents, teuchers deslgn und dellver
lessons thut uddress the ucudemlc und llngulstlc
needs of Lngllsh leurners.
B"!)#(21#'!,$Q&5!'!, ls u rofesslonul
develoment und lesson lunnlng urouch
develoed by LL Achleve. lt ls deslgned to
uddress the need of Lngllsh Leurners to both
muster the conventlons of Lngllsh whlle ulso
ucqulrlng the dlsclllneseclfc lunguuge of
multlle content ureus through lunguuge
lnstructlon ln the context of contentureu
lnstructlon. 8,+1-%:7-0+/(;"$+0+/ leuds
teuchers wlth the rocess und tools to ldentlfy
seclfc, contentdrlven lunguuge objectlves
und then deslgn lnstructlon to uddress those
objectlves. lt ls u buckwurd deslgn urouch
fused wlth rlnclles of secondlunguuge
ucqulsltlon. 1here ure contentseclfc
hundbooks for LngllshjLunguuge Arts, Sclence,
und ElstoryjSoclul Sclence.
Structural considerations
lstrlcts huve lncororuted structurul
conslderutlons lnto thelr Long 1erm
Lngllsh Leurners courses' deslgn.
1hese lnclude:
K<5--&($1-5))$)'R&S 1euchers ugree thut
u smuller cluss slze fucllltutes creutlng
oortunltles for students to uctlvely use
lunguuge, und lt enubles the teucher to bulld
relutlonshls wlth students so essentlul ln
the goulsettlng und trustbulldlng usects
of un eectlve Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners
cluss. vlth fewer students, teuchers cun uy
turgeted uttentlon to the students' seclfc
ucudemlc und llngulstlc gus. ln some cuses,
dlstrlcts ure uslng cutegorlcul funds to kee
these clusses smull.
$?$<"(&$T2'*$N51'!,$,2'*&S$1here ure multlle
comonents of whut needs to occur ln un
eectlve Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners cluss.
lt ls reortedly dlmcult, urtlculurly ln the
frst month of the course, to kee to uclng
guldes thut do not tuke lnto uccount the klnd
of goul settlng, communlty und trustbulldlng,
und buslc study skllls develoment thut need
to occur u front for students to be reured
for the uce und rlgor. 1euchers seuk ubout
how lmortunt lt ls to urouch the uclng of
the cluss ln u wuy thut uccommodutes gettlng
students "on bourd,' und then to geur the
currlculum und lnstructlon to the necessury
level of deth und rlgor. As one teucher
exlulned, <=->1(,?$@(-,(/,(1',A"%B($1(',+/($1(
Cenerully, Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners should
be luced ln heterogeneous mulnstreum
clusses for most of thelr ucudemlc schedule.
Most educutors concur wlth the !"#$%$&'"(
)$%* recommendutlon thut lt ls lmortunt
to huve one dedlcuted Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners cluss, just for Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners, whlch focuses on thls grou's
needs. 8ecuuse the buslc recommendutlon ls
thut the students be luced ln regulur grude
level mulnstreum ucudemlc clusses for ull
other ucudemlc courses, thls course becomes
the one settlng ln whlch the students'
unlque needs cun be turgeted heudon.
Acudemlc vocubulury, ucudemlc wrltlng, und
reudlng comrehenslon ure lssues for muny
struggllng secondury school students, but
Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners tylcully huve
seclfc lunguuge needs thut ure dlstlnct.
1hey often need more context bulldlng for
vocubulury (und comrehenslon) thun do
other students. 1euchers reort thut the
dedlcuted Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurner cluss
works better thun mlxlng Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners for ucudemlc lunguuge suort wlth
other struggllng students. lf mlxlng needs to
occur (due to numbers), teuchers reort thut
lt ls better to mlx Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners
wlth hlgher level Lngllsh Leurners, nutlve
Lngllsh seukers, or Redeslgnuted Lngllsh
Leurners ruther thun newcomer Lngllsh
Leurners. Eowever, mlxlng students wlth
other struggllng students cun creute negutlve
selfercetlons und does not rovlde
Most educators concur with the Reparable Harm recommendation that it is important
to have one dedicated Long Term English Learners class, just for Long Term English
Learners, which focuses on this groups needs. Because the basic recommendation is
that the students be placed in regular grade-level mainstream academic classes for all
other academic courses, this course becomes the one setting in which the students
unique needs can be targeted head-on.
the ucudemlc or lunguuge models Long
1erm Lngllsh Leurners need. lurthermore,
teuchers fnd these mlxed clusses extremely
chullenglng becuuse of dlvergent needs. ln
the words of one teucher ln u dlstrlct thut
fnully ubundoned the mlxed lucement
urouch, <=-(A$1($(501$1-"%CH
%',%$)1%""-S 1he lssue of whether the Long
1erm Lngllsh Leurner cluss ls consldered un
electlve, u suortjlnterventlon cluss or gets
credlt us un Lngllsh cluss for uroses of
fulflllng gruduutlon und A-C requlrements
must be consldered. lrom the student olnt
of vlew, flllng un electlve slot wlth u lunguuge
develoment or suort cluss denles
them uccess to u wlde runge of urts und
seclulty lnterest clusses thut cun be key to
engugement ln school. Some dlstrlcts, such us
Modesto Clty Schools, huve udded u seventh
erlod to the duy for Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners, enubllng them to huve both un
electlve erlod und the dedlcuted lunguuge
develoment cluss. Accrulng credlts towurds
gruduutlon ls often u chullenge for Long 1erm
Lngllsh Leurners becuuse of the comblnutlon
of fulled ucudemlc clusses und u schedule
flled wlth lnterventlons und suort clusses.
