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Chip Formation during Machining Process

Importance of Studying Chip Formation during Machining As every one knows, chips are formed during the machining of workpieces. The side of the chip in contact with the cutting tool is normally shiny, flat and smooth while the other side, which is the free workpiece surface, is jagged due to shear. It is important to study the formation of chips during the machining process as the former affects the surface finish, cutting forces, temperature, tool life and dimensional tolerance. Understanding the chip formation during the machining process for the specific materials will allow us to determine the machining speeds, feed rates and depth of cuts for efficient machining and increased tool life in the specific actual machining operation. During the machining process, 4 basic types of chips are formed:

Discontinuous Continuous Continuous with Built-up Edge Serrated chip formation

Discontinuous Chip Formation Discontinuous chip formation normally occurs during the machining of brittle work material such as glass and silicon. This type of chips also occurs when machining using cutting tools with small rake angles, coarse machining feeds (large depth of cut), low cutting speeds and lack of lubricant or cutting fluid. Discontinuous chip formation leads to continuously changing forces, resultant vibration and chattering in the machine tools and thus results in a final workpiece with poor surface finish and loose tolerance. Continuous Chip Formation Continuous chip formation is normally considered to be the ideal condition for efficient cutting action as it gives excellent finish and occurs usually for ductile metals. The chip consists of a continuous "ribbon" of metal which flows up the chip-tool zone. It normally occurs at high cutting speed and rake angle, and a

narrow shear zone. Use chip breakers during the machining to prevent the chips from entangling with the tool holder. Continuous with Built-up Edge Chip Formation Continuous chips with built-up edge is basically the same as continuous chips. However, during the former chip formation, as the metal flows up the chip-tool zone, small particles of the metal begin to adhere or weld themselves to the edge of the cutting tool. As the particles continue to weld to the tool, it affects the cutting action of the tool. This type of chip formation is common in machining of softer non-ferrous metals and low carbon steels. Common problems are the built-up edges breaking off and being embedded in the workpiece during machining, decrease in tool-life and final poor surface finish of the workpiece. Built-up-edge (BUE) forms when there is a chemical affinity between workpiece and the tool, such as in cases of high strain-hardening, low feed speed, large depth of cut, low rake angle and high temperature. Here, the chip becomes unstable, breaks up and then forms again. The process is repeated continuously. BUE chip formation during machining would degrade the surface finish and changes the tool geometry. Studies on the built-up edges have shown that the chip material is welded, deformed and then deposited onto the rake face of the tool layer by layer. It is thus possible to observe the presence of built-up edges by studying the back face of the chip during the machining process. This is normally used in micro or ultra precision machining operation. To reduce built-up edges, improve the lubrication conditions, use sharp tools and better surface finish tool and also apply ultrasonic vibration during the machining process. Serrated Chip Formation Serrated chips are formed during the machining of semicontinuous material with zones of high and low shear strains. It normally occurs in metals where the strength decreases sharply with temperature. An example would be titanium.
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Material:

Stainless Steel - Grade 304

Composition: Property

Fe/<.08C/17.5-20Cr/811Ni/<2Mn/<1Si/<.045P/<.03S Minimum Maximum Units Value (S.I.) Value (S.I.) (S.I.) 0.0072 8.06 108 151 310 0.57 310 260 228 2100 0.0013 310 0.275 81 620 203 Mg/m3 MJ/kg GPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa GPa MPa GPa K 285 1198 1723 0 530 17 18 kJ/kg K K K J/kg.K W/m.K 10-6/K MV/m

Minimum Maximum Units (Imp.) Value (Imp.) Value (Imp.) 439.371 503.17 11700.6 21.9007 44.9617 0.57 44.9617 37.7098 207.491 304.579 0.0013 44.9617 0.275 11.7481 89.9234 29.4426 in3/kmol lb/ft3 kcal/lb 106 psi ksi NULL ksi ksi ksi.in1/2 ksi NULL ksi NULL 106 psi ksi 106 psi F 111.779 1381.73 2551.73 -459.67 0.379191 26.2085 28.8 122.527 1696.73 2641.73 -459.67 0.410145 31.8246 32.4 BTU/lb F F F BTU/lb.F BTU.ft/h.ft2.F 10-6/F V/mil NULL 490.06 9642.14 19.435 29.7327 0.3 29.7327 25.3816 246.564 0.00095 29.7327 0.265 10.7328 73.9692 27.5572

Atomic Volume 0.0069 (average) Density 7.85 Energy Content 89 Bulk Modulus 134 Compressive 205 Strength Ductility 0.3 Elastic Limit 205 Endurance Limit 175 Fracture 119 Toughness Hardness 1700 Loss Coefficient 0.00095 Modulus of 205 Rupture Poisson's Ratio 0.265 Shear Modulus 74 Tensile Strength 510 Young's Modulus 190 Glass Temperature Latent Heat of 260 Fusion Maximum Service 1023 Temperature Melting Point 1673 Minimum Service 0 Temperature Specific Heat 490 Thermal 14 Conductivity Thermal 16 Expansion Breakdown Potential Dielectric Constant Resistivity 65 Environmental Properties

m3/kmol 421.064

MPa.m1/2 108.296

77

10-8 ohm.m

65

77

10-8 ohm.m

Resistance Factors 1=Poor 5=Excellent Flammability Fresh Water Organic Solvents Oxidation at 500C Sea Water Strong Acid Strong Alkalis UV Wear Weak Acid Weak Alkalis

5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 4 5 5

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Background
Grade 304 is the standard "18/8" stainless; it is the most versatile and most widely used stainless steel, available in a wider range of products, forms and finishes than any other. It has excellent forming and welding characteristics. The balanced austenitic structure of Grade 304 enables it to be severely deep drawn without intermediate annealing, which has made this grade dominant in the manufacture of drawn stainless parts such as sinks, hollow-ware and saucepans. For these applications it is common to use special "304DDQ" (Deep Drawing Quality) variants. Grade 304 is readily brake or roll formed into a variety of components for applications in the industrial, architectural, and transportation fields. Grade 304 also has outstanding welding characteristics. Post-weld annealing is not required when welding thin sections. Grade 304L, the low carbon version of 304, does not require post-weld annealing and so is extensively used in heavy gauge components (over about 6mm). Grade 304H with its higher carbon content finds application at elevated temperatures. The austenitic structure also gives these grades excellent toughness, even down to cryogenic temperatures.

