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IBP2013_12 LCD-BASED MULTI-MONITORS SYSTEM TO IMPROVE INSPECTION OF LARGE AND COMPLEX EQUIPMENTS BY VISUALIZATION OF HIGH RESOLUTION COMPUTED RADIOGRAPHY-PART

1:COMPOSITE INSULATORS FOR 500 KV Jorji Nonaka1, Edmilson J. S. Jnior2, Diego A. C. Estima2, Armando H. Shinohara1, Marcos Pereira1, Paulo R. R. de Britto3, Henrique B. D. T. Lott Neto3, Mrcio A. de B. Fontan3, Naohisa Sakamoto4, Koji Koyamada4
Copyright 2012, Brazilian Petroleum, Gas and Biofuels Institute - IBP
This Technical Paper was prepared for presentation at the Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012, held between September, 1720, 2012, in Rio de Janeiro. This Technical Paper was selected for presentation by the Technical Committee of the event according to the information contained in the final paper submitted by the author(s). The organizers are not supposed to translate or correct the submitted papers. The material as it is presented, does not necessarily represent Brazilian Petroleum, Gas and Biofuels Institute opinion, or that of its Members or Representatives. Authors consent to the publication of this Technical Paper in the Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 Proceedings.

Abstract
Industrial Radiography (DR) with phosphor Imaging Plate (IP), known as Computed Radiography (CR), has been widely used and replacing the conventional film-screen imaging by offering several advantages over this traditional method in the inspection of structural integrity of materials and equipments in oil & gas, energy, power plants (nuclear and conventional), aerospace, automotive, shipbuilding and offshore industries. Therefore the CR may continue to play an important role in the quality control during manufacturing and also in-service inspections to help evaluating the remaining life assessment of industrial equipment and engineering structures. Continuous effort for acquisition of high resolution digital radiographic images made possible to obtain digital radiographic images with pixel density which can easily surpass the amount of pixels provided by the highest resolution monitors available on the market. The present state-of-the-art of IP laser scanning system is able to acquire digital radiographic images with an impressive spatial resolution up to 12.5 microns, that it means 2,032 dpi. Several dedicated digital image processing software also have been developed for processing the digital radiographic images in order to facilitate the visualization of defects from raw imaging. However, few have been done to visualization of large and complex equipments. For digital radiographic inspection of large equipment and complexity, several partial radiographic images might be required to produce the final image, through image concatenation, with even higher amount of pixels. In order to deal with this extreme high resolution digital radiographic images, effective high-resolution radiographic visual inspection systems become crucial. In this work, we discuss the potential of commodity-of-the-shelf (COTS) of LCD-based multi-monitors visual inspection system to assist the state-of-the-art high-resolution industrial CR. Visualization inspection of radiographic image of a composite insulators employed in transmission line of 500 kV was conducted on one, two, tree, four and sixteen LCDbased multi-monitors systems and results are shown and discussed. Visualization systems with large dimension and high-resolution have a great potential to improve the visual inspections of high-resolution CR of large and complex equipment by increasing the probability of detection of defects, thus improving the quality of radiographic inspection. In addition, the larger display size made of LCD-based multi-monitors can be useful and interesting for collaborative visual inspections in front of the large displayed image.

1. Introduction
Nowadays, Nondestructive Testing (NDT) techniques are fundamental noninvasive technique to evaluate the structural integrity of materials and equipments. Industrial CR with the use of photostimulable storage phosphors is one

______________________________ 1 Ph.D. DEMEC (Department of Mechanical-Materials-Naval Engineering) / UFPE (Federal University of Pernambuco), Brazil 2 Undergraduate Student of Mechanical Engineering (DEMEC) / UFPE, Brazil 3 Electrical Engineer STN (Sistema de Transmisso Nordeste S.A.), Brazil 4 Ph.D. Vizlab (Visualization Laboratory) / Kyoto University, Japan

