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The method of mixtures is used to determine the specific heat of a metal. Water in a calorimeter is warmed by a solid as the solid cools. The heat gained or lost by a substance when it undergoes a change in temperature is calculated as the product of the mass of the substance, its change in temperature, and its specific heat. According to the law of heat exchange, the total amount of heat lost by a hot object equals the total amount of heat gained by the cold object with which it comes in contact. Consequently, in this experiment the total heat lost by the solid on cooling equals the heat gained by the water and calorimeter as they are warmed. OBJECTIVE After completing this experiment, you should be able to determine the specific heat of a metal. APPARATUS Ring stand and ring Styro cup Thermometer probe and base 400-mL beaker Hot plate Electronic balance Iced water Blocks of various metals Twine PROCEDURE Measure the mass of the metal block. Attach a piece of twine about 30 cm long to the metal block and lower it into the beaker. The beaker should be about half-filled with water. Boil the water. Lift the solid by means of the twine and hold it just above the water, in the stem, long enough to let the water that adheres to the solid evaporate. Then quickly transfer the solid to the calorimeter of cold water. Agitate the solid in the calorimeter and this will stir the water. The temperature of the mixture should be carefully read by the probe. If time permits, make additional trials with other metals. Record the data for all trials in the data table. (kind of the idea for set up!)

end.) The temperature change of the water should be at least 10C. Determine the mass of the water.
Take the temperature of the boiling water with the thermometer. Since the solid is being heated in the boiling water, its original temperature is the temperature of the boiling water. Then, stir the water in the calorimeter and take its temperature. Be sure to record this data. Remember once you put the metal into the cold water the device will record a temperature reading every 5 seconds (after you set it), so be sure to save this data on a flash drive.

Then, fill the calorimeter about two-thirds full with water that is several degrees colder than room temperature. (For best results it is desirable to have the water approximately as many degrees below room temperature when starting the experiment as the mixture will be above room temperature at the

DATA AND CALCULATIONS TABLES All data and calculations should be done in your lab write-up. This means the data tables should be transferred. Further, answer the questions at the end of the lab at the end of the lab write-up. The answers to the questions can be addressed in the Conclusion and Evaluation portions, just be sure to reference them as such (so they can be easily identified). DATA TABLE TRIAL 1 Kind of metal Mass of metal Mass of water Temperature of solid, initial (temperature of boiling water) Temperature of water and calorimeter, initial Temperature of solid and water final CALCULATIONS TABLE TRIAL 1 Mass of water Temperature change of water Heat gained by water Calories lost by solid Temperature change in solid Specific heat of solid, experimental Accepted value for specific heat of solid Percent error = g C J J C J/Kg C J/Kg C % TRIAL 2 g C J J C J/Kg C J/Kg C % TRAIL 3 g C J J C J/Kg C J/Kg C % g g C C C g g C C C g g C C C TRIAL 2 TRAIL 3

CALCULATIONS 1. Calculate the temperature change of the water and calorimeter. 2. Using the following equation to calculate the heat gained by the water: Q=mcT 3. Enter this value also as the heat lost by the solid. 4. Find the temperature change of the solid and calculate the specific heat of the solid. 5. Look up the accepted value of the specific heat in Table 11.6, and calculate the percentage error.

QUESTIONS 1. Why is it desirable to have the water a few degrees colder than room temperature when the initial temperature is taken? 2. What concept allows the heat gained by the water to be credited as the heat lost by the metal (Calculations step 3)? What equation represents this? 3. What does this experiment show about the specific heat of water? 4. How does the heat conductivity of the metals used in this experiment affect the accuracy of the results? 5. Why should the hot metal be dry before it is introduced into cold water?