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CHAPTER

Loads

2.1 2.1.1

INTRODUCTION Scope Thischapterspecifiestheminimum designforcesincluding deadload,liveload,windandearthquake loads,miscellaneousloadsandtheirvariouscombinations.Theseloadsshallbeapplicableforthedesign ofbuildingsandstructuresinconformancewiththegeneraldesignrequirementsprovidedinChapter1. Limitations Provisionsofthischaptershallgenerallybeappliedtomajorityofbuildingsandotherstructuressubjectto normally expected loading conditions. For those buildings and structures having unusual geometrical shapes, response characteristics or site locations, or for those subject to special loading including

2.1.2

Part6
StructuralDesign

61

Part6
StructuralDesign tornadoes,specialdynamicorhydrodynamicloadsetc.,sitespecificorcasespecificdataoranalysismay berequiredtodeterminethedesignloadsonthem.Insuchcases,andallothercasesforwhichloadsare notspecifiedinthischapter,loadinginformationmaybeobtainedfromreliablereferencesorspecialist advicemaybesought.However,suchloadsshallbeappliedincompliancewiththeprovisionsofother sectionsofthisCode. 2.2 2.2.1 DEADLOADS General Theminimumdesigndeadloadforbuildingsandportionsthereofshallbedeterminedinaccordancewith theprovisionsofthissection.Inaddition,designoftheoverallstructureanditsprimaryloadresisting systemsshallconformtothegeneraldesignprovisionsgiveninChapter1. Definition DeadLoadistheverticalloadduetotheweightofpermanentstructuralandnonstructuralcomponentsof abuildingsuchaswalls,floors,ceilings,permanentpartitionsandfixedserviceequipmentetc. AssessmentofDeadLoad Deadloadforastructuralmembershallbeassessedbasedontheforcesdueto: i) weightofthememberitself, ii) weightofallmaterialsofconstructionincorporatedintothebuildingtobesupportedpermanently bythemember, iii) weightofpermanentpartitions, iv) weightoffixedserviceequipment,and v) neteffectofprestressing. WeightofMaterialsandConstructions Inestimatingdeadloads,theactualweightsofmaterialsandconstructionsshallbeused,providedthatin theabsenceofdefiniteinformation,theweightsgiveninTables6.2.1and6.2.2shallbeassumedforthe purposesofdesign. Table6.2.1 UnitWeightofBasicMaterials Unit Weight Unit Weight

2.2.2

2.2.3

2.2.4

Material

(kN/m3)

Material

(kN/m3)

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Chapter2
Loads Aluminium Asphalt Brass Bronze Brick Cement Coal,loose Concretestoneaggregate(unreinforced) brickaggregate(unreinforced) Copper Cork,normal Cork,compressed Glass,window(sodalime) 27.0 21.2 83.6 87.7 18.9 14.7 8.8 22.8* 20.4* 86.4 1.7 3.7 25.5 Granite,Basalt Ironcast wrought Lead Limestone Marble Sand,dry Sandstone Slate Steel Timber Zinc 26.4 70.7 75.4 111.0 24.5 26.4 15.7 22.6 28.3 77.0 5.911.0 70.0

*forreinforcedconcrete,add0.63kN/m3foreach1%byvolumeofmainreinforcement 2.2.5 WeightofPermanentPartitions Whenpartitionwallsareindicatedontheplans,theirweightshallbeconsideredasdeadloadactingas concentratedlineloadsintheiractualpositionsonthefloor.Theloadsduetoanticipatedpartitionwalls, whicharenot indicated ontheplans,shallbetreatedasliveloadsanddeterminedinaccordancewith Sec2.3.3.3. WeightofFixedServiceEquipment Weightsoffixedserviceequipmentandotherpermanentmachinery,suchaselectricalfeedersandother machinery, heating, ventilating and airconditioning systems, lifts and escalators, plumbing stacks and risersetc.shallbeincludedasdeadloadwheneversuchequipmentaresupportedbystructuralmembers. AdditionalLoads Inevaluatingthefinaldeadloadsonastructuralmemberfordesignpurposes,allowancesshallbemade foradditionalloadsresultingfromthe(i)differencebetweentheprescribedandtheactualweightsofthe membersandconstructionmaterials;(ii)inclusionoffutureinstallations;(iii)changesinoccupancyoruse ofbuildings;and(iv)inclusionofstructuralandnonstructuralmembersnotcoveredinSec2.2.2and2.2.3. LIVELOADS General Theliveloadsused forthestructural design offloors, roof andthe supporting members shallbethe greatestappliedloadsarisingfromtheintendeduseoroccupancyofthebuilding,orfromthestackingof materials and the use of equipment and propping during construction, but shall not be less than the minimumdesignliveloadssetoutbytheprovisionsofthissection.Forthedesignofstructuralmembers forforcesincludingliveloads,requirementsoftherelevantsectionsofChapter1shallalsobefulfilled. Definition Live load is the load superimposed by the use or occupancy of the building not including the environmentalloadssuchaswindload,rainload,earthquakeloadordeadload. MinimumFloorLiveLoads

2.2.6

2.2.7

2.3 2.3.1

2.3.2

2.3.3

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Part6
StructuralDesign Theminimumfloorliveloadsshallbethegreatestactualimposedloadsresultingfromtheintendeduseor occupancy of the floor, and shall not beless than the uniformly distributed load patterns specified in Sec2.3.3.1ortheconcentratedloadsspecifiedinSec2.3.3.2whicheverproducesthemostcriticaleffect.The liveloadsshallbeassumedtoactverticallyupontheareaprojectedonahorizontalplane. Table6.2.2 WeightofConstructionMaterials Weight Material per Unit Area (kN/m2) Material Weight per Unit Area (kN/m2)

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Chapter2
Loads

Floor Asphalt, 25 mm thick Clay tiling, 13 mm thick Concrete slab (stone aggregate)* --solid, 100 mm thick solid, 150 mm thick Galvanized steel floor deck (excl. topping) Magnesium oxychloridenormal (sawdust filler), 25 mm thick heavy duty (mineral filler), 25 mm thick Terrazzo paving 16 mm thick Roof Acrylic resin sheet, corrugated ---3 mm thick, standard corrugations 3 mm thick, deep corrugations Asbestos cement, corrugated sheeting --(incl. lap and fastenings) 6 mm thick (standard corrugations) 6 mm thick(deep corrugations) Aluminium, corrugated sheeting --(incl. lap and fastenings) 1.2 mm thick 0.8 mm thick 0.6 mm thick Aluminium sheet(plain) --1.2 mm thick 1.0 mm thick 0.8 mm thick Bituminous felt(5 ply) and gravel Slates --4.7 mm thick 9.5 mm thick Steel sheet, flat galvanized --1.00 mm thick 0.80 mm thick 0.60 mm thick Steel, galvanized std. corrugated sheeting --(incl. lap and fastenings) 1.0 mm thick 0.8 mm thick 0.6 mm thick

0.526 0.268 2.360 3.540 0.147-0.383 0.345 0.527 0.431

Roof (contd.) Tiles --terra-cotta (French pattern) concrete , 25 mm thick clay tiles Walls and Partitions Acrylic resin sheet, flat, per mm thickness Asbestos cement sheeting ---4.5 mm thick 6.0 mm thick Brick masonry work, excl. plaster --burnt clay, per 100 mm thickness sand-lime, per 100 mm thickness Concrete (stone aggregate)* --100 mm thick 150 mm thick 250 mm thick Fibre insulation board, per 10 mm thickness Fibrous plaster board, per 10 mm thickness Glass, per 10 mm thickness Hardboard, per 10 mm thickness Particle or flake board, per 10 mm thickness Plaster board, per 10 mm thickness Plywood, per 10 mm thickness Ceiling Fibrous plaster, 10 mm thick Cement plaster, 13 mm thick Suspended metal lath and plaster (two faced incl. studding) Miscellaneous Felt (insulating), per 10 mm thickness Plaster --cement, per 10 mm thickness lime, per 10 mm thickness PVC sheet, per 10 mm thickness Rubber paving, per 10 mm thickness Terra-cotta Hollow Block Masonry --75 mm thick 100 mm thick 150 mm thick

0.575 0.527 0.6-0.9

0.012 0.072 0.106 1.910 1.980 2.360 3.540 5.900 0.034 0.092 0.269 0.961 0.075 0.092 0.061

0.043 0.062

0.134 0.158

0.048 0.028 0.024 0.033 0.024 0.019 0.431 0.335 0.671 0.082 0.067 0.053

0.081 0.287 0.480

0.019 0.230 0.191 0.153 0.151 0.671 0.995 1.388

0.120 0.096 0.077

* for brick aggregate, 90% of the listed values may be used.

2.3.3.1 UniformlyDistributedLoads: Theuniformlydistributedloadshallnotbelessthanthevalues listedinTable6.2.3,reducedasmaybespecifiedinSec2.3.9,applieduniformlyovertheentireareaofthe floor,oranyportionthereoftoproducethemostadverseeffectsinthememberconcerned.

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

65

Part6
StructuralDesign 2.3.3.2 ConcentratedLoads :Theconcentratedloadtobeappliednonconcurrentlywiththeuniformly distributed load given in Sec 2.3.3.1, shall not be less than that listed in Table 6.2.3. Unless otherwise specifiedinTable6.2.3orinthefollowingparagraph,theconcentratedloadshallbeappliedoveranarea of300mmx300mmandshallbelocatedsoastoproducethemaximumstressconditionsinthestructural members. Inareaswherevehiclesareusedorstored,suchascarparkinggarages,ramps,repairshopsetc.,provision shallbemadeforconcentratedloadsconsistingoftwoormoreloadsspacednominally1.5moncentres inabsenceoftheuniformliveloads.Eachloadshallbe40percentofthegrossweightofthemaximum size

66

Chapter2
Loads

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

67

Part6
StructuralDesign vehicletobeaccommodatedandappliedoveranareaof750mmx750mm.Forthestorageofprivateor pleasuretypevehicleswithoutrepairorfuelling,floorsshallbeinvestigatedintheabsenceoftheuniform liveload,foraminimumconcentratedwheelloadof9kNspaced1.5moncentres,appliedoveranarea of750mmx750mm.TheuniformliveloadsforthesecasesareprovidedinTable6.2.3.Theconditionof concentratedoruniformliveloadproducingthegreaterstressesshallgovern. 2.3.3.3 ProvisionforPartitionWalls:Whenpartitions,notindicatedontheplans,areanticipatedtobe placedonthefloors,theirweightshallbeincludedasanadditionalliveloadactingasconcentratedline loadsinanarrangementproducingthemostsevereeffectonthefloor,unlessitcanbeshownthatamore favourablearrangementofthepartitionsshallprevailduringthefutureuseofthefloor. In the case of light partitions, wherein the total weight per metre run is not greater than 5.5 kN, a uniformlydistributedliveloadmaybeappliedonthefloorinlieuoftheconcentratedlineloadsspecified above.Suchuniformliveloadpersquaremetreshallbeatleast33%oftheweightpermetrerunofthe partitions,subjecttoaminimumof1.2kN/m2.

2.3.3.4 MorethanOneOccupancy:Whereanareaofafloorisintendedfortwoormoreoccupanciesat differenttimes,thevaluetobeusedfromTable6.2.3shallbethegreatestvalueforanyoftheoccupancies concerned. 2.3.4 MinimumRoofLiveLoads Roofliveloadsshallbeassumedtoactverticallyovertheareaprojectedbytherooforanyportionofit uponahorizontalplane,andshallbedeterminedasspecifiedinthefollowingsections: 2.3.4.1 RegularPurposeFlat,PitchedandCurvedRoofs:Liveloadsonregularpurposeroofsshallbe thegreatestappliedloadsproducedduringusebymovableobjectssuchasplantersandpeople,andthose inducedduringmaintenancebyworkers,equipmentandmaterialsbutshallnotbelessthanthosegivenin Table6.2.4. Table6.2.4

MinimumRoofLiveLoads(1) TypeandSlopeofRoof Distributed Load,kN/m I II Flatroof(slope=0) 1.Pitchedorslopedroof(0<slope<1/3) 2Archedroofordome(rise<1/8span) 1.Pitchedorslopedroof(1/3slope<1.0) 2.Archedroofordome(1/8rise<3/8span) 1.Pitchedorslopedroof(slope1.0) 2.Archedroofordome(rise3/8span) Greenhouse,andagriculturebuildings 1.5 1.0 Concentrated Load,kN 1.8 0.9

III

0.8

0.9

IV

0.6

0.9

0.5

0.9

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Chapter2
Loads VI Canopiesandawnings,exceptthosewithcloth sameasgiveninIthroughIVabove covers basedonthetypeandslope.

Note:(1) GreaterofthisloadandrainloadasspecifiedinSec2.6.3shallbetakenasthedesignliveloadforroof.The distributedloadshallbeappliedovertheareaoftheroofprojecteduponahorizontalplaneandshall notbeappliedsimultaneouslywiththeconcentratedload.Theconcentratedloadshallbeassumedtoact upona300mmx300mmareaandneednotbeconsideredforroofscapableoflaterallydistributingthe load,e.g.reinforcedconcreteslabs.

2.3.4.2 Special PurposeRoofs : Forspecialpurposeroofs,liveloadsshallbeestimated basedonthe actualweightdependingonthetypeofuse,butshallnotbelessthanthefollowingvalues: a) b) c) d) roofsusedforpromenadepurposes roofsusedforassemblypurposes roofsusedforgardens roofsusedforotherspecialpurposes 3.0kN/m2 5.0kN/m2 5.0kN/m2 tobedeterminedasperSec2.3.5

2.3.4.3 Accessible Roof Supporting Members : Roof trusses or any other primary roof supporting memberbeneathwhichafullceilingisnotprovided,shallbecapableofsupportingsafely,inadditionto otherroofloads,aconcentratedloadatthelocationsasspecifiedbelow: a) Industrial,StorageandGarageBuildingsAnysinglepanelpointofthelower chordofarooftruss,oranypointofotherprimaryroofsupportingmember 9.0kN b) BuildingwithOtherOccupanciesAnysinglepanelpointofthelower chordofarooftruss,oranypointofotherprimaryroofsupportingmember

1.3kN

2.3.5

LoadsNotSpecified Liveloads,notspecifiedforusesoroccupanciesinSec2.3.3.1and2.3.3.2,shallbedeterminedfromloads resultingfrom: a) b) c) weightoftheprobableassemblyofpersons; weightoftheprobableaccumulationofequipmentandfurniture,and weightoftheprobablestorageofmaterials.

2.3.6

PartialLoadingandOtherLoadingArrangements Thefullintensityoftheappropriatelyreducedliveloadappliedonlytoaportionofthelengthorareaofa structureormembershallbeconsidered,ifitproducesamoreunfavourableeffectthanthesameintensity appliedoverthefulllengthorareaofthestructureormember. Whereuniformlydistributedliveloadsareusedinthedesignofcontinuousmembersandtheirsupports, considerationshallbegiventofulldeadloadonallspansincombinationwithfullliveloadsonadjacent spansandonalternatespanswhicheverproducesamoreunfavourableeffect.

2.3.7

OtherLiveLoads Live loads on miscellaneous structures and components, such as handrails and supporting members, parapets and balustrades, ceilings, skylights and supports, and the like, shall be determined from the analysisoftheactualloadsonthem,butshallnotbelessthanthosegiveninTable6.2.5.

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

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Part6
StructuralDesign Table6.2.5 MiscellaneousLiveLoads StructuralMemberorComponent 1. Handrails,parapetsandsupports: a)Lightaccessstairs,gangwaysetc. i) width0.6m ii) width>0.6m LiveLoad(1) (kN/m)

0.25 0.35

b)Staircasesotherthanin(a)above,ramps,balconies: i) Singledwellingandprivate ii) Staircasesinresidentialbuildings iii) Balconiesorportionthereof,standsetc.having fixedseatswithin0.55mofthebarrier vi) Publicassemblybuildingsincludingtheatres, cinemas,assemblyhalls,stadiums,mosques, churches,schoolsetc. vi) Buildingsandoccupanciesotherthan(i)through(iv)above 2. Vehiclebarriersforcarparksandramps: a) Forvehicleshavinggrossmass2500kg b) Forvehicleshavinggrossmass>2500kg c) Forrampsofcarparksetc.
Note: (1) (2)

0.35 0.35 1.5 3.0

0.75

165(2) seenote(3)

100(2)

(3)

Theseloadsshallbeappliednonconcurrentlyalonghorizontalandverticaldirections,exceptas specifiedinnote(2)below. Theseloadsshallbeappliedonlyinthehorizontaldirection,uniformlydistributedoveranylength of1.5mofabarrierandshallbeconsideredtoactatbumperheight.Forcase2(a)bumperheight maybetakenas375mmabovefloorlevel. Barrierstoaccessrampsofcarparksshallbedesignedforhorizontalforcesequalto50%ofthose givenin2(a)and2(b)appliedatalevelof610mmabovetheramp.Barrierstostraightexitramps exceeding20minlengthshallbedesignedforhorizontalforcesequaltotwicethevaluesgiven in2(a)and2(b).