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 of the best established inspection methods for structural integrity analysis in various sectors of modern industry such as energy, oil & gas, power plants (nuclear and conventional), aerospace, automotive, shipbuilding and offshore. Those sectors demonstrate a high demand for inspection of large and complexity equipment and engineering structures. The procedure for generating a digital radiographic image, in industrial CR, is to have a source of ionizing radiation, X-rays or gamma-rays, on one side of the object to be examined and a detector of the radiation (IP with photostimulable phosphor layer) on the other side. Information obtained through the initial stimulus, via radiation exposure, is stored in the phosphor and later read out by using a secondary stimulus, via laser light source, onto the phosphor layer. Technological developments in the fields of IP and IP readers have made possible to obtain digital radiographic images with the amount of pixels which easily surpass the pixel resolutions provided by commercially available high-resolution monitors on the market. At present, the highest resolution IP reader available on the market is made by Drr, model HDCR 35 NDT (Drr 2012), shown in Figure 1, which 12.5 microns reading resolution may be possible depending on condition (2,032 dpi dots per inch). By using 12.5 micron resolution for scanning one square inch it will generate a digital image which has over 4 Mega Pixels (MPixels), 4,129,024 pixels (2,032 x 2,032), of radiographic data. It is almost equivalent to the amount of pixels that WQXGA format monitor with 2560 x 1600 pixels resolution can offer (4,096,000 pixels). This format is the highest definition COTS LCD monitor available on the market and it can be found on Apple Cinema Display, Dell Ultra Sharp 3011, Hewlett-Packard LP3065, Samsung 305T, LG W300H, among others models and makers. It is worth noting that these LCD monitors have the pixel density of approximately 100 ppi (pixels per inch) which is only 1/20 of pixel density of digital radiographic image obtained by scanning at the resolution of 12.5 microns.

Figure 1. Complex optical system of IP reader of the HD-CR 35 model made by Drr (www.duerr-ndt.de) The 14 x 17 (35.4 cm x 43 cm) blue IP plate is one of the largest and the highest resolution IP commercially available for industrial use and, when it is scanned with 12.5 micron resolution, it can generate a digital radiographic image of impressive 28448 x 34544 pixels data (982 MPixels). In addition, large and complex industrial equipment usually found in the sectors of energy, oil & gas, power plants (nuclear and conventional), aerospace, automotive, shipbuilding and offshore industry may require several partial radiographic images in order to generate the final digital radiographic image with higher pixel resolution. It is noteworthy that there exist high-resolution/definition monitors, such as EIZO RadiForce (EIZO 2012) monochrome monitor which has a pixel definition of 4096 x 2560 (or 10 MPixels) for specific use on the market, for example, medical applications in mammography. However, it is still far from the amount of pixels generated by the state-of-the-art high-resolution CR systems. Despite this impressive data when a large IP is employed, since it has similar LCD dimension, 30 in diagonal, the pixel size (0.158 mm) becomes almost 40 % smaller (0.251 mm) compared with aforementioned WQXGA 30 monitors, and this might affect the visual perception of flaws. Recent developments on display hardware and software technologies enabled the use of multi2

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 display system in a commodity fashion. Consumer graphics card makers, especially NVIDIA and AMD, have released multi-display technologies, named NVIDIA MOSAIC (NVIDIA 2012) and AMD Eyefinity (AMD 2012) respectively, which allow building a display system using multiple monitors acting as a large single high-definition monitor. It is worth noting that there also exists specialized hardware for distributing an image into several displays in order to visualize in large screen fashion. For instance, one of the largest video wall in the world, the one hundred screen video wall at McCarran International Airport, in Las Vegas - USA, provides 4K resolution (3,840 x 2,160) within 627 square foot of LCD screen. That is, the image of 4 Full HD format displays is distributed among 100 Full HD format displays. Although the impressive large dimension of the aforementioned Video Wall, the 4K image resolution is far from the required image resolution in the state-of-the-art radiographic visual inspection. Therefore, in this work we focused on multi-monitor hardware and software technologies that can take maximum advantage of every pixel available in the LCD monitors. Continue advances in monitor hardware, computing related hardware and software have all converged to dramatically improve large high-resolution display capabilities. As presented by Ni et al. (2006), we can find display systems from multi-monitor configuration to tiled LCD monitors and projection-based seamless display system. Depending on the hardware and software configurations, these displays can be classified as CAVE and derivatives; Multi-monitor desktop; Tiled LCD; Projector arrays; Stereoscopic displays and Volumetric displays. High-resolution tiled LCD has a great potential to be used in high-resolution radiographic inspection systems as shown in Wypych et al. (2011). They presented an application for displaying high-resolution radiographic image of small gas turbine as shown in Figure 2. Since these tiled LCD uses distributed computing power and specialized software middleware, named CGLX (Doerr 2010) and KVS (KVS 2012), they are most suited for visualizing larger and complex data, such as 3D volumetric data, rather than 2D radiographic images. In this work we focused on testing cost-effective multi-monitor radiographic inspection systems, based on COTS graphics cards and LCD monitors, for state-of-the-art high-resolution industrial CR systems. One of the main purposes is to improve the inspection for detection of flaws in large and complex equipments. Furthermore, according to JRC (2011), a curve of the probability of detection (POD) is usually presented as a function of the size of the flaws. Although it depends on many other parameters, such as the geometry of the equipment to be inspected, orientation of flaws, the manufacturing process of the material component of equipment, visual acuity and emotional state of the inspector, among others, as the human factor is intrinsic to the POD, it is expected that the use of large and high-resolution display system can positively influence the perception of the flaws and therefore increasing their probability of detection.

