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Full Paper Int. J. on Recent Trends in Engineering and Technology, Vol. 7, No.

2, July 2012

Optimal Capacitor Configuration for Enhancement of System Reliability using Genetic Algorithm: A case study of IEEE 30 Bus system
Pravin M. Sonwane
Member IEEE Associate professor, Electrical Engg. Dept. KKWIEER, Nashik, India-422003,
AbstractThis paper presents Genetic Algorithm based approach to shunt capacitor placement in distribution systems specially IEEE 30 bus system for optimal configuration with the multi-objective placement problem for enhancement of distribution system reliability. IEEE 30 bus is well defined and load flow is evaluated to observe the line losses, p.f. and voltage profile. Placement of shunt capacitor bank/s is/are always used to moderate all these parameters as well. Apart from this it is less observed in previous literature that the study of distribution system reliability indices is related to capacitor placement problem. The objectives of this problem are to reduce the active and reactive power losses in distribution system, power factor improvement and voltage profile. Index TermsCapacitor allocation, power loss, genetic algorithm.

Dr. B.E. Kushare

Member IEEE Professor and Head, Electrical Engg. Dept. KKWIEER, Nashik, India-422003 These techniques include simulated annealing [5], the tabu search[12], Expert system[15], and dynamic Programming[23]. While these methods can easily handle discrete variables, they have several drawbacks. A major drawback of these methods is speed and the fact that they use certain control parameters that may be system dependent and difficult to determine. Recently, the authors have presented an improved GA-based method, and have extended it to handle switched capacitors [16-17]. In this paper, a practical and easy to implement solution technique for the capacitor placement problem based on a Genetic Algorithm is presented. The proposed algorithm determines the number, sizes, locations, types, and switching times for capacitors to be placed on a distribution system in order to maximize savings due to reductions in peak power and energy losses. The solution method treats capacitor sizes as discrete variables and uses standard sizes and exact capacitor costs[19]. No assumptions are required as to capacitor types or switching times. Switching times may be different for each capacitor and are determined by the algorithm. For simplicity balanced distribution system is considered. At this stage it is also assumed that capacitor placement does not magnify the total harmonic distortion. II. PROBLEM FORMULATION The problem can be stated as follows:

I. INTRODUCTION The Increase in power demand and high load density in the system makes power system operation and control complicated. To meet the load demand, the system is required to expand the network by increasing the substation capacity and hence the number of feeders are required to handle the said capacity. However this may be troublesome and may not be easily achievable due to various constraints. Shunt capacitor may release the capacity if properly sized and placed in the system. Therefore to provide more KVA margin for the substation to meet load demand, system loss minimization techniques are evaluated and employed [18-19]. Optimal capacitor placement solution is always benefited as it release the KVA partially. Obviously the loss reduction can be achieved and then it becomes economical. Numerous methods have been suggested for solving the capacitor placement problem. Many of these methods require an objective function that is continuous and differentiable. Development of this objective function requires several simplifying assumptions to be made. These assumptions concern capacitor sizes and costs, the number and types of capacitors, relative switching times, and relative placement among others[1-2]. A major drawback of these methods is that the solution obtained is dependent on the starting locations. Various optimization techniques have been suggested as a means for improving the quality of solution of the problem. 2012 ACEEE DOI: 01.IJRTET.7.2.540 72

Where, ECOST Nbus Xi bus i Coi C1i Qci Bi C2i T C2 L Tl reliability Cost number of bus candidates 0/1 0 means no capacitor installed at installation cost per KVAR cost of capacitor bank capacitor bank size in KVAR number of capacitor banks operating cost per bank per year planning period in years. cost of each KVar loss in Rs./KVAR load level time duration in hours

Full Paper Int. J. on Recent Trends in Engineering and Technology, Vol. 7, No. 2, July 2012 Pli total system loss at load level l Constraints Vmin < V< Vmax Pf min< pf Assumption: THD of the system will not affected due to capacitor placement. The main constraints for capacitor placement are to meet the load flow constraints. In addition, all voltage magnitudes of load (PQ) buses should be within the lower and upper bars. Load Power Factor (PF) should be greater than the minimum. It may be a maximum power factor bar. Value of reliability cost ECOST is evaluated with the help offailureratei,durationofinterruptionriandcomposite customer damage function CCDF. The following assumptions are considered in the development of the objective function: 1. Capacitor placement affects only the flow of reactive power in the feeder. 2. Only balanced three-phase loads will be considered. 3. Capacitors are available in step size. 4. THD will not be magnified due to capacitors places. The expression presented in ETAP software for power loss reduction is used here as basis to express the threephase power loss reduction at any instant of time due to capacitor placement. Load flow analysis is done for initial observations of line losses, voltage profile and power factor of the existing system. Reliability module is run for the evaluation of Indices for the existing system and then capacitor placement program is executed to find out the optimal capacitor size and placement. The difference in the current obtained due to capacitor placed is calculated. The reliability module is again evaluated to observe the modifications in indices. III. DISCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM IEEE 30 bus system is as shown in fig.(1). The system is also represented in table(1) and table (2). This network consist of 30 buses, 41 branches, 5 generators and 23 loads with 300.703MWand 80.538 Mvar. It is observed that initially losses in active power is 17.719 MW and 41.505 MW.