2.3.8

ImpactandDynamicLoads The live loads specified in Sec 2.3.3 shall beassumed to include allowances for impacts arising from normal uses only. However, forces imposed by unusual vibrations and impacts resulting from the operationofinstalledmachineryandequipmentshallbedeterminedseparatelyandtreatedasadditional live loads. Live loads due to vibration or impact shall be determined by dynamic analysis of the supportingmemberorstructureincludingfoundations,orfromtherecommendedvaluessuppliedbythe manufactureoftheparticularequipmentormachinery.Inabsenceofadefiniteinformation,valueslisted inTable6.2.6forsomecommonequipment,shallbeusedfordesignpurposes. Table6.2.6

MinimumLiveLoadsonSupportsandConnectionsofEquipmentduetoImpact(1)

610

Chapter2
Loads EquipmentorMachinery Additionalloadduetoimpactaspercentage ofstaticloadincludingselfweight Vertical 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Lifts,hoistsandrelatedoperatingmachinery Lightmachinery(shaftormotordriven) Reciprocatingmachinery,orpowerdriven units. Hangerssupportingfloorsandbalconies Cranes: a)Electricoverheadcranes 100% 20% 50% 33% Horizontal

25%of i) Transversetotherail: maximum 20%oftheweightoftrolley wheelload andliftedloadonly,applied onehalfatthetopofeachrail ii) Alongtherail: 10%ofmaximumwheelload appliedatthetopofeachrail

b)Manuallyoperatedcranes

50%ofthe valuesin (a)above 25%

50%ofthe valuesin(a) above

c)Caboperatedtravellingcranes Notapplicable

Note:(1)

Alltheseloadsshallbeincreasedifsorecommendedbythemanufacturer.Formachineryandequipment not listed, impact loads shall be those recommended by the manufacturers, or determined by dynamic analysis.

2.3.9

ReductionofLiveLoads Reductionofliveloadispermitted forprimarystructural memberssupportingfloororroof,including beam,girder,truss,flatslab,flatplate,column,pier,footingandthelike.Whereapplicable,thereduced liveloadonaprimarystructuralmembershallbeobtainedbymultiplyingthecorrespondingunreduced uniformlydistributedliveloadwithanappropriateliveloadreductionfactor,RaslistedinTable6.2.7and setforthinSec2.3.9.1. 2.3.9.1 LoadGroups : Allpossible liveloadsappliedonfloorsandroofofabuildingduetovarious occupancies and uses, shall be divided into three loadgroups asdescribed below for determining the appropriateliveloadreductionfactors. a) Load Group 1 : Uniformly distributed live loads arising from the occupancies and uses of

(i)assembly occupancies or areas with uniformly distributed live load of 5.0 kN/m 2 or less, (ii)machineryandequipmentforwhichspecificliveloadallowanceshavebeenmade,(iii)special roof live load as described in Sec 2.3.4.2, and (iv) printing plants, vaults, strong rooms and armouries,shallbeclassifiedunderLoadGroup1.Reductionofliveloadshallnotbeallowedfor membersorportionsthereofunderthisloadgroupandareductionfactor,R=1.0shallbeapplied forsuchcases.

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

611

Part6
StructuralDesign b) Load Group 2 : Uniformly distributed live loads resulting from occupancies or uses of (i)assembly areaswithuniformly distributed liveloadgreater than5.0kN/m 2,and (ii)storage, mercantile,industrialandretailstores,shallbeclassifiedunderLoadGroup2.Liveloadreduction factor,1.0<R<0.7shallbeappliedtothisloadgroupdependingonthetributaryareaofthefloors orroofsupportedbythememberasspecifiedinSec2.3.9.3. Load Group 3 : Uniformly distributed live loads arising due to all other occupancies and uses exceptthoseofLoadGroup1andLoadGroup2,shallbegroupedintoLoadGroup3.Liveload reductionfactor,1.0R0.5asspecifiedintheSec2.3.9.3,shallbeappliedtotributaryareasunder thisloadgroup.

c)

612

Chapter2
Loads 2.3.9.2 TributaryArea : Thetributaryareaofastructuralmembersupporting floorsorroofshallbe determinedasfollows: a) TributaryAreafor Wall, Column,Pier,Footingandthelike:Tributaryareasofthesemembers shallconsistofportionsoftheareasofallfloors,rooforcombinationthereofthatcontributelive loadstothememberconcerned. TributaryAreaforBeam,Girder,FlatplateandFlatslab:Tributaryareaforsuchamembershall consistoftheportionoftherooforaflooratanysinglelevelthatcontributesloadstothemember concerned. Table6.2.7 LiveLoadReductionFactorsforVariousOccupanciesandUses Tributary(1) Area(floor,or roof,or combination) At(m2) LiveLoad(2,3) Reduction Factor, R

b)

Load Group

OccupancyorUse

a)

Assembly areas with uniformly distributed live loadof5.0kN/m2orless.

b)

Liveloadsfrommachineryandequipmentfor whichspecificloadallowancehasbeenmade SpecialroofliveloadsasspecifiedinSec2.3.4.2 Printingplants,vaults,strongroomandarmouries

all

1.0

c) d)

a)

Assemblyareaswithuniformlydistributed
2

b)

50 60 liveloadgreaterthan5.0kN/m . 80 100 Storage, mercantile, industrial, parking garage, 120 retailstores 140 280 220 300 400 800

1.00 0.97 0.92 0.88 0.86 0.84 0.81 0.79 0.76 0.74 0.70

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

613

Part6
StructuralDesign 3 a) Uniformlydistributedliveloadsfromall occupanciesandusesexceptthoselisted inloadgroups1and2above. <25 2530 40 50 60 80 100 120 140 180 220 1.00 0.90 0.84 0.78 0.73 0.67 0.62 0.59 0.57 0.53 0.50

Note: (1) (2) (3)

At=sumofalltributaryareaswithloadsfromanyoneloadgroup(i.e.LoadGroup1,2or3) LinearinterpolationmaybemadetoobtainvaluesofRlyingbetweenthelistedvalues.

= 0.25 + 14 A t forLoadGroup3

= Liveloadreductionfactor,Risbasedontherelations:R 0.6 +

8 A t forLoadGroup2and R

2.3.9.3 Determination of Reduced Live Load : The value of the live load reduction factor, R shall dependontheloadgroupspecifiedinSec2.3.9.1andonthetributaryareaofthefloorortheroofand combination thereof supported byaprimary structuralmember. Thereducedliveloadonastructural membershallbedeterminedusingthefollowingsteps: a) PortionsofthetributaryareapertainingtoeachofthethreeloadgroupsspecifiedinSec2.3.9.1shall be identified and summed up, and a value of the reduction factor R shall be obtained from Table6.2.7correspondingtoeachportionofthetributaryarea, Thereducedliveloadsorloadintensitiesshallthenbeobtainedforeachloadgroupbymultiplying theunreducedliveloadsorloadintensitiesbythecorrespondingreductionfactors,andfinally, Thetotalreducedliveloadonastructuralmembershallbedeterminedbysummingupthereduced liveloadsfromeachloadgroup.

b)

c)

2.4 2.4.1

WINDLOADS General Theminimumdesignwindloadonbuildingsandcomponentsthereof,shallbedeterminedbasedonthe velocityofthewind,theshapeandsizeofthebuildingandtheterrainexposureconditionofthesiteasset forthbytheprovisionsofthissection.Fortheoveralldesignofstructures,thegeneraldesignrequirements asspecifiedinChapter1shallalsobefulfilled. 2.4.1.1 Scope : Provisions of this section shall apply to the calculation of design wind loads for the primary framing systems and for theindividual structural components andcladding ofbuildings. The designwindloadshallincludetheeffectsofthesustainedwindvelocitycomponentandthefluctuating componentduetogusts.Forslenderbuildings,thedesignwindloadshallalsoincludeadditionalloading effectsduetowindinducedvibrationsofthebuilding.

614

Chapter2
Loads 2.4.1.2 Limitations:Provisionsofthissectionshallincludeforcesduetoalongwindresponseofregular shaped buildings, caused by the common windstorms including cyclones, thunderstorms and norwesters.However,thefollowingcasesshallremainbeyondthescopeoftheseprovisions: a) b) c) forcesduetocrosswindresponseofbuildingsandstructures, forces,suchastorsionetc.generatedduetounusualorunsymmetricalgeometryofthebuilding, and forcesgeneratedduetospecialtypesofwinds,suchastornadoes.

For calculation of wind loads arising due tothe above special cases and for buildings requiring more accurateloading information, referenceshallbemadetoreliableliteraturepertaining totheseloads,or specialistadviceshallbesought. 2.4.2 Definitions ThefollowingdefinitionsshallapplyonlytotheprovisionsofSec2.4. AWNINGS(e.g.PORCHCOVER):Arooflikestructure,usuallyoflimitedextent,projectingfromawall ofabuilding. BASICWINDSPEED, Vb : Fastestmilewindspeedinkm/hcorrespondingtothelevelof 10metres abovethegroundofterrainExposureBdefinedinSec2.4.4andassociatedwithanannualprobabilityof occurrenceof0.02. BUILDINGS:Structuresthatencloseaspaceandareusedforvariousoccupancies. CANOPY:Aroofadjacenttoorattachedtoabuilding,generallynotenclosedbywalls. COMPONENTSANDCLADDING : Structuralelementsthatareeitherdirectlyloadedbythewindor receivewindloadsoriginatingatrelativelycloselocationsandtransferthoseloadstotheprimaryframing system.Examplesincludecurtainwalls,exteriorglasswindowsandpanels,roofsheeting,purlins,grits, studs,androoftrusses. CYCLONE: Anintenselowpressurecentreaccompaniedbyheavyrainandgaleforcewinds.Itforms overwarmtropicaloceansanddecaysrapidlyoverland. DESIGNWINDPRESSURES,p:Equivalentstaticpressureduetowindincludingguststobeusedinthe

determinationofwindloadsforbuildings.Thepressureshallbeassumedtoactinadirectionnormalto thesurfaceconsideredandisdenotedas: p = pressurethatvarieswithheightinaccordancewiththesustainedwindpressureq evaluated z z atheightz,or p


h

= pressurethatisuniformwithrespecttoheightasdeterminedbythesustainedwindpressureq evaluatedatmeanroofheighth.

ENCLOSEDBUILDING:Buildingswhichhavefullperimeterwall(nominallysealed)fromfloortoroof level.

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

615

Part6
StructuralDesign ESSENTIALFACILITIES : Buildingsandstructureswhicharenecessarytoremainfunctionalduringan emergencyorapostdisasterperiod. FASTESTMILEWINDSPEED: Thehighestsustainedaveragewindspeedinkm/hbasedonthetime requiredforamilelongsampleofairtopassafixedpoint. FREE STANDING ROOF : A roof (ofany type) with no enclosing walls underneath, e.g. freestanding carport. FREESTANDINGWALLS:Wallswhichareexposedtothewindonbothsides,withnoroofattached,e.g. fences. GABLEDFRAME:Arigidframehavingverticalsidemembersandaslopedtopwitharidge. GRADIENTHEIGHT:Heightfromthemeangroundlevelabovewhichthevariationofwindspeedwith heightneednotbeconsidered. HOARDING:Freestanding(rectangular)signboards,etc.,supportedclearoftheground. ISOTACH:Alineonamapjoiningpointsofequalwindspeed. MOONSCAPEROOF:Aplanarroofwithnoridge,whichhasaconstantslope. OPENINGS:Aperturesorholesintheexteriorwallsofabuildingorstructure.Doorsorotheropenings inexteriorwallsshallbeconsideredasopeningsunlesssuchopeningsandtheirframesarespecifically detailedanddesignedtoresistthewindloadsinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofthissection. PITCHEDROOF:Abifold,biplanarroofwitharidgeatitshighestpoint. PRESSURE:Airpressureinexcessofambient.Negativevaluesarelessthanambientandpositivevalues exceedambient.Netpressuresactnormaltoasurfaceinthespecifieddirection. PRIMARYFRAMINGSYSTEM:Anassemblageofmajorstructuralelementsassignedtoprovidesupport forsecondarymembersandcladding.Thesystemprimarilyreceiveswindloadingfromrelativelyremote locations.Examplesincluderigidandbracedframes,spacetrusses,roofandfloordiaphragms,shearwalls, androdbracedframes. SLENDERBUILDINGS ANDSTRUCTURES: Buildingsandstructureshavingaheightexceeding five timestheleasthorizontaldimension,orafundamentalnaturalfrequencylessthan1.0Hz.Forthosecases inwhichthehorizontaldimensionsvarywithheight,theleasthorizontaldimensionatmidheightshallbe used. STRUCTURES:SeeSec1.2.2. STRUCTURE IMPORTANCE COEFFICIENT, CI : A factor that accounts for the degree of hazard to humanlifeanddamagetoproperty.

616

Chapter2
Loads SUSTAINEDWINDPRESSURE,q:Thetheoreticallycomputedincidentpressureofauniformairstream (fastestmilespeed)ofknowndensity,evaluatedatagivenheightabovegroundlevel,foraspecificterrain exposureconditionandforaknownoccupancyofabuilding. TERRAIN:Thesurfaceroughnessconditionwhenconsideringthesizeandarrangementofobstructions towind. TOPOGRAPHY:Majorlandsurfacefeaturescomprisinghills,valleysandplainswhichstronglyinfluence windflowpatterns. TORNADO:Aviolentlyrotatingcolumnofair,pendantfromthebaseofaconnectivecloud,andoften observableasafunnelcloudattachedtothecloudbase. TRIBUTARYAREA: Thatportionofthesurfaceareareceivingwindloadsassignedtobesupportedby thestructuralelementconsidered. TROUGHROOF:Abifold,biplanarroofwithavalleyatitslowestpoint. UNENCLOSEDBUILDINGORSTOREY:Abuildingorstoreywhichhas85%ormoreopeningsonall sides.

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

617

Part6
StructuralDesign 2.4.3 SymbolsandNotation ThefollowingsymbolsandnotationshallapplytotheprovisionsofSec2.4only: A A a B c Cc CG C
I

= = = = = = = = = = =

tributaryarea,squaremetres. areaofotherstructuresorcomponentsandcladdingthereofprojectedonaplanenormalto winddirection,squaremetres. widthofpressurecoefficientzoneusedinFig6.2.7and6.2.8,metres horizontaldimensionofbuildingsandstructuresmeasurednormaltowinddirection,metres. averagehorizontaldimensionofthebuildingorstructureinadirectionnormaltothewind, metres. velocitytopressureconversioncoefficient=47.2x106 gustcoefficient structureimportancecoefficient pressurecoefficienttobeusedfordeterminationofwindloadsonbuildingsandstructures. C pe externalpressurecoefficients forsurfacesof buildingsandstructurestobeusedfor windloadsonprimaryframingsystemsusingMethod1inSec2.4.6.4(a). C p overallpressurecoefficientforbuildingsandstructurestobeusedfor windloadsonprimaryframingsystemsusingMethod2inSec2.4.6.4(b). externalpeakpressurecoefficientstobeusedforwindloadsonbuildingcomponentsand cladding. internalpeakpressurecoefficienttobeusedforwindloadsonbuildingsandcomponents. localtopographiccoefficientgiveninSec2.4.6.8. combinedheightandexposurecoefficientforabuildingatheightzaboveground diameterofacircularstructureormember,metres diameterofacircularstructureormember,metres depthofprotrudingelements(ribsorspoilers),metres surfacedragcoefficientgiveninTable6.2.12. fundamentalfrequencyofbuildingsorstructuresinadirectionparalleltothewind,Hz designwindforcesonprimaryframingsystem,kN designwindforcesoncomponentsandcladding,kN gustresponsefactorforprimaryframingsystemsofflexiblebuildingsandstructures gustresponsefactorforprimaryframingsystemsevaluatedatheightz=h gustresponsefactorforcomponentsandcladdingevaluatedatheightzaboveground meanroofheightorheighttotopofparapetwhicheverisgreaterofabuildingorstructure, exceptthateavesheightmaybeusedforroofslopeoflessthan10degrees,metres. pressureprofilefactorasafunctionofratio horizontaldimensionofabuildingorstructuremeasuredparalleltowinddirection,metres largerdimensionofasign,metres smallerdimensionofasign,metres designpressuretobeusedindeterminationofwindloadsforbuildings,kN/m2 designpressureevaluatedatheightz=h,kN/m2 internalpressure,kN/m2 designwindpressureevaluatedatheightzaboveground,kN/m2