Figure 2. Tiled LCD-based multi-monitors to improve inspection of a gas turbine imaged by radiography (Image taken from Wypych et al., 2011)

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2. High Resolution LCD-based Multi-Monitors Visualization System to Display High Resolution Digital Radiography
The ability of state-of-the-art high-resolution CR systems to generate large, high-resolution digital radiographic images has created a demand for high-definition improved inspection system. Historically, projection-based systems have been used for large, high-resolution displays, however such systems are expensive both to be purchased and maintained. Recent technology advances on commodity LCD monitors have reduced drastically their price and make it a viable solution for building large scale display systems composed of several LCD monitors. In addition, recent consumer graphics provides multi-display technologies, especially NVIDIA Mosaic and AMD Eyefinity, which allow building a multi-monitor display system acting as a large single high-resolution monitor. In this work, we utilized both technologies for building LCD-based multi-monitor inspection system for high-resolution industrial CR. Table 1 shows some common graphics display formats and their pixel resolutions. Although a WQXGA monitor can achieve amount of pixels corresponding two Full HD monitors, this high-end LCD monitor can cost four times more than a Full HD LCD monitor. On the other hand, compared to high-end format monitors XGA and SXGA monitors have low purchase cost thus becoming very attractive to build cost-effective multi-monitor systems. The only drawback is that these monitors are being gradually substituted by widescreen format monitors as reported in DisplaySearch (2008). It is worth noting that specialized monochromatic LCD monitors such as EIZO Radiforce GS530 with 5 MPixels have even higher purchasing costs than conventional LCD displays. Table 1. Common graphics display formats and their pixel resolutions

Display Format XGA SXGA Full HD WQXGA

Pixel Resolution 1024 x 768 1280 x 1024 1920 x 1080 2560 x 1600

Amount of Pixels 0.7 MPixels 1.3 MPixels 2 MPixels 4 MPixels

Modern commodity graphics cards have adopted DisplayPort as the digital display interface for connecting these cards with the monitors. However, most entry level and mid-range LCD displays are still using DVI or even VGA display interface. In this work, we used 18.5 XGA LCD monitors (HP L185b) which possess only VGA input as the display interface, 17 SXGA LCD monitors (EIZO FlexScan S1721) and 19 SXGA LCD monitors (Samsung 932B Plus) which possess both VGA and DVI inputs, and 23 Full HD LCD monitors (Dell UltraSharp U2312HM) which possess both DVI and DisplayPort inputs. Considering that DVI is still a standard for display interface when connecting entry level and mid-range class monitors, we focused on a DisplayPort to DVI multi-monitor adapter in order to connect several DVI input monitors through a single DisplayPort connector. For this purpose, we used the commercially available ACCELL UltraAV adapter which supports up to three SXGA monitors. In the next subsections we will briefly describe the utilized multi-monitor large high-resolution display systems.

2.1. LCD-Based Multi-Monitors Visualization Systems at LABEND/DEMEC/UFPE We conducted some tests at LABEND/DEMEC/UFPE using a workstation (Dell Precision T3500) capable to connect simultaneously two graphics cards. Considering that the utilized radiographic images have larger disproportionate size in the horizontal direction, we decided to place the monitors horizontally side-by-side. We used three different graphics cards (NVIDIA GeForce GS 8400, NVIDIA GeForce GTX 580 and NVIDIA Quadro 2000) using three different configurations in order to connect two, three and four LCD monitors as shown in Table 2. Among these three graphics cards, NVIDIA Quadro 2000 is the only one that possesses DisplayPort output. Therefore we used this graphics card and the ACCELL UltraAV multi-monitor adapter in order to connect three SXGA LCD monitors. Although the use of two and three monitors gives us comparable pixel resolutions, the total viewable screen area is different. The 23 LCD monitors have pixel pitch of 0.265 mm and display area of 50.9 cm x 28.6 cm thus the total viewable screen area was 101.8 cm x 28.6 cm. That is, almost one fourth of the length of electrical composite insulator. In the case of 19 SXGA monitors, they have pixel pitch of 0.294 mm and display area of 37.6 mm x 30.1 mm thus the total viewable screen area was 112.8 cm x 30.1 cm. The 18.5 LCD monitors have pixel pitch of 0.30 mm and display area of 40.9 cm x 23.1 cm thus the total viewable screen area was 163.6 cm x 23.1 cm. Figure 3 shows the multi-monitor configuration using two, three and four LCD monitors.