Figure 1. IEEE 30 Bus System

Table I indicates the information about power factor and losses in the system shown. The capacitor placement can help to modify these parameters in the system. Obviously it is well known that capacitor can add the voltage in the node/ busi.e,V=(Kvar)(XL)/10(KV)2. 73

2012 ACEEE DOI: 01.IJRTET.7.2.540

Full Paper Int. J. on Recent Trends in Engineering and Technology, Vol. 7, No. 2, July 2012

and mutation act after the selection process and they determine the balance among the exploitation and exploration elements during the evolution of the Genetic Algorithm. V. RESULTS In the given IEEE system five buses are selected as candidate buses and all of them are from LV bus list (bus 16,17,23,24,26). It is then observed that the capacitor placement reduces the power losses as Active power reduction is (17719.83-17484.9)=234.93KW and reactive power reduction is (41505.82-41246.02)=259.8KVAR. It is observed that Reliability Indices are improved as shown in Table III after capacitor placement. Table IV shows the loss reduction in branches.

Where, SAIFI System Average Interruption Frequency Index SAIDI System Average Interruption Duration Index CAIDI Customer Average Interruption Duration Index ASAI Average service Availability Index ASUI Average Service Unavailability Index EENS Expected Energy Not Supplied AENS Average Energy Not Supplied At the same time capacitor bank also contribute in reactive power, so wherever local reactive power is required, capacitor should be placed and it is general practice that the distribution engineer locally apply the capacitor for this purpose, which is the solution for local case. But it is todays need that the impact of this capacitor on other system is required to investigate and proper place and size should be find out. In this paper we concentrate on the reliability aspects also. So first the reliability of the existing system is evaluated and indices are find out. Table II indicates the reliability Indices. IV. GENETIC ALGORITHM To solve the optimization problem formulated in (1) we use a genetic algorithm (GA), this technique is inspired from the principle of evolution. GA uses a Chromosomal representation in which the solution is to be coded as a finite length string. Genetic operators are the transition rules applied to each one of chromosome during each generation procedure to generate a new improved population from an old one. A genetic algorithm usually consists of reproduction, crossover and mutation operators. Reproductionis a probabilistic selection process for selecting two parent strings from the population of strings usally called as offspring, using their fitness values. This ensures that the expected number of times a string is selected is proportional to strings fitness relative to the rest of the population. Therefore, strings with higher fitness values have a higher probability of contributing offspring which are used for the next generation. Crossoveris the process of selecting a random position in the string and swapping the characters either left or right of this point with another similarly partitioned string. This random position is called the crossover point. Mutationis the process of random modification of a string position by changing 0 to 1 or vice versa, with a probability approach. The genetic operators of crossover 74 2012 ACEEE DOI: 01.IJRTET.7.2.540






Full Paper Int. J. on Recent Trends in Engineering and Technology, Vol. 7, No. 2, July 2012 In Figure(3), profit during planning period is shown. It is observed that within two year the capacitor cost including operating cost is recovered and accumulative profit starts afterwards. Apart from this 13.81MVA capacity is released in this system. In most of cases power factor is improved and voltage is within the limits as per standard.
[8] Mohammad A. S. Masoum, Marjan Ladjevardi, Akbar Jafarian, and Ewald F. Fuchs, Optimal Placement, Replacement and Sizing of Capacitor Banks in Distorted Distribution Networks by Genetic Algorithms IEEE Transactions On Power Delivery, Vol. 19, No. 4, October 2004 [9] Maurizo Delfanti, Gianpietro P. Granelli, Paolo Marannino and Mario Montagna, Member, Optimal Capacitor Placement Using Deterministic and Genetic Algorithms, IEEE Transactions On Power Systems, Vol. 15, No. 3, August 2000. [10] J. C. Carlisle,A. A. El-Keib, and C. L.Karr, Optimal placement of fixed capacitors on radial distribution systems using genetic algorithms, in 1998 LESCOPE Proceedings, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, June 79, 1998, pp. 157161. [11] J. C. Carlisle, A. A. El-Keib, D. Boyd, and K. Nolan, A review of capacitor placement techniques on distribution feeders, in Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth Symposium on System Theory, Cookeville, TN, Mar. 911, 1997 [12] A. A. El-Keib and J. C. Carlisle, Optimal placement of fixed and switched capacitors on primary distribution feeders of Alabama Power Company, University of Alabama, BER Report no. 643-220, Aug. 1997. [13] H. D. Chiang, J. C. Wang, J. Tong, and G. Darling, Optimal capacitor placement, replacement and control in large-scale unbalanced distribution systems: System modeling and a new formulation, IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 356362, Feb. 1995. [14] G. A. Bortignon and M. E. El-Hawary, Review of capacitor placement techniques for loss reduction in primary feeders on distribution systems, in Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, vol. 2, pp. 684687,1995 [15] Srinivasan Sundhararajan Ani1 Pahwa, Optimal selection of capacitor for radial distribution systems using a genetic algorithm IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 9, No. 3, August 1994 [16] J. Shao, N. D. Rao, and Y. Zhang, A capacitor placement expert system, International Journal of Engineering Intelligent Systems for Electrical Engineering and Communications, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 105114, June 1994. [17] S. Sundhararajan and A. Pahwa, Optimal selection of capacitors for radial distribution systems using a genetic algorithm, IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 14991507, Aug. 1994. [18] G. Boone and H. D. Chiang, Optimal capacitor placement in distribution systems by genetic algorithm, International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 155162, June 1993. [19] V. Ajjarapu and Z. Albanna, Application of genetic based algorithms to optimal capacitor placement, in Proceedings of the First International Forum on Applications of Neural Networks to Power Systems, 1991, p.251. [20] H. D. Chiang, J. C. Wang, O. Cockings, and H. D. Shin, Optimal capacitor placements in distribution systems: Part I, Part II, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 634649, Apr. 1990. [21] M. Ponnavaikko and K. R. Prakasa Rao, Optimal choice of fixed and switched shunt capacitors on radial distributors by the method of local variations, IEEE Trans. PAS, vol. 102, no. 6, pp. 16071614, June 1983. [22] J. J. Grainger and S. H. Lee, Optimum size and location of shunt capacitors for reduction of losses on distribution feeders, IEEE Trans. PAS, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 11051118, Mar. 1981.