Cp

C pe C pi Ct D d D f F1,F2 F G G Gz h J L M N p p p p
h i z h

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Cz

Do

618

Chapter2
Loads q q q
h z

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

sustainedwindpressure,kN/m 2 sustainedwindpressureevaluatedatheightz=h,kN/m2 sustainedwindpressureevaluatedatheightzaboveground,inkN/m2 risetospanratioforarchedroofs surfacefrictionfactorgiveninTable6.2.12 structuresizefactorgiveninFig6.2.4 turbulenceintensityfactorevaluatedattwothirdsofthemeanroofheightorparapetheight ofthestructure(seeEq2.4.11) basicwindspeed,km/h distancetocentreofpressurefromwindwardedge,metres responsefactorasafunctionoftheratio andtheratioc/hgiveninFig6.2.3 heightabovegroundlevel,metres gradientheightgiveninTable6.2.12,metres powerlawcoefficientgiveninTable6.2.12 structuraldampingcoefficient(fractionofcriticaldamping) ratioobtainedfromTable6.2.12 ratioofsolidareatogrossareaforopensignfaceofatrussedtower,orlatticestructure angleoftheplaneofrooffromhorizontal,degrees heighttowidthratioforsignorhoarding anglebetweenwinddirectionandchordoftowerguy,degrees.

r s S TI V X Y

z
zg


2.4.4

TerrainExposure Aterrainexposurecategorythatadequatelyreflectsthesurfaceroughnesscharacteristicsoftheground shallbedeterminedforthebuildingsite,takingintoaccountthevariationsingroundroughnessarising fromexistingnaturaltopography,vegetationandmanmadeconstructions. 2.4.4.1 ExposureCategory:Theterrainexposureinwhichabuildingorstructureistobesitedshallbe assessedasbeingoneofthefollowingcategories: a) ExposureA: Urbanandsuburban areas,industrialareas,woodedareas,hillyorotherterrain covering at least 20 per cent of the area with obstructions of 6 metres or more in height and extending from the site atleast 500metresor 10times theheight ofthe structure, whichever is greater. Exposure B : Open terrain with scattered obstructions having heights generally less than 10m extending800mormorefromthesiteinanyfullquadrant.Thiscategoryincludesairfields,open parklands,sparselybuiltupoutskirtsoftowns,flatopencountryandgrasslands. ExposureC:Flatandunobstructedopenterrain,coastalareasandriversidesfacinglargebodiesof water,over1.5kmormoreinwidth.ExposureCextendsinlandfromtheshoreline400mor10 timestheheightofstructure,whicheverisgreater.

b)

c)

2.4.4.2 Selection ofExposure Category forPrimaryFraming System :Designwindloadfor primary framing systems for all buildings and structures shall be determined based on the terrain exposure categoriesdefinedinSec2.4.4.1.

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

619

Part6
StructuralDesign 2.4.4.3 Selection of Exposure Category for Components and Cladding : Design wind load on the componentsandcladdingofallbuildingsandstructuresshallbedeterminedonthebasisoftheexposure categorydefinedinSec2.4.4.1,exceptthatExposureBshallbeassumedforbuildingsorstructureshaving h20mandsitedinaterrainwithExposureA. 2.4.5 BasicWindSpeed 2.4.5.1 BasicWindSpeedMap:TheBasicWindSpeedMapasshowninFig6.2.1isthemapshowing thebasicwindspeedsinkm/hforanylocationinBangladesh,havingisotachsrepresentingthefastest milewindspeedsat10metresabovethegroundwithterrainExposureBfora50yearrecurrenceinterval. Theminimumvalueofthebasicwindspeedsetinthemapis130km/h.Basicwindspeedsforselected locationsarealsoprovidedinTable6.2.8. 2.4.5.2 SelectionofBasicWindSpeed:Valueofthebasicwindspeedrequiredforanyspecificlocation whereabuildingorstructureissited,shallbeobtainedasfollows: i) WhenthelocationislistedinTable6.2.8,valueofthebasicwindspeedshallbetakenfromthat table. Ifthelocationlieswithinanywindregion(shownshadedinthemapofFig6.2.1),thevaluemarked forthatwindregionshallbeused. Foralocationlyingonanyisotachinthemap,thevalueofthatisotachshallbetaken. Foralocationlyingoutsidethepositions(i)through(iii)above,linearinterpolationshallbemade betweentheadjacentisotachstoobtainthebasicwindspeed.

ii)

iii) iv)

For areas where local records or terrain conditions indicate higher values of basic wind speeds (substantiated bysitespecificanalysis)thanthosereflectedinFig6.2.1andTable6.2.8,thesitespecific valuesshallbeadoptedastheminimumbasicwindspeeds. 2.4.6 DeterminationofDesignWindLoads 2.4.6.1 BasisofWindLoadCalculation :Theminimumdesignwindloadonbuildings,structuresand components thereof shall becalculated, within the scope and limitations given inSec2.4.1taking into accountthefollowingeffectswhichshallbedeterminedinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofthissection: a) equivalentstaticpressureorsuctiononbuildingsurfacesarisingduetothesustainedormeanwind velocity,i.e.thefastestmilewindspeed, variationofthemeanwindvelocity,andhencethepressure,alongtheheightabovetheground, terrainexposureofthebuildingsite,

b) c)

620

Chapter2
Loads

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

621

Part6
StructuralDesign Table6.2.8 BasicWindSpeedsforSelectedLocationsinBangladesh BasicWind Speed(km/h) BasicWind Speed(km/h)

Location

Location

622

Chapter2
Loads Angarpota Bagerhat Bandarban Barguna Barisal Bhola Bogra Brahmanbaria Chandpur ChapaiNawabganj Chittagong Chuadanga Comilla CoxsBazar Dahagram Dhaka Dinajpur Faridpur Feni Gaibandha Gazipur Gopalganj Habiganj Hatiya Ishurdi Joypurhat Jamalpur Jessore Jhalakati Jhenaidah Khagrachhari Khulna Kutubdia Kishoreganj Kurigram Kushtia Lakshmipur d) 150 252 200 260 256 225 198 180 160 130 260 198 196 260 150 210 130 202 205 210 215 242 172 260 225 180 180 205 260 208 180 238 260 207 210 215 162 Lalmonirhat Madaripur Magura Manikganj Meherpur Maheshkhali Moulvibazar Munshiganj Mymensingh Naogaon Narail Narayanganj Narsinghdi Natore Netrokona Nilphamari Noakhali Pabna Panchagarh Patuakhali Pirojpur Rajbari Rajshahi Rangamati Rangpur Satkhira Shariatpur Sherpur Sirajganj Srimangal St.MartinsIsland Sunamganj Sylhet Sandwip Tangail Teknaf Thakurgaon 204 220 208 185 185 260 168 184 217 175 222 195 190 198 210 140 184 202 130 260 260 188 155 180 209 183 198 200 160 160 260 195 195 260 160 260 130

configurationanddynamicresponsecharacteristicsofthebuildingorstructure,

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

623

Part6
StructuralDesign e) f) occupancyimportanceofthebuilding, magnificationofthemeanwindpressureduetotheeffectofthefluctuatingcomponentofwind speed,i.e.gusts,and additionalloadamplificationresultingfromthedynamicwindstructureinteractioneffectsdueto gustsonslenderbuildingsandstructures. SustainedWindPressure:Thesustainedwindpressure,q onabuildingsurfaceatanyheightz
z

g)

2.4.6.2

abovegroundshallbecalculatedfromthefollowingrelation: where, q C
2 q =Cc C Cz V b

(2.4.1)

=sustainedwindpressureatheightz,kN/m2 = structureimportancecoefficientasgiveninTable6.2.9 = velocitytopressureconversioncoefficient=47.2x106

Vb = basicwindspeedinkm/hobtainedfromSec2.4.5
z

Cz = combinedheightandexposurecoefficientasgiveninTable6.2.10

Ifastructureislocatedwithinalocaltopographiczone,q shallbemodifiedinaccordancewithSec2.4.6.8. Table6.2.9 StructureImportanceCoefficients,CIforWindLoads StructureImportanceCategory (seeTable6.1.1forOccupancy) I II III IV V Essentialfacilities Hazardousfacilities Specialoccupancystructures Standardoccupancystructures Lowriskstructures StructureImportance Coefficient,CI 1.25 1.25 1.00 1.00 0.80

Table6.2.10 CombinedHeightandExposureCoefficient,Cz Heightabove groundlevel,z (metres) ExposureA Coefficient,Cz(1) ExposureB ExposureC

624

Chapter2
Loads 04.5 6.0 9.0 12.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 24.0 27.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 110.0 120.0 130.0 140.0 150.0 160.0 170.0 180.0 190.0 200.0 220.0 240.0 260.0 280.0 300.0
Note : (1)

0.368 0.415 0.497 0.565 0.624 0.677 0.725 0.769 0.810 0.849 0.909 0.965 1.017 1.065 1.155 1.237 1.313 1.383 1.450 1.513 1.572 1.629 1.684 1.736 1.787 1.835 1.883 1.928 1.973 2.058 2.139 2.217 2.910 2.362

0.801 0.866 0.972 1.055 1.125 1.185 1.238 1.286 1.330 1.371 1.433 1.488 1.539 1.586 1.671 1.746 1.814 1.876 1.934 1.987 2.037 2.084 2.129 2.171 2.212 2.250 2.287 2.323 2.357 2.422 2.483 2.541 2.595 2.647

1.196 1.263 1.370 1.451 1.517 1.573 1.623 1.667 1.706 1.743 1.797 1.846 1.890 1.930 2.002 2.065 2.120 2.171 2.217 2.260 2.299 2.337 2.371 2.404 2.436 2.465 2.494 2.521 2.547 2.596 2.641 2.684 2.724 2.762

Linear interpolation is acceptable for intermediate values of z.

2.4.6.3

atanyheight,zabovemeangroundlevelshallbedeterminedfromtherelation: p z = CG Cpq

DesignWindPressure:Thedesignwindpressure,pzforastructureoranelementofastructure

(2.4.2)

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

625

Part6
StructuralDesign where, p = designwindpressureatheightz,kN/m2 z C = gustcoefficientwhichshallbeGz,Gh,orGassetforthinSec2.4.6.6
G

Cp = pressurecoefficientforstructuresorcomponentsassetforthSec2.4.6.7 q z = sustainedwindpressureobtainfromEq(2.4.1).

2.4.6.4 DesignWindLoadforBuildingsandStructures : Designwindloadonthemainwindforce resisting systems of buildings and structures shall be determined by using one of the following two methods: a) Method1(SurfaceAreaMethod):Thesurfaceareamethodshallbeusedforgabledrigidframes andsinglestoreyrigidframesandmaybeusedofotherframingsystems.Inthismethodthedesign windpressuresshallbeassumedtoactsimultaneouslynormaltoallexteriorsurfacesincludingroof ofbuildingsorstructures.TheforcesF1,actingnormaltothebuildingsurfacesortheroof,shallbe calculatedasfollows: i) Forallframingsystems: F1= pAz (2.4.3)

where,F1 = windforceonprimaryframingsystemsactingnormaltoasurface,orroof,ora partthereof. p = designwindpressureonbuildingsurfaces,kN/m2 = p forwindwardsurfacesasusedinEq(2.4.2) = p fornonwindwardsurfacesasusedinEq(2.4.2) h = areaofthebuildingsurfaceorrooftributarytotheframingsystematheightz uponwhichthedesignpressurepoperates,insquaremetres. ii) Forgabledframesandsinglestoreyrigidframes: Inordertoobtainthemostcriticalloadingcondition,gabledframesandothersinglestorey rigidframesshallbeinvestigatedforboththeforceF1obtainedfromEq(2.4.8)andthatgiven bytherelation: A F1 = (p p i ) z where,p C pi q
i z

Az

(2.4.4)

= internalpressure= C q pi h = internalpeakpressurecoefficientasgiveninSec2.4.6.7,and = sustainedwindpressureevaluatedatmeanroofheight,givenbyEq(2.4.1).

Theresultantforceofthecompleteframingsystemofthebuildingshallbetakentobethesummationof forcesF1duetotheeffectsofthepressuresonallsurfacesofthebuilding.Forthemaximumforce onthebuilding,forcesalongallcriticaldirectionsshallbeinvestigated.

626

Chapter2
Loads b) Method2(ProjectedAreaMethod):Thismethodmaybeusedforanybuildingorstructureasa wholeexceptthosespecifiedina(ii)above.Intheprojectedareamethod,thehorizontalpressure shallbeassumedtoactuponthefullverticalprojectedareaofthestructureandtheverticalpressure shallbeassumed toactsimultaneouslyuponthefullhorizontalprojectedarea,exceptwherethe pressurecoefficientsaregivenforthesurfacearea,e.g.Table6.2.17.AccordingtoMethod 2,the totalwindforceontheprimaryframingsystemofabuildingorastructureshallbecalculatedusing theformula: F = p A 2 z z where,F p
2

(2.4.5)

= totalwindforceontheframedsystemofthebuildinginaspecifieddirection,kN = designwindpressure,inkN/m2, forusewiththeoverallpressurecoefficient Cp for thecrosssectionalshapesprovidedinTables6.2.15to6.2.21 = Projectedfrontalareanormaltowindtributarytotheframingsystematheight z,in

squaremetres. Intheprojectedareamethod,theoverallpressurecoefficients Cp providedinTables6.2.15to6.2.21for

A z

various crosssectional shapes, shallbeusedfor the totalheight ofthe building or thestructure having aparticular crosssectional shape. Inorder todetermine themostcritical loads, thetotal windforceF shallbecalculatedforeachwinddirectionforwhichtheoverallpressurecoefficient 2 C isprovided. p

2.4.6.5 DesignWindLoadsforComponentsandCladding:Designwindloadonindividualstructural componentssuchasroofs,walls,andindividualcladdingunitsandtheirimmediatesupportingmembers andfixingsetc.,ofenclosedbuildingsandstructuresshallbedeterminedinaccordancewiththefollowing relation: F = C q C qi Az pe pi F where, C pe C pi q q = totalwindforceonabuildingcomponentperpendiculartothesurface,kN = externalpeakpressurecoefficientforcomponents,seeFig6.2.7and6.2.8forrectangular building = internalpeakpressurecoefficientasgiveninTable6.2.14 = sustainedwindpressureactingonexternalsurfacesofabuilding = windpressuredevelopedattheinteriorofthebuilding. (2.4.6)

Thepressuresqandq shallbedeterminedasfollows:
i

Forh 18m: q

= q andq =q h i h = q for(+ve)valuesof C ,and pe z = q for(ve)valuesof C , pe h = q forallvaluesofCpe.


z

Forh>18m: q q q
i

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

627

Part6
StructuralDesign C C Ifthepeakpressurecoefficients pe and pi arenotprovidedinFig6.2.7and6.2.8andinTable6.2.14,the followingequationmaybeusedfordeterminingthewindforcesonstructuralcomponents: F 1.25 p z A = z where, p
z

(2.4.7)

=designwindpressureforcomponentsasgiveninEq(2.4.2),kN/m2 = Projected area of the component normal to wind at level, z above ground, in square metres.

A z

2.4.6.6 Wind Gust Effects : Wind gusts cause additional loading effects due to turbulence over the sustainedwindspeed.Forslenderbuildingsandstructures,thisadditionalloadinggetsfurtheramplified due to dynamic wind structure interaction effects. A slender or windsensitive building shall be one having (i) a height exceeding five times the least horizontal dimension, or (ii) a fundamental natural frequencylessthan1.0Hz.Gustcoefficient,C asincludedinEq(2.4.2)shallaccountforsuchadditional
G

gust loading effectsonnonslender and slender buildings andshallbesetequal totheGustResponse Factors,G ,G or Gassetforthbelow: h z a) GustResponse Factor, G for Nonslender Buildings andStructures :For themain wind force
h

resistingsystemsofnonslenderbuildingsandstructures,thevalueofthegustresponsefactor,G

shall be determined from Table 6.2.11 evaluated at height h above mean ground level of the building orstructure.Height h shallbedefinedasthemeanrooflevelorthetopoftheparapet, whicheverisgreater. b) GustResponseFactor,GzforBuildingComponents:Forcomponentsandcladdingofallbuildings

and structures, the value of the gust response factor Gz shall be determined from Table 6.2.11 evaluated at the height above the ground, z at which the component or cladding under considerationislocatedonthestructure.