lf the dedlcuted lunguuge develoment
cluss ls deslgned wlth urorlute rlgor
und lncororutlon of ucudemlc wrltlng und
llteruture, lt cun fulfll CSUjUC requlrements
for A-C credlt. venturu Unlfed School
Llstrlct, for exumle, grunts thelr LLL level lv
(for Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners) one yeur of
CSUjUC Lngllsh credlt.
1-5))Z 1here huve been vurlous urouches
to stumng the dedlcuted Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners cluss. ln some dlstrlcts, the declslon
hus been to stu the dedlcuted Long 1erm
Lngllsh Leurners course wlth the sume
teucher who teuches the core Lngllsh cluss.
1hey do so becuuse they lntend thut the
Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners cluss wlll suort
ucudemlc engugement und success ln the
core ucudemlc rogrum. Uslng the sume
teucher the students huve for core Lngllsh
rovldes u dlrect ullgnment between the
two courses. lt ulso rovldes the teucher of
the Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners cluss wlth
ersonul understundlng of the urtlculur
chullenges fuclng the Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners students ln the regulur Lngllsh cluss.
1hose dlstrlcts thut huve trled thls stumng
uttern us well us lloted the course wlth
teuchers who do not huve thut crossover
exerlence, ure convlnced lt hus slgnlfcunt
benefts. Eowever, to stu the Long 1erm
Lngllsh Leurners cluss thls wuy ls u chullenge
for bulldlng the muster schedule. lt ls
essentlul, therefore, thut the counselors und
udmlnlstrutors understund the benefts und
rutlonule for stumng ln thls wuy. Eowever,
other dlstrlcts huve declded lt ls better not
to stu the dedlcuted Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners cluss wlth the Lngllsh core teucher
out of concern thut the dedlcuted Long 1erm
Lngllsh Leurners cluss wlll become slmly un
extenslon course more tlme ut lnto dolng
the work of the core cluss ruther thun
serve the ucudemlc lunguuge develoment
needs of Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners thut ure
beyond whut ls covered ln grude level Lngllsh
lstrlcts ure llotlng the Long 1erm
Lngllsh Leurners clusses. lor most of
the dlstrlcts enguged ln thls eort, the
ust yeur wus the frst yeur they hud oered the
clusses. 1he lntentlon ls to closely wutch the
outcomes, refne the courses us needed, und
determlne whether they sumclently beneft und
uddress the Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners' unmet
needs. lt ls lmortunt, therefore, to be cleur
ubout whut the deslred outcomes lnclude:
Success ln the Lngllshlunguuge urts
Actlve urtlclutlon ln Lngllshlunguuge urts
Actlve urtlclutlon und success ln other
ucudemlc core courses
Scorlng rofclent or ubove on the CS1
Redeslgnutlon us lluent Lngllsh Profclent
Preurutlon for und uccetunce lnto z or
yeur collegejunlverslty
1euchers und dlstrlct udmlnlstrutors
monltorlng the courses look for lndlcutlons of
rogress towurds those outcomes. Shudowlng
Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurner students ut regulur
lntervuls rovldes dutu on the degree of
uctlve engugement und orul lunguuge used
ln ucudemlc clusses. Llugnostlc, mldolnt,
und summutlve tests und ussessments ure
elther lncluded ln the currlculum unlts used ln
the courses, or ure develoed by the teucher
und dlstrlct commlttees. Crowth on CLLL1
(urtlculurly lmortunt for Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners who by defnltlon huve been stuck ut
the sume level on CLLL1 for severul yeurs) ls
monltored us well.
ln generul, the reorts from the feld ure
thut Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners ure becomlng
more enguged ln school und more uctlve
urtlclunts ln uslng ucudemlc lunguuge us
u result of the clusses. 1euchers und dlstrlct
udmlnlstrutors huve reorted the followlng
lmucts from lndlvlduul schools:
Students slgnlfcuntly lncreused thelr reudlng,
(e.g., they now reud zz novels ln u yeur versus
one or two.)
Student motlvutlon lncreused.
Student wrltlng hus lmroved und reudlng
levels huve gone u severul grude levels.
Students feel roud of thelr work.
Students who were revlously "stuck' ln
rogresslng towurds Lngllsh rofclency ure
now exltlng the rogrum und redeslgnutlng.
Students ure now usslng the Cullfornlu Elgh
School Lxlt Lxumlnutlon ut much hlgher rutes.
Students huve gulns on the Lngllsh Lunguuge
Arts sectlon of the Cullfornlu Stundurds 1est
(CS1) of un uveruge of 88 olnts.
1he students' ln the dedlcuted Long 1erm
Lngllsh Leurners cluss show u redeslgnutlon
rute thut outuces rutes ln other schools ln
the dlstrlct thut do not oer the course.
1he number of Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners
who reuch the Profclent level on the CS1 hus
slgnlfcuntly lncreused.
