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# jogomez@fis.upv.

es Departamento de
1. Scalar and vectorial quantities

Objectives:

To know the SI

## Relationship to other subjects:

Mathematics:

Systems of equations

## The determinant of a matrix

jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
1. Scalar and vectorial quantities
1- Dimensional equation and system of units

## Magnitude and measurement. Magnitude. Quantities. Measurement.

Fundamental and derived Magnitudes. Dimensional equation.

2- Vectors

## Cartesian representation. Unit vector. Reference System. Components.

Direction cosines.

## Dot product. Definition. Consequences: square of a vector, perpendicular

vector, projection, angle between vectors. Analytical expression.

## Cross product. Definition. Consequences: parallel vectors, parallelogram

surface. Analytical expression.

## Scalar triple product. Definition. Properties. Consequences: coplanar vectors,

volume of the parallelepiped. Analytical expression.

## Derivative and integral of a vector function of a scalar variable. Derivative.

Integral.
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
1. Scalar and vectorial quantities
3- Sliding vectors

Bibliography

## Notes on Vectores deslizantes:

PoliformaT/Recursos/Temas/Tema 1 Anlisis dimensional y vectores/Vectores deslizantes.

Applets:

http://personales.upv.es/mhgimene/Magnitudes/Magnitudes.html

http://dspace.upv.es/handle/10251/9246
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Dimensional analysis
The Mars Climate Orbiter
disintegrated because English
units instead of metric units was
used in the software application
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Dimensional analysis
What?

## Dimensions: length, velocity, area, volume,

acceleration, etc.

## Length =L; mass=M; time=T; temperature=Q.

jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
g
Physical magnitude

## A physical magnitude (A) is a measurable

property of a material.

## Can we measure the mass of a coin? Yes, we can.

So the mass of a coin is a physical magnitude or
magnitude.

## Can we measure the volume of a coin? Yes, we can.

So the volume of a coin is a physical magnitude or
magnitude.
We measure mass
with a scale
(weighing scale)
We measure volume
with a test-tube
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Unit and measurement

Unit (u
a
): An element of the magnitude that is taken
as reference.

## Measurement (a): Compare the magnitude with the

unit:
( A)
u
A
=a
Magnitude = quantity unit
We must express a magnitude with a number or quantity and a unit.
v=70 m/s
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
The international System of Units (SI)

## A small number of fundamental units are sufficient

to express all physical quantities.

## The rest of the magnitudes are called derivative

magnitudes.
SI: Systm Internationale
Magnitude Unit Symbol
Length Meter (m) L
Time Second (s) T
Mass Kilogram (kg) M
Current Ampere (A) I
Temperature Kelvin (K)

Luminous intensity Candela (cd) I
v
Amount of substance Mole (mol) N
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Dimensions

magnitudes.
v=x/t; a=x/t

## Dimension has a specific meaning it denotes the

physical nature of a quantity

## Dimensional equation. Functional relationship

between a derivative magnitude and the
fundamental magnitude.

[F]=MLT
-2
; [W]=ML
2
T
-2
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Dimensions
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Potentials of ten
1,000,000
100,000
10,000
1,000
100
10
1
0.1
0.01
0.001
0.0001
0.00001
0.000001
Decimal notation
One million
One hundred thousand
Ten thousand
One thousand
One hundred
Ten
One
Zero point one
hundredth
Thousandth
Point to the fourth
Point to the fifth
Millionth
10
6
10
5
10
4
10
3
10
2
10
1
10
0
10
-1
10
-2
10
-3
10
-4
10
-5
10
-6
Scientific notation
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Multiples and submultiples
Tera (T) 10
12
Giga (G) 10
9
Mega (M) 10
6
Kilo (k) 10
3
Hecto (h) 10
2
Deca (da) 10
Deci (d) 10
-1
Centi (c) 10
-2
Mili (m) 10
-3
Micro() 10
-6
Nano (n) 10
-9
Pico (p) 10
-12
Prefix (symbol) equivalent
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
monomials

## A magnitude is dimensionless (=no dimension) when the

exponents of his dimensional formula are equal to zero.

