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HANDOUT 1 (HEALTH EDUCATION) COMPARISON OF NURSING PROCESS TO EDUCATION PROCESS

Education process Ascertain learning needs, readiness to learn, and learning styles Develop teaching plan based on mutually predetermined behavioural outcomes to meet individual needs Perform the act of teaching using specific instructional methods and tools Determine behavioural changes (outcomes) in knowledge, attitudes, and skills

Assessment

Nursing process Appraise physical and psychosocial needs Develop care plan based on mutual goal setting to meet individual needs Carry out nursing care interventions using standard procedures Determine physical and psychosocial outcomes

Planning

Implementation

Evaluation

ROLE OF NURSES AS HEALTH EDUCATOR 1. Promote learning and provide for an environment conducive to learning to create the teachable moment. 2. assessment of learning needs 3. planning and designing of teaching program 4. implementation of instructional methods and materials 5. evaluation of teaching and learning 6. process designer and manager BARRIERS TO EDUCATION 1. Lack of time to teach 2. nurses and other healthcare professional are traditionally ill prepared to teach 3. personal characteristics of the nurse educator 4. low priority is assigned to patient and staff education by administration and supervisory personnel. 5. lack of space and privacy in the various environmental setting 6. absence of third party reimbursement to support patient education programs

7. Effectiveness of patient education as a means to improve health outcomes 8. standardization of content and inadequate delegation of responsibility 9. documentation system. OBSTACLES TO LEARNING 1. Stress of acute and chronic illness, anxiety, sensory deficits, and low literacy in patients 2. the negative influence of the hospital environment 3. lack of time to learn due to rapid patient discharge from care 4. personal characteristics of the learner 5. the extent of behavioural changes needed 6. lack of support and ongoing positive reinforcement from the nurses and significant others. 7. denial of learning needs, resentment of authority and lack of willingness to take responsibility 8. the inconvenience, complexity, inaccessibility, fragmentation, and dehumanization of the healthcare system EFFECTIVE TEACHING IN NURSING PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP WITH STUDENTS PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TEACHER Teaching practices > Teaching Style >Personality >Personal interest in the subject matter 5. AVAILABILITY 1. 2. 3. 4. EFFECTIVE TEACHING IDENTIFIED BY NON-NURSING STUDIES 1. Teacher clarity 2. Views learners as collaborators 3. Caring for the learners SEVEN PRINCIPLES OF GOOD TEACHING PRACTICE IN UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Encourage student-faculty contact. Encourage cooperation among students. Encourage active learning. Give prompt feedback. Emphasize TIME on task. Communicate high expectations. Respect diverse talent and ways of learning.

PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING

1. 2. 3. 4.

learning takes place as individuals interact with their environment individuals exerts significant control over learning learners often have a preferred mode for taking in information the success or failure of the learners performance may affect subsequent learning experiences. 5. to be effective, educator must have knowledge and they must be competent. 6. relate new information to learners past experiences. HOW TO ENSURE RETENTION OF LEARNING 1. Make the learning experience pleasurable and meaningful. 2. pacing the presentation in keeping with the learners ability to process information 3. practicing new knowledge or skills under varied conditions 4. Adequate reinforcement. 5. Proper assessment of and evaluation soon after learning experience should be facilitated. LEARNING THEORIES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. behaviourist learning theory cognitive learning theory social learning theory psychodynamic learning theory humanistic learning theory

TYPES OF LEARNING 1. Signal Learning (conditioned learning) Person develops general diffuse reaction to a stimulus. 2. Stimulus-Response Learning Developing a voluntary response to a specific stimulus. 3. Chaining Acquisition of a series of related conditioned responses or stimulus-response connections. 4. Verbal Association A type of chaining and is easily recognized in the process of learning medical terminology. 5. Discrimination Learning 6. Concept Learning Learning how to classify stimuli into groups by common concept. Rule Learning A chain of concept or relationship between concepts (if....then... Relationship) Problem Solving LEARNING PROPOSITION

1. Behaviors which are rewarded are more likely to occur. 2. Sheer repetition without indication of improvement or any kind of reinforcement is a poor way to attempt to learn. 3. Threat and punishment have variable and uncertain effects upon learning 4. Reward to be most effective in learning, must follow almost immediately after the desired behavior 5. Learners progress in any area of learning only as far as they need to in order to achieve their purposes. 6. Forgetting proceeds rapidly at first-then more and more slowly; recall shortly after learning reduces the amount forgotten. 7. Learning from reading is facilitated more by time spent recalling what has been read than by rereading. 8. When children or adult experience much frustration, their behavior ceases to be integrated, purposeful & rational. 9. No school subjects are markedly superior to others for strengthening mental powers. 10.What is learned is most likely to be available for use if it is learned in a situation much like that in which it is to be used and immediately preceding the time when it is needed. 11.Children remember new information which confirms their previous attitudes better than they remember new information which runs counter to their previous attitudes. 12.Adults need to know why they need to learn something before undertaking to learn it.