Figure 3. Profit during Planning Period

VI. CONCLUSION Genetic Algorithm method is used in ETAP 11 software helps us to find the capacitor placement and sizes to be solved. Evaluation of loss reduction yield to conclude that to decide cost recovery period due to cost of capacitor and installation cost. Result analysis shows that optimal capacitor configuration find proper places and size of capacitor. This placement improves power factor, reduces active and reactive losses, maintain voltage profile and KVA release. Apart from this indices shows that Reliability of the system is also improved. REFERENCES
[1] Abdelsalam A. Eajal, M. E. El-Hawary, Optimal Capacitor Placement and Sizing in Unbalanced Distribution Systems With Harmonics Consideration Using Particle Swarm Optimization IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery Vol. 25, No. 3, July 2010 [2] M. J. Kasaei, M. Gandomkar, Loss Reduction in Distribution Network Using Simultaneous Capacitor Placement and Reconfiguration With Ant Colony Algorithm, IEEE conference 2010 [3] W. A. dos S. Fonseca, F. G. N. Barros, U. H. Bezerra , R. C. L. Oliveira, M. V. A. Nunes, Genetic Algorithms and Treatment of Multiple Objectives in the Allocation of Capacitor Banks in an Electric Power Distribution System 2009 IEEE Bucharest Power Tech Conference [4] P. M. Sonwane, D. P. Kadam, Dr. B.E. Kushare, Member IEEE, Distribution System Reliability Through Reconfiguration, Fault Location, Isolation And Restoration, International IEEE conference on control automation, communication and energy conservation- 4th -6th June 2009. [5] M.R. Haghifam and O.P. Malik, Genetic algorithm-based approach for fixed and switchable capacitors placement in distribution systems with uncertainty and time varying loads IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., Vol. 1, No. 2, March 2007 [6] V.V.K. Reddy, M. Sydulu, Index and GA based Optimal Location and Sizing of Distribution System Capacitors 2007IEEE. [7] Luis Rojas, Rodolfo Garcia, and Luis Roa, Optimal Capacitor Location for Radial Systems using Genetic Algorithms 2006 IEEE

2012 ACEEE DOI: 01.IJRTET.7.2.540


Full Paper Int. J. on Recent Trends in Engineering and Technology, Vol. 7, No. 2, July 2012 ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Prof. P. M. Sonwane graduated in Electrical Engineering from Chandrapur Engineering College, Nagpur University. He obtained M.Tech. in Integrated power systems From V.R.C.E. Nagpur in 2005 and pursuing Ph.D. in University of Pune. His area of interest is power system. microprocessor, microcontroller, artificial Intelligence and distribution system reliability. Currently he is working with Electrical Engineering Department, K. K. Wagh IEER, Nashik as Associate Professor. Prof. Dr. B. E. Kushare graduated in Electrical Engineering from Govt. College of Engineering, Aurangabad and obtained Gold Medal for University Topper in 1989. He completed his ME Electrical Control System from Pune University in 1992 and obtained Ph.D. in Power Quality from Pune University in 2006. He is also a Certified Energy auditor. He Published around 100 International and National Papers. He is also a consultant to various industries in India and abroad. He is working as Professor & Head of Electrical Engg. Dept. at K.K.Wagh Institute of Engg. Education & Research, Nashik, Maharashtra, India.

2012 ACEEE DOI: 01.IJRTET.7.2.540