A group of monomials,
1
,
2
,
n
, are dimensionally
independent when it is not possible to satisfy the equation
except by the trivial solution C
1
= C
2
... = C
n
= 0.

## Example. Prove that

1
and
2
are dimensionally dependent

1
C
1

2
C
2

n
C
n
=1

1
=v
2
a
1
L

2
=v
4
a
2
L
2

1
C
1

2
C
2
=1
There is solution other than C
1
= C
2
= 0
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Vaschy-Buckingham Pi-theorem

## A physically meaningful equation involving a

certain number, n, of physical variables, and these
variables are expressible in terms of h independent
fundamental physical quantities, then the original
expression is equivalent to an equation involving a
set of i = n h dimensionless variables constructed
from the original variables.
f(x
1
..., x
n
) = 0 F(
1
, ... ,
i
) = 0

jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Vaschy-Buckingham Pi-theorem
1) The most general form of all physical equation
f(x
1
..., x
n
) = 0,
It is
F(
1
, ... ,
i
)=0
Where
1
, ... ,
i
are the dimensionless and dimensionally independent
monomials ( monomials) that can be formed with the magnitudes
given.
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Vaschy-Buckingham Pi-theorem
2) The number of these monomials is i = n h, where h is the rank of
the matrix formed with the dimensional exponents converted into the
basic units (dimensional matrix).
=x
1
a
1
x
n
a
n
|=L
0
M
0
T
0
= x
1
|
a
1
x
n
|
a
n
x
1
|=L
C
11
M
C
21
T
C
31

x
n
|=L
C
1n
M
C
2n
T
C
3n
a
1
C
11
+ + a
n
C
1n
=0
a
1
C
21
+ + a
n
C
2n
=0
a
1
C
31
+ + a
n
C
3n
=0
(
C
11
C
1n
C
21
C
2n
C
31
C
3n
)
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Example: Aerodynamic forces on a Bluff Body (a Sphere)
Aerodynamic forces on a Bluff Body (a Sphere)
Relevant parameters:
free-stream velocity, U
diameter of the sphere, D
density of the fluid,
viscosity of the fluid,
forces on the sphere:
Lift force F
L

Drag force F
D
F
L
= 0 because of symmetry
F
D
= f(U,D,,)
To carry out a set of experiments to characterize the drag forces on spheres, we need
to vary four parameters independently: U,D,,.

It is time consuming and the resulting data set will be difficult to analyse

Some kinds of scaling are needed to apply the wind tunnel testing data to a real flow
problem.
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Relative
wind
Flying forces
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Force of a fluid over a solid
F
D
= f(U,D,,)
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Force of a fluid over a solid: experimental study F
D
= f(U,D,,)
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Example: Aerodynamic forces on a Bluff Body (a Sphere)
[F
D
] = ML/T
2
[U] = L/T
[D] = L
[] = M/L
3
[] = M/(LT)
We should be able to reduce the total number of the dimensional
parameters to (5-3)=2
(
1 0 0 1 1
1 1 1 3 1
2 1 0 0 1
)
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Example: Aerodynamic forces on a Bluff Body (a Sphere)
[F
D
] = ML/T
2
[U] = L/T
[D] = L
[] = M/L
3
[] = M/(LT)

1
=
1
U
2
D
2
F
D
=
F
D
U
2
D
2
=F
D
a
U
b
D
c

e
|=(MLT
2
)
a
(LT
1
)
b
L
c
(ML
3
)
d
(ML
1
T
1
)
e
=M
0
L
0
T
0
a+ d + e=0
a+ b+ c3de=0
2abe=0
a=1
e=0
d=1
c=2
b=2
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Example: Aerodynamic forces on a Bluff Body (a Sphere)
[F
D
] = ML/T
2
[U] = L/T
[D] = L
[] = M/L
3
[] = M/(LT)

