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Deploying IPV6 Networks


Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the new generation of the basic protocol of the Internet. IP is the common language of the Internet, every device connected to the Internet must support it. The current version of IP (IP version 4) has several shortcomings which complicate, and in some cases present a barrier to, the further development of the Internet. The coming IPv6 revolution should remove these barriers and provide a feature-rich environment for the future of global networking.

The History of IPv6

The IPv6 story began in the early nineties when it was discovered that the address space available in IPv4 was vanishing quite rapidly. Contemporary studies indicated that it may be depleted within the next ten years. These findings challenged the Internet community to start looking for a solution. Two possible approaches were at hand: 1.Minimal: Keep the protocol intact, just increase the address length. This was the easier Way promising less pain in the deployment phase. 2.Maximal: Develop an entirely new version of the protocol. Taking this approach would Enable incorporating new features and enhancements in IP.

The core of the protocol is naturally the datagram format defined in RFC 2460 [RFC2460]. The datagram design focused mainly on simplicity - to keep the datagram as simple as possible and to keep the size of the headers fixed.

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Deploying IPV6 Networks

Basic IPv6 Datagram Header

Version Protocol version identification. It contains value 6 to identify IPv6.

Traffic Class Intended for the Quality of Service (QoS). It may distinguish various classes or priorities of traffic (in combination with other header fields, e.g. source/destination addresses).

Flow Label Identifies a flow which is a group of related datagrams.

Payload Length Length of the datagram payload, i.e. all the contents following the basic header (including extension headers). It is in Bytes, so the maximum possible payload size is 64 KB.

Next Header The protocol header which follows. It identifies the type of following data - it may be some extension header or upper layer protocol (TCP, UDP) data.

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Hop Limit Datagram lifetime restriction. The sending node assigns some value to this field defining the reach of given datagram. Every forwarding node decreases the value by 1. If decremented to zero, the datagram is dropped and an ICMP message is sent to the sender. It protects the IPv6 transport system against routing loops - in the case of such loop the datagram circulates around the loop for a limited time only.

Source Address Sender identification. It contains the IPv6 address of the node who sent this datagram. Addressing is described in more detail in the next chapter.

Destination Address Receiver identification. This is the target - the datagram should be delivered to this IPv6 address.


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Deploying IPV6 Networks

Header Chaining
Extension headers are appended after the basic datagram header. Their number may vary, so some flexible mechanism to identify them is necessary. This mechanism is called header chaining. It is implemented using the Next Header field. The meaning of this field in short is to identify what follows.

Addressing Essentials
The address length has been increased significantly to expand the available address space. The IPv6 address is 128 bits (or 16 bytes) long, Addresses are written using 32 hexadecimal digits. The digits are arranged into 8 groups of four to improve the readability. Groups are separated by colons. So the written form of IPv6 address looks like this:

loopback address 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 may be written as ::1

which is not only much shorter but also more evident. Address prefixes are usually written in the form: prefix::/length


2001:0db8:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 2001:db8:0:0:0:0:0:0 A series of zeroes and colons may also be abbreviated as two colons. The result is now: 2001:db8::

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2001:db8::/32 2001:0db8:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 through 2001:0db8:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff 2001:db8:1234::/64 contains all the addresses from 2001:0db8:1234:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 through 2001:0db8:1234:0000:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff

IPV6 ADDRESS REPRESENTATION 16 bit fields in case insensitive colonvhexadecimal representation 2031:0000:130F:0000:0000:09C0:876A:130B Leading zeros in a field are optional: 2031:0:130F:0:0:9C0:876A:130B Successive fields of 0 represented as ::, but only once in an address: 2031:0:130F::9C0:876A:130B is ok 2031::130F::9C0:876A:130B is NOT ok 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 ::1 (loopback address) 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 :: (unspecified address)


Identifies one single network interface (typically a computer or similar device). The packet is Delivered to this individual interface.


Identifies group of interfaces. Data must be delivered to all group members.


Also identifies a group of network interfaces. But this time the packet is delivered just to one single member of the group (to the nearest one).
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This is the most important address type because unicast addresses are the normal addresses identifying the common computers, printers and other devices connected to the network.

