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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM & ALAM SEKITAR JABATAN KEJURUTERAAN AIR & PERSEKITARAN

MAKMAL KEJURUTERAAN AIR

LAPORAN RINGKAS
Kod Mata Pelajaran Kod & Tajuk Ujikaji Kod Kursus Tarikh Ujikaji Kumpulan Nama Pelajar Nama Ahli Kumpulan 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Nama Pensyarah/ Pengajar/Tutor Tarikh laporan diterima Markah Kehadiran & Disiplin Penglibatan Analisis Data Keputusan Perbincangan JUMLAH Ulasan Pemeriksa Cop Diterima / 10% / 20% / 30% / 20% / 20% / 100% MKA 03 : PELTON TURBINE

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM & ALAM SEKITAR JABATAN KEJURUTERAAN AIR & PERSEKITARAN

MAKMAL KEJURUTERAAN AIR

KERTAS ARAHAN MAKMAL

Kod M/Pelajaran

Kod Ujikaji

MKA - 03 PELTON TURBINE

Tajuk Ujikaji

Kod Kursus

KOD ETIKA PELAJAR (KEP) JABATAN KEJURUTERAAN AIR & PERSEKITARAN FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM & ALAM SEKITAR KOLEJ UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI TUN HUSSEIN ONN BATU PAHAT JOHOR
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(TANDATANGAN PELAJAR)

NAMA

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NO. MATRIK :. TARIKH :....

FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING WATER ENGINEERING LABORATORY TITLE : PELTON TURBINE PART A : PELTON TURBINE

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1/5 1 1 17/05/2005 17/05/2005

1.0 OBJECTIVE To determine the characteristics of Pelton Turbine operation by using several speed.

2.0

LEARNING OUTCOMES At the end of the course, students should be able to apply the knowledge and skills they have learned to: a. Understand the basic operating system of the Pelton turbine. b. Understand the factors which influence the efficiency of turbine.

3.0 THEORY A Pelton Turbine characteristic operation curve can be derived by using the same method as a pump. It is because the velocity is usually assumed as an independent parameter when the plotting of power, efficiency, torque and discharge are carried out. Mechanical Power, Pm (watt) = Rotation ( , Nm) Circular velocity ( , rad/sec). Where, T=Force(N) Radius(m)(Nm) and

2radius / min (rad/s) where, 1 revolution is equal to 2 radius. Meanwhile, Water Power, 60 sec/ min Pw = gHQ where, is water density (100kg/m3), g is gravity constant (9.81m/s2), H is head at

inlet point (m) and

Pm 100 . To convert the unit of Pw rpm to radians per minute is given by, x rpm=( x revolution/min)=( x x2 radian)/min.
Q is flowrate (m3/s). Wheel efficiency, % =

4.0 EQUIPMENTS 1. Pelton Turbine 2. Tachometer 3. Stopwatch

5.0 PROCEDURES 1. Put the Pelton turbine equipment on the hydraulic bench and connect it to the water supply by using the provided connecter. 2. Tighten the optic tachometer by using clip. 3. Then, make sure that the turbine drum is free from any load (0.0N). 4. Fully open the valve controller. Then, level the tachometer until the rotation reaches the maximum value of 2000 rotation/minute or rpm. 5. Records the reading of tachometer, flow rate, pressure at inlet point (H) and load, W2 (N). Put the brake equipment on the turbine drum. Then, level the brake on the right spring at W1. Start with the W1 = 1.0N. 6. Record all the readings in the Table 6.1. 7. Repeat 3-6 with W varies in the range of 1.5N to 6.0N.

FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING WATER ENGINEERING LABORATORY TITLE : PELTON TURBINE 6.0 RESULT AND CALCULATION

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2/5 1/5 1 1 17/05/2005 17/05/2005

Table 6.1 Results of Pelton Turbine experiment


RPM

(rad/s) W1 (N) 0 W2 (N) W1 W2 (N) Drum Radius x10-3m Pm(W) Rotation (Nm) Volume (l) Time(s) Flowrate (m3/s) Pressure (mH2O) Pw (W) Efficiency (%) 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0

30

30

30

30

30

30

30

30

30

30

30

30

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Drum brake radius on turbine (DBR) = x10-3 (m) Total Force = (W2 W1)=.(Fixed W1 reading for each starting load) Rotation, =.(rad/s) Mechanical Power, Pm=(Watt) Water Power, Pw=.(Watt) Efficiency, =(%)

7.0 QUESTIONS 1. Plot graph of: a. the rotation power curve b. efficiency curve c. discharge versus motor speed 2. Give a comment on the graph obtained 3. Calculate the velocity where the maximum power is reached. Give your comment based on the level of maximum efficiency. 4. State five (5) safety factors that have been taken in the experiment?

FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING WATER ENGINEERING LABORATORY TITLE : PELTON TURBINE PART B : FRANCIS TURBINE

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1/5 3/5 1 1 17/05/2005 17/05/2005

1.0 OBJECTIVE To determine the relationship between the head, flow rate, velocity, power and efficiency of Francis Turbine.

2.0

LEARNING OUTCOMES At the end of the course, students should be able to apply the knowledge and skills they have learned to: a. Understand the basic operating system of the Francis Turbine. b. Understand on the factors which influence the efficiency of turbine.

3.0 THEORY Hydraulic power can be obtain at the turbine inlet (usually known in watt unit) and can be calculated as, Phyd = H tot Q , and Q as the volume discharge that can be read from the measuring equipment (m3/s) and

is a water weight per unit of volume (9820 N / m3).

H tot is a total head (m) which can be calculated (using theorem Bernoulli method) in a circuit
section flow just before the turbine in a location of pressure head as a total of three parameter, H tot = H man + H kin + H pres which is Hman is a the differences of pressure head position which measured the pressure and the turbine shaft bar. As using the experimental table, H man

0.5m (if

the pressure decreasing at the turbine point out which cause by the mixer which count as an available head, Hman can be calculated as the height differences between the pressure gauging point position and the point of water level at the outflow of reservoir) is a kinetic parameter which cause by water velocity, vm (in m / s), at the pressure gauging location, where the pipe section is Sm (this value is not S and v value at the inlet section). (9.81m/s2) and vm=Q/Sm.
2

H kin = vm / 2 g , where as g is the gravity constant


2

H pres = m / is a resultant parameter from water pressure, m (in unit

N / m ) as measured by pressure gauging. In calculation table, the readable gauging value which has been read by four gauging, all the readable value from the calculation can be added by the related values, vm, Hman, Hkin, Hpres, Htot, Phyd, which has been described first. This following relationship, has been used to calculated the value of mechanical power out, Pout (usually in watt), Pout = c = 2nC / 60 , where as , is the turbine angular velocity (in rad / s), n is a turbine average velocity obtain by reader equipment (RPM) and c is a braking torque velocity at the turbine shaft as obtain by reader equipment (N.m). Lastly, the turbine overall efficiency,

P = out Phyd

is calculated as the ratio of power at outlet point

compared to the generated power. Last table arrangement for the experimental value and the calculation value (for each z ) can be explained in a provided table.

FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING WATER ENGINEERING LABORATORY TITLE : PELTON TURBINE 4.0 EQUIPMENTS Francis Turbine equipment

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1/5 4/5 1 1 17/05/2005 17/05/2005

5.0 PROCEDURES 1. Fixed the distributor at the certain opening (start at 30%, 45%, 60% and 80%). With every opening, adjust the braking torque, C. 2. Records the reading of pressure ( m ), speed ( n ) and flow rate ( Q ) for each braking torque C value in Table 6.1. 3. Repeat 2-3 with different opening.

6.0 RESULT AND CALCULATIONS (Refer to Appendix A)

7.0 QUESTIONS 1. Plot a graph of: a. Turbine velocity versus flow rate. b. Turbine velocity versus output torque. c. Turbine velocity versus hydraulic power. d. Turbine velocity versus output power. e. Turbine velocity versus efficiency. 2. Give your comment(s) from the graph obtained. 3. State five (5) safety factors that have been taken in the experiment?

PREPARED BY : WAN AFNIZAN BIN WAN MOHAMED SIGNATURE : DATE : 14 JULY 2008