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Background to the Study

Increasing travel demand and preferences in using private vehicle is causing rapid motorization in many counties around the world. Most people are now highly dependent on private motorize travel (Ellaway et al. 2003). This phenomenon was caused because of attractiveness of car and people love to drive (Beiro & Sarsfie ld Cabral 2007). An increased private motorization has resulted in an increased tra ffic congestion which in turn result in longer travel times for many people (Beiro & Sarsfield Cabral 2007; Asri & Hidayat 2005). In addition to congestion, private motorization is also affecting the safety of vulnerable road users (Kodukula 2009), high consumption of non-renewable resourc e (Amann & Sieber 2005), and causes serious threat to the quality of human environments (Goodwin 1996; Greene & Wegener 1997). In order to prevent more problems caused by this increase in motorization it is highly recommended by man y researchers as well as public decision makers to provide an attractive public tr ansport service as an alternative transport mode in many cities. Public transport should become part of a solution for sustainable transport i n the future. However, in order to keep and attract more passengers, public transp ort must to have high service quality to satisfy and fulfill more wide range of diff erent customers needs (Oliver 1980; Anable 2005). The state of transportation system of a nation determines individual access to a wide range of activities, including work, social, medical, educational, religio us and recreational opportunities. An efficient and safe public transport syste m is, therefore, a contributor to and manifestations of overall welfare of the i ndividual and, a fundamental service to the socio-economic and environmental wel l-being of any progressive society or nation. Sustainable public transport accor ding to World Bank, (1996) is one which ensures that: transportation- related p ollution levels are maintained at levels below those human beings can safely tol erate and the environments carrying capacity can allow; financial expenditures fo r operators, maintenance and carrying charges are not higher than what the users can pay; and each member of the society is provided with the means to achieve f undamental social, cultural, educational and economic objectives. The importance of public transport in cities of many developing countries li es in the fundamental fact that mobility and accessibility are essential for economic grow th and of necessary to provide efficient and effective and effective movement for goods an d services. However, the failure of the public transportation system in the cities has led t o further marginalization of the greater majority of the people in these cities and conseq uently, economic deprivation. This predicates on the public transportation scene in many of these cities that is characterized by overcrowding and the use of already overused and rickety

vehicles imported from other parts of the world, Incessant traffic Congestion du e to continuous deteriorating condition of roads that inadvertently slow down traffic , increasing vehicular and pedestrian accidents and their associated increase in the cost of human capital growth and loss of man-hours for several weeks ((Aden iji, 2000; Badejo, 2008; Oyesiku2002). The rating of transportation negativities in major cities of the world, the adverse effects of road traffic congestion wa s rated at 54.5%, while ineffectual public transportation system, air and noise pollution were rated 54.8% and 59.4% respectively. However, road traffic congest ion is expected to be worst at 61.3% than public transportation and air pollutio n in the nearest future (Auclaire, 2000). World Bank (2001) also noted the increasing pressure on urban transport syste ms in most developing countries, a consequence of increase in motor vehicle owne rship and use which is growing at a faster rate than population, with vehicle ow nership annual growth rates of between 15% or 20% in most developing countries. Ironically, these growths in traffic have continually exceeded the capability of authorities in developing countries to increase road space, hence the consequen tial impediments to the efficient working of the urban economics in most cities in developing countries. The travel speeds in cities are decreasing and the trav el environment for pedestrians and people-powered vehicles are deteriorating in developing countries, due to the inefficiency of the entire road transport syste m. Of the sixteen developing country cities with populations of more than 4 mill ion studied, five major cities in this group (Bucharest, Jakarta, Kinshasa, Lago s and Manila) experienced an average one-way journey to work of about one and qu arter hours or more (UNCHS Global Urban Indicators Database, 1998). It is import ant to investigate an analysis of the travel of public transport passengers in L agos State. 1.2 Statement of the Problem