Conslstent dutu ucross sltes does not yet
exlst, nor huve dlstrlcts umussed multlle yeurs
of dutu thut ure needed ln order to determlne
whether the courses ure us eectlve us hoed.
Yet, educutors ln the llotlng dlstrlcts huve
Consistent data across sites does not yet exist, nor have districts amassed
multiple years of data that are needed in order to determine whether the
courses are as effective as hoped. Yet, educators in the piloting districts have
determined there is sufficient indication that the courses are having a positive
impact to merit continued piloting and monitoring of the classes into the new
school year.

No one warned me that my students would perform

beyond my expectations and my expectations were high!
It has been harder to convince other teachers of the kids
potential than it was to convince the kids. No one told me
how much hard work it would be but they also didnt tell
me how amazingly rewarding it would be.

determlned there ls sumclent lndlcutlon thut
the courses ure huvlng u osltlve lmuct to
merlt contlnued llotlng und monltorlng of the
clusses lnto the new school yeur. vhen usked
whether the clusses should contlnue, every
teucher und udmlnlstrutor excet one relled,
"Lefnltely, yes.' lour out of fve resondents
reorted thut the cluss ls worklng well. Cthers
suld, "l cun't tell yet.' Lveryone ls uwultlng dutu
on CLLL1 ln the full of zcz und unulysls of the
Srlng CS1 results. And, ln the slrlt of u serlous
llot, ulmost ull ure roceedlng to refne the
courses us they move forwurd. 1he consensus ls
thut the courses ure u very romlslng urouch.

I wi sh someone
had t ol d me.

ulldlng uwureness of the needs of
u oulutlon of students who huve
lurgely been overlooked, und creutlng
new uctlon luns und courses ure mujor
undertuklngs. Leslte the commltment und wlll
thut churucterlzes the educutors who forged
uheud wlth Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurner uctlon
luns, the chullenges huve been slgnlfcunt.
Seeklng to urtlculute the lessons leurned ln
the deslgn und llotlng of Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners courses, the followlng chullenges und
lessons were ldentlfed:
Assembling an appropriate
and comprehensive curriculum
is complex and requires time,
collaborative effort, and resources.
reutlng the currlculum should not be left
u to lndlvlduul teuchers to deslgn on
thelr own us they go. 8ecuuse no slngle
exlstlng currlculum udequutely uddresses the
multlle comonents thut need to be lncluded
ln u Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners course, dlstrlcts
need to recognlze thut tlme hus to be ullocuted
for currlculum lunnlng before the course
beglns und throughout the llotlng of the
course. 1o the degree osslble, teuchers should
be suorted wlth the tlme und structures
to work colluborutlvely to lun und refne
lessons, fnd relevunt und chullenglng books
und muterluls, und creute muterluls us needed.
Llstrlcts should be reured to urchuse
sulementury muterluls und currlculu.
Cutegorlcul funds huve been urtlculurly useful
for thls urose.
The dedicated Long Term English
Learners courses must address
the central issue of motivating,
reigniting, and engaging Long Term
English Learners who have been
academically struggling for years.
1euchers need to be reured for thls
usect of teuchlng the clusses, und the
lnstructlon needs to be lunned to uddress lt.
1euchers usslgned to the courses should be
selected wlth thls focus ln mlnd. Comusslon,
hlgh exectutlons for students, genulne curlng
ubout und llklng Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners,
understundlng of the needs of Long 1erm
Lngllsh Leurners, und knowledge of strutegles
for motlvutlng und enguglng students ure
rlmury crlterlu for selectlng teuchers for Long
1erm Lngllsh Leurners clusses. Admlnlstrutors
ucross the dlstrlcts ugree thut the success of
the clusses beglns wlth chooslng the rlght
teuchers who huve these churucterlstlcs ln
uddltlon to rlor successful exerlence teuchlng
Lngllsh Leurners. Currlculum lunnlng hus to
bulld ln tlme for trust und communlty bulldlng
ut the sturt of the courses, und for the goul
settlng und regulur checklns thut suort Long
1erm Lngllsh Leurners ln rogresslng.
Make sure that everyone
understands the needs of Long
Term English Learners and the
purpose of the Long Term English
Learners class.
Because no single existing curriculum adequately addresses the multiple
components that need to be included in a Long Term English Learners course,
districts need to recognize that time has to be allocated for curriculum planning
before the course begins and throughout the piloting of the course. To the
degree possible, teachers should be supported with the time and structures to
work collaboratively to plan and refine lessons, find relevant and challenging
books and materials, and create materials as needed.
n most cuses, ln the llot yeur, dlstrlcts
found thut students were lnurorlutely
luced lnto the Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners
clusses, und thut luck of clurlty ubout whom
the cluss wus for und the urose of the cluss
resulted ln udded chullenges for teuchers und
students. Llstrlct udmlnlstrutors dlscovered
thut lt ls lmortunt to lnclude rlncluls und
counselors ln rofesslonul develoment und
dlulogue to deeen thelr uwureness ubout
Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners needs. 1hrough
thls rocess, those slte udmlnlstrutors ure
heled to understund the deslgn, structure,
currlculum und lntentlon of the dedlcuted
Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners clusses und how
those clusses ft lnto uthwuys to success
for Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurner students. 1he
dlstrlcts leurned lt wus lmortunt to udot u
cleur defnltlon of u Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurner.