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 Table 2. Multi-monitor system configuration at LABEND/DEMEC/UFPE

Graphics Cards GTX 580 Quadro 2000 GTX 580 + GS 8400

Quantity of Monitors 2 x 23 Full HD 3 x 19 SXGA 4 x 18.5 XGA

Combined Pixel Resolution 3,840 x 1,080 3,840 x 1,024 4,096 x 768

Amount of Pixels 4 MPixels 4 MPixels 3.1 MPixels

Figure 3. Multi-monitor configurations with two, three and four LCD monitors at LABEND/DEMEC/UFPE

3.2. VIZLAB/KYOTO UNIVERSITY The other multi-monitor system is another commercially available workstation (ACUBE Pallavec) capable to connect simultaneously four graphics cards and is installed at VIZLAB (Visualization Laboratory) at Kyoto University, in Japan. This system has four AMD FirePro V8800 graphics cards with four DisplayPort display connector each, that is, capable to connect 16 LCD monitors. The display system has sixteen 17 SXGA LCD monitor,s in 4 x 4 setup, as shown in Table 3. The 17 LCD monitors have display pitch of 0.264 mm and display area of 33.8 cm x 27.0 cm thus the total viewable screen size is 135.2 cm x 108 cm. Figure 4 shows the configuration using 16 LCD monitors. Table 3. Multi-monitor system configuration at VIZLAB/KYOTO UNIVERSITY

Graphics Cards 4 x FirePro V8800

Quantity of Monitors 16 x 17 SXGA

Combined Pixel Resolution 5,120 x 4,096

Amount of Pixels 20 MPixels


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Figure 4. Multi-monitor display configuration with 16 LCD of 17 monitors at VIZLAB/KYOTO UNIVERSITY

3. Electric Composite Insulators for 500 kV Transmission Lines


Several industrial sectors have demonstrated a high demand for inspection of large and complexity equipments and engineering structures. LABEND (Laboratory of Non Destructive Testing and Structural Integrity Monitoring) of DEMEC/UFPE (Department of Mechanical Engineering / Federal University of Pernambuco), in Recife-PE, Brazil, has been working on inspection of electrical composite insulators used in overhead transmission lines of 500 kV by the CR system. The insulators consist of a unidirectional glass fiber reinforced polymer rod with two metal end-fittings attached to the rod (Cherney 1983). In order to mitigate electrical degradation of the polymer rod and the electrical leakage currents, the entire surface of the rod is protected by a layer of silicone rubber with multiple watersheds. As shown in Figure 5, the large size, approximately 4 meters long, of the insulators makes it necessary to acquire several partial radiographic images in order to execute radiographic inspection. The CR system is one of few possible methods that allow the internal inspection of the insulator for verifying the remaining distance and the concentricity of the outer silicone rubber layer. In addition to the quality control of new electrical insulators, the in-service radiographic inspections of this silicone rubber layer is very important for preventing in-service failure such as brittle fracture described in Kumosa et al. (2005). Silva et al. (2012) studied the micro cracks detected on in-service composite insulators, for overhead transmission lines of 230 kV, by using micro-CT (Computed Tomography). This study demonstrated the importance of using high-resolution CR for detecting such kind of flaws.