Structure of the Global Unicast Address

GLOBAL ROUTING PREFIX the network address in IPv4 parlance. This address prefix identifies uniquely the network connected to the Internet. SUBNET ID the identifier of a subnet. The end-network may be partitioned into to subnets (for example every building of some institution may hold separate subnet). This part of the address serves to identify individual subnets. INTERFACE ID holds the identifier of single network interface. Interface identifiers are unique inside the same subnet only, there may be devices holding the same interface ID in different subnets.


Providing 64 bits to identify the interface in the scope of a single subnet seems to be a huge extravagance. For example 48 bits are sufficient for Ethernet addresses which are world-wide unique. Subnets for which 16 bits would not suffice to identify all the nodes are hard to imagine. On the other hand this 64-bit long interface identifier simplifies significantly some autoconfiguration mechanisms. INTERFACE HAS A MAC (ETHERNET) ADDRESS There is a simple algorithm converting the MAC address into a modified EUI-64: the global flag (7th bit) of the MAC address is inverted and the value fffe is inserted between the 3rd and 4th byte of the MAC address. For example the MAC address 00:8c:a0:c2:71:35 is converted to interface ID 028c:a0ff:fec2:7135
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The essential idea behind anycast is that there is a group of IPv6 nodes providing the same service. If you use an anycast address to identify this group, the request will be delivered to its nearest member using standard network mechanisms.

Compared to anycast, multicast is a well-known entity. It is used in the contemporary IPv4 Internet, mainly to transport video/audio data in real time (e.g., videoconferencing, TV/radio broadcast). Multicast in IPv6 is just an evolution of the mechanisms already in use. There is a separate part of the IPv6 address space dedicated to multicast. It is identified by the prefix ff00::/8. So every multicast address starts with ff which makes them easy to distinguish. The internal structure of the remaining 120 bits


There is a serious difference between IPv4 and IPv6. Every interface has just a single address in IPv4. If you want to assign more addresses to the same interface, you have to use various hacks (i.e., virtual sub-interfaces) or vendor specific implementations that do not adhere to open standards such as DHCP. IPv6 is different. Not only does it allow you to assign more addresses
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to the same interface, it even urges you to do so because multiple addresses are needed for the full complement of IPv6 functionality. Required addresses for a common host (computer, printer or any other device which does not forward the datagrams) are as follows: link-local address for every interface assigned (configured) unicast and multicast addresses for the interfaces loopback address (::1) all-nodes multicast addresses (ff01::1, ff02::1) solicited node multicast address assigned multicast addresses (identifying groups to which the node belongs)

For example a PC equipped with a single Ethernet network card having a MAC address of 00:2a:0f:32:5e:d1 sitting in two subnets (2001:a:b:c::/64 and 2001:a:b:1::/64) and participating in the group ff15::1:2:3 must receive data on all these addresses: fe80::22a:fff:fe32:5ed1 (link-local) 2001:a:b:c:22a:fff:fe32:5ed1 (configured unicast) 2001:a:b:1:22a:fff:fe32:5ed1 (another configured unicast) ::1 (loopback) ff01::1 (all nodes on the interface) ff02::1 (all nodes on the link) ff02::1:ff32:5ed1 (solicited node multicast) ff15::1:2:3 (configured multicast)

A router has even more required addresses. It must support all the addresses obligatory for a node plus: anycast address for all routers in the subnet for every interface on which it acts as a router all assigned anycast addresses all-routers multicast (ff01::2, ff02::2, ff05::2)

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Suppose that the aforementioned node is a router. It operates as a home agent (see Chapter 10 about mobility for the description of this) in both subnets, In this case it must in addition to addresses already stated support: 2001:a:b:c:: (routers in first subnet) 2001:a:b:1:: (routers in second subnet) 2001:a:b:c::fdff:ffff:ffff:fffe (home agents in first subnet) 2001:a:b:1::fdff:ffff:ffff:fffe (home agents in second subnet) ff01::2 (all routers on the interface) ff02::2 (all routers on the link) ff05::2 (all routers in the site)