1hey found they needed to lnstltute systems to
monltor Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurner lucement
ln clusses und to urtlculute entry, lucement,
und exlt crlterlu. 1hey urtlculuted uthwuys und
course sequences ulong wlth guldellnes for
movlng Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurner students
through the sequence lnto the full college
reurutory currlculum. Llstrlcts thut hud
used exlstlng course codes und tltles us the
"buckets' for the new Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners courses leurned they hud to cleun
u und clurlfy the course codes to ensure
urorlute lucement. 1rucy Unlfed School
Llstrlct, for exumle, hus guldellnes for Long
1erm Lngllsh Leurners lucement und then uses
un lndlvlduul Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurner student
dutu curd, lncludlng CLLL1 und CS1 hlstory und
yeurs ln rogrum, us lt looks ut euch student
to determlne the urorlute lucement. Ll
Monte Unlon Elgh School Llstrlct und two
feeder elementury dlstrlcts huve develoed un
lnformutlonshurlng system to turget uttentlon
on thelr Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners und
fucllltute urorlute lucements us students
move from mlddle school lnto hlgh school.
Anuhelm Unlon Elgh School Llstrlct does
unlversul screenlng ut the dlstrlct level, uslng
multlle meusures und comurlng three yeurs
of CLLL1 us entry crlterlu. Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners ut the lntermedlute levels ure turgeted
us cundldutes for the course. Students luced ln
the course ure monltored throughout the yeur
und thelr growth meusured longltudlnully. 1he
dlstrlct ls now worklng on ussessments thut
rellubly meusure lunguuge growth.
Begin with data and keep it in the
forefront for administrators,
teachers, and students.
utu mutter und ure owerful. Lvery
dlstrlct beglns wlth exumlnlng lts
Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners dutu to
understund the lssue's mugnltude und to
lnolnt ureus of need. 1hls ste ls ulso cruclul
ln bulldlng the sense of urgency needed to
focus uttentlon on creutlng u Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners uctlon lun. 1hen dlstrlcts need to
creute u system for uccurutely ldentlfylng Long
1erm Lngllsh Leurners, regulurly monltorlng
thelr rogress, uccelerutlng movement lnto the
full A-C currlculum, und determlnlng emcucy
of lloted suorts und courses. lor teuchers
of Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners clusses, the
student's hlstory of lunguuge develoment
und ucudemlc success ls u key element ln
tullorlng lnstructlon und u foundutlon for
the goulsettlng functlons of the courses.
1euchers of Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners clusses
mulntuln student dutu rofles thut ure used
for conversutlons wlth students to hel them
understund thelr CLLL1 scores und whut
grudes, course lucements und other test
scores meun for college und cureer otlons.
Suortlve dlstrlcts rovlde rofesslonul
develoment for teuchers to understund
CLLL1 und lunguugejucudemlc ussessments.
1he dlstrlcts oer releuse tlme for teuchers to
exumlne student dutu und refne thelr lunnlng,
bused uon thut dutu. ln numerous cuses,
dlstrlcts huve develoed seclfc ussessments
focuslng on the skllls emhuslzed ln the Long
1erm Lngllsh Leurners clusses. lor exumle,
lresno Unlfed School Llstrlct develoed u
"1est of Acudemlc Lunguuge Use' to meusure
grummutlcul cometencles und lunguuge
functlons (re und ost) to ldentlfy gus to
uddress ln lnstructlon.
Provide professional development
and ongoing support to teachers.
t ls essentlul thut teuchers recelve rofesslonul
develoment to understund the lunguuge und
ucudemlc needs of Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners
und to tullor lnstructlon to meet those needs.
1he content of thls rofesslonul develoment
focuses on lssues such us clurlfylng the
uroses of the cluss und dellverlng seclfc
currlculum, structurlng oortunltles for
ucudemlc tulk ln the clussroom, develolng
reudlng fuency, develolng skllls ln u vurlety
of exosltory reudlng und wrltlng genres,
motlvutlng und suortlng dlscouruged
leurners, und secondlunguuge develoment
for students ut the lntermedlute levels und
ubove. 1euchers beneft from colluborutlve
lunnlng und couchlng suort us they llot
the new urouches, refne the currlculum,
und come to new understundlngs ubout whut
lt tukes to enguge und uccelerute the leurnlng
of Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners. Plunnlng the
tlme und resources for such rofesslonul
develoment und colluborutlon ls u mujor
tusk for dlstrlcts emburklng on u Long 1erm
Lngllsh Leurners Actlon Plun. Cutegorlcul funds
cun be used to suort course develoment,
rofesslonul develoment und urchuse
of sulementul muterluls. ln uddltlon to
the suort for teuchers of the Long 1erm
Lngllsh Leurners cluss, some dlstrlcts huve
lmlemented rofesslonul develoment eorts
ucross dlsclllnes to fucllltute ullgnment und
conslstency of routlnes und strutegles thut
students ure ulylng ucross the currlculum.
Some dlstrlcts, such us Ll Monte Unlon Elgh
School Llstrlct, huve teuchers shudow Long
1erm Lngllsh Leurners students throughout the
duy to observe levels of engugement und how
much students ure uctlvely uslng lunguuge.