2
=p
1
U
1
D
1
=

pU D
=F
D
a
U
b
D
c

e
|=(MLT
2
)
a
(LT
1
)
b
L
c
(ML
3
)
d
(ML
1
T
1
)
e
=M
0
L
0
T
0
a+ d + e=0
a+ b+ c3de=0
2abe=0
a=0
e=1
d=1
c=1
b=1
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Example: Aerodynamic forces on a Bluff Body (a Sphere)
f(x
1
..., x
n
) = 0 F(
1
, ... ,
i
) = 0

f(F
D
,U,D,,) = 0 F(
1
,
2
) = 0

2
=

U D
=
1
Re

1
=
F
D
U
2
D
2
Re=
U D

Reynolds
number
F(
1,

2
)=0
F
D
U
2
D
2
=f
(

U D
)
F
D
=U
2
D
2
f
(

U D
)
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Pi-theorem
Force of a fluid
over a solid
Defining the Drag
coefficient:
C
D
=
F
D
pU
2
D
2
/2
F(
1,

2
)=0 F ' (Re ,C
D
)=0 C
D
=g (Re)
F
D
U
2
D
2
=f
(

U D
)
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Vectors
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Vector
A vector is a geometric object that has
both a magnitude (or length), direction
and sense.
D
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n
Sense
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
Initial point
Final point
A
B

AB

AB
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Vector: classification
Free:
Magnitude
Direction
Sense
Sliding:
Magnitude
Direction
Sense
Support straight line
Fix:
Magnitude
Direction
Sense
Support straight line
Application point
v
v
r
v
r
P
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
System of reference
X
Y
O
Z
X
Y
Z
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Components

A=A
x

i + A
y

j+ A
z

k=( A
x
, A
y
, A
Z
)
X
Y
Z
A
x

i
A
y

j
A
z

k
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Magnitude and unit vector

Magnitude

Unit vector

## and unit vectors

A=A
x

i +A
y

j+A
z

k=( A
x
, A
y
, A
Z
)
A=

A=

A
x
2
+ A
y
2
+ A
z
2
u
A
=

A
A
u
A
=1
Y
Z
X
O

i ,

j

k
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
(Tipler)
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Dot product

b=

bcos o=
=a
x
b
x
+a
y
b
y
+a
z
b
z
o
a

b
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Projection
The vector projection (also known
as the vector resolute, or vector
component) of a vector b in the
direction of a vector a, is given by:
o

b
a
b
a
=b cos=

ba
a

jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Direction cosines
X
Y
Z
A
x

i
A
y

j
A
z

cos =

A

i
A
=
A
x
A
cos=

j
A
=
A
y
A
cos =

A

k
A
=
A
z
A
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Cross product

b=

i

j

k
a
x
a
y
a
z
b
x
b
y
b
z

=a

sin
Geometric meaning
The magnitude of the cross product can be interpreted as the positive area of the parallelogram
having a and b as sides

S=a

b
a

S=a

b
a

jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Scalar triple product
The scalar triple product (also called the
box product or mixed triple product)
the absolute value of the box product is the volume of the parallelepiped which has edges that
are defined by the three vectors.
a(

bc)

b
c
h=acos o

S=

bc
V =h

S=a(

bc)
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Derivative and integral of a vector
d

A
dt
=
d A
x
dt

i +
d A
y
dt

j +
d A
z
dt

k

A dt =

A
x
dt +

j

A
y
dt +

k

A
z
dt
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Sliding vectors
v
v
r
P
We say that a vector is a slight vector if it can be substitute by
any other equipotential vector in the same support straight line.
For defining a slight vector, we need the components of the
vector, (v
x
,v
y
,v
z
) and one point of its straight support line
P(P
x
,P
y
,P
z
).
( P; v)
S
u
p
p
o
r
t

s
t
r
a
i
g
h
t

l
i
n
e
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Moment of a vector: Moment of force
Torque, also called moment or moment of force

F
1

F
2

F
3
Direction influence
wrenc
h
nut
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Moment of force
Torque, also called moment or moment of force

F
1

F
2

F
3
Distance influence
wrenc
h
nut
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Moment of force
Torque, also called moment or moment of force
y

F
x
x
y
Effect = (y) (F
x
)
Component influence
wrenc
h
nut
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Moment of a vector

M
A
(v)=

AP
1
v
Definition
The moment of a vector is perpendicular to the plane containing A
and P
1
and its direction is given by the right-hand rule.
v
A
P
1
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Moment of a vector