628

Chapter2
Loads GustResponseFactors,GhandGz(1) Heightabove groundlevel (metres) 04.5 6.0 9.0 12.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 24.0 27.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 110.0 120.0 130.0 140.0 150.0 160.0 170.0 180.0 190.0 200.0 220.0 240.0 260.0 280.0 300.0 ExposureA 1.654 1.592 1.511 1.457 1.418 1.388 1.363 1.342 1.324 1.309 1.287 1.268 1.252 1.238 1.215 1.196 1.180 1.166 1.154 1.114 1.134 1.126 1.118 1.111 1.104 1.098 1.092 1.087 1.082 1.073 1.065 1.058 1.051 1.045 Gh(2)andGz ExposureB 1.321 1.294 1.258 1.233 1.215 1.201 1.189 1.178 1.170 1.162 1.151 1.141 1.133 1.126 1.114 1.103 1.095 1.087 1.081 1.075 1.070 1.065 1.061 1.057 1.053 1.049 1.046 1.043 1.040 1.035 1.030 1.026 1.022 1.018 ExposureC 1.154 1.140 1.121 1.107 1.097 1.089 1.082 1.077 1.072 1.067 1.061 1.055 1.051 1.046 1.039 1.033 1.028 1.024 1.020 1.016 1.013 1.010 1.008 1.005 1.003 1.001 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 Table6.2.11

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

629

Part6
StructuralDesign
Note:(1) For main windforce resisting systems, use building or structure heighthforz. (2) Linearinterpolationisacceptableforintermediatevaluesofz.

c)

G G Gust Response Factor, for Slender Buildings and Structures :Gust response factor, for the primary framing systems of slender buildings and structures shall be calculated by a rational analysis incorporating the dynamic properties of the primary framing system as given by the followingrelations. P 11.0T 2 S I G = 0.65 + + 1+ kc where, P=fJ 55.44fh f= sV b (2.4.8)

(2.4.9) (2.4.10)

TI

(h 13.72 )

2.35 Do

and

(2.4.11)

= fundamentalnaturalfrequencyofthebuildingorstructure,Hz = structuraldampingcoefficient(fractionofcriticaldamping)

h = meanroofheightorheighttoparapet,metre c = averagehorizontaldimensionofthebuildingorstructurenormaltowind,metre
V k J S
b

= basicwindspeed,km/h = = = = = 0.00656forbuildingorstructure 0.00328foropenframework(lattice)structure pressureprofilefactorgiveninFig6.2.2 resonancefactorgiveninFig6.2.3 structuresizefactorprovidedinFig6.2.4

OtherparametersofEq(2.4.8)through(2.4.11)aredefinedinSec2.4.2.Valuesoftheparameters,Do,s and shallbethosegiveninTable6.2.12.

ThegustresponsefactorGasdeterminedbythisprovisionshallaccountfortheloadmagnificationeffect causedbythewindgustsinresonancewithalongwindoscillationsofthestructure,butshallnotprovide allowances for any crosswind response such as that due to vortex shedding, galloping, flutter and ovalling nor for any torsional loading effect resulting from such response. Cases where crosswind or torsionalloadingispossible,specialistadviceshallbesought forfurtheranalysis,orwindtunneltests specifiedinSec1.5.3.5shallbemadefordeterminingsucheffects.

630

Chapter2
Loads

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

631

Part6
StructuralDesign

Table6.2.12 BuildingExposureParameters BuildingExposure

Do

632

Chapter2
Loads A B C 2.4.6.7 0.222 0.143 0.100 0.010 0.005 0.003 1.33 1.00 0.85 1.0/h 0.07/h 0.0061/h

tobeusedinEq(2.4.2)forthedeterminationofdesignwindpressureshallbeequaltothevaluesdescribed below: a) Cpe : externalpressurecoefficientasgiveninFig6.2.5andFig6.2.6andinTable6.2.13for externalsurfacesofbuildingsorstructures.ThiscoefficientshallbeusedwithMethod1 giveninSec2.4.6.4a(i). b) C pi


:

PressureCoefficientsforBuildings,StructuresandComponents :Thepressurecoefficients Cp

internal peak pressure coefficients as given in Table 6.2.14 for internal surfaces of buildings. Thesecoefficients shallbeusedalongwiththecoefficients C pe fordesign wind load on components, or with Cpe for design wind load on buildings as per provisionsofSec2.4.6.4a(ii)

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

633

Part6
StructuralDesign

Notation:
B C
G

: :

Horizontal dimension of building, in metres measured normaltowinddirection Gustresponsecoefficient Meanroofheight,inmetresexceptthateaveheightmaybe usedfor 10degrees Horizontal dimension of building, in metres measured paralleltowinddirection Designwindpressure 2 Sustainedwindpressure,inkN/m evaluatedatrespective heights Heightabovegroundinmetres Roofslopefromhorizontal,degrees

h
L p
h

:
: :
z

q ,q
h

:
: :

ExternalPressureCoefficientCpeforWalls* Surface Windwardwall L/B allvalues 0.10 0.65 1.00 2.00 4.00 allvalues Cpe 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.7 Forusewith pz=CGCpeqz

Leewardwall

pz=CGCpeqh

Sidewall

pz=CGCpeqz

* Thesecoefficientsmaybeusedwhenh/B5.0. Alternatively,useTable6.2.15andMethod2,Sec2.4.6.4(b)

ExternalPressureCoefficients,C WindwardSide Wind Direction h/L 0 1015 20

pe

forRoof

(degrees) 30 40 50 >60

Leeward Side

634

Chapter2
Loads Normal toridge 0.3 0.5 1.0 1.5 Parallel toridge h/Borh/L 2.5 h/Borh/L >2.5 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.2* 0.9* 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.2 0.75 0.75 0.9 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.35 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.7 forall valuesof h/L and 0.7 0.8

Coefficientsaretobeusedwithp

=CGC q ,seeSec2.4.6.6(a) h pe h BothvaluesofCpeshallbeusedforloadcalculations.


ThesecoefficientsshallbeusedwithMethod1,Sec2.4.6.4.(a). RefertoTable6.2.13forarchedroofs. Forflexiblebuildingsandstructures,useappropriate GasdeterminedbySec2.4.6.6(c). Plusandminussignssignifypressuresactingtowardandawayfromthesurfaces,respectively. Linearinterpolationmaybemadeforvaluesof,h/L,andL/Bratiosotherthanlisted.

Note: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Fig 6.2.5

External Pressure Coefficients, Cpe for Primary Framing Systems of Rectangular Buildings

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

635

Part6
StructuralDesign

636

Chapter2
Loads c) C pe
:

externalpeakpressurecoefficientasgiveninFig6.2.7and6.2.8tobeappliedonexternal surfacesofbuildingstoobtaindesignwindloadonindividualcomponentsandcladding inaccordancewithSec2.4.6.5. overall pressurecoefficientasgiveninTables6.2.15through 6.2.21forvariouscross sectional shapes to be used with the projected area of buildings or structures when Method2inSec2.4.6.4(b)isused.

d)

Cp

Ifpressurecoefficients Cpe , C , C or Cp arenotprovidedhereinforcertainbuildings,structuresor pi pe components,reliablereferencesshallbefollowedorspecialistadviceshallbesought.

Table6.2.13 ExternalPressureCoefficients,CpeforArchedRoofs Cpe Condition Risetospan Ratio,r 0<r<0.2 0.2<r<0.3* 0.3<r<0.6 Windward Quarter 0.9 1.5r0.3 2.75r0.7 1.4r Centre half 0.7r 0.7r 0.7r 0.7r Leeward Quarter 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Roofsonelevated structures

Roofs springing from 0<r<0.6 groundlevel

* Whentherisetospanratiois0.2<r<0.3alternatecoefficientsgivenby(6r2.1)shallalsobeusedforthe windwardquarter. Notes:(1) Valueslistedareforthedeterminationofaverageloadsonprimaryframingsystem. (2) Plusandminussignssignifypressuresactingtowardandawayfromthesurfaces,respectively. (3) Forcomponentsandcladding: a) At roof perimeter, use the external pressure coefficients in Fig 6.2.7 with based on springlineslopeandq basedonExposureB. b) Forremainingroofarea,useexternalpressurecoefficientsofthistablemultipliedby1.2and q basedonExposureB.
h h

Table6.2.14 InternalPeakPressureCoefficientsforBuildings,C pi Condition C pi

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

637

Part6
StructuralDesign Percentage of total wall area occupied by openings in one wall exceeds that of all other walls by 10% or more and openingsinallotherwallsdonotexceed20%ofrespective wallarea. Allothercases +0.75and0.25

0.25

Valuesaretobeusedwithq orq asspecifiedinSec2.4.6.4a(ii)and2.4.6.5. z h (2) Plusandminussignssignifypressuresactingtowardandawayfromthesurfaces,respectively. (3) Appropriate positive and negative values of C pi shall be considered when determining the Notes:(1) (4) controllingloadrequirement. Percentageofopeningsisbasedongrossareaofwall.

638

Chapter2
Loads
Note: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Verticalscaledenotes C tobeusedwithq basedonExposureB. pe h Thehorizontalscaledenotestributaryareainsquaremetres. Externalpressurecoefficientsforwallsmaybereducedby10%when10degrees. Plusandminussignssignifypressuresactingtowardandawayfromthesurfaces,respectively. Eachcomponentshallbedesignedformaximumpositiveandnegativepressures.

Roofoverhangsshallhave C giveninFig(b)tobeappliedatthetopsurfaceplusa C =+0.8appliedatthe pe pe bottomsurface.

Fig 6.2.7

C pe External Peak Pressure Coefficients for Loads on Building Components and Cladding for Buildings with Mean Roof Height, h of 18 metres or Less

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

639

Part6
StructuralDesign
Note: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Verticalscaledenotes C tobeusedwithappropriateq orq pe z h HorizontalscaledenotestributaryareaAinsquaremetres Useq withnegativevaluesof C h pe Eachcomponentshallbedesignedformaximumpositiveandnegativepressures Ifaparapetisprovidedaroundtheroofperimeter,zones(3)and(4)maybetreatedaszone(2)

Forroofswithaslopeofmorethan10degrees,use C fromFig6.2.7andq basedonExposureB pe h Plusandminussignssignifypressuresactingtowardandawayfromthesurfaces,respectively.

Roofoverhangsshallhave C giveninFig(b)tobeappliedatthetopsurfaceplusa C =+0.8appliedatthe pe pe bottomsurface. C Forparapetuse pe =1.3

Notation:

a: 5%ofminimumwidthor0.5h,whicheverissmaller
h: Meanroofheightinmetres z: Heightabovegroundinmetres.

Fig 6.2.8

C pe External Peak Pressure Coefficients for Loads on Building Components and Cladding for Buildings with Mean Roof Height, h Greater Than 18 metres

640

Chapter2
Loads Table6.2.15(1)

OverallPressureCoefficients,Cp(2)forRectangularBuildingswithFlatRoofs h/B 0.1 <0.5 10.0 20.0 40.0 1.40 1.55 1.80 1.95 0.5 1.45 1.85 2.25 2.50 0.65 1.55 2.00 2.55 2.80 L/B 1.0 1.40 1.70 2.00 2.20 2.0 1.15 1.30 1.40 1.60 >3.0 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25

Note:(1) ThesecoefficientsaretobeusedwithMethod2givenin Sec2.4.6.6a(ii).UseCp=+0.7forroofinallcases. (2) Linearinterpolationmaybemadeforintermediatevalues of`h/BandL/B.

Table6.2.16 OverallPressureCoefficient,CpforBuildingsandStructuressuchasChimneys,Tanks,etc. Shape Square(windnormaltoaface) Square(windalongdiagonal) Hexagonaloroctagonal: (D qz >0.167) Round(D qz >0.167): Typeofsurface 1 All All All Moderatelysmooth Rough(D /D0.02) Very rough(D /D 0.08) All 1.3 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.7

Cpforh/Dvaluesof
7 1.4 1.1 1.2 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.8 25 2.0 1.5 1.4 0.7 0.9 1.2 1.2

Round(D qz 0.167):

Notes:1) Thedesignwindforceshallbecalculatedbasedontheareaofthestructureprojectedonaplane normaltothewinddirection.Theforceshallbeassumedtoactparalleltothewinddirection. 2) Linearinterpolationmaybeusedforh/Dvaluesotherthanthoseshown. 3) Notation: D: diameterorleasthorizontaldimension,metres. D : depthofprotrudingelementssuchasribsandspoilers,metres. h: heightofstructure,metres.

Table6.2.17 OverallPressureCoefficientsCpforMonoslopeRoofsOverUnenclosedBuildingsandStructures

(degrees) 5 3 2

L/B 1 1/2 1/3 1/5

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

641

Part6
StructuralDesign 10 15 20 25 30 0.2 0.35 0.5 0.7 0.9 0.25 0.45 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.3 0.5 0.75 0.95 1.2 0.45 0.7 0.9 1.15 1.3 0.55 0.85 1.0 1.1 1.2 0.7 0.9 0.95 1.05 1.1 0.75 0.85 0.9 0.95 1.0

Location of centre of pressure, X/L,forL/Bvaluesof: 2to5 10to20 25 30 0.35 0.35 0.35 1 0.3 0.35 0.4 1/5to1/2 0.3 0.4 0.45

Note:1) Windforcesactnormaltothesurfaceandshallbedirectedinwardoroutward. 2) Windshallbeassumedtodeviateby10degreesfromhorizontal. 3) Notation: B: dimensionofroofmeasurednormaltowinddirection,metres L: dimensionofroofmeasuredparalleltowinddirection,metres X: distancetocentreofpressurefromwindwardedgeofroof,metres Q: angleofplaneofrooffromhorizontal,degrees.

Table6.2.18 OverallPressureCoefficients,CpforSolidSigns AtGroundLevel AboveGroundLevel M/N 6 10 16 20 40 60 80

Cp
1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.75 1.85 2.00

Cp
1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.75 1.85 2.00

3 5 8 10 20 30 40

Note:1) Signs with openings comprising less than 30% of the gross area shallbeconsideredassolidsigns. 2) Signsforwhichthedistancefromthegroundtothebottomedgeis lessthan0.25timestheverticaldimensionshallbeconsideredtobe atgroundlevel. 3) Toallowforbothnormalandobliquewinddirections,twocases shallbeconsidered: a) Resultantforceactsnormaltosignatgeometriccentre,and b) Resultantforceactsnormaltosignatlevelofgeometriccentre andatadistancefromwindwardedgeof0.3timesthe horizontaldimension. 4) Notation: Ratioofheighttowidth M Largerdimensionofsign,metres :N Smallerdimensionofsign,metres.

642

Chapter2
Loads

Table6.2.19 OverallPressureCoefficients CpforOpenSignsandLatticeFrameworks

Cp
Flatsided Members <0.1 0.1to0.29 0.3to0.7 2.0 1.8 1.6 RoundMembers D q z 0.167 1.2 1.3 1.5 D q z >0.167 0.8 0.9 1.1

Notes:1) Signswithopeningscomprising30%ormoreofthegrossareaareclassified asopensigns. 2) Thecalculationofthedesignwindforcesshallbebasedontheareaofall exposed members and elements projected on a plane normal to the wind direction.Forcesshallbeassumedtoactparalleltothewinddirection. 3) Notation: : Ratioofsolidareatogrossarea D : Diameterofatypicalroundmember,inmetres.

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

643

Part6
StructuralDesign

Table6.2.20 OverallPressureCoefficients,CpforTrussedTowers

Cp
<0.025 0.025to0.44 0.45to0.69 0.7to1.0
Note:1) 2)

SquareTowers 4.0 4.15.2 1.8 1.3+0.7

TriangularTowers 3.6 3.74.5 1.7 1.0+

3) 4)

5) 6) 7) 8)

Forcecoefficientsaregivenfortowerswithstructuralanglesorsimilarflatsided members. Fortowerswithroundedmembers,thedesignwindforceshallbedetermined usingthevaluesintheabovetablemultipliedbythefollowingfactors: For <0.29:factor=0.67 For0.3< <0.79:factor=0.67 +0.47 For0.8< <1.0:factor=1.0 Fortriangularsectiontowers,thedesignwindforcesshallbeassumedtoact normaltoatowerface. Forsquaresectiontowers,thedesignwindforcesshallbeassumedtoactnormal toatowerface.Toallowforthemaximumhorizontalwindload,whichoccurs whenthewindisobliquetothefaces,thewindloadactingnormaltoatower faceshallbemultipliedbythefactor1.0+0.75 for <0.5andshallbeassumed toactalongadiagonal. Windforcesontowerappurtenances,suchasladders,conduits,lights,elevators, andthelike,shallbecalculatedusingappropriateforcecoefficientsforthese elements. Forguyedtowers,thecantileverportionofthetowershallbedesignedfor125% ofthedesignforce. Areductionof25%ofthedesignforceinanyspanbetweenguysshallbemade fordeterminationofcontrollingmomentsandshears. Notation: : D : Ratioofsolidareatogrossareaoftowerface. Typicalmemberdiameter,inmetres.

Table6.2.21 OverallPressureCoefficients, Cp,Dand Cp,LforTowerGuys

(degrees)

Cp,D

Cp,L

644

Chapter2
Loads 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Notes:1)

0.05 0.10 0.20 0.35 0.60 0.80 1.05 1.15 1.20

0.05 0.15 0.30 0.35 0.45 0.45 0.35 0.20 0.00

The force coefficients shall be used in conjunction with exposedareaofthetowerguyinsquaremetre,calculatedas chordlengthmultipliedbyguydiameter. 2) Notation: Cp,D: Forcecoefficientforthecomponentofforceacting indirectionofthewind. Cp,L: Forcecoefficientforthecomponentofforceacting normaltodirectionofthewindandintheplane containingtheangle. : Anglebetweenwinddirectionandchordofthe guy,indegrees.

