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5G ( 5th generation mobile networks or 5th generation wireless systems ) is a name used in some research papers and projects to denote the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the upcoming 4G standards (expected to be finalized between approximately 2011 and 2013). Currently,5G is not a term officially used for any particular specification or in any official document yet made public by telecommunication companies or standardization bodies such as 3GPP, WiMAX Forum or ITU-R. New 3GPP standard releases beyond 4G and LTE Advanced are in progress, but not considered as new mobile generations.The implementation of standards under a 5G umbrella would likely be around the year of 2020 . 5GTechnology stands for 5th Generation Mobile technology.5G technology has changed the means to use cell phones within very high bandwidth. User never experienced ever before such a high value technology. Nowadays mobile users have much awareness of the cell phone (mobile) technology. The 5G technologies include all type of advanced features which makes 5G technology most powerful and in huge demand in near future 5G technologies will change the way most high-bandwidth users accesstheir phones. With 5G pushed over a VOIP-enabled device, people will experience a level of call volume and data transmission never experienced before.5G technology is offering the services in Product Engineering, Documentation, supporting electronic transactions (e-Payments, e-transactions) etc. As the customer becomes more and more aware of the mobile phone technology, he or she will look for a decent package all together, including all the advanced features a cellular phone can have. Hence the search for new technology is always the main motive of the leading cell phone giants to out innovate their competitors.

The present cell phones have it all. Today phones have everything ranging from the smallest size, largest phone memory, speed dialing, video player, audio player, and camera and so on. Recently with the development of Pico nets and Blue tooth technology data sharing has become a child's play. Earlier with the infrared feature you can share data within a line of sight that means the two devices has to be aligned properly to transfer data, but in case of blue tooth you can transfer data even when you have the cell phone in your pocket up to a range of 50 meters. The creation and entry of 5G technology into the mobile marketplace will launch a new revolution in the way international cellular plans are offered. The global mobile phone is upon the cell phone market. Just around the corner, the newest 5G technologies will hit the mobile market with phones used in China being able to access and call locally phones in Germany. Mobile wireless industry has started its technology creation, revolution and evolution since early1970s. In the past few decades, mobile wireless technologies have experience 4 or 5 generations of technology revolution and evolution, namely from 0G to 4G. The cellular concept was introduced in 5G Technology stands for 5th Generation Mobile technology. 5G technology has changed the means to use cell phones within very high bandwidth. User never experienced ever before such a high value technology. Nowadays mobile users have much awareness of the cell phone (mobile) technology. The 5G technologies include all type of advanced features which makes 5G technology most powerful and in huge demand in near future. Were a 5G family of standards to be implemented,it would likely be around the year 2020, according to somesources. A new mobile generation has appeared every 10th year since the first 1G system (NMT) was introduced in 1981, including the 2G (GSM) system that started to roll out in 1992, 3G (W-CDMA/FOMA), which appeared in 2001, and "real" 4G standards fulfilling the IMT-Advanced requirements, that were ratified in 2011 and products expected in 2012-2013. Predecessor technologies have occurred on the market a few years before the new mobile generation. New mobile generations are typically assigned new frequency bands and wider spectral bandwidth per frequency channel (1G up to 30 kHz, 2G up to 200 kHz, 3G up to 5 MHz, and 4G up to 40 MHz), but the main issue that there is little room for new frequency bands or larger channel bandwidths. From end users point of view, previous mobile generations have implied substantial increase in peak bitrate (i.e. physical layer net bitrates for short-distance communication). However the major difference from a user point of view between 4G and 5G techniques must be something else than increased maximum throughput; for example lower battery consumption, lower outage probability (better coverage), high bit rates in larger portions of the coverage area, cheaper or no traffic fees due to low infrastructure deployment costs, or higher aggregate capacity for many simultaneous users.


