Anda di halaman 1dari 13

# Lecture One: Part II

ESE112 Lecture 1

MSD Review

ESE112 Lecture 1

## Deriving Equations of Motion

From Newton f = ma m = cx kx x m + cx + kx = 0 x dividing by m c k x+ x+ x m m
k if we let 0 = m , be the natural frequency of the system and = the damping ratio, we get 2 x + 20 x + 0 x = 0 c , 2 km

(1) (2)

rearranging

(3)

(4) be (5)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Damping

ESE112 Lecture 1

## Solving the differential equation

Whats a differential equation?
A differential equation is a mathematical equation for an unknown function of one or several variables that relates the values of the function itself and of its derivatives of various orders.

A simple instantiation of this is an equation which relates the velocity, dx/dt, of an object as a function of its position F(x) in time.

ESE112 Lecture 1

ESE112 Lecture 1

## Solution for a special case

Recall from calculus that if y = eax then dy = aex dx Now we can try to solve a simple dierential equation dx =x dt (2) (1)

(3)

ESE112 Lecture 1

## Solution for a special case

Recall from calculus that if y = eax then dy = aex dx Now we can try to solve a simple dierential equation dx =x dt (2) (1)

(3)

## lets try the solution x = et

ESE112 Lecture 1

Applying it to a MSD
Recall
2 x + 20 x + 0 x = 0

(1)

2 2 + 20 + 0 = 0

(2)

## Quick Exercise: Solve for gamma

now that we have solved for we can nd x(t) (which well leave as an exercise for you to do on your own or in a future class)

ESE112 Lecture 1

## Applying it to a MSD cont.

By choosing appropriate parameters we can tune the behavior of the system
We can classify the system into three distinct categories. 1.Under-damped: < 1. In this case the system oscillates with a frequency equal to d = o 1-2 2.Over-damped: > 1. The system slowly returns to equilibrium 3.Critically Damped: =1. The system returns to equilibrium NOTE: Each of the three behaviors corresponds to the solution type of the quadratic equation shown previously (complex, two real solutions, one real solution)

ESE112 Lecture 1

## Where does this all t in

Background and history

MSD-like systems are found throughout engineering Animal Running Circuit Design: RLC circuits Robotics (PD control) Automotive (Cruise control, car suspensions etc) Successful engineers take old ideas from one eld and use them to innovate and create in another eld
ESE112 Lecture 1

## Where does this all t in

Background and history

Linear Systems
During the rst 3 (maybe all 4) years of engineering youll see the world as a linear system Relatively easy to solve and understand Large body of theory Of course the world is rarely linear The trick is... can we make it look linear?

ESE112 Lecture 1