M
A
(v)=

AP
1
v

M
A
(v)=

AP
1
v=
(

AP
2
+

P
2
P
1
)
v=

AP
2
v
The moment of a vector does not depend on the point P inside
de direction of vector . v
v
A P
2
P
1
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Moment of a vector
v

M
A
(

v)=

AP
1

v=
(

AB+

B P
1
)

v=

AB

v+

M
B
(

v)
B

M
A
(v)=

AP
1
v
A
P
1
Centre of moment shift:
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Moment of a vector
v

M
A
(v)=

AP
1
v
A
P
1

M
A
(

v)

AP
1

vsin =

vd
d

jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Moment of a vector with respect to an axis
v
A
P
1
Axis E
u
M
E
(v)=

M
A
(v)u

M
A
(v)=

AP
1
v
B
M
E
(v)=

M
A
(v)u=

M
B
(v)u
The moment of a vector with respect to an axis it is
independent of the axis point:
M
E
(

v)=

M
A
(

v)

u=
(

AP
1

v
)

u=
=
(
(

AB+

BP
1
)
v
)
u=
(

ABv
)
u+
(

M
B
(v)
)
u=

M
B
(v )u
0
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Sliding Vector System (SVS)
P
2
P
3
P
1
v
1
v
2
v
3
Sliding Vector System (SVS): a set
(finite or infinite) or sliding vectors
(
P
i
; v
i
)
i=1, 2,, n
Resultant:

R=

i
v
i
Moment of a Sliding Vector System:

M
A
=

M
A
(v
i
)=

AP
i
v
i
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Sliding Vector System (SVS)
P
2
P
3
P
1
v
1
v
2
v
3
Centre of moment shift
B
A

M
A

M
A
=

M
B
+

AB

R
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Moment of a SVS respect to an axis
P
2
P
3
P
1
v
1
v
2
v
3
A

M
A
M
E
=

i=1
n
M
E
(v
i
)=

i =1
n
(

M
A
(v
i
)
)
u=

M
A
u
u
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Equivalent Vector System
P
2
P
3
P
4
P
1
P
2
P
3
P
1
v
2
v
4
v
3
v
1
v
2
v
1
v
3
Two SVS are equivalent if:

R=

R'

M
A
=

M '
A
A

M
B
=

M '
B
is invariant:

M
A

M
A
=

R
(

AB

R+

M
B
)
=

M
A
'
'
'

M '
B
=

M '
A
+

BA

R' =

M
A
+

BA

R=

M
B
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Concurrent Sliding Vector System
C
A
v
1
v
2
v
3
v
4

R

M
A
=

AP
i
v
i
=

ACv
i
=

AC

i
v
i
=

AC

R
Varignon theorem: The
moment for a concurrent
vector system at a point C
relative to an arbitrary point
is equal to the moment of
the resultant (applied at
C), respect to point A.

M
A
=

AC

R

M
A
=

AC

R
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Couple
A
P
2
v
1
v
2

M
A
(v)=

AP
1
v
1
+

AP
2
v
2
=

AP
1
v
1

AP
2
v
1
=

P
2
P
1
v
1

M
A
(v)=

P
2
P
1
v
1
v
2
=v
1
P
1
Two opposite vectors on
parallel support straight lines
jogomez@fis.upv.es Departamento de
Parallel Sliding Vector System
P
i
0
P
1
P
n
C
v
1
v
i
v
n
v
i
=v
i
*
u

M
O
=

OP
i
v
i
=

OP
i

(
v
i
*
u
)
=
(

i
v
i
*

OP
i
)
u

R=

i
v
i

M
O
(

R)=

OC

i
v
i
=

i
(
v
i
*

OCu
)
=
(

i
(
v
i
*

OC
)
)
u

OC=

i
(
v
i
*

OP
i
)

i
v
i
*
Centre of the
system
Varignon theorem: the moment of the system
is equal to the moment of the resultant with the
support line going through the centre of the
system (point C). The vector of position of this
point is giving by:
Their support straight line are parallel.