3.1 ZERO GENERATION TECHNOLOGY (0G 0.5G) Wireless telephone started with what you might call 0G if you can remember back that far. The great ancestor is the mobile telephone service that became available just after World War II. In those pre-cell days, you had a mobile operator to set up the calls and there were only a handful of channels available. 0G refers to pre-cell phone mobile telephony technology, such as radio telephones that some had in cars before the advent of cell phones. Mobile radio telephone systems preceded modern cellular mobile telephony technology. Since they were the predecessors of the first generation of cellular telephones, these systems are called 0G (zero generation) systems. Technologies used in 0G systems included PTT (Push to Talk), MTS (Mobile Telephone System), IMTS (Improved Mobile Telephone Service), AMTS (Advanced Mobile Telephone System), OLT (Norwegian for Offentlig Landmobil Telefoni, Public Land Mobile Telephony) and MTD(Swedish abbreviation for Mobilelefonisystem D, or Mobile telephony system D).These early mobile telephone systems can bedistinguished from earlier closed radiotelephonesystems in that they were available as a commercialservice that was part of the public switchedtelephone network, with their own telephonenumbers, rather than part of a closed network suchas a police radio or taxi dispatch system.These mobile telephones were usually mounted incars or trucks, though briefcase models were alsomade. Typically, the transceiver (transmitterreceiver)was mounted in the vehicle trunk andattached to the "head" (dial, display, and handset)mounted near the driver seat.They were sold through WCCs (Wireline CommonCarriers, AKA telephone companies), RCCs (RadioCommon Carriers), and two-way radio dealers. Theprimary users were loggers, construction foremen,realtors, and celebrities. 3.2 FIRST GENERATION TECHNOLOGY (1G) 1G stands for "first generation," refers to the firstgeneration of wireless telecommunication technology, more popularly known as cellphones. A set of wireless standards developed in the 1980's, 1G technology replaced 0G technology, which featured mobile radio telephones and such technologies as Mobile Telephone System (MTS), Advanced Mobile Telephone System (AMTS), Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS), and Push to Talk (PTT). Its successor, 2G, which made use of digital signals, 1G wireless networks used analog radio signals. Through 1G, a voice call gets modulated to a higherfrequency of about 150MHz and up as it istransmitted between radio towers. This is done using a technique called Frequency-Division Multiple Access (FDMA). In terms of overall connection quality, 1G compares unfavorably to its successors. It has low capacity, unreliable handoff, poor voice links, and no security at all since voice calls were played back in radio towers, making these calls susceptible to unwanted eavesdropping by

third parties. However, 1G did maintain a few advantages over 2G. In comparison to 1G's analog signals, 2G's digital signals are very reliant on location and proximity. If a 2G handset made a call far away from a cell tower, the digital signal may not be strong enough to reach it. While a call made from a 1G handset had generally poorer quality than that of a 2G handset, it survived longer distances. This is due to the analog signal having a smooth curve compared to the digital signal, which had a jagged, angular curve. As conditions worsen, the quality of a call made from a 1G handset would gradually worsen, but a call made from a 2G handset would fail completely. Different 1G standards were used in various countries. One such standard is NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone), used in Nordic countries, Eastern Europe and Russia. Others include AMPS(Advanced Mobile Phone System) used in the United States, TACS (Total Access Communications System) in the United Kingdom, C-Netz in West Germany, Radiocom 2000 in France, and RTMI in Italy. 3.3 2G WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY 2G (or 2-G) is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology.Second generation 2G cellular telecom networks were commercially launched onthe GSM standard in Finland by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Oyj) in 1991. 2Gnetwork allows for much greater penetration intensity. 2G technologies enabled thevarious mobile phone networks to provide the services such as text messages, picturemessages and MMS (multi media messages). 2G technology is more efficient. 2Gtechnology holds sufficient security for both the sender and the receiver. All textmessages are digitally encrypted. This digital encryption allows for the transfer ofdata in such a way that only the intended receiver can receive and read it.Second generation technologies are either time division multiple access(TDMA) or code division multiple access (CDMA). TDMA allows for the division ofsignal into time slots. CDMA allocates each user a special code to communicate overa multiplex physical channel. Different TDMA technologies are GSM, PDC, iDEN,IS-136. CDMA technology is IS-95. GSM has its origin from the Group specialMobile, in Europe. GSM (Global system for mobile communication) is the mostadmired standard of all the mobile technologies. Although this technology originatesfrom the Europe, but now it is used in more than 212 countries in the world. GSMtechnology was the first one to help establish international roaming. This enabled themobile subscribers to use their mobile phone connections in many different countriesof the worlds is based on digital signals ,unlike 1G technologies which were used totransfer analogue signals. GSM has enabled the users to make use of the shortmessage services (SMS) to any mobile network at any time. SMS is a cheap and easyway to send a message to anyone, other than the voice call or conference. Thistechnology is beneficial to both the network operators and the ultimate users at thesame time. In comparison to 1G's analog signals, 2G's digital signals are very reliant on location and proximity. If a 2G handset made a call far away from a cell tower, the digital signal may not be enough to reach it. While a call made from a 1G handset had generally poor quality than that of a 2G handset, it survived longer distances. This isdue to the analog signal having a smooth curve compared to the digital signal, which had a jagged, angular curve. As conditions worsen, the

