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Networkanalysis,architecture anddesignbasics

BACKGROUND
Networkanalysis,architectureanddesignhave traditionallybeenconsideredart
Combiningindividualsrulesonevaluatingandchoosing g networktechnologies; knowledgeabouthowtechnologies,servicesandprotocols canbemeaningfullycombined; experienceinwhatworksandwhatdoesnt; p ; alongwith(oftenarbitrary)selectionsofnetwork architecture.

Example : Rule Thumb: 80/20 rule bridge vs router but Example:RuleThumb:80/20rule,bridgevs router,but innotsomanychoicesofnetworktechnologies. Applyingasystemmethodologytonetworking

Whattostudy What to study


networkcomponents(fromnetworkdevicessuch p ( asswitchesandrouters,torequirementsand performancelevel) input and outputs to understand network inputandoutputstounderstandnetwork behaviorundervarioussituations. Example Example
traditionallyfocusedoncapacityplanning bandwidthsbuffer N t Networkbandwidth k b d idth networkreliability,maintainability,andavailability (RMA),

Example1.1. Example 1.1.


Theuseofvirtualprivatenetworks,intranets,or e use o tua p ate et o s, t a ets, o VPNs. p p y Thepotentialimpactonnetworksecurity, routing,andmanagement. SinceVPNstunnel(encapsulate)andcanencrypt trafficflowingacrossanetwork,theyoften requiremoreefforttosecure,monitor,and manage. manage Thoseissueswillbeconsideredduringthe architectureprocess. architecture process

RelationshipofNetworkAnalysis, Architecture,andDesign h d

Networkanalysis Network analysis


Entails learning what users their applications Entailslearningwhatusers,theirapplications, anddevicesneedfromthenetwork The purpose: Thepurpose:
understandingnetworkbehaviorundervarious situations. situations defines,determines,anddescribesrelationships amongusers,applications,devices,andnetworks. among users applications devices and networks Giveanexample fromyoursurroundings?

Networkanalysis Network analysis


The documents Thedocuments

Example1.2. Example 1.2.


Sincewearedevelopingsetsofproblem S ce e a e de e op g sets o p ob e statements,objectives,andrequirementsas inputtotheanalysisprocess,wecanscalethe architectureanddesigntomeetthescopeofthe h dd h f h project. C id th ConsidertheuseofVPNsfromExample1.1.We f VPN f E l 11 W candevelopproblemstatements,objectives,and requirementsforVPNsinanexistingnetwork, requirements for VPNs in an existing network, anddevelopananalysis,architecture,anddesign solelyaroundaVPNdeployment.

Networkarchitecture Network architecture


usestheinformationfromtheanalysisprocessto developaconceptual,highlevel,endtoendstructure forthenetwork. maketechnologyandtopologychoicesforthe make technology and topology choices for the network. determinetherelationshipsamongthefunctionsof thenetwork(addressing/routing,network the network (addressing/routing network management,performance,andsecurity), optimizethearchitectureacrosstheserelationships. Thereisnosinglerightarchitectureordesignfora network;insteadthereareseveralthatwillwork,some betterthanothers.

Networkarchitecture Network architecture

Networkdesign Network design


provides physical detail to the architecture providesphysicaldetailtothearchitecture. Itisthetargetofourwork,theculminationof analysisandarchitectureprocesses. analysis and architecture processes Physicaldetailincludes
blueprintsanddrawingsofthenetwork; selectionsofvendorsandserviceproviders; andselectionsofequipment(includingequipment typesandconfigurations)

Networkdesign Network design

Example1.3. Example 1.3.


Anetworksarchitectureanddesignareanalogoustothe architectureanddesignofahome. g Boththenetworkandhomearchitecturedescribethe majorfunctionalcomponentsofeach(forthenetwork: networkmanagement,addressingandrouting,securityand network management, addressing and routing, security and privacy,andperformance;forthehome:plumbing, electrical,HVAC[heating,vacuum,airconditioning], framing)andtherelationshipsamongthem(forthe network:interactions,dependencies,tradeoffs,and constraints;forthehome:whereeachcomponentis placedrelativetotheothers). Thenetworkandhomedesignsarealsosimilarinthatthey bothprovidephysicaldetailtothearchitecture.Forthe networkthismeanswheremajornetworkdevicesare located;and,forthehome,whereducts,outlets,faucets, l d d f h h h d l f drains,andsofortharelocated.