2.4.6.8 Effect of Local Topography : If a structure or any portion thereof is located within a local topographic zone, such as regions around hills and ridges as shown in Fig 6.2.9, the sustained wind pressureobtainedfromSec2.4.6.2shallbemodifiedbymultiplyingbyalocaltopographiccoefficient,Ct .Valueofthecoefficient,CtshallbeobtainedfromFig6.2.9.

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

645

Part6
StructuralDesign

LocalTopographicCoefficient,CtatCrest Upwindslope (tan ) 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.3


Legend: tan tand H Lu = = = = H theupwindslope, 2L u theaveragedownwindslope,measuredfromthecrestofahillorridgeortothe groundlevelatadistanceof5H. theheightofthehillorridgeinmeters thehorizontaldistanceupwindfromthecresttoalevelhalftheheightbelowthe crestinmeters.
Notes: (1) (2) Forintermediatevaluesofupwindslope,linearinterpolationispermitted. Ct =1.0forapointatoroutsidetheboundaryofthelocaltopographiczonesasshowninthefigure. For any point within the local topographic zone, value of the coefficient, Ct shall be obtained by interpolationfromthevalueatcrestgiveninthetableandthevalueofCt=1attheboundaryofthezone. Theinterpolationshallbelinearwithhorizontaldistancefromthecrest,andwithheightabovethelocal groundlevel.

Coefficient,Ct 1.19 1.39 1.85 2.37

Fig 6.2.9
2.5 2.5.1

Local Topographic Coefficient, Ct for Hills and Ridges.

EARTHQUAKELOADS General Minimumdesignearthquakeforcesforbuildings,structuresorcomponentsthereofshallbedeterminedin accordancewiththeprovisionsofthissection.Forprimaryframingsystemsofbuildingsorstructures,the designseismic lateralforcesshallbecalculated either bytheEquivalent StaticForceMethod orbythe DynamicResponseMethodbasedonthecriteriasetforthinSec2.5.5.1.Overalldesignofbuildingsand structures to resist seismic ground motion and other forces shall comply with the applicable design requirementsgiveninChapter1. Definitions

2.5.2

646

Chapter2
Loads ThefollowingdefinitionsoftermsshallbeapplicableonlytotheprovisionsofSec2.5: BASE:Thelevelatwhichtheearthquakemotionsareconsideredtobeimpartedtothestructuresorthe levelatwhichthestructureasadynamicvibratorissupported. BASESHEAR:Totaldesignlateralforceorshearatthebaseofastructure. BEARINGWALLSYSTEM:Astructuralsystemwithoutacompleteverticalloadcarryingspaceframe,see Sec1.3.2. BRACED FRAME : An essentially vertical truss system of the concentric or eccentric type which is providedtoresistlateralforces. BUILDINGFRAMESYSTEM :Anessentiallycompletespaceframewhichprovidessupportforgravity loads,seeSec1.3.2. DIAPHRAGM :Ahorizontalornearlyhorizontalsystemofstructuresactingtotransmitlateralforcesto theverticalresistingelements.Theterm"diaphragm"includeshorizontalbracingsystems. DUALSYSTEM:AcombinationofaSpecialorIntermediateMomentResistingFrameandShearWallsor BracedFramesdesignedinaccordancewiththecriteriaofSec1.3.2. ECCENTRICBRACEDFRAME(EBF):AsteelbracedframedesignedinconformancewithSec1.8. ESSENTIALFACILITIES : Buildingsandstructureswhicharenecessarytoremainfunctionalduringan emergencyorapostdisasterperiod. FLEXIBLE DIAPHRAGM :Afloororroofdiaphragm shallbeconsideredflexible,forpurposes ofthis provision,whenthemaximumlateraldeformationofthediaphragmismorethantwotimestheaverage storeydriftoftheassociatedstorey.Thismaybedeterminedbycomparingthecomputedmidpointin planedeflectionofthediaphragmunderlateralloadwiththestoreydriftofadjoiningverticalresisting elementsunderequivalenttributarylateralload. FLEXIBLE ELEMENT OR SYSTEM : An element or system whose deformation under lateral load is significantlylargerthanadjoiningpartsofthesystem. FLEXIBLYSUPPORTEDEQUIPMENT:Nonrigidorflexiblysupportedequipmentisasystemhavinga fundamentalperiod,includingtheequipment,greaterthan0.06second. HORIZONTALBRACINGSYSTEM:Ahorizontaltrusssystemthatservesthesamefunctionasaflooror roofdiaphragm. INTERMEDIATE MOMENT RESISTING FRAME (IMRF) : A concrete or steel frame designed in accordancewithSec8.3or10.5.17respectively. MOMENT RESISTING FRAME :Aframe inwhich members and joints arecapable ofresisting forces primarilybyflexure.

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

647

Part6
StructuralDesign ORDINARY MOMENT RESISTING FRAME (OMRF) : A moment resisting frame not meeting special detailingrequirementsforductilebehaviour. PRIMARYFRAMINGSYSTEM:Thatpartofthestructuralsystemassignedtoresistlateralforces. RIGIDLY SUPPORTED EQUIPMENT : A rigid or rigidly supported equipment is a system having a fundamentalperiodlessthanorequalto0.06second. SHEAR WALL : A wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of the wall (sometimes referredtoasaverticaldiaphragmorastructuralwall). SOFTSTOREY: Storeyinwhichthelateralstiffnessislessthan70percentofthestiffnessofthestorey above. SPACE FRAME : A threedimensional structural system without bearing walls composed of members interconnectedsoastofunctionasacompleteselfcontainedunitwithorwithouttheaidofhorizontal diaphragmsorfloorbracingsystems. SPECIALMOMENTRESISTINGFRAME(SMRF):Amomentresistingframespeciallydetailedtoprovide ductilebehaviourcomplyingwiththe seismicrequirementsprovidedinChapters8and10forconcrete andsteelframesrespectively. SPECIALSTRUCTURALSYSTEM:AstructuralsystemnotlistedinTable6.2.24. STOREY:Thespacebetweenfloorlevels.Storeyxisthestoreybelowlevelx. STOREYSHEAR,Vx:Thesummationofdesignlateralforcesabovethestoreyunderconsideration. STRENGTH :Theusablecapacity ofanelement oramember toresist theloadasprescribedinthese provisions. STRUCTURE :Anassemblageofframingmembersdesignedtosupportgravityloadsandresistlateral forces.StructuresmaybecategorizedasbuildingandnonbuildingstructuresasdefinedinSec1.2.2. TOWER:Atall,slimverticalstructure. VERTICALLOADCARRYINGFRAME:Aspaceframedesignedtocarryallverticalgravityloads. WEAKSTOREY:Storeyinwhichthelateralstrengthislessthan80percentofthatofthestoreyabove. 2.5.3 SymbolsandNotation Thefollowingsymbolsandnotationshallapplytotheprovisionsofthissection: A A
c

= =

thecombinedeffectivearea,insquaremetresoftheshearwallsinthefirststoreyofthe structure. theeffectivehorizontal crosssectional area,insquaremetresofashearwallinthefirst storeyofthestructure.

648

Chapter2
Loads A C
x

= = = = = =

thetorsionamplificationfactoratlevelx. numericalcoefficientspecifiedinSec2.5.6.1. numericalcoefficientspecifiedinSec2.5.8andgiveninTable6.2.26. numericalcoefficientgiveninSec2.5.6.2. thelengthinmetresofashearwallelementinthefirststoreyinthedirectionparallelto theappliedforces. lateralforceatleveliforuseinEq(2.5.5). lateralforceappliedtoleveli,n,orxrespectively. lateralforcesonanelementorcomponentoronequipmentsupports. thatportion ofthebaseshear V, consideredconcentrated atthetopofthestructurein additiontoFn.

C Ct D ft

F ,F ,F F F
t i n x

= = =

F x g h ,h ,h i n x I I Leveli Leveln Levelx R S T V V

= forceonfloororroofdiaphragm. = accelerationduetogravity. = heightinmetresabovethebasetoleveli,norxrespectively. = = = = = = = = = = = = = structureimportancecoefficientgiveninTable6.2.23. structure importance coefficient specified in Sec 2.5.8 for structural and nonstructural componentsandequipment. levelofthestructurereferredtobythesubscripti,e.g.,i=1designatesthefirstlevelabove thebase. theuppermostlevelinthemainportionofthestructure. thelevelunderconsideratione.g.,x=1designatesthefirstlevelabovethebase. responsemodificationcoefficientforstructuralsystemsgiveninTable6.2.24. sitecoefficientforsoilcharacteristicsgiveninTable6.2.25. fundamental period of vibration, in seconds, of the structure in the direction under consideration. thetotaldesignlateralforceorshearatthebase thedesignstoreyshearinstoreyx thetotalseismicdeadloaddefinedinSec2.5.5.2 thatportionofWwhichislocatedatorassignedtoleveliorxrespectively

w x

x W wi , wx

W = Z
i

the weight of the diaphragm and the elements tributary thereto at levelx, including applicableportionsofotherloadsdefinedinSec2.5.5.2. theweightofanelementorcomponent = seismiczonecoefficientgiveninTable6.2.22. = horizontaldisplacementatlevelirelativetothebaseduetoappliedlateralforces,inmetre, foruseinEq(2.5.5).

2.5.4

SeismicZoning 2.5.4.1 SeismicZoningMap:TheseismiczoningmapofBangladeshisprovidedinFig6.2.10.Based ontheseverity of theprobableintensity ofseismicgroundmotion anddamages, Bangladesh hasbeen dividedintothreeseismiczones,i.e.Zone1,Zone2andZone3asshowninFig6.2.10withZone3being themostsevere. 2.5.4.2 Selection of Seismic Zone and Zone Coefficient : Seismic zone for a building site shall be determined based on the location of the site on the Seismic Zoning Map provided in Fig 6.2.10. Each

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

649

Part6
StructuralDesign buildingorstructureshallbeassignedaSeismicZoneCoefficient,Zcorrespondingtotheseismiczoneof thesiteassetforthinTable6.2.22. 2.5.5 DesignEarthquakeForcesforPrimaryFramingSystems Thedesignearthquakelateralforcesontheprimaryframingsystemsofeverybuildingorstructureshall becalculatedbasedontheprovisionssetforthinthissection.Thedesignseismicforcesshallbeassumed to act nonconcurrently in the direction of each principal axis of the building or the structure, except otherwiserequiredbytheprovisionsofSec1.5.4and1.7. 2.5.5.1 SelectionofLateralForceMethod : Seismiclateral forcesonprimaryframingsystemsshallbe determined by using either the Equivalent Static Force Method provided in Sec 2.5.6, or the Dynamic ResponseMethodgiveninSec2.5.7complyingwiththerestrictionsgivenbelow: a) TheEquivalentStaticForceMethodofSec2.5.6maybeusedforthefollowingstructures: i) ii) iii) iv) Allstructures,regularorirregular,inSeismicZone1andinStructureImportanceCategory IVinSeismicZone2,exceptcaseb(iv)below. Regular structures under 75 metres in height with lateral force resistance provided by structuralsystemslistedinTable6.2.24.exceptcaseb(iv)below. Irregularstructuresnotmorethan20metresinheight. Atowerlikebuildingorstructurehavingaflexibleupperportionsupportedonarigidlower portionwhere: 1) 2) 3) both portions of the structure considered separately can be classified as regular structures, theaveragestoreystiffnessofthelowerportionisatleasttentimestheaveragestorey stiffnessoftheupperportion,and theperiodoftheentirestructureisnotgreaterthan1.1timestheperiodoftheupper portionconsideredasaseparatestructurefixedatthebase.

b)

TheDynamicResponseMethodasgiveninSec2.5.7maybeusedforallclassesofstructure,but shallbeusedforstructuresofthefollowingtypes. i) ii) Structures75metresormoreinheightexceptaspermittedbycasea(i)above. Structureshavingastiffness,weightorgeometricverticalirregularityofTypeI,II,orIIIas defined inTable6.1.3.orstructureshavingirregularfeaturesnotdescribedineitherTable 6.1.3or6.1.4. Structuresover20metresinheightinSeismicZone3nothavingthesamestructuralsystem throughouttheirheightexceptaspermittedbySec1.6.4. Structures,regularorirregular,locatedonSoilProfileTypeS 4asgiveninTable6.2.25,which haveaperiodgreaterthan0.7second.Theanalysisshallincludetheeffectsofthesoilsatthe siteandshallconformtoSec2.5.7.1(c).

iii) iv)

2.5.5.2 SeismicDeadLoad :Seismicdeadload,W,isthetotaldeadloadofabuildingorastructure, includingpermanentpartitions,andapplicableportionsofotherloadslistedbelow: a) Instorageandwarehouseoccupancies, aminimum of 25percentofthefloorliveloadshallbe applicable.

650

Chapter2
Loads b) WhereanallowanceforpartitionloadisincludedinthefloordesigninaccordancewithSec2.3.3.3, allsuchloadsbutnotlessthan0.6kN/m2shallbeapplicable. Totalweightofpermanentequipmentshallbeincluded.

c)

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

651

Part6
StructuralDesign

652

Chapter2
Loads 2.5.6 EquivalentStaticForceMethod ThismethodmaybeusedforcalculationofseismiclateralforcesforallstructuresspecifiedinSec2.5.5.1(a) 2.5.6.1 DesignBaseShear:Thetotaldesignbaseshearinagivendirectionshallbedeterminedfromthe followingrelation: ZIC V= W R where, Z= I = R = W = C =
(2.5.1)

SeismiczonecoefficientgiveninTable6.2.22 StructureimportancecoefficientgiveninTable6.2.23 ResponsemodificationcoefficientforstructuralsystemsgiveninTable6.2.24 ThetotalseismicdeadloaddefinedinSec2.5.5.2 Numericalcoefficientgivenbytherelation: 1.25S C = 2 /3 T (2.5.2)

S = SitecoefficientforsoilcharacteristicsasprovidedinTable6.2.25 T = Fundamentalperiodofvibrationinseconds,ofthestructureforthedirectionunder considerationasdeterminedbytheprovisionsofSec2.5.6.2. ThevalueofCneednotexceed2.75andthisvaluemaybeusedforanystructurewithoutregardtosoil typeorstructureperiod.ExceptforthoserequirementswhereCodeprescribedforcesarescaledupby 0.375R,theminimumvalueoftheratioC/Rshallbe0.075. Table 6.2.22 Seismic Zone Coefficients, Z Seismic Zone (see Fig 6.2.10) Zone Coefficient Table 6.2.23 Structure Importance Coefficients I, I Structure Importance Category (see Table 6.1.1 for occupancy) Structure Importance Coefficient I I 1 2 3 0.075 0.15 0.25 II III IV V Essential facilities Hazardous facilities Special occupancy structures Standard occupancy structures Low-risk Structures 1.25 1.25 1.00 1.00 1.00 I 1.50 1.50 1.00 1.00 1.00

2.5.6.2 StructurePeriod : Thevalueofthefundamentalperiod, T ofthestructureshallbedetermined fromoneofthefollowingmethods: a) MethodA:ForallbuildingsthevalueofTmaybeapproximatedbythefollowingformula: T=Ct(hn)3/4 where, Ct = 0.083 forsteelmomentresistingframes (2.5.3)

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

653

Part6
StructuralDesign = = hn = 0.073 for reinforced concrete moment resisting frames, and eccentric braced steelframes 0.049 forallotherstructuralsystems Heightinmetresabovethebasetoleveln.

Alternatively,thevalueof Ct forbuildingswithconcreteormasonryshearwallsmaybetakenas 0.031 Ac .ThevalueofAcshallbeobtainedfromtherelation: Ac= A e 0.2 + (De h n )

(2.5.4)

where,

Ac = Ae = De =

The combined effective area, in squaremetres, ofthe shear walls inthefirst storeyofthestructure. Theeffectivehorizontalcrosssectionalarea,insquaremetresofashearwallin thefirststoreyofthestructure. Thelength,inmetreofashearwallelementinthefirststoreyinthedirection paralleltotheappliedforces.

ThevalueofDe/hnforuseinEq(2.5.4)shallnotexceed0.9.

Table 6.2.24 Response Modification Coefficient for Structural Systems, R


Basic Structural System (1)
a. Bearing Wall System 2. 1. Light framed walls with shear panels i) ii) i) ii) 3. 4. Plywood walls for structures, 3 storeys or less All other light framed walls Concrete Masonry 8 6 6 6 4 6 4 4 10 9 7 8 8 8 8 8 Description of Lateral Force Resisting System R (2)

Shear walls

Light steel framed bearing walls with tension only bracing Braced frames where bracing carries gravity loads i) ii) iii) Steel Concrete (3) Heavy timber

b. Building Frame System

1. 2.