quality of a call made from a 1G handset would gradually worsen, but a call made from a 2G handset would fail completely. 2.5G WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY 2.5G is a stepping stone between 2G and 3G cellular wireless technologies.The term "second and a half generation" is used to describe 2G-systems that haveimplemented a packet switched domain in addition to the circuit switched domain. It does not necessarily provide faster services because bundling of timeslots is used for circuit switched data services (HSCSD) as well. The first major step in the evolution of GSM networks to 3G occurred with the introduction of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). CDMA2000 networkssimilarly evolved through the introduction of 1xRTT. So the cellular services combined with enhanced data transmission capabilities became known as '2.5G.' GPRS could provide data rates from 56 Kbit/s up to 115 Kbit/s. It can be used for services such as Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) access, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), and for Internet communication services such as email and World Wide Web access. GPRS data transfer is typically charged per megabyte of traffic transferred, while data communication via traditional circuit switching is billed per minute of connection time, independent of whether the user actually is utilizing the capacity or is in an idle state. 1xRTT supports bi-directional (up and downlink) peak data rates up to 153.6 kbps, delivering an average user data throughput of 80-100 kbps in commercial networks. It can also be used for WAP, SMS & MMS services, as well as Internet access. 2.75G (EDGE) GPRS networks evolved to EDGE networks with the introduction of 8PSK encoding. Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution, Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), or IMT Single Carrier (IMT-SC) is a backward-compatible digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data transmission rates, as an extension on top of standard GSM. EDGE was deployed on GSM networks beginning in 2003initially by Cingular (now AT&T) in the United States. EDGE is standardized by 3GPP as part of the GSM family, and it is an upgrade that provides a potential three-fold increase in capacity of GSM/GPRS networks. The specification achieves higher datarates (up to 236.8 Kbit/s) by switching to more sophisticated methods of coding (8PSK), within existing GSM timeslots. 3.4 THIRD GENERATIONTECHNOLOGY (3G 3.75G) 3G is the third generation of mobile phonestandards and technology, superseding 2G, and preceding 4G. It is based on the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) family of standards under the International Mobile Telecommunications programme, IMT-2000. 3G technologies enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more advanced services while achieving greater network capacity through improved spectral efficiency. Services include widearea wireless voice telephony, video calls, and broadband wireless data, all in a mobile environment. Additional features also include HSPA data transmission capabilities able to deliver speeds up to 14.4Mbit/s on the downlink and 5.8Mbit/s on the uplink. Spectral efficiency orspectrum efficiency refers to the amount of information that can be transmitted over a given

