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KALIMANTAN RIVER TRANSPORTATION SUSTAINABILITY

R. Didin Kusdian Civil Engineering Graduate Program Universitas of Sangga Buana YPKP Jl. PHH. Mustofa 68 Bandung 40124 Telp : 62-22-7275489), Fax : 62-22-7201756 Email : kusdian@yahoo.com Keywords : sedimentation, forest conservation, river flow management

ABSTRACT River transportation in many civilization history arround the world is the key for trading. It strarted and generated the social-economic growth in many land. In this paper the author collect the data from the final report of previous studies that have done by the engineer team in the study of river transportation beetween 2005 until 2009 in West, South, Center and East Kalimantan, as the secondary data. From those data the author consider and re-analysis the problem and solution direction with logic descriptive method. The issue of erosion-sedimentation, tides, water depth and dynamics based on spin-dry cycle of the rainy season there is also a similar hue in the other three major rivers namely Mahakam, Kapuas and Barito. conservation, mine exploration and land development. Watershed Management as part of the territory held by the pattern of development solutions to the complex system of interrelated, the alignment pattern of cooperation between sectors, between institutions, and increasing awareness and community participation in natural resource conservation benefits. The flow of the river as a water transport infrastructure should receive intensive treatment often occurs due to siltation, steps can be taken is to program the dredging of the river regularly scheduled.

INTRODUCTION Kalimantan is one of big island in Indonesia which have special nature potency, river as a moving media for water transportation. River transportation in many civilization history arround the world is the key for trading. It strarted and generated the socialeconomic growth in many land. After the finding of train and automobile, river transportatation still important and sustain in many place. In Kalimantan for this decade river transportation system need the careful attention, in case of it sustainability. The growth of surface transport network, that is road network, and the fast growing of automotif population and business including motorcycles, car, bus and truck, for a while this time conduct the decrease of river transportation demand. For a long time in the future all transport moda is better share the moving demand, in order to reach all system efficiency.

METHODOLOGY In this paper the author collect the data from the final report of previous studies that have done by the engineer team in the study of river transportation beetween 2005 until 2009 in West, South, Center and East Kalimantan, as the secondary data. The author combine the data of three previous studies, consider and re-analysis the problem and solution direction with logic descriptive method.

RIVER TRANSPORTATION POTENCY IN WEST KALIMANTAN West Kalimantan is one of the province dubbed "Thousand Rivers". The nickname is in line with the geographical conditions which have hundreds of large and small rivers which can and often sailed. Several large rivers is still a pulse and the main

route for inland transportation, although the road infrastructure has been able to reach most of the districts. The main rivers are Kapuas which is also the longest river in Indonesia (1086 km) and along the 942 kilometer navigable. Other major rivers are Melawi River (navigable 471 km), Pawan River (197 km), Kendawangan River (128 km), Sambas River (233 miles), Landak River (178 km). The average width of those rivers are beetween 200 meters to 400 meters. Water depth are between 2 to 10 meters (Department of Transportation of Republic of Indonesia , 2005a).

RIVER TRANSPORTATION POTENCY IN CENTER KALIMANTAN The province of Central Kalimantan consists of 10 (ten) Watershed . Central

Kalimantan has 10 major rivers and not less than 33 major tributaries. Barito River with a length of up to 900 km with an average depth of 8 meters is the longest river and along the 700 km shipped. Relatively hot air during the day can reach about 33oC and has an average rainfall of about 200 mm. State waters of Central Kalimantan consist of public waters or land area of 2.1678 million hectares, covering 323 500 hectares of rivers, lakes and marshes 132 800 hectares and 1.7115 million hectares of marine waters along approximately 750 km. Territorial waters is a potential area to be used as a means of transportation. The rivers that flow from the upstream to the north which empties into the sea in the South have a very large fluctuation. In rainy season the area on the banks of the river on the coastal plains of the South will be flooded or flooding, in contrast to the dry season the river water dropped so drastically hampered transportation (Department of Transportation of Republic of Indonesia, 2005b)

RIVER TRANSPORTATION POTENCY IN SOUTH KALIMANTAN South Kalimantan Province rivers flowed in considerable amounts. The main rivers are the Barito River which empties into the Java Sea. Barito river connects with the South Kalimantan Province of Central Kalimantan. This river has a width of 100-1900 meters long and 630 km with an area of 12047.6 km 2 drainage area. Barito the main branch has a subsidiary Martapura River Right and River Riam Riam Kiwa river. The second branch of the River Country River with branch Tapin, Amandit River, Batang Alai River, Balangan River, Right River Tabalong River and Left Tabalong River . Other rivers empty into the Makassar Strait, among others: Satui River, Kintap River, Kusan River, Kelumpang River, and Sampanahan River.