Steel eccentric braced frame (EBF) Light framed walls with shear panels i) ii) Plywood walls for structures 3-storeys or less All other light framed walls Concrete Masonry Steel Concrete (3) Heavy timber

3.

Shear walls i) ii)

4.

Concentric braced frames (CBF) i) ii) iii)

654

Chapter2
Loads
c. Moment Resisting Frame System 1. Special moment resisting frames (SMRF) i) ii) 2. 3. Steel Concrete 12 12 8 6 5

Intermediate moment resisting frames (IMRF), concrete(4) Ordinary moment resisting frames (OMRF) i) ii) Steel Concrete (5)

d. Dual System

1.

Shear walls i) Concrete with steel or concrete SMRF ii) Concrete with steel OMRF iii) iv) v) Concrete with concrete IMRF (4) Masonry with steel or concrete SMRF Masonry with steel OMRF

vi) Masonry with concrete IMRF (3) 2. Steel EBF i) With steel SMRF ii) With steel OMRF 3. Concentric braced frame (CBF) i) Steel with steel SMRF ii) Steel with steel OMRF iii) Concrete with concrete SMRF (3) iv) Concrete with concrete IMRF (3) See Sec 1.3.2, 1.3.3, 1.3.5

12 6 9 8 6 7 12 6 10 6 9 6

e. Special Structural
Systems Notes : (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Basic Structural Systems are defined in Sec 1.3.2, Chapter 1. See Sec 2.5.6.6 for combination of structural systems, and Sec 1.3.5 for system limitations. Prohibited in Seismic Zone 3. Prohibited in Seismic Zone 3 except as permitted in Sec 2.5.9.3. Prohibited in Seismic Zones 2 and 3. Sec 1.7.2.6.

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

655

Part6
StructuralDesign Table6.2.25 SiteCoefficient,S forSeismicLateralForces(1) Coefficient, S

SiteSoilCharacteristics Type S1 Asoilprofilewitheither: a) Arocklikematerialcharacterizedbyashearwavevelocitygreaterthan 762m/sorbyothersuitablemeansofclassification,or b) Stiffordensesoilconditionwherethesoildepthislessthan61metres Asoilprofilewithdenseorstiffsoilconditions,wherethesoildepthexceeds 61metres Asoilprofile21metresormoreindepthandcontainingmorethan6metres ofsofttomediumstiffclaybutnotmorethan12metresofsoftclay Asoilprofilecontainingmorethan12metresofsoftclaycharacterizedbya shearwavevelocitylessthan152m/s Description

1.0

S2

1.2

S3

1.5

S4

2.0

Note:(1)

Thesitecoefficientshallbeestablishedfromproperlysubstantiatedgeotechnicaldata.Inlocations wherethesoilpropertiesarenotknowninsufficientdetailtodeterminethesoilprofiletype,soil profileS3shallbeused.SoilprofileS4neednotbeassumedunlessthebuildingofficialdeterminesthat soilprofileS4maybepresentatthesite,orintheeventthatsoilprofileS4isestablishedby geotechnicaldata.

b)

Method B : The fundamental period T may be calculated using the structural properties and deformational characteristics of the resisting elements in a properly substantiated analysis. This requirementmaybesatisfiedbyusingthefollowingformula:

T = 2

i=1

w i i 2

g fi i
i=1

(2.5.5)

Thevaluesoffirepresentanylateralforcedistributedapproximatelyinaccordancewiththeprinciplesof Eq(2.5.6),(2.5.7)and(2.5.8)oranyotherrationaldistribution.Theelasticdeflections, i shallbe calculatedusingtheappliedlateralforces, fi. Thevalueof T determinedfromEq(2.5.5)shallnot exceedthatcalculatedusingEq(2.5.3)bymorethan40%.

2.5.6.3 VerticalDistributionofLateralForces:Intheabsenceofamorerigorousprocedure,thetotal lateral force, which is the base shear V, shall be distributed along the height of the structure in accordancewithEq(2.5.6),(2.5.7)and(2.5.8):

V = Ft +

Fi
i= 1

(2.5.6)

656

Chapter2
Loads where, Fi Ft = = Lateralforceappliedatstoreyleveliand Concentratedlateralforceconsideredatthetopofthe buildinginadditiontotheforceFn. Theconcentratedforce,Ftactingatthetopofthebuildingshallbedeterminedasfollows: Ft=0.07TV0.25V Ft=0.0 whenT>0.7second whenT0.7second (2.5.7a) (2.5.7b)

The remaining portion of the base shear (VFt), shall be distributed over the height of the building, includingleveln,accordingtotherelation:

Fx =

(V Ft )w x hx

i= 1 (2.5.8) Ateachstoreylevelx,theforceFxshallbeappliedovertheareaofthebuildinginproportiontothemass distributionatthatlevel. 2.5.6.4

w ihi

forcesFxandFtabovethatstorey.Vx shallbedistributedtothevariouselementsoftheverticallateral

HorizontalDistributionofShear:ThedesignstoreyshearVx,inanystoreyxisthesumofthe

force resisting system in proportion to their rigidities, considering the rigidity of the floor or roof diaphragm.Allowanceshallalsobemadefortheincreasedsheararisingduetoanyhorizontaltorsional momentsasspecifiedinSec2.5.6.5. 2.5.6.5 HorizontalTorsionalMoments:Provisionshallbemadefortheincreasedshearsresultingfrom horizontaltorsionwherefloordiaphragmsarenotflexible. Thetorsionaldesignmomentatagivenstoreyshallbethemomentresultingfromeccentricitiesbetween applieddesignlateralforcesatlevelsabovethatstoreyandtheverticalresistingelementsinthatstorey plusanaccidentaltorsionalmoment. The accidental torsional moment in any storey shall be determined assuming the storey mass to be displaced fromthecalculated centreofmassineachdirection adistance equal to5% ofthebuilding dimensionatthatlevelperpendiculartothedirectionoftheforceunderconsideration. Wheretorsionalirregularityexists(PlanIrregularityTypeIasdefinedinTable6.1.4)theeffectsshallbe accountedforbyincreasingtheaccidentaltorsionateachlevelbyanamplificationfactor,Ax determined fromtheformula:

Ax = max where, max =

(1.2 avg)] 3.0


2

(2.5.9)

Themaximumdisplacementatlevelx. Theaverageofthedisplacementsatextremepositionsofthe buildingatlevelx.

avg =

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

657

Part6
StructuralDesign Themoresevereloadingforeachelementshallbeconsideredfordesign. 2.5.6.6CombinationofStructuralSystems:WhenstructuralsystemsdefinedinSec1.3.2arecombined tobeincorporatedintothesamestructure,thefollowingrequirementsshallbesatisfied: a) VerticalCombinations:Thevalueoftheresponsemodificationcoefficient,Rusedinthedesignof anystoreyforagivendirectionshallnotbegreaterthanthatusedforthestoreyabove.However, thisrequirementneednotapplytoastoreywherethedeadloadabovethatstoreyislessthan10 percentofthetotaldeadweightofthestructure. StructuresmaybedesignedusingtheproceduresofSec2.5.6underthefollowingconditions: i) The entire structure is designed using the lowest value of R for the lateral force resisting systemsused,or ThefollowingprocedureisusedforstructuresconformingtoSec2.5.5.1a(iv). 1. Theflexibleupperportion,shallbedesignedasaseparatestructure,supportedlaterallyby therigidlowerportionsusingtheappropriatevalueofR. Therigid lower portion shallbedesigned asaseparatestructure using theappropriate valueof R.ThereactionsfromtheupperportionshallbeincreasedbytheratiooftheR valuesofthetwoportions.Thesefactoredreactionsshallbeappliedatthetopoftherigid lowerportioninadditiontotheforcesdeterminedforthelowerportionitself.

ii)

2.

b)

CombinationsAlongDifferentAxes: i) InSeismicZone3,whereastructurehasaBearingWallSysteminonlyonedirection,thevalue ofR usedfortheorthogonaldirectionshallnotbegreaterthanthatusedfortheBearingWall SystemdefinedinSec1.3.2. Any combination of Building Frame Systems, Dual Systems, or Moment Resisting Frame SystemsdefinedinSec1.3.2maybeusedtoresistdesignseismicforcesinstructureslessthan 50 m in height. Only combinations of Dual Systems and Special Moment Resisting Frames (SMRF)canbeusedtoresistthedesignseismicforcesinstructuresexceeding50minheightin SeismicZone3.

ii)

658

Chapter2
Loads 2.5.7 DynamicResponseMethod TheDynamicResponseMethod,whereused,shallconformtothecriteriaestablishedinthissection.The analysisofthestructureshallbebasedonanestablishedprincipleofmechanics, usingamathematical model specified inSec 1.2.6.1(a) andoneofthedynamic analysis procedures given inSec 2.5.7.2and 2.5.7.3. Themassandmassmomentsofinertiaofvariouscomponentsofastructure,requiredforthedynamic analysis,shallbecalculatedbasedontheseismicdeadloadspecifiedinSec2.5.5.2. 2.5.7.1 Ground Motion : The ground motion representation as set out in this section shall, as a minimum,beonehaving20%probabilityofbeingexceededin50yearsandmaybeoneofthefollowing: a) ResponseSpectrum:Theresponsespectrumtobeusedinthedynamicanalysisshallbeanyoneof thefollowing: i) SiteSpecificDesignSpectra :Asitespecificresponsespectrashallbedevelopedbasedonthe geologic, tectonic, seismologic, and soil characteristics associated with the specific site. The spectrashallbedevelopedforadampingratioof0.05unlessadifferentvalueisfoundtobe consistentwiththeexpectedstructuralbehaviourattheintensityofvibration establishedfor thesite. NormalizedResponseSpectra:Inabsenceofasitespecificresponsespectrum,thenormalized responsespectragiveninFig6.2.11shallbeusedinthedynamicanalysisproceduregivenin Sec2.5.7.2.

ii)

b)

TimeHistory:Groundmotiontimehistorydevelopedforthespecificsiteshallberepresentativeof actual earthquake motions for the directions under consideration. Response spectra from time history, either individually or in combination, shall approximate the sitespecific design spectra conformingtoparagrapha(i)above.

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

659

Part6
StructuralDesign c) Structures on Soil Profile Type S 4 : The following provisions shall apply when required by Sec2.5.5.1b(iv): i)

Thegroundmotionrepresentationshallbedevelopedinaccordancewithparagraphsa(i)and babove. Possibleamplificationofbuildingresponseduetosoilstructureinteractionandlengtheningof buildingperiodcausedbyinelasticbehaviourshallbeconsidered.

ii)

iii) Thebasesheardeterminedbytheseproceduresmaybereducedtoadesignbaseshear,V,by dividingbyafactornotgreaterthantheappropriateR valueforthestructurebutshallnotbe lessthanthatrequiredbySec2.5.7.2c(i). d) Vertical Component: The vertical component of ground motion may be defined by scaling the correspondinghorizontalgroundaccelerationsbyafactoroftwothirds.Alternativefactorsmaybe usedwhensubstantiatedbysitespecificdata.

2.5.7.2 Response Spectrum Analysis : Wherethisprocedureisused,anelasticdynamicanalysisofa structure shallbeperformed basedonthecriteriasetforthinthissectionwithamathematical model conformingtoSec1.2.6.1(a)andusingaresponsespectrumasspecifiedinSec2.5.7.1(a).Theanalysisshall include the peak dynamic response of all modes having a significant contribution to total structural response. Peak modal response shall be calculated using the ordinates of the appropriate response spectrumcurvewhichcorrespondtothemodalperiods.Maximummodalcontributionsshallbecombined inastatisticalmannertoobtainanapproximatetotalstructuralresponse. a) Number ofModes :Therequirement that allsignificant modes beincluded may besatisfied by demonstratingthat,forthemodesconsidered,atleast90percentoftheparticipatingmassofthe structureisincludedinthecalculationofresponseforeachprincipalhorizontaldirection. CombinationofModes:Thepeakmemberforces,displacements,storeyforces,storeyshears,and basereactionsforeachmodeshallbecombinedusingestablishedproceduresinordertoestimate resultantmaximumvaluesoftheseresponseparameters.Whenthreedimensionalmodelsareused foranalysis,modalinteractioneffectsshallbeconsideredwhencombiningmodalmaximum. ScalingofResults: Wherethebaseshearforagivendirection,determinedby thisprocedure,is differentfromthebaseshearobtainedbyusingtheprocedureofSec2.5.6.1,itshallbeadjustedas follows: i) WhenthebaseshearislessthanthatdeterminedfromSec2.5.6.1,thefollowingvaluesshallbe taken: 1. 2. ThevalueofthebaseshearasobtainedfromSec2.5.6.1,forirregularstructures. 90percentofthevaluefromSec2.5.6.1forregularstructuresexceptthatthebaseshear shallnotbelessthan80percentofthatdeterminedusingTfromSec2.5.6.2(a).

b)

c)

ii)

WhenthebaseshearisgreaterthanthatdeterminedfromSec2.5.6.1,thevalueneednotexceed thatrequiredbyc(i)above,exceptforstructuresrequiredtoconformtoSec2.5.7.1(c)

660

Chapter2
Loads Allcorresponding response parameters, including deflections, member forcesandmoments, shallbeadjustedinproportiontotheadjustedbaseshear. d) Torsion: Theanalysisshallaccountfortorsionaleffects,includingaccidentaltorsionaleffectsas prescribedinSec2.5.6.5.Wherethreedimensionalmodelsareusedforanalysis,effectsofaccidental torsionshallbeaccountedforbyappropriateadjustmentsinthemodelsuchasadjustmentofmass locations,orbytheequivalentstaticprocedureprovidedinSec2.5.6.5.

2.5.7.3 TimeHistoryAnalysis:Whenthisprocedureisfollowed,anelasticorinelasticdynamicanalysis ofastructureshallbemadeusingamathematicalmodelofthestructurespecifiedinSec1.2.6.1(a)and applying at its base or any other appropriate level, a ground motion time history as specified in Sec 2.5.7.1(b). Thetimedependent dynamic response ofthestructureshallbeobtained through numerical integrationofitsequationsofmotion. 2.5.8 SeismicLateralForcesonComponentsandEquipmentSupportedbyStructures 2.5.8.1 LateralForcesonStructuralandNonstructuralComponents,andEquipment:Theminimum designseismiclateralforcesonelementsofstructures,nonstructuralcomponents, equipmentandtheir attachments including anchorage and bracing to the main structural system shall be determined in accordancewiththeformula: F = ZIC W F where, Z I C W = = = = = Totallateralseismicforce SeismiczonecoefficientasgiveninTable6.2.22 StructureImportanceCoefficientforcomponentsasgiveninTable6.2.23 HorizontalforceCoefficientasspecifiedinSec2.5.8.2. Weightofanelement,componentorpieceofequipment. (2.5.10)

Thetotallateralseismicforce,F obtainedfromEq(2.5.10)shallbedistributedinproportiontothemass distribution of the element, component or piece of equipment. These forces shall be applied in the horizontal direction tocausethemostcriticalloading fordesign. Friction resulting fromgravityforces shallnotbeconsideredtoprovideresistancetoseismicforces. Seismiclateralforcesonattachmentsforfloororroofmountedequipmentweighinglessthan1.8kNand forfurnitureneednotbedeterminedfordesignpurposes. 2.5.8.2 Horizontal Force Coefficient C : The value of the coefficient C shall be determined as follows: a) For elements of structure and nonstructural components, and for rigid or rigidly supported equipmentsupportedbystructuresabovegrade,CshallbetakenasthosegiveninTable6.2.26. b) Fornonrigidorflexiblysupportedequipment,supportedbyastructureandlocatedabovegrade onastructure,theseismiclateralforceshallbedeterminedconsideringthedynamicpropertiesof boththeequipmentandthoseofthestructurewhichsupportsit,butthevalueofC shallnotbe lessthanthatlistedinTable6.2.26. Intheabsenceofananalysisorempiricaldata,thevalueof C shallbetakenastwicethevaluelistedinTable6.2.26butitneednotexceed2.0.

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

661

Part6
StructuralDesign For piping, ducting and conduit systems which are constructed of ductile materials and connections,thevaluesofC maybetakenasthosegiveninTable6.2.26. c) ThevalueofC forelements,orcomponentsandequipmentlaterallyselfsupportedandlocated atorbelowground levelmaybetwothirdsofthevaluesetforthinTable6.2.26. However,the designlateralforcesobtainedfromEq(2.5.10)fortheseelementsshallnotbelessthanthataswould beobtainedusingtheprovisionofSec2.5.9.