bandwidth in a specific digital communication system. ... High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is a collection of mobile telephony protocols that extend and improve the performance of existing UMTS protocols. Unlike IEEE 802.11 (common names Wi-Fi orWLAN) networks, 3G networks are wide areacellular telephone networks which evolved to incorporate high-speed internet access and video telephony. IEEE 802.11 networks are short range, high-bandwidth networks primarily developed for data. Wi-Fi is the common name for a popular wireless technology used in home networks, mobile phones, video games and more. The notebook is connected to the wireless access point using a PC card wireless card. A videophone is a telephone which is capable of both audio and video duplex transmission. 3G technologies make use of TDMA and CDMA. 3G (Third Generation Technology) technologies make use of value added services like mobile television, GPS (global positioning system) and video conferencing. The basic feature of 3G Technology is fast data transfer rates. 3G technology is much flexible, because it is able to support the 5 major radio technologies. These radio technologies operate under CDMA, TDMA and FDMA.CDMA holds for IMT-DS (direct spread), IMT-MC (multi carrier). TDMA accounts for IMTTC (time code), IMT-SC (single carrier). FDMA has only one radio interface known as IMT-FC or frequency code. Third generation technology is really affordable due to the agreement of industry. This agreement took pace in order to increase its adoption by the users. 3G system is compatible to work with the 2G technologies. The aim of the 3G is to allow for more coverage and growth with minimum investment. There are many 3G technologies as WCDMA, GSM EDGE, UMTS, DECT, WiMax and CDMA 2000.Enhanced data rates for GSM evolution or EDGE is termed to as a backward digital technology, because it can operate with older devices. 3G has the following enhancements over 2.5G andprevious networks:Enhanced audio and video streaming;Several Times higher data speed;Video-conferencing support; Web and WAP browsing at higher speeds;IPTV (TV through the Internet) support. 3.5G HSDPA (High-Speed Downlink Packet Access) High-Speed Downlink Packet Access(HSDPA) is amobile telephony protocol, also called 3.5G (or "3G"), which provides a smooth evolutionary path for UMTS-based 3G networks allowing for higherdata transfer speeds. HSDPA is a packet-based data service in W-CDMA downlink with data transmission up to 8-10 Mbit/s (and 20 Mbit/s for MIMO systems) over a 5MHz bandwidth in WCDMA downlink. HSDPA implementations includes Adaptive Modulation andCoding (AMC), Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO), Hybrid Automatic Request (HARQ), fast cell search, and advanced receiver design. 3.75G HSUPA (High-Speed Uplink Packet Access) The 3.75G refer to the technologies beyond the welldefined 3G wireless/mobile technologies. HighSpeed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) is a UMTS / WCDMA uplink evolution technology. The HSUPA mobile telecommunications technology is directly related to HSDPA and thetwo are complimentary to one another.HSUPA will enhance advanced person-to-person data applications with higher and symmetric data rates, like mobile e-mail and real-time person-to person gaming. Traditional business applications along with many consumer applications will benefit from enhanced uplink speed. HSUPA will initially boost the UMTS / WCDMA uplink up to 1.4Mbps and in later releases up to 5.8Mbps.

3.5 FOURTH GENERATION(4G) TECHNOLOGY: Still a research lab standard, 4G should combine the best of cell phone network technologies with WiMax wireless Internet, voice over IP and IPv6 (a post about the latter soon). Data rates are expected to reach 100 Mbytes/sec[1]. After the launch of 4G technology in some countries like Unites States of America and United Kingdom, research has started towards the next generation of mobiles that is the fifth generation. The name 5G has not been used by any standardization bodies or any company in telecom sector since 4G standards havent been standardized fully. After studying the increase in data rates from generation to generation, one can roughly predict that maximum data rates i.e. uploading or downloading rates in 5G would be 10 Gbps. This generation is expected to be rolled out in 201213. 4G is being developed to accommodate the QoS and rate requirements set by forthcoming applications like wireless broadband access, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), video chat, mobile TV, HDTV content, Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), minimal services like voice and data, and other services that utilize bandwidth. The definition of 4G is to provide adequate RF coverage, more bits/Hz and to interconnect all wireless heterogonous networks to provide seamless, consistent telecom experience to user.


The basic architecture of wireless mobile system consists of a mobile phone connected to the wired world via a single hop wireless connection to a Base Station (BS), which is responsible for carrying the calls within its region called cell. Due to limited coverage provided by a BS, the mobile hosts change their connecting base stations as they move from one cell to another. A hand-off (later referred to as horizontal handoff in this article) occurs when a mobile system changes its BS. The mobile station communicates via the BS using one of the wireless frequency sharing technologies such as FDMA, TDMA, CDMA etc. Each BS is connected to a Mobile Switching Center (MSC) through fixed links, and each MSC is connected to others via Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). The MSC is a local switching exchange that handles switching of mobile user from one BS to another. It also locates the current cell location of a mobile user via a Home Location Register (HLR) that stores current location of each mobile that belongs to the MSC. In addition, the MSC contains a Visitor Locations Register (VLR) with information of visiting mobiles from other cells. The MSC is responsible for determining the current location of a target mobile using HLR, VLR and by communicating with other MSCs. The source MSC initiates a call setup message to MSC covering target area for this purpose.