Figure 5. Schematic design of composite insulator for electrical transmission lines of 500 kV 6

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Figure 6. Photo of composite insulators of 500 kV transmission line. Insert is magnification of a region of new insulator showing how is difficult to conduct any visual inspection due to the short distance between the watersheds As an application of LCD-based multi-monitor inspection system for high-resolution industrial CR, we used digital radiographic images of electrical composite insulator for overhead transmission lines of 500 kV. The utilized industrial CR system is composed of a portable 120kV X-ray source (ICM CP120B), 12.5 cm x 43 cm IP (PerkinElmer), and a 600-dpi IP scanner (Perkin-Elmer IP Cyclone). We obtained radiographic images using voltage of 90kV, exposure time of 10 seconds, and a source-to-film distance of 60 cm. Due to the length of the insulators (approximately 4 meters) and the use of 43 cm IP, it was required ten radiographic sections in order to obtain the entire radiographic images of the silicone rubber region. As shown in Figure 4, by scanning the IP using the resolution of 600 dpi (42.3 microns), we obtained digital radiographic images with 10.161 x 2.995 pixels. Figure 4 also shows some concatenated images using two, five and whole ten partial images. It is easy to verify that the final image becomes a very long radiographic image.

Figure 7. Digital radiographic images of electrical composite insulator obtained by the CR system

4. Some Results
A digital radiographic image of one section of the composite insulator for overhead transmission lines of 500 kV, in TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) format with 10136 x 2995 pixels data and 16-bit gray level, was used for the 7

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 evaluation of LCD-based multi-monitors visualization systems. We used the well-known and dedicated radiographic image analysis processing software ISee! (ISEE 2012) developed by the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, BAM, for applying some digital image processing, such as digital filtering and contrast changings, in order to facilitate the radiographic inspection. It is readly to verify that none of the utilized LCD monitors can display the entire image in 1:1 pixel mapping, that is, each pixel received is mapped to a single native pixel on the LCD monitor without any scaling. However, when using multi-monitor systems the combined pixel resolution enables the visualization of a large part of the image and facilitates visual inspection. Although the two, three and four configuration multi-monitor systems at LABEND have similar amount of pixels in the horizontal direction, the size of the viewable screen are 101.8 cm, 112.8 cm and 163.6 cm respectively. That is, when using 1:1 pixel mapping, the same flaw in the image will be displayed at different sizes. This is also because the physical sizes of the pixels are 0.265 mm, 0.294 mm and 0.30 mm. However, in the case of 18.5 monitor used for four display configuration, the utilized horizontal resolution was 1,024 (0.40 mm) instead of 1,366 (0.30 mm). That is, each pixel is 50 % and 36 % larger than when using two and three monitor configurations respectively.

Figure 8. Radiographic inspection using double LCD monitor system at LABEND As shown in Figure 5, by visual inspecting the scaled image of the almost entire radiographic image it greatly facilitates the perception of non-homogeneous regions where are potential region to find flaws. Figure 9 shows the 1:1 pixel mapping of a region where there is a fissure smaller than 1 mm marked with blue ellipse. We could observe that the large screen area facilitates the perception of the flaws in the surface and the non-concentricity of the silicone rubber. Figures 9 and 10 show some visual inspection results using the three and four LCD monitor configuration systems. By taking advantage of the large screen area, we could observe that the perception of the flaws in the surface and the nonconcentricity of the silicone rubber are greatly facilitated. That is, by using larger screen area the same flaw becomes more easily perceivable increasing their probability of detection. In addition, due to the large screen size, we observed that this also facilitates the useful collaborative discussions by two or more professionals in front of the multi-monitor system.

Figure 9. Radiographic inspection using triple LCD monitor system at LABEND 8

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Figure 10. Radiographic inspection using quadruple LCD monitor system at LABEND The same digital radiographic image of composite insulator was visualized on the ACUBE PallaVec multimonitor workstation at VIZLAB of University of Kyoto, in Japan. Although the impressive display dimension, the use of well-known Microsoft Windows 7 operating system made the user to feel-like using a traditional PC with a very large high-resolution monitor. As shown in Figure 11, after applying digital image processing on the radiographic image using Isee! Software, the flaw became prominent and easily seen. Due to the configuration of 4x4 monitors, the horizontal and vertical resolution of this system (5120 x 4096 pixels) is less disproportionate than the two and three (3840 x 1080 pixels) or four (4096 x 768 pixels) LCD monitor configuration tested at LABEND/DEMEC/UFPE. This configuration enabled us also the visual comparison of two radiographic images, with image processing using digital filters and asobtained, as shown in Figure 12. The large screen area greatly facilitates the aforementioned collaborative visual inspection taking advantage of the large dimension size, as shown in Figure 13.