In the past three decades, the city of Lagos has been experiencing rapid popula tion and expansion of its environment due to influx of migrants from rural areas to it. The growth was accompanied by a substantial expansion of the citys bounda ries and much higher level of industrial, economic and social activities. These have led to the extension of low-income unplanned settlements on the city periph eries (Aribigbola, 2008) and workers from the areas are exerting increasing pres sure on already inadequate public transportation facilities. The high cost of ca r purchasing and maintenance in Nigeria now due to economic meltdown, the spread ing of suburbs and transformation of villages into dormitory settlements, have a lso created residential-to-work transportation problem in the city of Lagos as a result of inefficient mass transit systems especially bus system (Ezema, 2004) . However, the problems facing the urban centres of Lagos State are not only m any but also very complex; one of the most apparent, being intra-town mobility ( Badejo, 1990). Intra-town transportation problems include traffic congestion, po or road facilities, poor environmental condition, road degradation, insufficient right of way, air and en vironmental pollution (Lagos Metropolitan Area Transport Authority, 2010). The p roblem with linkages within Lagos has existed for a long time and so Lagos has b een known for its massive traffic congestion worldwide (Ladele, 2010). Presently , the traffic management apparatus is not efficient and effective and it indirectly co ntributes to the problems rather than solving them. It is in light of this that this study focused on the nature of road public transport passengers travels with a view to identify ing the challenges of the passengers and operators in the study area.


Aim and Objectives

The aim of this study is to investigate an analysis of the travel of public tran sport passengers in Lagos State with reference to Ikorodu Local Government. The specific of the study are as follows: 1. To examine the socio-economic characteristics of the passengers in the s tudy area. 2. To assess the quality of intra public transport services in the study ar ea. 3. To investigate the challenges encountered by passengers in the usage of public transport services. 4. To assess passengers satisfaction with public transport services in the study area. 5. Based on objectives I-IV, to draw conclusion and make recommendation. 1.4 Research Questions

1. What are the socio-economic characteristics of the passengers in the stu dy area. 2. What is the quality level of intra public transport services in the stud y area. 3. What are the challenges encountered by passengers in the usage of public transport services. 4. Are passengers satisfied with public transport services in the study are a.


Research Hypothesis

Ho: Public transport passengers are not satisfied with intra public transport se rvices in the study area. H1: Public transport passengers are not satisfied with intra public transport se rvices in the study area.


Justification of the Study

In Nigeria for the last 20 years the usage of public transport has been increasi ng very fast, due to rapid growth in population, city size, decline in personal mobility caused by scarcity of foreign exchange and severe import restrictions ( Filani and Abumere, 1992). In most cities, bus service and many forms of paratra nsit are playing dominant role in meeting the travel needs of the majority of th e populace especially the low-income groups. In response to the situation in rec ent years both public and private transport operations had been completely re-st ructured by the Federal government with considerable investment in the bus fleet size. About 90% of the travel needs of the people are met by road public transp