2.5.8.3 SeismicLateralForcesonFloororRoofDiaphragms :Seismiclateralforcesonfloorandroof diaphragmsandcollectorelementsshallbedeterminedinaccordancewiththefollowingformula: ( Ft + F ) i


n

F = x a)

i =x

wi

i=x

w x

(2.5.11)

w Theforce Fx determinedfromEq(2.5.11)neednotexceed0.75ZI butitshallnotbelessthan x 0.35ZI. Whenthediaphragmisrequiredtotransferlateralforcesfromtheverticalresistingelementsabove the diaphragm to other vertical resisting elements below the diaphragm due to offset in the placementoftheelementsortochangesinstiffness intheverticalelements,theseforcesshallbe addedtothosedeterminedfromEq(2.5.11).

b)

2.5.9

SeismicLateralForcesonNonBuildingStructures Nonbuildingstructuresshallincludeallselfsupportingstructuresotherthanbuildingsthatcarrygravity loadsandresisttheeffectsofearthquakeandotherlateralforces.Determinationofseismiclateralforces forsuchstructuresshallbebasedonthefollowingprovisions: 2.5.9.1 Seismic Dead Load : Fornonbuilding structures, theseismicdeadload,Wshallincludeall loadsdefinedforbuildingsinSec2.5.5.2.Inaddition, W shallincludeallnormaloperatingcontentsfor structuressuchastanks,vessels,binsandpiping. 2.5.9.2 Fundamental Period : For structures with primary framing systems similar to buildings, the fundamentalperiodT,shallbedeterminedinaccordancewithSec2.5.6.2.Forotherstructures,Tshallbe obtainedbyusingarationalmethodsuchasMethodBofSec2.5.6.2. 2.5.9.3 StructuresSimilartoBuildings:Theseismiclateralforcesonstructureswithprimaryframing systems similar to buildings (i.e. structural systems listed in Table 6.2.24) shall be determined in accordancewiththeprovisionsofSec2.5.5through2.5.8withfollowingmodifications: a) Intermediatemomentresistingframes(IMRF)maybeusedinstructureswithinSeismicZone3and instructureimportancecategoriesIIIthroughV,if,(i)thestructureislessthan15minheight,and (ii)R=4.0isusedinloadcalculations. SeismicdeadloadandstructureperiodshallbecalculatedinaccordancewithSec2.5.5.2and2.5.9.2 respectively.

b)

662

Chapter2
Loads Table6.2.26 HorizontalForceCoefficient,C forElements,ComponentsandEquipment ElementsofStructuresandNonstructuralComponentsandEquipment (1) I ElementsofStructures 1. Wallsincludingthefollowing: a. Unbraced(cantilevered)parapets b. Otherexteriorwallsabovethegroundfloor(2,3) c. Allinteriorbearingandnonbearingwallsandpartitions(3) d. Masonryorconcretefencesover1.8mhigh 2. Penthouse(exceptwhenframedbyanextensionofthestructuralframe) 3. Connectionsforprefabricatedstructuralelementsotherthanwalls,withforce appliedatcentreofgravity 4. II. Diaphragms (3,5)
(4)

ValueofC

2.00 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75

NonstructuralComponents 1. Exteriorandinteriorornamentationandappendages 2. Chimneys,stacks,trussedtowersandtanksonlegs: a. Supportedonorprojectingasanunbracedcantileverabovetheroofmore thanonehalftheirtotalheight b. Allothers,includingthosesupportedbelowtheroofwithunbraced projectionabovetherooflessthanonehalftheirheight,orbracedorguyed tothestructuralframeatorabovetheircentresofmass 3. Signsandbillboards 4. Storageracks(includingcontents) 5. Anchorageforpermanentfloorsupportedcabinetsandbookstacksmorethan 1.5minheight(includingcontents) 6. 7. Anchorageforsuspendedceilingsandlightfixtures(4,6) Accessfloorsystems (4,7)

2.00 2.00 0.75

2.00 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75

III.

Equipment 1. Tanksandvessels(includingcontents),togetherwithsupportsystemsand anchorage 2. Electrical,mechanicalandplumbingequipmentandassociatedconduit, ductworkandpiping,andmachinery


(8)

0.75 0.75

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

663

Part6
StructuralDesign
Notes:(1) SeeSec2.5.8.2foritemssupportedatorbelowgrade. (2) SeeSec1.7.2.3and2.5.8.2 (3) Whereflexiblediaphragmsprovidelateralsupportforwallsandpartitions,thevalueofC foranchorageshallbe increased50percentforthecentreonehalfofthediaphragmspan. (4) AppliestoSeismicZones2and3only. (5) SeeSec1.7.2.9and2.5.8.3. (6) Ceilingweightshallincludealllightfixturesandotherequipmentorpartitionswhicharelaterallysupportedby 2 theceiling.Forthepurposeofdeterminingtheseismicforce,aceilingweightofnotlessthan0.2kN/m shallbe used.Ceilingsconstructedoflathandplasterorgypsumboard,screwornailattachedtosuspendedmembersthat supportaceilingatonelevelextendingfromwalltowallneednotbeanalysedprovidedthewallsarenotover15 mapart. (7) Wforaccessfloorsystemsshallbethedeadloadoftheaccessfloorsystemsplus25percentofthefloorliveload 2 plusa0.5kN/m partitionloadallowance. (8) Equipmentincludes,butisnotlimitedto,boilers,chillers,heatexchangers,pumps,airhandingunits,cooling towers,controlpanels,motors,switchgear,transformersandlifesafetyequipment.Italsoincludesmajorconduit, ductingandpipingservingsuchequipmentandfiresprinklersystems.SeeSec2.5.8.2foradditionalrequirements fordeterminingC fornonrigidorflexiblymountedequipment.

664

Chapter2
Loads 2.5.9.4 RigidStructures :Forrigidstructures(i.e.thosewithperiod, T 0.06second)includingtheir anchorage,thetotallateralforce,Vshallbedeterminedinaccordancewiththerelation: V=0.5ZIW (2.5.12)

2.5.9.5 FlatbottomTanksatorBelowGrade: Seismicforcesforflatbottomtanksorothertankswith supported bottoms, founded at or below grade, shall be calculated using the procedure of Sec 2.5.9.4 consideringtheentireweightofthetankanditscontents.Alternatively,suchforcesmaybedetermined usingoneofthefollowingmethods. a) A response spectrum analysis, which includes consideration of the actual ground motion anticipatedatthesiteandtheinertialeffectsofthecontainedfluid. AsubstantiatedanalysisprescribedfortheparticulartypeoftankprovidedthattheseismicZones andStructureImportanceCategoriesareinconformancewithFig6.2.10andSec1.2.3respectively.

b)

2.5.9.6 OtherStructures : For structures (other thanbuildings), which arenotcoveredbySec2.5.9.3 through2.5.9.5,theminimumseismiclateralforcesshallbedeterminedinaccordancewiththefollowing provisions: a) Thetotallateralseismic force, V shallbedetermined using theprovisions ofSec2.5.6with the coefficientRtakenfromTable6.2.27.However,theratioC/Rshallnotbelessthan0.5. Table6.2.27 Coefficient,RforNonBuildingStructures StructureType 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. b) Tanks,vesselsorpressurizedspheresonbracedorunbracedlegs Castinplaceconcretesilosandchimneyshavingwallscontinuoustothe foundation Distributedmasscantileverstructuressuchasstacks,chimneys,silosandskirt supportedverticalvessels Trussedtowers(freestandingorguyed),guyedstacksandchimneys Invertedpendulumtypestructures Coolingtowers Binsandhoppersonbracedorunbracedlegs Storageracks Signsandbillboards Amusementstructuresandmonuments Allotherselfsupportingstructuresnototherwisecovered Coefficient R 3 5 4 4 3 5 4 5 5 3 4

The vertical distribution of the total lateral seismic force, V,may be determined by one of the followingprocedures: 1. UsingprovisionsofSec2.5.6.3.

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

665

Part6
StructuralDesign 2. UsingproceduresofSec2.5.7.

Exception: ForirregularstructuresassignedtoStructureImportanceCategoriesIandII,whichcannotbemodeledas asinglemass,theproceduresofSec2.5.7shallbeused.

c)

Whenanyotherestablishedstandardormethodisusedasabasisforobtainingtheseismiclateral forcesforaparticulartypeofnonbuildingstructurecoveredbythissection,suchastandardmay beusedsubjecttothefollowinglimitations: i) TheSeismicZones andStructureImportance Categoriesshallbeinconformancewiththe requirementsofSec2.5.4and1.2.3respectively.

2.6 2.6.1

Thevaluesfortotallateralforceandtotalbaseoverturningmomentusedindesignshallnot belessthan80%ofthevalueswhichwouldbeobtainedusingtheseprovisions. MISCELLANEOUSLOADS General Theproceduresandlimitationsforthedeterminationofselectedmiscellaneousloadsareprovidedinthis section.Loadsthatarenotspecifiedinthissectionorelsewhereinthischapter,maybedeterminedbased oninformationfromreliablereferencesorspecialistadvicemaybesought. Definitions Thefollowingdefinitionsandnotationshallapplytotheprovisionsofthissectiononly. ESSENTIALFACILITIES:Buildingsandstructureswhicharenecessarytoremainfunctionalduringan emergencyorapostdisasterperiod. RATIONAL ANALYSIS : An analysis based on established methods or theories using mathematical formulaeandactualorappropriatelyassumeddata. SITESPECIFIC DATA :Dataobtainedeitherfrommeasurements takenatasiteorfromsubstantiated fieldinformationrequiredspecificallyforthestructureconcerned.

ii)

2.6.2

2.6.3

RainLoads Rainloadsshallbedeterminedinaccordancewiththefollowingprovisions. 2.6.3.1 BlockedDrains:Eachportionofaroofshallbedesignedtosustaintheloadfromallrainwater thatcouldbeaccumulatedonitiftheprimarydrainagesystemforthatportionisundersizedorblocked. Pondinginstabilityshallbeconsideredinthissituation. 2.6.3.2 ControlledDrainage:Roofsequippedwithcontrolleddrainageprovisionsshallbedesignedto

sustainallrainwaterloadsonthemtotheelevationofthesecondarydrainagesystemplus0.25kN/m 2. Pondinginstabilityshallbeconsideredinthissituation. 2.6.4 LoadsDuetoFloodandSurge Forthedeterminationoffloodandsurgeloadsonastructuralmember,considerationshallbegivento bothhydrostaticandhydrodynamiceffects.Requiredloadingshallbedeterminedinaccordancewiththe established principlesofmechanics basedonsitespecificcriteriaandincompliance withthefollowing

666

Chapter2
Loads provisionsofthissection.Foressentialfacilitieslikecycloneandfloodsheltersandforhazardousfacilities specifiedinTable6.1.1,valuesofmaximumfloodelevation,surgeheight,windvelocitiesetc.,requiredfor thedetermination offloodand surgeload,shallbetakencorresponding to100yearreturnperiod.For structuresother than essential andhazardous facilities,thesevalues,shallbebasedon50yearreturn period. 2.6.4.1 FloodLoadsonStructuresatInlandAreas:Forstructuressitedatinlandareassubjecttoflood, loadsduetofloodshallbedeterminedconsideringhydrostaticeffectswhichshallbecalculatedbasedon the flood elevation of 50year return period. For riverside structures such as that under Exposure C specifiedinSec2.4.4.1,hydrodynamicforces,arisingduetoapproachingwindgeneratedwavesshallalso be determined in addition to the hydrostatic load on them. In this case, the amplitude of such wind inducedwaterwavesshallbeobtainedfromsitespecificdata. 2.6.4.2 FloodandSurgeLoadsonStructuresatCoastalAreas:Forstructuressitedatcoastalareas,the hydrostaticandhydrodynamicloadsshallbedeterminedasfollows: a) Hydrostatic Loads : The hydrostatic loads on structural elements and foundations shall be determined based onthemaximum staticheight ofwater, Hm producedbyfloodsorsurgesas givenbytherelation: Hm=max(hs,hf) where, hs hf=yTygand = Maximumsurgeheightasspecifiedina(i)below. = Elevationoftheextremesurfacewaterlevelcorrespondingtoa Tyearreturnperiod specifiedin(ii)below,metres = Elevationofgroundlevelatsite,metres. (2.6.1) (2.6.2)

yT yg i)

MaximumSurgeHeight, hs:Themaximumsurgeheight, hs,associatedwithcyclones,shall bethatcorrespondingtoa50yearora100yearreturnperiodasmaybeapplicable,basedon sitespecificanalysis.Intheabsence ofamorerigoroussitespecificanalysis,thefollowing relationmaybeused: hs=hT(x1)k where, (2.6.3)

hT = designsurgeheightcorrespondingtoareturnperiodof Tyearsatsea x = k =

coast,inmetres,giveninTable6.2.28. distanceofthestructuresitemeasuredfromthespringtidehighwater limitontheseacoast,inkm;x=1,ifx<1. rateofdecreaseinsurgeheightinm/km;thevalueofkmaybetakenas 1/2forChittagongCox'sBazarTeknafcoastandas1/3forothercoastal areas.

ii)

ExtremeSurfaceWaterLevel,y :Theelevationoftheextremesurfacewaterlevel,y fora T T site,whichmaynotbeassociatedwithacyclonicstormsurge,shallbethatobtainedfroma

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

667

Part6
StructuralDesign sitespecificanalysiscorrespondingtoa50yearora100yearreturnperiod.Valuesofy are
T

giveninTable6.2.29forselectedcoastallocationswhichmaybeusedintheabsenceofany sitespecificdata. b) Hydrodynamic Loads : The hydrodynamic load applied on a structural element due to wind induced local waves of water, shall be determined by a rational analysis using an established methodandbasedonsitespecificdata.Intheabsenceofasitespecificdatatheamplitudeofthe localwave,tobeusedintherationalanalysis,shallbetakenashw=hs/41m,where,hsisgivenin Sec2.6.4.2(a).Suchforcesshallbecalculatedbasedon50yearor100yearreturnperiodoffloodor surge.Thecorrespondingwindvelocitiesshallbe260km/hor289km/hrespectively. 2.6.4.3 BreakawayWalls:Whennonstructuralwalls,partitionsorothernonstructuralelementslocated belowthemaximumfloodorsurgeelevation,arerequiredtobreakawayunderhightidesorwaveaction, suchnonstructuralelementsshallbedesignedtosustainamaximumuniformlydistributedloadof1.0 kN/m2butnotlessthan0.5kN/m2appliedonaverticalprojectionofthearea. 2.6.5

TemperatureEffects Temperatureeffects,ifsignificant,shallbeconsideredinthedesignofstructuresorcomponentsthereofin accordancewiththeprovisionofthissection. Indeterminingthetemperatureeffectsonastructure,thefollowingprovisionsshallbeconsidered: a) Thetemperaturesindicated,shallbetheairtemperatureintheshade.Therangeofthevariationin temperatureforabuildingsiteshallbetakenintoconsideration. Effectsofthevariationoftemperaturewithinthematerialofastructuralelementshallbeaccounted forbyoneofthefollowingmethods. i) ii) relievethestressesbyprovidingadequatenumbersofexpansionorcontractionjoints, designthestructuralelementtosustainadditionalstressesduetotemperatureeffects. Table6.2.28

b)

DesignSurgeHeightsattheSeaCoast,hT* CoastalRegion SurgeHeightattheSeaCoast,hT(m) T=50year(1) T=100year(2)

668

Chapter2
Loads TeknaftoCox'sBazar ChakariatoAnwara,andMaheshkhaliKutubdia Islands ChittagongtoNoakhali Sandwip,Hatiyaandallislandsinthisregion BholatoBarguna SarankholatoShyamnagar
*ValuespreparedfrominformationobtainedfromAnnexD3,MCSP. Note:(1) Thesevaluesmaybeusedintheabsenceofsitespecificdataforstructuresotherthanessential facilitieslistedinTable6.1.1. (2) Thesevaluesmaybeusedintheabsenceofsitespecificdataforessentialfacilitieslistedin Table6.1.1.