Mobile System/WLAN Integration

The first generation cellular implementation consisted of analog systems in 450-900 MHz frequency range using frequency shift keying for signaling and Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) for spectrum sharing. The second generation implementations consist of TDMA/CDMA implementations with 900, 1800 MHz frequencies. These systems are called GSM for Europe and IS-136 for US. The respective 2.5G implementations are called GPRS and CDPD followed by 3G implementations. Third generation mobile systems are intended to provide a global mobility with wide range of services including voice calls, paging, messaging, Internet and broadband data. IMT-2000 defines the standard applicable for North America. In Europe, the equivalent UMTS standardization is in progress. In 1998, a Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) was formed to unify and continue the technical specification work. Later, the Third Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) was formed for technical development of CDMA-2000 technology. 3G mobile offers access to broadband multimedia services, which is expected to become all IP based in future 4G systems. However, current 3G networks are not based on IP; rather they are an evolution from existing 2G networks. Work is going on to provide 3G support and Quality of Service (QoS) in IP and mobility protocols. The situation gets more complex when we consider the WLAN research and when we expect it to become mobile. It is expected that WLANs will be installed in trains, trucks, and buildings. In addition, it may just be formed on an ad-hoc basis (like ad-hoc networks)between random collections of devices that happen to come within radio range of one another .


Seamless Connection of Networks in 4G In general, 4G architecture includes three basic areas of connectivity; PANs (such as Bluetooth), WANs (such as IEEE 802.11), and cellular connectivity. Under this umbrella, 4G will provide a wide range of mobile devices that support global roaming Each device will be able to interact with Internet-based information that will be modified on the fly for the network being used by the device at that moment. In 5G mobile IP, each cell phone is expected to have a permanent "home" IP address, along with a "care-of" address that represents its actual location. When a computer somewhere on the Internet needs to communicate with the cell phone, it first sends a packet to the phone's home address. A directory server on the home network forwards this to the care-of address via a tunnel, as in regular mobile IP. However, the directory server also sends a message to the computer informing it of the correct care-of address, so future packets can be sent directly. This should enable TCP sessions and HTTP downloads to be maintained as users move between different types of networks. Because of the many addresses and the multiple layers of subnetting, IPv6 is needed for this type of mobility. For instance, 128 bits (4 times more than current 32 bit IPv4 address) may be divided into four parts (I thru IV) for supporting different functions. The first 32-bit part (I) may be defined as the home address of a device while the second part (II) may be declared as the care-of address allowing communication between cell phones and personal computers. So once the communication path between cell and PC is established, care-of address will be used instead of home address thus using the second part of IPv6 address.



WHAT IS 5G TECHNOLOGY 5G network is very fast and reliable. The concept of handheld devices is going to be revolutionized with the advent of 5G. Now all the services and applications are going to be accessed by single IP as telephony, gaming and many other multimedia applications [5]. As it is not a new thing or gadget in market and there are millions of users all over the world who have experienced the wireless services and till now they are obsessed to this wireless technology. It is not easy for them to shrink from using this new 5G network technology. There is only need to make it accessible so that a common man can easily afford the profitable packs offered by the companies so that 5G network could hold the authentic place. There is need to win the customer trust to build fair long term relation to make a reliable position in the telecommunication field. To compete with the preceding wireless technologies in the market 5G network has to tender something reliable something more pioneering. All the features like telephony, camera, mp3 player, are coming in new mobile phone models. 4G is providing all these utility in mobile phone. By seeing the features of 4G one can gets a rough idea about what 5G Network could offer. There is messenger, photo gallery, and multimedia applications that are also going to be the part of 5G. There would be no difference between a PC and a mobile phone rather both would act vice versa. 5G technology going to be a new mobile revolution in mobile market. Through 5G technology now you can use worldwide cellular phones and this technology also strike the china mobile market and a user being proficient to get access to Germany phone as a local phone. With the coming out of cell phone alike to PDA now your whole office in your finger tips or in your phone. 5Gtechnology has extraordinary data capabilities and has ability to tie together unrestricted call volumes and infinite data broadcast within latest mobile operating system. 5G technology has a bright future because it can handle best technologies and offer priceless handset to their customers. May be in coming days 5G technology takes over the world market. 5G Technologies have an extraordinary capability to support Software and Consultancy. The Router and switch technology used in 5G network providing high connectivity. The 5G technology distributes internet access to nodes within the building and can be deployed with union of wired or wireless network connections. The current trend of 5G technology has a glowing future