South Kalimantan with an area of 37530.52 km2, is divided into two units hydrological River Region (In Bahasa Indonesia: Satuan Wilayah Sungai/SWS), namely: an area of 18879.533 kMm2 Barito SWS and SWS Batulicin Cengal area of 18651.167 kM2. Barito branch who are in the area of South Kalimantan is Martapura River, State Rivers, Sungai Batang Alai River, Amandit River, Tapin River, and Tabalong Balangan River. Cengal Batulicin River Region Unit (SWS) is that a combination of small rivers in the eastern part of South Kalimantan, which empties into the Java Sea and Makassar Strait, composed of Cengal River, Sampanakan River, Batulicin River, Kusan River and Kintap River.

Some of these rivers are navigable by boat, so the river plays an important role in supporting the economy, society, besides the land route. Watershed located in South Kalimantan Province are: Barito, Tabanio, Kintap, Satui, Kusan, Batulicin, Tanah Laut, Pulau Sebuku, Cantung, Sampanahan, Manunggal and Cengal. And has a

catchment area of 10 (ten) the location of the Binuang, Tapin, Lake Langsat, Mangkuang, Haruyan Dayak, Intangan, Kahakan, Jaro, Riam Kanan and Batulicin Kanan ( Department of Transportation of Republic of Indonesia , 2006).

RIVER TRANSPORTATION POTENCY IN EAST KALIMANTAN There were 247 large and small rivers in East Kalimantan province, with large rivers are: The Mahakam River, with a length of 920 km and 77 913 km2 wide river area. Sesayap River, with a length of 262 km and 16 140 km2 wide river area. Kayan River, with a length of 478 km and 34 910 km2 wide river area. Sembakung River, with a length of 322 km and 16 312 km2 wide river area. The rivers in East Kalimantan Province are grouped into 5 (five) units of the river watershed (SWS), Sesayap, Kayan, Berau - Kelai, Karangan, and Mahakam.

Bathymetry Survey is intended to determine the topography waters. Methods used in these measurements is to determine the depth positions on the path of the river waters. Bathymetry Survey conducted from Long Bagun to Tering. In Long Bagun 7.50 m water depth reaches of the river up to the dock Ujo Bilang an average depth of the water meter reaches 6.40 m. At Ujo Bilang dock location the water depth down at 3.80 meters, and average depth of water up to the Laham district is 2.94 meters. Laham dock has a water depth of 3.80 meters . Long Hubung dock has a water depth of 5.30 meters. Long Iram has a water depth of 12.00 meters. Tering dock has a water depth of 13.20 meters (Department of Transportation of Republic of Indonesia, 2008).

PROBLEMS There are constraints in the transport stream is an effective reduction in the length of the river during the dry season, in addition to technical safeguards to river channels and the number and quality of the pier is still limited. According to the information in the field when there is low tide at the headwaters of the Mahakam River, there are times when the ship is not up to the water bus at that location due to the occurrence of low tide. No less than 60 centimeters per year the mud settles along Mahakam River before 1990. Along with the further degradation of forest areas in the upper reaches of the Mahakam River, sludge that settles well as the thickening of more than 100 centimeters per year since 2000. Mahakam River which used to have a depth of about 10 to 38 meters is increasingly shallow. Not only have mine, deforestation also had a big hand in the pollution in this river. The destruction of forests due to logging is leading to high sedimentation along the Mahakam River
(Department of Transportation of Republic of Indonesia, 2009). Capacity reduction in

river flow can be caused by erosion. Excessive erosion occurs in the absence of vegetation cover and the ground processing. This erosion causes sedimentation in the rivers, where the erosion is deposited on the lower reaches of the river, causes the draft of the vessel to be reduced which can disturb the smooth sailing.

In addition to erosion and sedimentation, river water depth, as the motion of the vessel media, is also affected by the symptoms of the tides, and the dynamics of water flow along the cycle of the rainy season and dry season. For instance, in the Mahakam River in fact influence the tides of the sea reaches a distance of 140 km of coastline in the upstream direction. Even in extreme drought, as happened in late 1982, the tidal influence is capable of reaching 360 km of coastline.

Discharge rates of water on the go when the tide can reach 2.5 times greater than the mean freshwater discharge of the Mahakam rever, and flow dynamics analysis shows that the transport of sediment at the mouth of the delta is moving towards the mainland. These data indicate that natural marine influence on the Mahakam rever delta and the downstream region is large and significant. Other data states that the highest tide of the Mahakam river reaches 1.35 m.

