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# Analysis of multiport network

Objective- In this assignment our main objective is to study the multiport linear network & role of
superposition theorm in multiport linear network and the identification of reciprocal and symmetrical
network , by the application of linear equations in multiport network.

Introduction:- To complete our objective we will follow these step-
(1) We will define on port , two port and multiport network .
(2) Determine a the linear equations of a multiport network with the help of superposition theorm.
(3) Identification of of reciprocal and symmetrical networks with the help of above defined linear
equations.
Step (1)
A pair of terminals at which a signal may enter or leave a network is called a port and a network having
only one such pair of terminals is called a one port network. No connections may be made to any other
nodes interval to the one port and it is therefore evident that

must equal

## in the one port shown in

figure 1. When more than one pair of terminal is present ne network is khown as multiport network

ic1

FIG: 1 FIG:2

Superposition principle-The superposition theorem for electrical circuits states that for a linear system
the response (Voltage or Current) in any branch of a bilateral linear circuit having more than one independent
source equals the algebraic sum of the responses caused by each independent source acting alone, while all
other independent sources are replaced by their internal impedances.
To ascertain the contribution of each individual source, all of the other sources first must be "turned off" (set to
zero) by:
1. Replacing all other independent voltage sources with a short circuit (thereby eliminating difference of
potential. i.e. V=0, internal impedance of ideal voltage source is ZERO (short circuit)).
2. Replacing all other independent current sources with an open circuit (thereby eliminating current. i.e.
I=0, internal impedance of idealcurrent source is infinite (open circuit).

Impedance or Z parameters

## is the impedance seen from port 1 when port 2 is open circuited (

is 0)

is the transfer impedance seen from port 1 to port 2 when port 1 is open circuited (

is 0)

is the transfer impedance seen from port 2 port 1 when port 2 is open circuited (

is 0)

is the output impedance seen from port 2 when port 1 is open circuited (

is 0)

Generalizing this concept for n port or multiport network

where

N
We can define multiport network as

.
........

Then coefficient of each current will be shown as
11 12 13 1
21 22 23 2
1 2 3
| | | |
N
N
z
N N N NN
Z Z Z Z
Z Z Z Z
Z Z Z Z
| |
|

|
A =
|

|

\ .

Where N loops have been assumed the current appear in subscript order in each equation.
Let us suppose that the one port shown in fig 1 is composed entirely of passive elements and dependent
sources , linearly is also assumed.An ideal voltage source

## is connected to the port and source current

is identified as the current in loop 1. Employing Cramer rule
1 12 13 1
22 23 2
2 3
1
11 12 13 1
21 22 23 2
1 2 3
0
| | | |
0
| | | |
N
N
N N NN
N
N
N N N NN
V Z Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
I
Z Z Z Z
Z Z Z Z
Z Z Z Z
| |
|

|
|

|

\ .
=
| |
|

|
|

|

\ .

Or more concisely

Condition for the symmetry is that in defined matrics all diagonal elements are equal

Condition for reciprocity is

MATLAB CODE

%Analysis of multiport network*
[a]=input('Enter the number of ports');
for i=1:a
I(i)=input('enter the values of current');
V(i)=input('enter the values of voltage');
end
for i=1:a
for j=1:a
Z(i,j)=V(i)/I(j)
end
end
for i=1 : a
if Z(i,i) == Z(i+1,i+1)
then b=0 ;
else
b=1;
break;
end
end
if b==0
sprintf('network is symmetric');
else sprintf('network is unsymmetric');
end