Features of 5G According to some research papers on 5G technology, the main features the technology might have are as follows: A 5G user might be able to connect to different networks at same time or switch between two networks. These networks need not be 5G networks but they can be of any generation. Introduction of a new radio system is possible in which different radio technologies will share the same spectrum. This can be done by finding unused spectrum and then adapting to the technology of the radio technology with which the spectrum is being shared. Every mobile in a 5G network will have an IP address (IPV6) according to the location and network being used. 5G technology is expected to bring a single global standard. The technology is also expected to support virtual private networks and advanced billing interfaces. With 5G enabled phone, you might be able to connect your phone to your laptop to get access to broadband. The other few features that might be offered by 5G are transporter class gateway , subscriber supervision tools , remote diagnostics etc. 5G technology offer high resolution for crazy cell phone user and bi-directional large bandwidth shaping. The advanced billing interfaces of 5G technology makes it more attractive and effective. 5G technology also providing subscriber supervision tools for fast action. The high quality services of 5G technology based on Policy to avoid error. 5G technology is providing large broadcasting of data in Gigabit which supporting almost 65,000 connections. 5G technology offer transporter class gateway with unparalleled consistency. The traffic statistics by 5G technology makes it more accurate. Through remote management offered by 5G technology a user can get better and fast solution. The remote diagnostics also a great feature of 5G technology. The 5G technology is providing up to 25 Mbps connectivity speed. The 5G technology also support virtual private network. The new 5G technology will take all delivery service out of business prospect The uploading and downloading speed of 5G technology touching the peak. The 5G technology network offering enhanced and available connectivity just about the world



The 5G terminals will have software defined radios and modulation schemesas well as new error-control schemes that can be downloaded from the Internet. The development is seen towards the user terminals as a focus of the 5G mobile networks. The terminals will have access to different wireless technologies at the same time andthe terminal should be able to combine different flows from different technologies. The vertical handovers should be avoided, because they are not feasible in a case when there are many technologies and many operators and service providers. In 5G, each network will be responsible for handling user-mobility, while the terminal will make the final choice among different wireless/mobile access network providers for a given service. Such choice will be based on open intelligent middleware in the mobilephone.

5G Mobile Phone Concept


OSI layers in 5g mobile concept:

OSI Layers in the 5G Mobile Terminal Design


Open Wireless Architecture The proposed Open Wireless Architecture (OWA) in is targeted to provide openbaseband processing modules with open interface parameters to support different existing as well as future wireless communication standards. The OWA is targeted to MAC/PHY layers of future (4G) mobile terminals. The referenced work above provides aground for definition of a concept for beyond 4G mobile networks, referred in this paper as 5G mobile networks. PHYSICAL LAYER Physical and Medium Access Control layers i.e. OSI layer 1 and OSI layer 2,define the wireless technology. For these two layers the 5G mobile networks is likely to be based on Open Wireless Architecture. NETWORK LAYER The network layer will be IP (Internet Protocol), because there is nocompetition today on this level. The IPv4 (version 4) is worldwide spread and it has several problems such as limited address space and has no real possibility for QoS support per flow. These issues are solved in IPv6, but traded with significantly bigger packet header. Then, mobility still remains a problem. There is Mobile IP standard on one side as well as many micro-mobility solutions (e.g., Cellular IP, HAWAII etc.). All mobile networks will use Mobile IP in 5G, and each mobile terminal will be FA (Foreign Agent), keeping the CoA (Care of Address) mapping between its fixed IPv6 address and CoA address for the current wireless network. However, a mobile can be attached to several mobile or wireless networks at the same time. In such case, it will maintain different IP addresses for each of the radio interfaces, while each of these IP addresses will be CoA address for the FA placed in the mobile Phone. The fixed IPv6 will be implemented in the mobile phone by 5G phone manufactures.