After ldentlfylng teuchers who ure successful
wlth these strutegles, they then vldeotue
sumles of the lnstructlon. Muny dlstrlcts usslgn
couches or teuchers on seclul usslgnment
to rovlde clussroom suort und modellng
for teuchers. Severul dlstrlcts huve creuted
rofesslonul leurnlng communltles where
teuchers of the llot clusses come together
to tulk ubout successes und struggles. ln
Anuhelm Unlon Elgh School Llstrlct, the Long
1erm Lngllsh Leurners Actlon Plun lncludes
rofesslonul develoment und slte couches ut
every hlgh school on lesson deslgn, lunguuge
objectlves, und uddresslng the needs of Lngllsh
Leurners ucross the currlculum. vlthout
rofesslonul develoment, couchlng, und
colluborutlon suorts, teuchers reort thut lt ls
very chullenglng to successfully lmlement the
Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners courses.
Compassion, high expectations for students, genuine caring about and liking
Long Term English Learners, understanding of the needs of Long Term English
Learners, and knowledge of strategies for motivating and engaging students are
primary criteria for selecting teachers for Long Term English Learners classes.
Build leadership and infrastructure
at the site and district to
successfully implement the
dedicated Long Term English
Learners course.
eslgnlng und llotlng un eectlve course
to meet Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners
needs tukes more thun slmly udotlng
u course outllne und usslgnlng u teucher. ln
refectlng on lessons leurned ufter u yeur or two
of trylng to lmlement the courses, educutors
were ununlmous thut the dedlcuted Long 1erm
Lngllsh Leurners courses should be mounted
ln the context of u lurger Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners uctlon lun, und thut leudershl und
lnfrustructure should be bullt ut both the slte
und dlstrlct level to suort the lun's eectlve
lt ls the dlstrlct role to creute u vlslon und
overull Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners uctlon
lun, urtlculute gouls und exected outcomes,
formully udot u defnltlon of u Long 1erm
Lngllsh Leurners, und creute systems to monltor
both lmlementutlon und the rogress of Long
1erm Lngllsh Leurners. lt ls helful lf the lun
ls codlfed ln u dlstrlct Lngllsh Leurner Muster
Plun und through currlculum ollcy to ensure
contlnulty us stu roles und dlstrlct leudershl
shlft. lor exumle, ln the Los Angeles Unlfed
School Llstrlct, u new Lngllsh Leurner Muster
Plun hus un entlre sectlon devoted to Long
1erm Lngllsh Leurners, lncludlng descrlblng the
courses needed to rovlde turgeted suort.
ln the Sun lrunclsco Unlfed School Llstrlct,
the formullzed Luu Actlon Plun descrlbes the
uthwuy of clusses thut wlll be rovlded to
meet Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners' needs. Lven
ln the ubsence of such formul ollcy, dlstrlct
leudershl should understund thut stuylng the
course for severul yeurs ls lmortunt when
llotlng u new eort so thut refnements cun be
mude und success cun tuke hold.
Llstrlct leudershl should muke uddresslng
the needs of Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners u hlgh
rlorlty und cleurly urtlculute to rlncluls the
urgency und stukes. lor exumle, ln venturu
Unlfed School Llstrlct, the Suerlntendent
seurheuded the eort to lncreuse the
ucudemlc success rute for Lngllsh Leurners, und
holds regulur meetlngs wlth rlncluls to check
how the eort ls golng. ln some cuses, dlstrlcts
ure comlng together to work on the Long
1erm Lngllsh Leurners lssue. lor exumle, the
suerlntendents of the Ll Monte Unlon Elgh
School Llstrlct und lts two feeder elementury
school dlstrlcts huve met regulurly over the ust
two yeurs to work together on un lntegruted
urouch, elementury through hlgh school, to
reventlng the creutlon of Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners und uddresslng the needs of Long
1erm Lngllsh Leurners.
1he dlstrlct role ls ulso to rovlde suort
to the sltes thut ure llotlng new Long 1erm
Lngllsh Leurners urouches, lncludlng

I wish I had had networking resources before piloting

and designing the course. I dont feel I always asked the
right questions. I thought a purchased curriculum would
do the trick. I have much more clarity now about the
task at hand and what to target. I now know where my
efforts and energy need to be funneled and what can be
put aside. I now know there are others out there who are
trying to do what we are trying to do for our Long Term
English Learners. Together, in collaboration, we can have
much more power.

District leadership should make addressing the needs of Long Term

English Learners a high priority and clearly articulate to principals the
urgency and stakes.
creutlng networks of teuchers ucross the llot
sltes, rovldlng couchlng und fucllltutlon for
colluborutlve lunnlng, und urrunglng for revlew
und urchuse of muterluls thut ure needed to
enuct the lun.
8ulldlng slte udmlnlstrutors und counselors
commltment und understundlng ubout the
needs of Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners und the
uthwuys to success for Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners ls urumount. ln u strong system, lt
ls the rlnclul's job to usslgn urorlute und
strong teuchers to teuch the clusses und to
ensure thut Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurner students
ure ldentlfed und luced urorlutely.