ort in most cities (Federal Ministry of Transport and Aviation, 1984; Bolade, 19 88). The study is significant in the sense it will highlight the major problems that serve as a detriment to public transport, the quality of intra public transport services in the study area, the challenges encountered by passengers in the usag e of public transport services as well as passengers satisfaction with public tr ansport services in the study area . The result of the study will stimulate gove rnment and private sectors not to be passive but to be active in revolutionizing the public transport system as well as in the formulation of policy that will i mprove public transport system to meet international standard. This research wil l provide a strong basis to do more research in this study. 1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The scope of the study is to investigate an analysis of the travel of public tra nsport passengers with a major focus on ikorodu local government area of Lagos state. 1.8 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology is an important aspect of thesis writing, it is concerned w it approaches or methods of collecting data on samples that are representative o f population of study on which generalization will be made. This includes sourci ng for data, sampling techniques and procedures and method of data analysis. 1.8.1. Source of Data Primary Data The primary data will be collected through questionnaire administration and pers onal interview. The questionnaire was divided into two sections. Section A and S ection B). Section A contained information on socio-economic characteristics of respondents and section B will focus on the objectives of the study. SECONDARY DATA The secondary data of information will be gathered from textbooks, journals gaze ttes and maps of the study areas will be collected from the local government. 1.8.2 SAMPLING METHOD AND TECHNIQUES A sample will be drawn from the population which will assist the study. The sam ple size for the research will be made up of 200 respondent which will comprises of road users in the study area. The sampling method that will be adopted is sy stematic random method. 1.8.3 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS The data collected will be analysed using both descriptive and inferenti al statistical methods. The descriptive statistics that the study intends to ado pt includes the use of frequency, percentage and proportion. Also the inferentia l statistical methods of chi-square will be used to test the stated hypothesis. 1.9 Study Area(Ikorodu Local Government Area of Lagos State) Lagos is the largest metropolitan area in Nigeria with an estimated during the d aytime population of 12 million people in 2009 (Oyesiku and Gbadamosi, 2008). The state is located in the South Western part of Nigeria (see Fig. 1) with a coverage ar ea of 3,350km2. Basically the state lies on low lands, with about 17,500 hectares of built-up a rea of which residential areas occupy the single largest proportion followed by commercial an d industrial land uses (Olayiwola, et al, 2005). The population characteristics of the city are heterogeneous with most people of the nation being represented. Lagos, occupies a preeminent position based on all urban indicators, most especially demography with a density that is much higher than other cities in Nigeria; while Nigerias p

opulation density is 100 persons per square kilometre, that of Lagos is about 2, 400 persons/ km with annual population growth rate of between 5.0 to 5.5%. Despit e the relocation of the Federal Capital to Abuja, Lagos State remains, undoubted ly, the economic nerve centre of the country as it harbours almost all the headq uarters of the multinational companies in the country. In terms of transportation, Lagos area has rail line that links the commerci al southern part of the city with the dormitory settlement of the north. It is t he same single carriage rail line that links the city with other parts of the co untry, though rail transportation itself in on decline throughout the country. T hus, the road transport dominates more than 90 percent of all intra urban moveme nt within the state and in the country (Oni, 2004). There are about 2,600 km of roads in Lagos, which are frequently congested with over one million vehicles on a daily basis. Lagos has about the highest national vehicular density of over 2 22 vehicles/km against country average of 11/km (Taiwo, 2005 cited in Odeleye an d Oni, 2007), particularly on the major identified corridors with predominant he avy vehicular traffic (Fig 1). Deductively therefore, all these socio-economic f actors, necessitate efficient and effective public transport systems, that will not only reduce pollution, congestion and level of private automobile, but mass movement of the inhabitants. However, the persistent mobility crisis in Lagos ha s become a threat to urban livelihoods and possibly a notable social and economi c challenge.

2.0 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter focuses on the review of relevant literatures by critically examini ng the areas that have been effectively covered by past studies with the view to bringing out the gaps left that this particular study intends to cover in the a rea under study. Public transportation systems provide the most efficient means of moving large number of people especially in density populated urban centres. In addition to the well being of its users, public transport plays a vital role in the productivity of cities which in turn has a direct bearing on the national economies (World Bank, 2001; Lyndon and Todd, 2006). Public transportation by definition connotes the act or the means of conveying large number of people en masse as opposed to conveyance in individual vehicles ca rrying very few people at a time. In other words, public transport or mass trans it is a system in which a greater number of people are moved at a time along pri ncipal corridors (Ogbazi, 1992, Wikipedia, 2009). Public transport or mass trans it comprises mainly of the rail system, light rail system, tram ways and monorai ls, bus system and where possible water transportation (Wikipedia, 2009). We sh all examine the views of some of the scholars on the issue of the travel of publ ic transport passengers in Lagos state. 2.1 Conceptual Framework 2.1.1 The Spatial Interaction Theory Concepts The spatial interaction theory concept was put forward by Edwar Ulman in 1956. h e explained that the interaction of two places or point involving transportation nahs the principle of complementarity, intervening opportunity and transferabil ity. Due to the provision of transport facilities and economic significance of s ome areas, they tend to be more attractive and command a greater advantage over the areas. This opinion is highly rested in the principle of complementarity. Th erefore, the interaction between two points must have the elements of demand at one point and of supply at other point. These points can be regarded as point A and B.


Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality

In recent times all organization has increasingly come to understand the importance of customer satisfaction. It is widely understood that it is far less costly to keep existing customers than it is to wind new ones. For many organizations in t he public sector, customer satisfaction will itself be the measure of success. According to Oliver (1997), satisfaction is defined as the customers fulfillment. It is a judgment that a product or service feature, or the product or service it self, provided (or is providing) a pleasurable level of consumption-related fulfillmen t, including levels of under- or over-fulfillment. Need fulfillment is a comparativ e processes giving rise to the satisfaction responses. Any gaps lead to disconfirmation; i.e ., Positive disconfirmations increases or maintain satisfaction and negative disconfirmation create dissatisfaction. Service quality (Parasuraman et al. 1988; Gronroos 1984) is defined as a comparison between customer expectation and perception of service. Service quali ty in general consists of five distinct dimensions: tangibles (Physical facilities, eq uipment, and appearance of personnel), reliability (ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately), responsiveness (willingness to help customer and pro vide prompt service), assurance (knowledge and courtesy of employees and their abilit y to inspire trust and confidence), and empathy (caring, individualized attenti on the firm provide its customer). The relationship between quality and satisfaction is complex due to the intricat e interplay between performance dimension used in quality judgments and those used in satisfaction judgments, and due to the differences between encounter-specific an d global judgment. Performance based quality has been framed as a result from idea l expectation and from idiosyncratic preference of individual consumer. Similarly, satisfaction has been shown to respond to quality disconfirmations and to other performance dimensions disconfirmations not related to the quality experience. In the service area, although developed independently, quality and satisfaction share one notable feature. Both view satisfaction as a function of expectancy disconfirmation and service quality as function of satisfaction. In proposing a quality influences satisfaction model, it is necessary to formall y endorse the perspective that satisfaction encompasses quality at the counter-spe cific level. Thus, quality is one of the key dimensions which are factored into the co nsumers satisfaction judgments. Quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs. In shor t term, product or service features determine quality which then satisfies consumer need s. Subsequent to this more immediate effect, it will be assumed that satisfaction m ay

reinforce global quality perceptions but only indirectly. Several studies regarding satisfaction and dissatisfaction in public transport h as been conducted to develop and create attractive public transport. For instance, Stradling et al. conducted a survey by sending self-completion questionnaire in eight areas of the city of Edinburgh, Scotland. From 68 these items that were measured as things that I dislike or things that discourage me from using the bus in Edinburgh, eight underlying factors were reported. One factor was labeled as feeling unsafe which contain the behavior of other passengers, feeling unsafe while travelling at night and feeling unsafe while waiting for buses. Another factors were labeled as prefe rence of walking and cycling, problem with service provision like no direct route, unwanted arousal (i.e., intrusions and interruptions such as inconvenience journey because of overcrowded passengers, other passenger smoking habit, and other ann oyed people behavior on the bus), preference of car use, cost, disability and discomfort, and low self image because of travelling with public transport. Gatersleben and Uzzell (2007) investigated affective experiences of daily commute. Surveys were sending to Surrey Universitys employees. The results reveal ed that commuting by car as well as by public transport can be stressful because of delays caused by the traffic volume. Public transport was perceived as unpleasant and p ublic transport users expressed a more negative attitude toward their daily commute th en users of other transport modes. The negative attitudes were shown to be related to stress as well as boredom caused by delays and waiting time. Gatersleben and Uzz ell (2007) also suggest that public transport is stressful due to unpredictability a nd longer travel times. This study also acknowledges some sources of pleasure for public t ransport users. Attributes relating to pleasurable feelings were as the possibility to re ad during the trip, to listen to music, to interact with other people, and to look at the passing scenery. UK Department for transport (2003) has also conducted studies regarding customer need in public transport. High frequency of service, services that are reliable and fares that offer value for money are revealed as important needs of UK publi c transport users. The bus also has to have a broad range of destinations to fulfi ll travel demand of customer. In this report, the users also reported about the importance of understandable time table information in bus stop and in local newspaper in orde r to make them aware of the existence of the service. Simple ticketing arrangement is also important in order to make them use public transport. Fujii et al. (2001) conducted an investigation in Osaka (Japan) during a tempor