5G Mobile Terminal Network Layer

The 5G mobile phone shall maintain virtual multi-wireless network environment. For this purpose there should be separation of network layer into two sub-layers in 5G mobiles (Fig. ) i.e.: Lower network layer (for each interface) and Upper network layer (for the mobile terminal).


This is due to the initial design of the Internet, where all the routing is based on IP addresses which should be different in each IP network world wide. The middleware between the Upper and Lower network layers shall maintain address translation from Upper network address (IPv6) to different Lower network IP addresses (IPv4 or IPv6), and vice versa.
OPEN TRANSPORT PROTOCOL (OTA) LAYER The mobile and wireless networks differ from wired networks regarding the transport layer. In all TCP versions the assumption is that lost segments are due to network congestion, while in wireless networks losses may occur due to higher bit error ratio in the radio interface. Therefore, TCP modifications and adaptation are proposed for the mobile and wireless networks, which retransmit the lost or damaged TCP segments over the wireless link only. For 5G mobile terminals will be suitable to have transport layer that is possible to be downloaded and installed. Such mobiles shall have the possibility to download (e.g., TCP, RTP etc. or new transport protocol) version which is targeted to a specific wireless technology installed at the base stations. This is called here Open Transport Protocol OTP. APPLICATION LAYER Regarding the applications, the ultimate request from the 5G mobile terminal is to provide intelligent QoS management over variety of networks. Today, in mobile phones the users manually select the wireless interface for particular Internet service without having the possibility to use QoS history to select the best wireless connection for a given service. The 5G phone shall provide possibility for service quality testing and storage of measurement information in information databases in the mobile terminal. The QoS parameters, such as delay, jitter, losses, bandwidth, reliability, will be stored in a database in the 5G mobile phone with aim to be used by intelligent algorithms running in the mobile terminal as system processes, which at the end shall provide the best wireless connection upon required QoS and personal cost constraints.



Below figure shows the system model that proposes design of network architecture for 5G mobile systems, which is all-IP based model for wireless and mobile networks interoperability. The system consists of a user terminal (which has a crucial role in the new architecture) and a number of independent, autonomous radio access technologies. Within each of the terminals, each of the radio access technologies is seen as the IP link to the outside Internet world. However, there should be different radio interface for each Radio Access Technology (RAT) in the mobile terminal. For an example, if we want to have access to four different RATs, we need to have four different access - specific interfaces in the mobile terminal, and to have all of them active at the same time, with aim to have this architecture to be functional. applications and servers somewhere on the Internet. Routing of packets should be carried out in accordance with established policies of the user.


Application connections are realized between clients and servers in the Internet via sockets. Internet sockets are endpoints for data communication flows. Each socket of the web is a unified and unique combination of local IP address and appropriate local transport communications port, target IP address and target appropriate communication port, and type of transport protocol. Considering that, the establishment of communication from end to end between the client and server using the Internet protocol is necessary to raise the appropriate Internet socket uniquely determined by the application of the client and the server. This means that in case of interoperability between heterogeneous networks and for the vertical handover between the respective radio technologies, the local IP address and destination IP address should be fixed and unchanged. Fixing of these two parameters should ensure handover transparency to the Internet