The issue of erosion-sedimentation, tides, water depth and dynamics based on spindry cycle of the rainy season there is also a similar hue in the other three major rivers namely Kapuas and Barito.

SUSTAINABLE RIVER TRANSPORTATION PLANNING In the early development of an empty region, the incidence of recurrent history indicates that on an island or vacant land, starting from the arrival of humans from coastal areas and further develop the land in the interior. The river play the role as the way to the inland. Next the river link the activity of the inland and sea ports. Included in this is in rural road construction activity during the opening of the forest. The next development is precisely the development activity (land use changes) cause damage inland rivers as motion media, the presence of soil erosion and sedimentation caused siltation (Kusdian, 2011). The challenge face is that the river needs to continue as a sub system of land-sea transport system, a broader ground, then in future cross-sectoral coordination need consideration, and evaluation of the feasibility of multi-sector economy to enrich the transportation system with the revitalization of river transport. To maximize and expedite the flow of river water

transportation as well as safety, traffic safety it is necessary to transport streams programmed, planned and pursued actions as follows:

a. Forest Conservation Protected areas provide protection for the subordinates of the disaster erosion, flooding, sedimentation, and to maintain the hydrological functions of the ground to ensure the availability of soil nutrients and groundwater. Forest and land rehabilitation is part of the forest and land management systems are programmed implementation of the catchment area per unit area of the river. Cultivation of forests and forest land use, calculated and set in the time horizon of the balance of nature, related to cutting-planting time management tailored to the age of the tree. Watershed Management as part of the territory held by the pattern of development solutions to the complex system of inter-related, the alignment pattern of cooperation between sectors, between institutions, and increasing awareness and community participation in natural resource conservation benefits.

b. River Flow Management The flow of the river as a water transport infrastructure should receive intensive treatment often occurs due to siltation, steps can be taken is to program the dredging of the river regularly scheduled. Dredging carried out in locations that are important to cruise ships and major groove. Further river transport infrastructure needs to be managed by either the river dock facilities, the trajectory of rivers, river beacon. In order to realize the revitalization of river transportation in Kalimantan and elsewhere in the region throughout Indonesia has a fairly wide river in a pretty long on the plains with an average slope of the ramps, required the identification of the

characteristics of the vessel to be on the design and made. So in this case to a freighter in the river is a new type of vessel that has the characteristics are as follows (Kusdian, 2011): Shaped flat (flat) with the needs of small draft, and may continue to operate in the shallow river segments. The type, strength, and the placement of motion adapted to the possibility of a shallow river segments.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author would like to thank the Directorate of Transport and Crossing the River, the Directorate of Land Transportation, Ministry of Communications REPUBLIC INDONESIA the author would like to thank the Directorate of Transport and Crossing the River, the Directorate of Land Transportation, Ministry of Communications of Republic of Indonesia.

CONCLUSIONS The Potentcy of River transportation in Kalimantan is mainly supported by 3 (three) major rivers, namely: the Mahakam River, Barito River, and Kapuas River. Minimum water depth in Mahakam River sail line is 2.94 meters. Maximum water depth that ever measure at Mahakam river jetty location could reach 13.20 meters. The main problem that could be thread the sustainability of river transportation in Kalimantan is the decreasing process of water dept cause of erosion and sedimentation derive from lack controled and lack management of forests

conservation, mine exploration and land development. Watershed Management as part of the territory held by the pattern of development solutions to the complex

system of inter-related, the alignment pattern of cooperation between sectors, between institutions, and increasing awareness and community participation in natural resource conservation benefits. The flow of the river as a water transport infrastructure should receive intensive treatment often occurs due to siltation, steps can be taken is to program the dredging of the river regularly scheduled.

REFERENCES
1) Department of Transportation of Republic of Indonesia, 2005a, River

Transport Node Potential Survey in West Kalimantan.


2) Department of Transportation of Republic of Indonesia, 2005b, River

Transport Development Study in the Province of Central Kalimantan.


3) Department of Transportation of Republic of Indonesia , 2006,

River

Transport Infrastructure Development Study in South Kalimantan Province


4) Department of Transportation of Republic of Indonesia, 2008, River Transport

Node Potential Survey in East Kalimantan.


5) Department of Transportation of Republic of Indonesia, 2009, Pre Feasibility

Study on the Port River Mahakam River Region, The Pprovince of East Kalimantan. 6) Kusdian, R. Didin, 2011, The Potency of Revitalization of the River Transport in Lampung Province, Jurnal Transportasi Forum Studi Transportasi antar Perguruan Tinggi (FSTPT) , Volume 8 Nomor 2, 77-52