Figure 11. Radiographic inspection using 16 LCD monitor system at VIZLAB

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Figure 12. Visual comparison of the same radiographic image using different digital image processing filters

Figure 13. Collaborative visual inspection taking advantage of the large dimension size

5. Remarkable Results
In this work, we tested and analyzed potential application of large and high-resolution visualization system to improve inspection of industrial computed radiographic image. Recent advances in data acquisition equipment of industrial digital X-ray inspection systems have made possible to obtain digital radiographic images with pixel density which easily surpass the amount of pixels provided by the highest resolution monitors available on the market. The 10

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 radiographic inspection of large and complex equipment becomes challenging because it requires several partial radiographic images which generates final image with even higher pixel resolution. On the other side, the recent development on the display technology enabled us to build scalable and flexible multi-monitor display systems that can be useful for the state-of-the-art high-resolution computed radiography. We conducted evaluations using two, three, four and sixteen monitor visualization systems and we concluded that the larger screen area can greatly improve the probability of detection of flaws. Due to the high flexibility of hardware configuration, we can build visualization system according to the geometrical shape of the object to be inspected. In this study, we focused on side-by-side configuration because of the disproportionate dimension of the electrical insulator in one direction. In addition, due to the large display size, it also facilitates the useful collaborative visual inspections in front of the large displayed image. We trust that this system will be a valuable support tool for radiographic inspection of several equipment used in various sectors of modern industry including and not limited to oil & gas, energy, power plants (nuclear and conventional), aerospace, automotive, shipbuilding and offshore industry.

6. Acknowledgements
This work was financially supported by R&D Program of Sistema de Transmisso Nordeste S.A. (STN www.stnordeste.com.br). The authors wish to thank Companhia Hidro Eltrica do So Francisco (CHESF www.chesf.gov.br) and The Studies and Project Finance Organization (FINEP www.finep.gov.br) managed by the Ministry of Science and Technology to allow us the use IP reader Cyclone, made by the Perkin-Elmer and the portable X-ray source, made by ICM, respectively.

7. References
DURR, Durr HD-CR 35 (www.duerr-ndt.de) NVIDIA, Mosaic Technology (www.nvidia.com/object/nvidia-mosaic-technology. html) AMD, Eyefinity Technology (www.amd.com/eyefinity) EIZO, Eizo Radiforce GX1030 (www.eizo.co.jp/products/radiforce/ gx1030/) NI, T., SCHMIDT, G.S., STAADT, O.G., LIVINGSTON, M.A., BALL, R., MAY, R., A survey of large highresolution display technologies, techniques, and applications. In: IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2006, p. 223-236, 2006. WYPYCH, T., YAMAOKA, S., PONTO, K., KUESTER, F., System for inspection of large high-resolution radiography datasets, In: IEEE Aerospace Conference 2011, p. 1-9, 2011. DOERR, K.-U., KUESTER, F., CGLX: A Scalable, High Performance Visualization Framework for Networked Display Environments, IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, v. 17, n. 3, p. 1-14, 2010. KVS, Kyoto Visualization System (code.google.com/p/kvs) JRC - JOINT RESEARCH CENTRE EUROPEAN COMISSION (Eds.), Probability of Detection Curves: Statistical Best-Practices. Dictus Publishing, p. 80, 2011. DISPLAYSEARCH, 16:9 Notebook PCs and LCD Monitors, DisplaySearch Topical Report, 2008. Available at: http://www.displaysearch.com/cps/rde/xbcr/displaysearch/Sample_DS_2008_Topical_Report-16_9_NB_PCs_and_ LCD_Monitors.pdf CHERNEY, E. A., KARADY, G., CHAIRMAN, W. G., BROWN, R. L., NICHOLS, J. L., ORBECK, T., PARGAMIN, L., Application of Composite Insulators for Transmission Lines. IEEE Transactions on Power Applications and Systems, PAS-102-5, p. 1226-1234, 1983. KUMOSA, L. S., KUMOSA, M. S., ARMENTROUT, D. L., Resistance to brittle fracture of glass reinforced polymer composites used in composite (nonceramic) insulators, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, v. 20, n. 4, p. 26572666, 2005. SILVA, P. P. J. C., SHINOHARA, A. H., PACHECO, A. P., CASTRO-FILHO, Z. P., MONTEIRO, S. L. P., In-service aged composite insulators at transmission line investigated by the micro-computerized tomography, JIM Material Transactions, v. 53, n. 4, p. 617-620, 2012. ISEE, ISee! - The BAM Radiographic Image Analysis Software (www.kb.bam.de/~alex/ic/)

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