connection end-to-end, when there is a mobile user at least on one end of such connection. In order to preserve the proper layout of the packets and to reduce or prevent packets losses, routing to the target destination and vice versa should be uniquely and using the same path. Each radio access technology that is available to the user in achieving connectivity with the relevant radio access is presented with appropriate IP interface. Each IP interface in the terminal is characterized by its IP address and netmask and parameters associated with the routing of IP packets across the network. In regular inter-system handover the change of access technology (i.e., vertical handover) would mean changing the local IP address. Then, change of any of the parameters of the socket means and change of the socket, that is, closing the socket and opening a new one. This means, ending the connection and starting e new one. This approach is notflexible, and it is based on todays Internet communication. In order to solve this deficiency we propose a new level that will take care of the abstraction levels of network access technologies to higher layers of the protocol stack. This layer is crucial in the new architecture. To enable the functions of the applied transparency and control or direct routing of packets through the most appropriate radio access technology, in the proposed architecture we introduce a control system in the functional architecture of the networks, which works in complete coordination with the user terminal and provides a network abstraction functions and routing of packets based on defined policies. At the same time this control system is an essential element through which it can determine the quality of service for each transmission technology. He is on the Internet side of the proposed architecture, and as such represents an ideal system to test the qualitative characteristics of the access technologies, as well as to obtain a realistic picture regarding the quality that can be expected from applications of the user towards a given server in Internet (or peer). Protocol setup of the new levels within the existing protocol stack, which form the proposed architecture, is presented in Figure (Protocol Layout for the Elements of the Proposed Architecture). The network abstraction level would be provided by creating IP tunnels over IP interfaces obtained by connection to the terminal via the access technologies available to the terminal (i.e., mobile user). In fact, the tunnels would be established between the user terminal and control system named here as Policy Router, which performs routing based on given policies. In this way the client side will create an appropriate number of tunnels connected to the number of radio access technologies, and the client will only set a local IP address which will be formed with sockets Internet communication of client applications with Internet servers. The way IP packets are routed through tunnels, or choosing the right tunnel, would be served by policies whose rules will be exchanged via the virtual network layer protocol. This way we achieve the required abstraction of the network to the client applications at the mobile terminal. The process of establishing a tunnel to the Policy Router, for routing based on the policies, are carried out immediately after the establishment of IP connectivity across the radio access technology, and it is initiated from the mobile terminal Virtual Network-level Protocol. Establishing tunnel connections as well as maintaining them represents basic functionality of the virtual network level (or network level of abstraction).


Comparision between 4g and 5g 4G and 5G are both mobile wireless access technologies offers Ethernet speed on mobile devices to experience the triply play services as explained in table 4. Currently 4G is being deployed in several countries in Europe and NorthAmerica. LTE and WiMAX are two different technologies to achieve 4G defined speeds[1]. Whereas 5G is a concept only and not officially defined. 5G is not officially defined term or technology but people refer technologies that can deliver the speed beyond 4G as 5G.Its expected to be finalized somewhere in 2012 or 2013. New standard proposals or releases beyond 4G are submitted to standard bodies like 3GPP, WiMAX Forum or ITU-R. Ideal 5G model should accommodate the challenges and accommodate the short falls of the 4G Technology and 4G deployment experiences. To understand the necessities and uses of 5G could be raised once the 4G rollout is completed and experienced. Thus typical 5G concept would be raised in somewhere around 2013-2015. Expected speed may be multiple of Gigabit Ethernet. This technology would be mainly used in backhauling telecom networks rather than end user access. 4G offers theoretically closer to Gigabit Ethernet whereas users expect multiple Gigabit speed from 5G.


Comparative qoutant between 4g and 5g


Comparison of 1G-4G Technology


In this paper we have proposed 5G mobile phone concept, which is the main contribution of the paper. The 5G mobile phone is designed as an open platform on different layers, from physical layer up to the application. Currently, the ongoing work is on the modules that shall provide the best QoS and lowest cost for a given service using one or more than one wireless technology at the same time from the 5G mobile phone. A new revolution of 5G technology is about to begin because 5G technology going to give tough completion to normal computer and laptops whose marketplace value will be effected. There are lots of improvements from 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G to 5G in the world of telecommunications. The new coming 5G technology is available in the market in affordable rates, high peak future and much reliability than its preceding technologies

The new coming 5G technology is available in the market in affordable rates, high peak future and much reliability than its preceding technologies This technology helps to promotes stronger links between people working in different fields creating future concepts of mobile communication , internet services , cloud computing , all pie network , and nanotechnology .


1. 2G-5G Networks: Evolution of Technologies, Standards, and Deployment. 2. Toni Janevski, AAA System for PLMN-WLAN Internetworking, Journal of Communications and Networks (JCN), pp.192-206, Volume 7,Number 2, June.2005. 3. Aleksandar Tudzarov and Toni Janevski Functional Architecture for 5g Mobile Network International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology Vol. 32, July, 2011. 4.