1he udmlnlstrutors und counselors need to
understund cleurly the uroses of the cluss,
und the skllls und klnd of teuchers who ure
needed to teuch the cluss und feel the urgency
to muke those usslgnments u rlorlty. Purt
of the rlnclul's role should ulso be to meet
regulurly wlth teuchers of the courses ln the
lnltlul yeurs of lmlementutlon to monltor
how the clusses ure golng und whut klnd of
suort teuchers muy need to refne und turget
lnstructlon to dlrectly uddress student needs.
hus fur, lndlvlduul dlstrlcts huve tuken u
the chullenge to do somethlng rouctlve
to uddress the urgent lssue of Long 1erm
Lngllsh Leurners. 1hey huve sought ldeus
und suort from other educutors wherever
they could through eole they meet ut
conference workshos und vlu un lnformul
lnformutlon network thut hus emerged through
Cullfornluns 1ogether's work on Long 1erm
Lngllsh Leurners ln dlssemlnutlng the fndlngs
of !"#$%$&'"()$%*. 8uslcully, however, to u
lurge extent, the wheel ls belng lnvented unew
dlstrlct by dlstrlct. 1hls strutegy ls woefully
lnudequute for u stute us lurge us Cullfornlu.
1he Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners chullenge ls
too greut, the numbers stuggerlngly lurge (well
over cc,ccc Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners ln
secondury grudes ln Cullfornlu schools), und the
stukes too hlgh to contlnue wlth the chuncy
urouch of lettlng everyone fnd thelr own wuy.
ln the focus grou dlscusslons, the survey
oll, und the duylong convenlng of dozens of
educutors from ull urts of the stute lnvolved
ln mountlng und llotlng Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurner dedlcuted clusses, whut cume through
loud und cleur wus u cull for u more systemlc
und formullzed urouch to suortlng the
work thut hus to be done ln dlstrlcts lf Cullfornlu
ls to dellver on the romlse of educutlonul
oortunlty for our Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners. No stundulone course cun udequutely
uddress the deth und mugnltude of the
ucudemlc und lunguuge gus thut Long 1erm
Lngllsh Leurners huve uccrued us they huve
moved through school wlthout the suorts
needed for uccess und urtlclutlon. And, no
slngle teucher or even school slte cun mount
u comrehenslve eort to meet the needs of
thls lurge grou of students und revent the
develoment of even more Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners. Recommendutlons from thls grou
to the Cullfornlu Leurtment of Lducutlon,
the Cullfornlu Stute Leglsluture, mujor
technlcul usslstunce orgunlzutlons (such us the
Comrehenslve Asslstunce Center ut vested),
und schools of educutlon lnclude:

We drew on everything we could to put this together. We

looked at our data, we visited a few other districts we had
heard about that were working on Long Term English Learner
programs, we read whatever we could find, we asked everyone
for their ideas and best thinking. But we finally just had to jump
in and try something. Is that what everyone is doing? Is every
district really having to figure it out for themselves? Is that really
the way to get this right with everyone just trying things on
their own? Theres got to be a way we can find each other,
support each other, learn from each other, have it all add up.
Because the kids cant wait.

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U$$ 9)2'(#$4"-4$4"#$)#3$9),0/2"$8-),'-,#$N(42A
Long Term
Engl i sh Learner
Dedi cated
A Pl anni ng
Checkl i st
! A dlstrlct worklng grou hus unulyzed und
refected uon dutu on our Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurner oulutlon, ldentlfed the extent
und mugnltude of the lssue, und conducted
un lnqulry to understund the needs of thls
! A dlstrlct (or slte) Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurner
uctlon lun hus been develoed und whlch
muy lnclude elther the Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurner dedlcuted course or (ln cuses
where there ls u hlgh ercentuge of the
student oulutlon who ure Long 1erm
Lngllsh Leurners) u whole school urouch
to meetlng thelr seclfc lunguuge needs
throughout the currlculum.
! 1euchers huve been lntentlonully selected
to llot the Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurner
course bused uon wuntlng to work wlth
thls oulutlon, comusslon und hlgh
exectutlons, wllllngness to roll u thelr
sleeves und urtlclute ln u llot sltuutlon
thut requlres refectlon und refnlng ln the
rocess of teuchlng the cluss, und knowledge
of buslc Lngllsh Leurner needs und strutegles.
! ve huve estubllshed u wrltten descrltlon of
the uthwuy for Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners
und the role of the course ln thut uthwuy.
lt seclfes thut the course be dedlcuted for
Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners. 1here ls u cleur
defnltlon of u Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurner,
und exllclt lucement, entry und exlt
! Slte udmlnlstrutors und counselors ln llotlng
schools huve recelved un orlentutlon to the
uroses of the Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurner
course, the needs of Long 1erm Lngllsh
Leurners, und the lucement crlterlu.
! A worklng grou thut lncludes teuchers of
the courses lsjhus colluborutlvely lunned the
Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurner course. 1euchers
ure not left on thelr own to come u wlth
currlculum, muterluls or urouch.
Getting Started/ Laying the Groundwork
Designing the Course and Planning the Components
!!!ve huve lunned for how we wlll focus on orul
lunguuge develoment. ley strutegles und
routlnes huve been ldentlfed for bulldlng u
coherent orul lunguuge comonent lnto the cluss
thut leuds to wrltlng fuency. ve know whut
currlculum muterluls we wlll use for thls urose.
