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12ChF321 Acid Reactions

Acids
Candidates should be able to: (a) explain that an acid releases H+ ions in aqueous solution; (b) state the formulae of the common acids: hydrochloric, sulfuric and nitric acids; (c) state that common bases are metal oxides, metal hydroxides and ammonia; (d) state that an alkali is a soluble base that releases OH ions in aqueous solution; (e) state the formulae of the common alkalis: sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and aqueous ammonia; (f) explain that a salt is produced when the H+ ion of an acid is replaced by a metal ion or NH4+; (g) describe the reactions of an acid with carbonates, bases and alkalis, to form a salt; (h) explain that a base readily accepts H+ ions from an acid: eg OH forming H2O; NH3 forming NH4+; (i) explain the terms anhydrous, hydrated and water of crystallisation; (j) calculate the formula of a hydrated salt from given percentage composition, mass composition or experimental data; (k) perform acidbase titrations, and carry out structured titrations.

An acid releases hydrogen ions (H+(aq)) into aqueous solution, producing also negative ions in solution which depend on which acid is dissolved, e.g. nitric acid produced hydrogen ions, H+ and nitrate ions NO3When dissolved to form a solution: HCl(aq) H+(aq) + Cl-(aq) - these are strong acids, + HNO3(aq) H (aq) + NO3 (aq) fully dissociated in aqueous solution H2SO4(aq) 2H+(aq) + SO42-(aq) * Make sure you can name the negative ions!* + 3H3PO4(aq) 3H (aq) + PO4 (aq) CH3COOH(aq) CH3COO-(aq) + H+(aq) - a weak acid, partially dissociated - ions in equilibrium with dissolved molecules

The H+ ions are responsible for the characteristic reactions of acids in fact the negative ions generally remain in solution before and after and play no part in the reactions we call these spectator ions. Since an H+ ion is simply a proton, we call acids proton donors. Reactions to produce soluble salts: Definition: A salt is produced when the H+ ion(s) of an acid is(are) replaced by metal ions, or ammonium ions (NH4+).

1) Reactions with bases Bases are proton acceptors - they all react with acids by accepting the H+ ion. Common bases are metal oxides, metal hydroxides and ammonia. e.g. 2HCl(aq) + MgO(s) MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l) Remember that in solution ions are not joined to each other but free to move around. For the substances in solution, then, we can write the ions separately in the equation. Page 1

12ChF321 Acid Reactions 2H+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq) + MgO(s) Mg2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq) + H2O(l) Firstly we can see why the Cl- ions are called spectator ions. They are there before and after the reaction completely unchanged, having played no part. In fact we can "cancel them out" from the equation just like in maths: 2H+(aq) + MgO(s) Mg2+(aq) + H2O(l) Now the acid reaction is clearer. The H+ ions react with the MgO forming water and leaving Mg2+ ions in solution. When the water is evaporated, the Mg2+ ions form a giant ionic lattice with the Cl- ions, producing crystals of the salt. Observations: The metal oxide dissolves/disappears The reaction may be exothermic. NO BUBBLING !

If a base dissolves in water to produce OH- ions in solution (most do not), it is called an alkali. e.g. HNO3(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaNO3(aq) + H2O(l)

Again we can write all the dissolved substances as separate ions, and look for the spectator ions (those unchanged in the reaction). H+(aq) + NO3-(aq) + Na+(aq) + OH-(aq) Na+(aq) + NO3-(aq) + H2O(l) If we again cancel the spectator ions, we get: H+(aq) + OH-(aq) H2O(l) This really simple ionic equation shows us exactly what is going on the H+ ions are being neutralized by reacting with OH- ions. Looked at another way, the OH- ions are acting as bases accepting the proton to become water molecules. Observations: Nothing visible, so an indicator/pH probe is used to show the extent of neutralization Reactions are exothermic Ammonia is a base because it too can accept a proton, forming the ammonium ion NH4+. When ammonia dissolves in water, some of the ammonia molecules react with the water molecules: NH3(g) + H2O(l) NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) So ammonia is also an alkali.

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12ChF321 Acid Reactions In equations, we'll simply write NH3(aq) to represent an ammonia solution: 2NH3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) (NH4)2SO4(aq) We can see ammonia acting as a base if we remove the spectator ions: 2NH3(aq) + 2H+(aq) 2NH4+(aq) NH3(aq) + H+(aq) NH4+(aq) 2) Reactions with carbonates Metal carbonates also react with acids in a similar fashion, to form salts. Carbon dioxide and water are also produced. e.g. 2 HCl(aq) + MgCO3(s) MgCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) (we can remove the 2's as well)

Observations: Effervescence The solid metal carbonate dissolved/disappears 3) Reactions with metals Most metals react with acids to produce a salt. Copper and silver only react with very concentrated acids. Many acids, e.g. dilute sulphuric or hydrochloric acid, react to produce a salt plus hydrogen. e.g. Mg(s) + H2SO4(aq) MgSO4(aq) + H2(g)

Or as an ionic equation, having removed spectator ions: Mg(s) + 2H+(aq) Mg2+(aq) + H2(g) Check your understanding: Write balanced symbol equations for the reactions of: i) phosphoric acid with potassium hydroxide ii) zinc with dilute hydrochloric acid iii) ammonia solution with nitric acid iv) copper II carbonate with sulphuric acid v) viii) Remove the spectator ions from each of the above equations to show them as ionic equations.

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12ChF321 Acid Reactions Answers to 'Check your understanding' questions: Write balanced symbol equations for the reactions of: i) phosphoric acid with potassium hydroxide H3PO4(aq) + 3 KOH(aq) K3PO4(aq) + 3 H2O(l) ii) zinc with dilute hydrochloric acid Zn(s) + 2 HCl(aq) ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g) iii) ammonia solution with nitric acid NH3(aq) + HNO3(aq) NH4NO3(aq) iv) copper II carbonate with sulphuric acid CuCO3(s) + H2SO4(aq) CuSO4(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) Remove the spectator ions from each of the above equations to show them as ionic equations. v) phosphoric acid with potassium hydroxide 3H+(aq) + 3OH-(aq) 3H2O(l) (and the 3s can also be cancelled) vi) zinc with dilute hydrochloric acid Zn(s) + 2 H+ (aq) Zn2+(aq) + H2(g) vii) ammonia solution with nitric acid NH3(aq) + H+(aq) NH4+(aq) viii) copper II carbonate with sulphuric acid CuCO3(s) + 2 H+(aq) Cu2+(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

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