Processofanalysis,architecture,and design

TacticalandStrategicSignificance Tactical and Strategic Significance

Example1.4. Example 1.4.


VoiceoverIP(VoIP)isofinteresttomanyorganizationsandisan exampleofanetworkprojectthatwouldbenefitfromtacticaland l f t k j t th t ld b fit f t ti l d strategicplans. Ifweapplytheone/three/fiveyearplandiscussedearlier,the currenttarget(one yearplan)wouldinclude current target (oneyear plan) would include
thenetworkdesignforVoIP,basedonwhatisachievablewithinone year,andtheproblemstatements,objectives,andrequirementsthat resultfromtherequirementsanalysisprocess.Forexample,the currenttargetmaybeadesignthatonlypreparesforVoIPby current target may be a design that only prepares for VoIP by improvingtheoverallreliabilityofthenetwork. Theneartermtarget(threeyearplan)wouldconceivablybuildonthe currenttargettoaddorexpandVoIPtothoseareasthatcansupport it. Thelongtermtarget(fiveyearplan)wouldaddressanymajorchanges thatoccurredoverthepreviousfouryears,includingadvancementsin gy VoIPtechnologyandanassessmentwhethertocontinuewithVoIPor evolvetonewordifferenttechnologies.

Thecycle The cycle

Thetimeline The timeline

HierarchyandDiversity Hierarchy and Diversity


Hierarchyisthedegreeofconcentrationof e a c y s t e deg ee o co ce t at o o networksortrafficflowsatinterconnection pointswithinthenetwork thenumberoftiersofinterconnectionpoints withinthenetwork. asnetworksgrowinsizeandnumbersofusers, applications,anddevicesincrease,hierarchies provideseparationandstructurewithinthe provide separation and structure within the network. Why hierarchy is important? Whyhierarchyisimportant?

HierarchyandDiversity Hierarchy and Diversity


a k a redundancy or interconnectivity in the a.k.a.redundancyorinterconnectivityinthe networkdesign. diversity balances this structure that hierarchy diversitybalancesthisstructurethathierarchy providesbyinterconnectingthenetworkat differentlevelsinthedesign different levels in the design toprovidegreaterperformancethroughparts ofthenetwork. f h k Whyisthisimportant?

HierarchyandDiversity Hierarchy and Diversity

Addingahierarchy Adding a hierarchy

Addingadiversity Adding a diversity

RoutingEvolution Routing Evolution

GenerationsofNetworking Generations of Networking

ModelforNetworkAnalysis, ArchitectureandDesign h d
Modelsthatneedtobecarriedout:
Definingtheproblemstobeaddressed Establishingandmanagingcustomerexpectations M it i th Monitoringtheexistingnetwork,system,andits i ti t k t d it environment Analyzingdata Developingasetofoptionstosolveproblems Evaluatingandoptimizingoptionsbasedonvarious trade offs tradeoffs Selectingoneormoreoptions Planningtheimplementation

Example1.5. Example 1.5.


Once,inperformingananalysisonacustomersmetropolitanarea network(MAN),Irealizedthattheproblemwasnotwhatthe customersthought.Theythoughtthatthetechnologychosenat thattime,switchedmultimegabitdataservice(SMDS),andthe routingprotocol(OSPF)werenotworkingproperlytogether. However,theproblemactuallywasthatthenetworkpersonnel However, the problem actually was that the network personnel hadforgottentoconnectanyoftheirLANstotheMAN. Hence,nodatawerebeingpassed.Itwasaneasyproblemtofix, butalotofworkwasspentchangingthecustomersviewonthe problemandexpectationsofwhatneededtobedone.The bl d f h d d b d h customeroriginallywantedtochangevendorsfortherouting equipmentandreplacetheSMDSservice. Eventually,theywere convincedthattheequipmentandservicewerefineandthatthe convinced that the equipment and service were fine and that the problemwasinternaltotheorganization. AlthoughSMDSisnotwidelyavailableanymore,itsbehaviorasa nonbroadcastmultipleaccess(NBMA)technology issimilarto othercurrentlyavailabletechnologies. h l il bl h l i Togiveaccurateandrealisticview

SystemDescription System Description

Servicecharacteristics Service characteristics


are individual network performance and areindividualnetworkperformanceand functionalparametersthatareusedto describeservices. Example:
Definingasecurityorprivacylevelforagroupof g y p y g p usersoranorganization Providing1.5Mb/speakcapacitytoaremoteuser Guaranteeingamaximumroundtripdelayof100 mstoserversinaserverfarm