Real-world Addresses Leaving aside the addressing theory, in reality the IPv6 address space has been partitioned into a few areas which have a fixed meaning. You can see the allocation below: IPv6 Address Allocation ::0/128 ::1/128 ff00::/8 fe80::/10 fec0::/10 Unspecified address Loopback address Multicast addresses Link-local addresses Deprecated (former site-local addresses)


Prior to the formation of AfriNIC, RIPE NCC served the following countries: Africa

North Africa o Algeria, Egypt o LIBYA, Mauritania o Morocco, Sudan o Tunisia, Western Sahara

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This list states the country names (official short names in English) in alphabetical order as given in ISO 3166-1 and the corresponding two- and three-letter codes. shows the five Regional Internet Registry (RIR) service regions - AfriNIC,.(African Network Information Center)

MAJOR IP ADDRESS BLOCKS FOR LIBYAN ARAB JAMAHIRIYA In the following table, you can find all major IP addresses blocks allocated for Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. Most of these IP blocks are assigned for Internet providers and hosting companies. From IP To IP Total IPs 16384 262144 8192 8192 Assign Date 12/05/2006 12/06/2007 25/01/2009 19/05/2000 Owner

Libya Blocks IPV6 Address


AFRINIC (African Network Information Center) is the regional Internet registry (RIR) for Africa. Its headquarters are in Ebene City, Mauritius. Adiel Akplogan is the registry's chief executive officer. As of November 2010,

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Deploying IPV6 Networks

Before AFRINIC was formed, IP addresses for Africa were distributed by the Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC), the American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN), and the RIPE NCC.[2] ICANN provisionally recognized AFRINIC on 11 October 2004. The registry became operational on 22 February 2005. ICANN gave it final recognition in April 2005. AFRINIC has been allocated the IPv4 address blocks,,

and and

IPv6 blocks 2c00::/12 and 2001:4200::/23. AFRINIC also administers the address space for and

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Deploying IPV6 Networks

Lab Assignment
Consider the single LAN IP network shown in Figure 1 where three stations are connected via a switch. . Assign IPV6 and MAC addresses to network interfaces such that network connectivity is established among the machines.

For the stations to communicate with each other, in addition to setting up the IP and MAC addresses, it is necessary to setup the routing tables at the stations. The routes depend on the IP addresses that are assigned to the stations. In a simple configuration such as the above, where each station has a single network interface, routes that default all destinations to the single interface should be sufficient. Once the connectivity is established, One tool commonly used for diagnosing connectivity issues among stations and between other network-layer routing elements is the ICMP ping.

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Suggested Experimental Procedure This experiment can be completed by following the steps outlined below. 1. Read the background material on IPV6 and MAC addresses. Using this knowledge, write down the IPV6 address and MAC addresses that should be assigned to each station. 2. Determine the routes at each station. 3. Configure the network using packettracer by connecting the stations and Setup the IPV6 Addresses and routes at the stations. 4. Test the network configuration by pinging one machine from another machine. 5. Run packettracer the network packet visualization tool within the station. Use the tool to visualize the packets that flow to and from the station. 6. Find IP address used in your local area. 7. Differenciate Libya Ymax, Libya DSL, libyana net and find internet protocol address

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datagram header, header chaining Addressing, addressing essentials, unicast addresses, interface identifier modified EUI-64, anycast addresses UNIT -2 Essential functions and services, Neighbour discovery, router Multicast addresses , required addresses and address selection, real-world addresses

discovery, automatic address configuration ,

duplicate address

detection , neighbour unreachability detection , router configurations for neighbour discovery, DHCPV6 , using DHCP together with stateless autoconfiguration UNIT -3 Integration and transition, Dual stack , additional IPV6 infrastructure (tunnels) , tunnelling methods, configured tunnels, automatic tunnels 6to4 , Configuration examples: dual stack , dual-stack VLANs, configuration examples: tunnelling methods , manually configured tunnels , 6over4, 6to4 , ISATAP , NAT-PT. UNIT -4 Routing , overview of IP routing , hop-by-hop forwarding , routing

tables, implementing static routing for IPV6, implementing RIPng for IPV6, implementing OSPF for ipv6, LSA types for ipv6, NBMA in OSPF for IPV6.

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