! ve huve lunned for how we wlll lncororute
u focus on uctlve student engugement. ley
strutegles, routlnes und lnteructlve structures
huve been ldentlfed for ellcltlng und suortlng
uctlve student engugement ln the cluss. ve
know whut currlculum muterluls we wlll use for
thls urose.
! ve huve lunned for how we wlll lncororute
u focus on ucudemlc lunguuge develoment.
ley vocubulury und dlscourse utterns huve
been ldentlfed. ley strutegles und routlnes
huve been ldentlfed for ucudemlc lunguuge
develoment. ve know whut currlculum
muterluls we wlll use for thls urose.
! ve huve lunned for how we wlll focus on
develolng reudlng fuency und bulldlng uon
thut fuency to enguge Long 1erm Lngllsh
leurners ln reudlng und wrltlng exosltory
text successfully. ley strutegles, routlnes und
muterluls huve been ldentlfed for enguglng
students ln muklng sense of ucudemlc text
und wrltlng exosltory genres. ve know whut
currlculum muterluls we wlll use for thls urose.
! ve huve lunned for conslstent routlnes und
urouches to be used ln the course.
! ve huve lunned how we wlll enguge
students ln understundlng where they ure
ln the trujectory towurds Lngllsh rofclency
und towurds hlgh gruduutlon und college
reurutlon. 1euchers huve dutu on thelr
students, und we huve creuted the formuts
for enguglng students ln goulsettlng. 1he
currlculum lncludes exlunutlons of the CLLL1
und lmllcutlons of CLLL1 levels und the
urorluteness of couse lucement ln cureerj
college uccetunce. ve huve deslgned our
urouch, currlculu und muterluls for the goul
settlng rocess.
! ve huve dlscussed the klnd of emowerlng
edugogy we exect to see ln the course, und
teuchers huve lunned for how they wlll ellclt
student volce, und student's llved exerlence ln
order to bulld relevunce lnto the cluss.
! ve huve lunned how we wlll bulld rlgor,
crltlcul thlnklng und creutlve thlnklng lnto
our currlculum. ley strutegles, routlnes und
muterluls huve been ldentlfed for enguglng
students ln hlgher order thlnklng.
! ve huve lunned how we wlll urouch bulldlng
u sense of sufety und communlty ln the course.
ley strutegles, routlnes und muterluls huve been
ldentlfed for thls urose.
! ve huve lunned how we wlll suort
students ln develolng study skllls und hublts.
Cleur exectutlons huve been frumed. ley
strutegles, routlnes und muterluls huve been
ldentlfed for enguglng students ln focuslng
on metucognltlve leurnlng und orgunlzutlonul
rocesses, und teuchlng skllls of notetuklng,
tlme munugement und other key study skllls.
! 1euchers huve hud lndlvlduul tlme to revlew
the muterluls for the cluss, und colluborutlve
tlme rlor to beglnnlng the course to work
together to wrlte the syllubus und fuld uclng
guldes thut weuve together the vurlous
comonents of the currlculum.
! Cverull, the muterluls we huve selected or
develoed ure hlgh lnterest, chullenglng und
! ve huve lncororuted whole books, uctuul
llteruture und reulllfe exosltory wrltten
muterluls lnto the course.
! 1he dlstrlct hus mude resources uvulluble for
the urchuse of sulementury muterluls
us needed to lmlement u comrehenslve
ucudemlc lunguuge develoment course for
Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners.
! ve huve consldered whether lt mlght be
osslble to stu the cluss ut u smuller teucher
to student rutlo, und commltted to thut
smuller rutlo lf ut ull osslble.
! ve huve estubllshed u fuld uclng gulde
thut bullds ln tlme for the communltyjtrust
bulldlng needed ut the sturt of the cluss, und
the goulsettlng und monltorlng comonents
of the currlculum ln uddltlon to the focus on
ucudemlc lunguuge.
! ve huve defned u regulur rocess of
monltorlng the urorluteness of lucement
lnto the Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurner cluss, und
monltor movement out of the cluss us soon
us urorlute.
! Prlor to beglnnlng to teuch the course,
teuchers huve recelved rofesslonul
develoment on the uroses of the cluss
und the needs of Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners
Structuring the Course
Measuring Impacts
Professional Development and Support
! Prlor to beglnnlng to teuch the course,
teuchers huve recelved rofesslonul
develoment on uslng uny of the course
currlculum rogrums or muterluls thut
huve rofesslonul develoment suort
! At regulur lntervuls durlng the frst llot
yeur, teuchers lnvolved ln llotlng the Long
1erm Lngllsh Leurner courses huve uld,
colluborutlon tlme to refect on how the
course ls golng, to refne the currlculum, to
roblemsolve und for uddltlonul rofesslonul
! At regulur lntervuls subsequent to the llot
yeur, teuchers huve uld, colluborutlve
tlme to lun, refne the currlculum, und
! Counselors und udmlnlstrutlve stu
huve recelved seclullzed rofesslonul
develoment on the needs soclul,
sychologlcul und ucudemlc of Long 1erm
Lngllsh Leurners, us well us on lucement
lssues, fumlly counsellng und engugement
strutegles, und monltorlng of Long 1erm
Lngllsh Leurner rogress outslde the
seclullzed Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurner
! A teucher on seclul usslgnment or couch ls
usslgned to observe the llot clussrooms,
rovlde feedbuck und suort to teuchers,
model strutegles, und fucllltute colluborutlve
lunnlng und refectlon sesslons.