ary closure of freeway that connected between Osaka and Sakai City. The survey was distributed at three tollgates from 6:00 am to 8:30 am. An important finding was that the closure of the freeway increased public transport use. Second, it was also f ound that the expected commute time by public transport was overestimated by automobile commuters. Third, after experiences of public transport the overestimates of com mute times were corrected. And finally, people who corrected their commute time conti nued to use public transport when the freeway was reopened. Van Vugt et al. (1996) conducted an investigation of the motivational factors underlying the decision to commute by car or public transportation. 192 employee s of a publishing company participated and filed out a questionnaire containing questio ns relating to social value orientation, the commuting situation and a series of po stexperimental questions. The findings provided strong evidence for the conclusion that individuals prefer options yielding shorter travel time as well as an alternativ e with high frequency of public transport. Fellesson and Friman (2008) conducted a transnational comparison of customers public transport perceived service satisfaction in eight cities (Stockholm, Barc elona, Copenhagen, Geneva, Helsinki, Vienna, Berlin, Manchester and Oslo) in Europe. Th e result showed four general factors: system such as traffic supply, reliability a nd information; bus and bus stop design that makes customer comfortable and enjoy t he travel experience; staff skill, knowledge and attitude toward customer; and safe ty not only both in the bus and bus stop but also safe from traffic accident. Furthermo re, it was concluded that differences in public transport technology and infrastructure may cause differences in individual item loadings. 2.1.3 CONCEPT OF MASS RAPID TRANSIT Mass rapid transit (MRT) comprises a spectrum of modes of urban public transport that use specific fixed-track or exclusive and separated use of a potentially c ommon-user road track (such as metros, suburban railways, light rail transit, an d busways). MRT usually has superior operating capacity and performance compared with unsegregated road-based public transport (such as buses, taxis, and paratr ansit). Rail-based metro systems in developing countries carry about 11 billion journeys a year, surface rail about 5 billion, and light rail about 2.5 billion. While the proportion of public transport trips by rail is more than 50 percent in Seoul and Moscow (and the proportion of passenger kilometers is even higher), rail systems dominate only in a very few cities. MRT can, in principle, contribute to the achievement of all the main objectives of urban development policy. It can improve efficiency of the city economy by re ducing travel costs and by maintaining a higher level of city-center activity an d the associated economies of agglomeration than would otherwise be the case. Th e impact of poverty can be directly reduced where MRT is the major carrier of th e poor, and indirectly reduced through the benefits the poor receive from econom ic prosperity. It can also improve the quality of lifeimmediately, through shifti ng movements to more environmentally benign modes of transport, and in the longe

