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Lecture One: Part II

Mass Spring Damper System: Deriving the motion

ESE112 Lecture 1

MSD Review

Created by Wikipedia user lzyvzl

Mass (m) is attached to Hooks law spring Recall Fs = kx Damping Force Fd = c dx dt


ESE112 Lecture 1

Deriving Equations of Motion


From Newton f = ma m = cx kx x m + cx + kx = 0 x dividing by m c k x+ x+ x m m
k if we let 0 = m , be the natural frequency of the system and = the damping ratio, we get 2 x + 20 x + 0 x = 0 c , 2 km

(1) (2)

rearranging

(3)

(4) be (5)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Damping

ESE112 Lecture 1

Solving the differential equation


Whats a differential equation?
A differential equation is a mathematical equation for an unknown function of one or several variables that relates the values of the function itself and of its derivatives of various orders.

A simple instantiation of this is an equation which relates the velocity, dx/dt, of an object as a function of its position F(x) in time.

ESE112 Lecture 1

Solution for a special case

ESE112 Lecture 1

Solution for a special case


Recall from calculus that if y = eax then dy = aex dx Now we can try to solve a simple dierential equation dx =x dt (2) (1)

(3)

ESE112 Lecture 1

Solution for a special case


Recall from calculus that if y = eax then dy = aex dx Now we can try to solve a simple dierential equation dx =x dt (2) (1)

(3)

lets try the solution x = et

ESE112 Lecture 1

Applying it to a MSD
Recall
2 x + 20 x + 0 x = 0

(1)

now assume that x = et then x = et and x = 2 et substituting and dividing by et we get


2 2 + 20 + 0 = 0

(2)

we can now solve for using quadratic formula

Quick Exercise: Solve for gamma


now that we have solved for we can nd x(t) (which well leave as an exercise for you to do on your own or in a future class)

ESE112 Lecture 1

Applying it to a MSD cont.


By choosing appropriate parameters we can tune the behavior of the system
We can classify the system into three distinct categories. 1.Under-damped: < 1. In this case the system oscillates with a frequency equal to d = o 1-2 2.Over-damped: > 1. The system slowly returns to equilibrium 3.Critically Damped: =1. The system returns to equilibrium NOTE: Each of the three behaviors corresponds to the solution type of the quadratic equation shown previously (complex, two real solutions, one real solution)

ESE112 Lecture 1

Where does this all t in


Background and history

MSD-like systems are found throughout engineering Animal Running Circuit Design: RLC circuits Robotics (PD control) Automotive (Cruise control, car suspensions etc) Successful engineers take old ideas from one eld and use them to innovate and create in another eld
ESE112 Lecture 1

Where does this all t in


Background and history

Linear Systems
During the rst 3 (maybe all 4) years of engineering youll see the world as a linear system Relatively easy to solve and understand Large body of theory Of course the world is rarely linear The trick is... can we make it look linear?

ESE112 Lecture 1

Lets look at applet one more time


http://links.math.rpi.edu/applets/appindex/
springmass.html

ESE112 Lecture 1

Homework
Sealy (the bed company) is having a problem. The problem is that people are so happy to get into their comfy Sealy beds that they jump on them. Jumping so high and because the beds are so springy they are ung off the bed onto the ground and sue the company. To combat this problem Sealy wants to design a new bed that will keep the average adult (weighing between 55kg and 110kg) on their beds (but still provide the softest possible landing). Can you help choose the damping and spring constants for the bed assuming the bed is very thin (think trampoline like), it is 30cm off the ground and the average height (at its peak) of someones jump is 120 cm.
ESE112 Lecture 1