4.5 7.1

5.8 8.6

7.9 7.9 6.2 5.3

9.6 9.6 7.7 6.4

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

669

Part6
StructuralDesign Table6.2.29 ExtremeSurfaceWaterLevelsDuringMonsoonatSelectedLocationsofthe CoastalAreaabovePWDDatum,y *
T

CoastalArea

y (m)
T

Location

Thana

T=50years(1)

T=100years(2)

Teknaf Cox'sBazar Shaflapur Lemsikhali Banigram Chittagong Patenga Sonapur Sandwip Companyganj Hatiya Daulatkhan Dashmina Galachipa Patuakhali Khepupara Bamna Patharghata Raenda Chardouni Mongla Kobodak (riverestuary) Kaikhali

Teknaf Cox'sBazar Moheshkhali Kutubdia Patiya Bandar Bandar Sonagazi Sandwip Companyganj Hatiya Daulatkhan Dashmina Galachipa Patuakhali Kalapara Bamna Patharghata Sarankhola Patharghata Monglaport Shyamnagar Shyamnagar

2.33 3.84 4.67 4.95 5.05 4.72 4.08 7.02 6.09 7.53 5.55 4.62 3.60 3.79 2.87 2.93 3.32 3.65 3.66 4.41 3.23 3.51 3.94

2.44 3.88 4.87 5.19 5.24 4.88 4.16 7.11 6.2 7.94 5.76 4.72 3.73 3.92 3.03 3.02 3.37 3.84 3.75 4.66 3.36 3.87 4.12

*ValuespreparedfrominformationobtainedfromAnnexD3,MCSP Note:(1) These values may be used in theabsence of site specific data for structures in StructureImportanceCategoriesIII,IVandVlistedinTable6.1.1. (2) Thesevaluesmaybeusedintheabsenceofsitespecificdataforstructuresin StructureImportanceCategoriesIandIIlistedinTable6.1.1.

c)

whenthemethodb(ii)aboveisconsideredtobeapplicable,thestructuralanalysisshalltakeinto accountthefollowing:

670

Chapter2
Loads i) ii) thevariationintemperaturewithinthematerialofthestructuralelement,exposurecondition oftheelementandtherateatwhichthematerialabsorborradiateheat. the warping or any other distortion caused due to temperature changes and temperature gradientinthestructuralelement.

d)

When itcan bedemonstrated byestablished principle ofmechanics orbyanyother means that neglectingsomeoralloftheeffectsoftemperature,doesnotaffectthesafetyandserviceabilityof thestructure,thetemperatureeffectcanbeconsideredinsignificantandneednotbeconsideredin design.

2.6.6

SoilandHydrostaticPressure Forstructuresorportionsthereof,lyingbelowgroundlevel,loadsduetosoilandhydrostaticpressure shallbedeterminedinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofthissectionandappliedinadditiontoallother applicableloads. 2.6.6.1 Pressure on Basement Wall : In the design of basement walls and similar vertical or nearly verticalstructuresbelowgrade,provisionshallbemadeforthelateralpressureofadjacentsoil.Allowance shallbemadeforpossiblesurchargeduetofixedormovingloads.Whenaportionorthewholeofthe adjacentsoilisbelowthesurroundingwatertable,computationsshallbebasedonthesubmergedunit weightofsoil,plusfullhydrostaticpressure.

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode

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StructuralDesign 2.6.6.2 UpliftonFloors:Inthedesignofbasementfloorsandsimilarhorizontalornearlyhorizontalconstruction belowgrade,theupwardpressureofwater,ifany,shallbetakenasthefullhydrostaticpressureapplied overtheentirearea.Thehydrostaticheadshallbemeasuredfromtheundersideoftheconstruction. LoadsDuetoExplosions Loadsonbuildingsorportionsthereof,shallbeassessedinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofthissection. 2.6.7.1 ExplosionEffectsinClosedRooms: a) DeterminationofLoadsandResponse:Internaloverpressuredevelopedfromaninternalexplosion suchasthatduetoleaksingaspipes,evaporationofvolatileliquids,internaldustexplosionetc.,in roomsofsizescomparabletoresidentialroomsand withventilationareasconsistingofwindow glassbreakingatapressureof4kN/m2(34mmmachinemadeglass)maybecalculatedfromthe followingmethod: i) Theoverpressure, qoprovidedinFig6.2.12(a)shallbeassumedtodependonafactor Ao/v, where,Aoisthetotalwindowareainm2andvisthevolumeinm3oftheroomconsidered, ii)

2.6.7

Theinternalpressureshallbeassumedtoactsimultaneouslyuponallwallsandfloorsinone closedroom,and TheactionqoobtainedfromFig6.2.12(a)maybetakenasstaticaction.

iii)

Whenatimedependentresponseisrequired,animpulsiveforcefunctionsimilartothatshownin Fig6.2.12(b)shallbeusedinadynamicanalysis,wheret1isthetimefromthestartofcombustion until maximum pressure is reached and t2 is the time from maximum pressure to the end of combustion.Fort1andt2 themostunfavourablevaluesshallbechoseninrelationtothedynamic propertiesofthestructures.However,thevaluesshallbechosenwithintheintervalsasgivenin Fig6.2.12(b). Thepressuremaybeappliedsolelyinoneroomorinmorethanoneroomatthesametime.Inthe lattercase,allroomsareincorporatedinthevolumev.Onlywindowsorothersimilarlyweakand light weight structural elements may be taken as ventilation areas even though certain limited structuralpartsbreakatpressureslessthanqo.

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Loads b) Limitations:Procedurefordeterminingexplosionloadsgivenin(a)aboveshallhavethefollowing limitations: i) ValuesofqogiveninFig6.2.12(a)arebasedontestswithgasexplosionsinroomcorresponding to ordinary residential flats, and may be applied to considerably different conditions with cautionafterappropriateadjustmentofthevaluesbasedonmoreaccurateinformation. ii) Fig6.2.12shallbetakenasaguideonly,andprobabilityofoccurrenceofanexplosionshallbe checkedineachcaseusingappropriatevalues.

2.6.7.2 MinimumDesignPressure:Walls,floorsandroofsandtheirsupportingmembersseparatinga use from an explosion exposure, shall be designed to sustain the anticipated maximum load effects resultingfromsuchuseincludinganydynamiceffects,butforaminimuminternalpressureorsuctionof5 kN/m2,inadditiontoallotherloadsspecifiedinthischapter. 2.6.7.3

designedtorelieveatamaximuminternalpressureof1.0kN/m2.

Design Pressure on Relief Vents : When pressurerelief vents are used, such vents shall be

2.6.7.4 LoadsDuetoOtherExplosions:Loadsarisingfromothertypesofexplosions,suchasthosefrom externalgascloudexplosions,externalexplosionsduetohighexplosives(TNT)etc.shallbedetermined, forspecificcases,byrationalanalysesbasedoninformationfromreliablereferencesorspecialistadvice shallbesought. 2.6.8 VerticalForcesonAirRaidShelters For the design of air raid shelters located in a building e.g. in the basement below ground level, the characteristicverticalloadshallbedeterminedinaccordancewithprovisionsofSec2.6.8.1below. 2.6.8.1 CharacteristicVerticalLoads:Buildingsinwhichtheindividualfloorsareacteduponbyatotal

distributedliveloadofupto5.0kN/m 2,verticalforcesonairraidsheltersgenerallylocatedbelowground level,suchasabasement,shallbeconsideredtohavethecharacteristicvaluesprovidedinTable6.2.30.In thecaseofbuildingshavingfloorsthatareacteduponbyaliveloadlargerthan5.0kN/m 2,abovevalues shallbeincreasedbythedifferencebetweentheaverageliveloadsonallstoreysabovetheoneusedasthe shelterand5.0kN/m2.

Table6.2.30 CharacteristicVerticalLoadsforanAirRaidShelterinaBuilding No.ofStoreys(1) AbovetheAirRaidShelter <2 34 >4 Buildingsofparticularlystableconstruction irrespectiveofthenumberofstoreys VerticalLoad kN/m2 28 34 41 28(2)

Note:(1) Storeysshallmeaneveryusablestoreyabovetheshelterfloor (2) Buildingsofparticularlystableconstructionshallmeanbuildingshaving bearingstructuralelementsmadefromreinforcedinsituconcrete.

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StructuralDesign LoadsonHelicopterLandingAreas Inadditiontoallotherapplicableloadsprovidedinthischapter,includingthedeadload,theminimum liveloadonhelicopterlandingortouchdownareasshallbeoneoftheloads L1,L2 orL3 asgivenbelow producingthemostunfavourableeffect: i) ii) iii) where, W1 W2 w k L1 L2 L3 = = =

2.6.9

W1 kW2 w

(2.6.4a)
(2.6.4b)

(2.6.4c)

= ActualweightofthehelicopterinkN, = FullyloadedweightofthehelicopterinkN, = Adistributedloadof5.0kN/m2, = 0.75forhelicoptersequippedwithhydraulictypeshockabsorbers,and =1.5forhelicopterswithrigidorskidtypelandinggear.

Theliveload,L1 shallbeappliedovertheactualareasofcontactoflanding.Theload,L2shallbeasingle appliedanywherewithinthelandingareatoproducethemostunfavourableeffectsofload. 2.6.10

concentratedloadincludingimpactappliedovera300mmx300mmarea.Theloads L1 and L2 maybe

ErectionandConstructionLoads All loads required to be sustained by a structure or any portion thereof due to placing or storage of constructionmaterialsanderectionequipmentincludingthoseduetooperationofsuchequipmentshall beconsideredaserectionloads.Provisionsshallbemadeindesigntoaccountforallstressesduetosuch loads. COMBINATIONSOFLOADS General Buildings, foundations and structuralmembers shallbeinvestigated foradequate strength toresistthe mostunfavourableeffectresulting fromthevariouscombinationsofloadsprovidedinthissection.The combination of loads may be selected using the provisions of either Sec 2.7.4 or 2.7.5 whichever is applicable.However,onceSec2.7.4or2.7.5isselectedforaparticularconstructionmaterial,itmustbe usedexclusivelyforproportioningelementsofthatmaterialthroughoutthestructure.Inadditiontothe loadcombinationsgiveninSec2.7.4and2.7.5anyotherspecificloadcombinationprovidedelsewherein thisCodeshallalsobeinvestigatedtodeterminethemostunfavourableeffect. Themost unfavourable effectofloadsmayalsooccurwhen oneormoreofthecontributing loadsare absent,oractinthereversedirection.Loadssuchas F, H or S shallbeconsideredindesignwhentheir effectsaresignificant.Floorliveloadsshallnotbeconsideredwheretheirinclusionresultinlowerstresses inthememberunderconsideration.Themostunfavourableeffectsfrombothwindandearthquakeloads shallbeconsideredwhereappropriate,buttheyneednotbeassumedtoactsimultaneously.

2.7 2.7.1

2.7.2

Definitions ALLOWABLESTRESSDESIGNMETHOD(ASD):Amethodforproportioningstructuralmemberssuch that the maximum stresses due to service loads obtained from an elastic analysis does not exceed a specifiedallowablevalue.ThisisalsocalledWorkingStressDesignMethod(WSD).

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Loads DESIGNSTRENGTH:Theproductofthenominalstrengthandaresistancefactor. FACTOREDLOAD:Theproductofthenominalloadandaloadfactor. LIMITSTATE: Aconditioninwhichastructureorcomponentbecomesunfitforserviceandisjudged eithertobenolongerusefulforitsintendedfunction(serviceabilitylimitstate)ortobeunsafe(strength limitstate). LOADEFFECTS:Forces,moments,deformationsandothereffectsproducedinstructuralmembersand componentsbytheappliedloads. LOADFACTOR:Afactorthataccountsforunavoidabledeviationsoftheactualloadfromthenominal valueandforuncertaintiesintheanalysisthattransformstheloadintoaloadeffect. LOADS : Forces or other actions that arise on structural systems from the weight of all permanent constructions, occupants and their possessions, environmental effects, differential settlement, and restraineddimensionalchanges.Permanentloadsarethoseloadsinwhichvariationsintimearerareorof smallmagnitude.Allotherloadsarevariableloads. NOMINALLOADS:Themagnitudesoftheloadssuchasdead,live,wind,earthquakeetc.specifiedin Sec2.2through2.6ofthischapter. NOMINAL STRENGTH : The capacity of a structure or component to resist the effects of loads, as determined by computations using specified material strengths and dimensions and formulas derived from accepted principles of structural mechanics or byfieldtests orlaboratorytests ofscaled models, allowingformodellingeffectsanddifferencesbetweenlaboratoryandfieldconditions. RESISTANCEFACTOR:Afactorthataccountsforunavoidabledeviationsoftheactualstrengthfromthe nominal value and the manner and consequences of failure. This is also known as strength reduction factor. STRENGTHDESIGNMETHOD:Amethodofproportioningstructuralmembersusingloadfactorsand resistancefactorssatisfyingboththeapplicablelimitstateconditions.ThisisalsoknownasLoadFactor DesignMethod(LFD)orUltimateStrengthDesignMethod(USD). WORKINGSTRESSDESIGNMETHOD(WSD):SeeALLOWABLESTRESSDESIGNMETHOD. 2.7.3 SymbolsandNotation D = deadloadconsistingof:a)weightofthememberitself,b)weightofallmaterialsofconstruction incorporatedintothebuildingtobepermanentlysupportedbythemember,includingbuiltin partitions,c)weightofpermanentequipment. E = earthquakeload E = amplifiedearthquakeloadequalto(0.375R)E F = loadsduetofluidswithwelldefinedpressuresandmaximum heights, includingloadsdueto waterpressureduringfloodandsurge. H = loadsduetoweightandlateralpressureofsoilandwaterinsoil L = Lf+(LrorP)

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StructuralDesign Lf = live loads due to intended use and occupancy, including loads due to movable objects and movable partitions and loads temporarily supported by the structure during maintenance. Lf includesanypermissiblereduction.Ifresistancetoimpactloadsistakenintoaccountindesign, sucheffectsshallbeincludedwiththeliveloadsLf. = = = = roofliveloads loadsduetoinitialrainwaterponding seismiccoefficientdefinedinSec2.5.3 selfstrainingforcesandeffectsarisingfromcontractionorexpansionresultingfromtemperature changes, shrinkage, moisture changes, creep in component materials, movement due to differentialsettlement,orcombinationsthereof. windload

Lr P R S

W 2.7.4

CombinationsofLoadsandStressIncreaseforAllowableStressDesignMethod 2.7.4.1 Combination of Loads : Provisions of this section shall apply to all construction materials permittingtheiruseinproportioningstructuralmembersbyallowablestressdesignmethod.Whenthis methodisusedindesigningstructuralmembers,allloadslistedhereinshallbeconsideredtoactinthe following combinations. The combination that produces the most unfavourable effect shall be used in design. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. D D+L D+S D+(WorE) 0.9D+(WorE) D+(HorF) D+L+(HorF) D+S+L D+S+(WorE) D+L+(WorE) D+L+(HorF)+(WorE) D+S+L+(HorF)+(WorE)

2.7.4.2 StressIncrease :ExceptasspecifiedinSec1.5.5.(b)andelsewhereinthisCode,themaximum permissibleincreaseintheallowablestressesofallmaterialsandsoilbearingcapacitiesspecifiedinthis Code for working (or allowable) stress design method, when load combinations (7) through (11) in Sec2.7.4.1aboveisused,shallbe33%. 2.7.5 CombinationsofLoadsforStrengthDesignMethod When strength design method isused, structural members and foundations shallbedesigned tohave strengthnotlessthanthatrequiredtoresistthemostunfavorableeffectofthecombinationsoffactored loadslistedinthefollowingsections: 2.7.5.1 1. 2. 3. 4. LoadCombinationsforReinforcedConcreteandMasonryStructures 1.4D 1.4D+1.7L 1.4D+1.4S 0.9D+1.3(Wor1.1E)

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Loads 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 2.7.5.2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 0.9D+1.7(HorF) 1.4D+1.7L+1.7(HorF) 0.75[1.4D+1.4S+1.7L] 0.75[1.4D+1.4S+1.7(Wor1.1E)] 0.75[1.4D+1.7L+1.7W] 0.75[1.4D+1.7L+1.7(HorF)+1.7(Wor1.1E)] 0.75[1.4D+1.4S+1.7L+1.7(HorF)+1.7(Wor1.1E)] 1.4(D+L+E) LoadCombinationsforSteelStructures 1.4D 1.2D+1.6Lf+0.5(LrorP) 1.2D+1.6(LrorP)+(0.5Lfor0.8W) 1.2D+1.3W+0.5Lf+0.5(LrorP) 1.2D+1.5E+(0.5Lf) 0.9D+(1.3Wor1.5E)

Exception: TheloadfactoronLfincombinations(3),(4)and(5)shallbeequalto1.0forgarages,areasoccupiedasplacesofpublic assembly,andallareaswheretheliveloadexceeds5.0kN/m .


2

Whenthestructuraleffectsof F,H,or Saresignificant,theirfactoredvaluesshallbeconsideredas1.3F, 1.6H,and1.2Sandincludedwiththeabovecombinationstoobtainthemostunfavourableeffect. AlsoforbuildingsinSeismicZone3andinSeismicZone2havinganStructuralImportanceCoefficient,I greaterthan1.0,thefollowingadditionalloadcombinationsshallbeconsidered: 7. 8. E 1.2D+0.5L+ E 0.9D+

2.7.5.3 LoadCombinationsforDesignusingOtherMaterials:Whenstructuralmembersaredesigned usingthestrengthdesignmethodandusingaconstructionmaterialnotcoveredinSec2.7.5.1and2.7.5.2, anyother codeorstandard having loadcombinations applicableforthatconstruction materialmaybe usedprovidedthatotherrequirementsofSec2.7aresatisfied.

RelatedAppendix AppendixA ConversionofExpressionsfromSItoFPSUnits

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