r run, by supporting a more environmentally favorable landuse structure. In practice, these benefits do not always accrue. Costs of rail investments are often underestimated and passenger flows overestimated.1 Excessive indebtedness or unrealistic calls on municipal resources to finance expensive MRT modes can d amage the local economy and preclude other socially desirable investments. Attem pts to avoid that indebtedness through private financing or increased fares may disadvantage the poor by excluding them from use of the more expensive systems. The prohibition of parallel bus or minibus services may sometimes increase MRT f inancial viability by eliminating less-expensive, lower-quality modes on which t he poor were most dependent. Potential congestion reduction and environmental be nefit may be lost if the road space freed by a shift of passengers from conventi onal bus to MRT is allowed to be filled up by additional automobiles. The centra l challenge with respect to urban MRT is to identify the strategic objectives be ing sought by the city, and then to identify means of implementation which best secure the benefits and evade the disbenefits listed above. Because there are a wide variety of city types, city objectives, MRT technologies, and pricing and f inancing mecha- nisms, there is a rich menu of strategic alternatives from which to choose. In many cases the problem is not simply that of exclusive choice bet ween technologies, but more that of selecting the optimum mix of technologies an d the optimum phasing of MRT capacity expansion. An appropriate strategic stance is thus not to be for or against MRT, or any particular variant of it, but to prope rly appreciate the critical factors affecting choice of technologies, operating, financing, and ownership arrangements, and to ensure that the choices made are consistent with city characteristics, objectives, and economic capability. The reduction of road congestion, with its consequent economic and environmental benefits, is usually the motivating factor for investments in MRT. Both because of its capability for carrying large volumes and for its superiority over buses in attracting traffic from, or limiting the trend of diversion to, the car, ra il-based systems are usually preferred for the purpose of reducing road congesti on. In fact, however, the studies of MRT outcomes in 1990,3 and the recent updat e (Halcrow Fox 2000a), argue that congestion is rarely reduced. Rather, the effe ct is to permit the continued development of city-center activity while total mo vement volumes on the main radial links, along which metros are typically aligne d, increase to levels that would have produced intolerable congestion in the abs ence of MRT.4 It is hence the structuring effect to avoid sprawl of business ac tivity and the consequential economies of agglomeration in production rather tha n reduction of transport costs over time that is the main source of economic ben efit. There are several corollaries of this argument. First, if the benefits of MRT ar e ultimately structural, then they should be planned and designed in the light o f high-level objectives of a strategic structure plan. That is rarely the case, although it is notable that some of the more successful metro developments, such as that in Singapore, have been developed this way. Second, if MRT is designed to maintain the quality of access to the center, it needs to be supported by app ropriate actions to feed the trunk links and hence needs to be developed in the context of a comprehensive transport plan. City-center development policies shou ld be complementary to it. Third, if structural impacts are the objective, that should be reflected in the way MRT investments are appraised. Finally, for service to be m aintained, the development needs to be properly financed. Cutting corners to red uce costs (such as the omission of elevators to high-level platforms on the new Bangkok Transit System [BTS] and Manila LRT3 systems) or charging high fares to maximize revenue for private concessions may actually reduce the economic benefi t of the investment. A firm financial planning context is necessary to get the b est out of efficiency-oriented MRT systems. 2.1.4 CONCEPT OF AFFORDABILITY Affordability refers to the extent to which the financial cost of journeys put an individual or household in the position of having to make sacrifices to travel o r the extent to which they can afford to travel when they want to. While a famil