Demarcationpoint Demarcation point

ServiceLevels Service Levels


to make service provisioning easier in that you tomakeserviceprovisioningeasier inthatyou canconfigure,manage,account,andbillfora groupofservice characteristics(servicelevel) group of service characteristics (service level) insteadofanumberofindividual characteristics. characteristics Forexample,aservicelevel(e.g.,premium) maycombinecapacity(e.g.,1.5Mb/s)and may combine capacity (e g 1 5 Mb/s) and reliability(as99.99%uptime)

Expectedaggregatecapacity Expected aggregate capacity

ServiceRequestsandRequirements Service Requests and Requirements


Besteffort service means that there is no Best effortservicemeansthatthereisno controloverhowthenetworkwillsatisfythe servicerequest,example? Guaranteedserviceisapredictableand reliabletosuchadegreeservice,example? Predictable serviceshassomedegreeof predictability(morethanbesteffort)yetdo notrequiretheaccountabilityofaguaranteed service,example?

PerformanceofaFastEthernetConnection Performance of a Fast Ethernet Connection underBestEffortConditions

PerformanceofaFastEthernetConnection underCalladmissioncontrol(CAC) d C ll d i i l (CAC)

ServiceMetrics Service Metrics


Forserviceperformancerequirementsand p q characteristicstobeuseful,theymustbe configurable,measurable,andverifiablewithin thesystem the system Todetectperformanceisinconformance (adheresto)ornonconformance Athresholdisavalueforaperformance characteristicthatisaboundarybetweentwo regionsofconformance regions of conformance Alimitisaboundarybetweenconformingand g g ( p ) nonconformingregions(upanddown)

PerformanceLimitsandThresholds Performance Limits and Thresholds

Capacity
is a measure of the systems ability to transfer isameasureofthesystem sabilitytotransfer information(voice,data,video,or combinationsofthese) combinations of these) bandwidth,throughput,orgoodput

Example1.11. Example 1.11.


ThebandwidthofaSONETOC3clinkis155.52Mb/s, whichisthreetimesthebandwidthofanOC1link(51.84 ( Mb/s). Thisbandwidthdoesnotincludedatalink,network,or transportlayerprotocol (e.g.,SONET,IP,ortransport controlprotocol/userdatagramprotocol[TCP/UDP]) overheador,inthecaseofwide areanetworks,thelossin overhead or, in the case of widearea networks, the loss in performanceduetothebandwidth delayproductinthe network. Whenanetworkorelementisperformingatitstheoretical capacity,itissaidtobeperformingatlinerate. When an OC 3c circuit was tested values of realizable WhenanOC3ccircuitwastested,valuesofrealizable capacity(throughput)rangedfromapproximately80to128 Mb/s

RMA
Reliability isastatisticalindicatorofthefrequencyof failureofthenetworkanditscomponentsand representstheunscheduledoutagesofservice isastatisticalmeasureofthetimeto Maintainability is a statistical measure of the time to restorethesystemtofullyoperationalstatusafterit hasexperiencedafault.Thisisgenerallyexpressedasa mean time to repair(MTTR) meantimetorepair (MTTR) Availability /operationalavailabilityistherelationship betweenthefrequencyofmissioncriticalfailuresand thetimetorestoreservice. the time to restore service A=(MTBCF)/(MTBCF+MTTR)orA=(MTBF)/(MTBF+ MTTR)

Exercises
Whichofthefollowingapplicationsrequirebest g pp q effort(unpredictableandunreliable),guaranteed (predictableandreliable,withaccountability),or predictableservice.Givereasonsforyour predictable service Give reasons for your choices.
Highquality(phonecompanygrade)voicecalls VoiceoverIP(VoIP)calls FiletransfersviaFTP Audiofiledownloads Audio file downloads Acommercialvideoondemandservice Useraccesstoserversinacorporation

Exercises
In Figure 1.9, connections are added between InFigure1.9,connectionsareaddedbetween networksintheInternettoprovideabetter performingpathforselecttrafficflows.An exampleofthisisacontentdeliverynetwork (CDN).WhatisaCDN?ShowhowaCDNuses interconnectivitytoprovidebetter i i i id b performancecharacteristicstoitsusers. Wh i WhatisanRFC?LocatealistofRFCsona RFC? L li f RFC WWWorFTPserver.