! 1here ure cleurly urtlculuted deslred
outcomes for the course, us well us
ussessments und rocesses for meusurlng
rogress towurds those outcomes.
! Monltorlng of lmlementutlon lncludes
shudowlng Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurner
students for degree of uctlve engugement
und uctlve use of ucudemlc lunguuge, und
observutlons of clussrooms.
1hunk you to the followlng educutors who urtlcluted ln lntervlews, focus grous or the 'une zz convenlng,
"Culllng the lnowledge: Courses for Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners,' thut lnformed thls document:
Rossunu Alvldrez, Ll Monte Unlon Elgh School Llstrlct
Curol Andersonvoo, 1rucy Unlfed School Llstrlct
Ruymond Andry, Mountuln vlew School Llstrlct
Llvlru Armus, Center for Lqulty for Lngllsh Leurners, Loyolu Murymount Unlverslty
LuNltu 8urlchere, lontunu Unlfed School Llstrlct
1errl 8ourg, Los Angeles Unlfed School Llstrlct
Suruh Chrlstensen, Sun lrunclsco Unlfed School Llstrlct
Ruchel ChodorowRelch, 8erkeley Unlfed School Llstrlct
Lllzubeth Conkle, lresno Unlfed School Llstrlct
'uckle Counts, Anuhelm Unlon Elgh School Llstrlct
Llunu LeCum, Mountuln vlew School Llstrlct
vlckl Lecker, 1uhoe1ruckee School Llstrlct
lelly Lverett, venturu Unlfed School Llstrlct
1umuru lrledmun, 8erkeley Unlfed School Llstrlct
'ennlfer Eull, vlstu Unlfed School Llstrlct
Melunle Eulsteud, lresno School Llstrlct
Lesereu Eernundez, lontunu School Llstrlct
8obbl Eoutchens, Los Angeles County Cmce of Lducutlon
lrlstl 'enklns, lresno School Llstrlct
Mutt Luurel, 8erkeley Unlfed School Llstrlct
Anustuslu Lewls, lullbrook Unlon Elgh School Llstrlct
'ustln Llm, Ll Monte Unlon Elgh School Llstrlct
Lynn Lysko, Modesto Clty Schools
Andrew Mundon, Sullnus Unlon Elgh School Llstrlct
Mlchelle MuncySllvu, Sullnus Unlon Elgh School Llstrlct
Megun Munoz, llng Clty School Llstrlct
Melody Peck, vlstu Unlfed School Llstrlct
Cynthlu Petlt, Anuhelm Unlon Elgh School Llstrlct
Lrlc Peterson, 1rucy Unlfed School Llstrlct
'ucquellne 1ucordu, Sullnus Unlon Elgh School Llstrlct
'ulle 1undon, Sweetwuter Unlon Elgh School Llstrlct
Muggle 1erry, Sun lrunclsco Unlfed School Llstrlct
Lmlly 1oone, lullbrook Unlon Elgh School Llstrlct
Cluudlu vusquez, Eughson School Llstrlct
lrlstlne vllson, Rosevllle 'olnt Unlon Elgh School Llstrlct
8lssu 2umboldl, Sun lrunclsco Unlfed School Llstrlct
1hunk you to Shelly Slegel Colemun, Lxecutlve Llrector of Cullfornluns 1ogether, for vlslon, cheerful suort
und unfugglng udvocucy on behulf of Lngllsh Leurners. lor fve yeurs, Cullfornluns 1ogether hus been the drlvlng
force behlnd ussembllng reseurch und ollcy uttentlon to the needs of Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners most
recently, cohostlng the convenlng thut led to thls ubllcutlon.
1hunk you to lred 1emes, Llrector of the Comrehenslve Asslstunce Center vest, for seelng u need und
generously oerlng stu resources und fundlng to suort the focus grous und convenlng thut led to thls
ubllcutlon. 'ulle Lumeld und Anurudhu Advunl rovlded enthuslustlc und exert guldunce und suort for
bulldlng un onllne leurnlng communlty.
Cullfornluns 1ogether ls u stutewlde coulltlon of z urent, rofesslonul und clvll rlghts orgunlzutlons
thut moblllze communltles to rotect und romote the rlghts of close to . mllllon Lngllsh Leurners,
z of Cullfornlun's students. Cullfornluns 1ogether serves us u stutewlde volce on behulf of lunguuge
mlnorlty students ln Cullfornlu ubllc schools. 1he coulltlon ls commltted to securlng equul uccess to
quullty educutlon for ull chlldren.
1hls reort und udutes on Cullfornluns 1ogether's work to creute the ollcles und ructlces for
uccelerutlng the lunguuge und ucudemlc needs of Long 1erm Lngllsh Leurners wlll be osted on the
orgunlzutlon's webslte.
z Lust Seventh Street, Sulte zc,
Long 8euch, CA c8
(8z) 8
A Cullfornluns 1ogether ubllcutlon zcz