y on a low income (say in the bottom quartile of the income distribution) might be able to afford the necessary journeys to work for the income owners of the fa mily, they might not be able to afford trips to school for their teenage childre n, or for their children to visit a grandparent in hospital. For such a family, urban transport would, by most standards, be considered unaffordable. So afforda bility can be considered as the ability to make necessary journeys to work, scho ol, health and other social services, and make visits to other family members or urgent other journeys without having to curtail other essential activities. 2.1.5 CONCEPT OF AVAILABILITY Availability of transport is used to refer to route possibilities, timings and fre quency. Whatever the purposes of an individual s journey, be it education, work, leisure, personal services, or another, her/his activities are constrained by t he route and the time taken traveling. Even if an individual has a bus stop with in a reasonable distance, say 400 meters of their home (the most common measure of public transport accessibility), the amount of use it will be to any individ ual entirely depends on where he/she wants to go, how often, and how long the wh ole journey is going to take. Furthermore, a bus stop 400 meters away from home, particularly one with no seats or shelter, or one which can only be reached by crossing a major traffic artery, may be of little use to a person with, for exa mple, a weak heart or knees, heavy shopping, or young children. Timings and freq uency are included since if there is no service when a person wants to travel, t here is no available transport. 2.1.6 CONCEPT OF ACCESSIBILITY "Accessibility" describes the ease with which all categories of passenger can us e public transport. For example, buses with high steps are notoriously difficult to board, particularly if they are one-person operated and there is no assistan ce. They are also difficult to use for those carrying luggage or shopping or wit h young children. Accessibility is also sometimes used to describe the ease of a ccessing the bus stop or station, although sometimes these parts of the journey are referred to as part of the "public transport environment". If a walk is inti midating or dangerous, a bus stop at 200 meters distance may be perceived as ina ccessible to a fit 14-year old boy because of the risk of mugging. Accessibility also includes ease of finding out about travel possibilities, i.e., the informa tion function. 2.2 Literature Review Challenges in Nigerias economy, which was part of the global depression of the 19 80s affected all sectors in which transport system was one of them. Majority of N igerians living in cities felt this impact more than those in the rural areas. T his was because, the commuting distance of people in cities increased considerab ly, than it used to be before 1980 (Ogunbodede, 2008). Transport development is a growth generating infrastructure in relation to th e process of socio-economic development; it facilitates the development of growt h poles and centres and should be a fore-runner in the developmental process of any nation (Oyesiku, 2002). It should provide a social base for the take off of any economic development process. It should increase liveability, serviceable c onnectivity, interaction and transformation and should ensure changes as have be en initially identified by Mabogunje (1986) and cited in Badejo (2000). The consequences emanating from pub lic transportation system are encased in economic, social and environmental impa cts. In the last few years, researchers, planners and transport experts have been rai sing alarm over the unregulated growth pattern of settlements without correspond ing and complementary public transport (Lagos Metropolitan Area Transport Author ity, 2010). It has become quite obvious that public transportation has failed to keep pace with the rate of expansion and demands of economic growth in Lagos. F rom newspaper articles to empirical findings, the evidence is always the same a nd shows that, public transportation in Lagos is chaotic (Bawa-Allah, 2000).

Also, Badejo (2000) and Oyesiku (2002), at different times perceived transport a s one of the elemental factors for any land use development pattern, it forms in trinsic part of settlement development needed to open up regions and provide acc ess to natural resources. It also promotes inter-communal trade and aids in terr itorial defence. In conjunction with the aforestated definition, Peter (1982) in his study on transport and society submitted that transport usually stimulates and enhances productive human development in any society. From the foregoing, it can be established that public transport provides the mobility required for int er-tribal, international and finally inter-continental exchange and trade (UNCHS, 2001). Other relevant studies in the area of urban transportation confirmed that more t han 75% of population in cities depended on public transport while about 25% dep ended on private transport system (Ogunbodede, 1990; Ogunjumo, 1986; Okpala, 198 1; Mrakpor, 1986). The socio-economic variables of Nigerians contributed in no s mall measure to this pattern. Public transport system, which is an aspect of the countrys transport sector, had all along been in the hands and control of Nigeri an private entrepreneurs. Thus, the private owners dictated largely the modus op erandi of the nations public transport system. In the early 1960s, the macro-econ omic indicators, which are yardsticks for measuring all aspects of the growth of Nigerias economy, were consistently positive. This was because the nation depend ed much on agricultural products for its foreign exchange earnings and a low pro portion of the population were engaged in white-collar jobs. During this period, a number of private individuals owned private vehicles, which they used for bot h intra and inter-urban movements, especially in Lagos.

Emphasis on promoting sustainable public transport as an avenue to enhanced spat ial interactions has motivated conversation or discourse among scholars in diffe rent fields. Public transportation is increasingly important for urban areas to prosper in the face of challenges such as reducing congestion and pollution, and coping with changing urban density and social inclusion (UITP, 2010). In very simple term, the smoother, cheaper and safer public transport is the br oader the patronage and scope of economic or productivity and social opportunity for users (OECD, 2011). Public transport is described as vehicles licensed to provide stage carri age service for hire and perhaps reward (Bus and Coach Council, 1984; Nash, 1982 ). It is considered as a means for carrying passengers and goods either by priva te vehicles or/ and public carriers for hire, to earn money (Adeniji, 1983, 1984 , 1987 and Badejo, 1993 and 2000). It refers to passenger transport that any mem ber of the public may pay to use (Vuchic, 1981 as cited in Smith and Clarke, 200 0, p. 172). Demand for public transport in Nigerian cities has grown over the ye ars; while the quality of available transport infrastructure and services have d eteriorated drastically (Adesanya, 2002; Filani, 2002; Filani and Abumere, 1993; Fasakin, 2001; Odufuwa, 2006 and 2007)

Eboli and Mazulla (2007) investigated service quality attributes important for customer satisfaction with a bus transit service in Cosenza, Italia. Respondent

were asked to rate the importance and satisfaction with 16 service quality attributes (bus stop availability, route characteristic, frequency, reliability, bus stop furniture, bus overcrowding, cleanliness, cost, information, promotion, safety on board, person al security, personnel, complains, environmental protection and bus stop maintenanc e). The result shows that the latent variable important for global customer satisfac tion is service planning which is reflected in reliability, frequency, information, prom otion, personnel and complaint. Beiro & Sarsfield Cabral (2007) summarizes advantages in using public transport according to Portugal public transport users. The result highlights the importan ce of a cost friendly and less stressful public transport service. It is perceived as le ss stressful since there is no need to drive, it is possible to relax and one may be able to rest or read. Travel time on exclusive bus lanes is considered faster than the car, there is l ess exhaust emissions and there are opportunities to talk to fellow passenger while travelli ng. A literature review (Oktiani 2009) confirms that there is research with an aim t o indentify unattractive and disappointing factors in public transport. For instan ce, Beiro (2007) conducted depth interviews in Porto to find out dissatisfying factors. Cu stomers reported waste time, too crowded, lack of comfort, time uncertainty, lack of con trol, unreliability, long waiting times, need to transfer, they cannot change route to avoid traffic congestion, lack of flexibility, and long walking time. Edvardsson (1998 ) found that driver incompetence, punctuality and information were important factors causing dissatisfaction. Friman et al. (Friman et al. 2001) conducted a mail survey to investigate fac tors affecting customer satisfaction in public transport service in Sweden. The resul ts showed that overall cumulative satisfaction related to attribute specific cumulative sa tisfaction and remembered frequencies of negative critical incidents (i.g., the driver beha ves unexpectedly bad or the bus is leaving before scheduled departure time).. In yet another study, Friman (1998) examined the effect of quality improvements in public transport on customer satisfaction and frequency of perceived negative critical incidents. The studies were conducted in 13 regions in Sweden that were conducti ng quality improvements in public transport. Data were collected before and after implementation. Comparing passenger reaction is a way to understand the type of improvement that increases customer satisfaction. The conclusion of this study i s that customer satisfaction influenced by quality improvements only to a limited exten

t. Furthermore, the effect was directionally opposite in that respondents reported less satisfaction and higher frequencies of negative critical incidents after the qua lity improvements had been implemented. Thus quality improvements do not always boost customer satisfaction. Thus, it is not the improvements per se that determine th e success of public transport, but a given level of quality coupled with the perce ption of the service. Safety issues were found by Smith and Clark (2000) as a constraint for people to choose public transport as travel mode of choice. Pick pocketing, overcharging f acilitates by overcrowding and lack of supervisor is important factors. UK Department for Transport (2009) reported that young people (mostly male) involved in assaulting behavior, theft, vandalism and criminal damage are a problem for public transpor t users. Adreassen (1995) conducted a survey among public transport users in Norway. As a result, he argued that in order to keep market share, public transport should provide service for different type of customers. Differentiation of service will lead to increasing customer satisfaction because of higher degree of congruence between supply and demand. Most important factors to work with are travel time, fare level and desi gn of public transport. To summarize, knowledge from previous research shows that public transport is still an alternative as a travel mode of choice for many people. In order to kee p current passenger, public transport has to improve the service to accommodate wide range of customer need and expectation (Beiro & Sarsfield Cabral 2007; Andreassen 1995)

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