Key Properties
These properties are specified for flat rolled product (plate, sheet and coil) in ASTM A240/A240M. Similar but not necessarily identical properties are specified for other products such as pipe and bar in their respective specifications.

Composition
Typical compositional ranges for grade 304 stainless steels are given in table 1. Table 1. Composition ranges for 304 grade stainless steel
Grade 304 min. C Mn Si P S Cr 18.0 Mo Ni 8.0 N -

max. min. 304L max. min. 304H max.

0.08 0.030 0.04 0.10

2.0 2.0 2.0

0.75 0.75 0.75

0.045 0.045 -0.045

0.030 0.030 0.030

20.0 18.0 20.0 18.0 20.0

10.5 8.0 12.0 8.0 10.5

0.10 0.10 -

Mechanical Properties
Typical mechanical properties for grade 304 stainless steels are given in table 2. Table 2. Mechanical properties of 304 grade stainless steel
Grade Tensile Strength (MPa) Yield Strength 0.2% Proof Elongation (% in 50mm) min (MPa) min min Rockwell B (HR B) max 92 92 92 Hardness Brinell (HB) max 201 201 201

304 515 205 304L 485 170 304H 515 205 304H also has a requirement for a grain size of ASTM No 7 or coarser.

40 40 40

Physical Properties
Typical physical properties for annealed grade 304 stainless steels are given in table 3. Table 3. Physical properties of 304 grade stainless steel in the annealed condition
Grade 304/L/H Density (kg/m3) 8000 Elastic Modulus (GPa) 193 Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (m/m/C) 0-100C 0-315C 0-538C 17.2 17.8 18.4 Thermal Conductivity (W/m.K) at 100C at 500C 16.2 21.5 Specific Heat 0-100C (J/kg.K) 500 Electrical Resistivity (n.m) 720

Grade Specification Comparison


Approximate grade comparisons for 304 stainless steels are given in table 4. Table 4. Grade specifications for 304 grade stainless steel
Old British Euronorm Swedish SS Japanese JIS BS En No Name 304 S30400 304S31 58E 1.4301 X5CrNi18-10 2332 SUS 304 304L S30403 304S11 1.4306 X2CrNi19-11 2352 SUS 304L 304H S30409 304S51 1.4948 X6CrNi18-11 These comparisons are approximate only. The list is intended as a comparison of functionally similar materials not as a schedule of contractual equivalents. If exact equivalents are needed original specifications must be consulted. Grade UNS No

Possible Alternative Grades

Possible alternative grades to grade 304 stainless steels are given in table 5. Table 5. Possible alternative grades to 304 grade stainless steel
Grade 301L 302HQ 303 316 321 3CR12 430 Why it might be chosen instead of 304 A higher work hardening rate grade is required for certain roll formed or stretch formed components. Lower work hardening rate is needed for cold forging of screws, bolts and rivets. Higher machinability needed, and the lower corrosion resistance, formability and weldability are acceptable. Higher resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion is required, in chloride environments Better resistance to temperatures of around 600-900C is needed321 has higher hot strength. A lower cost is required, and the reduced corrosion resistance and resulting discolouration are acceptable. A lower cost is required, and the reduced corrosion resistance and fabrication characteristics are acceptable.

Corrosion Resistance
Excellent in a wide range of atmospheric environments and many corrosive media. Subject to pitting and crevice corrosion in warm chloride environments, and to stress corrosion cracking above about 60C. Considered resistant to potable water with up to about 200mg/L chlorides at ambient temperatures, reducing to about 150mg/L at 60C.

Heat Resistance
Good oxidation resistance in intermittent service to 870C and in continuous service to 925C. Continuous use of 304 in the 425-860C range is not recommended if subsequent aqueous corrosion resistance is important. Grade 304L is more resistant to carbide precipitation and can be heated into the above temperature range. Grade 304H has higher strength at elevated temperatures so is often used for structural and pressure-containing applications at temperatures above about 500C and up to about 800C. 304H will become sensitised in the temperature range of 425-860C; this is not a problem for high temperature applications, but will result in reduced aqueous corrosion resistance.

Heat Treatment
Solution Treatment (Annealing) - Heat to 1010-1120C and cool rapidly. These grades cannot be hardened by thermal treatment.

Welding
Excellent weldability by all standard fusion methods, both with and without filler metals. AS 1554.6 pre-qualifies welding of 304 with Grade 308 and 304L with 308L rods or electrodes (and with their high silicon equivalents). Heavy welded sections in Grade 304 may require post-weld annealing for maximum corrosion resistance. This is not required for Grade 304L. Grade 321 may also be used as an alternative to 304 if heavy section welding is required and post-weld heat treatment is not possible.

Machining
A "Ugima" improved machinability version of grade 304 is available in bar products. "Ugima" machines significantly better than standard 304 or 304L, giving higher machining rates and lower tool wear in many operations.

Dual Certification
It is common for 304 and 304L to be stocked in "Dual Certified" form, particularly in plate and pipe. These items have chemical and mechanical properties complying with both 304 and 304L specifications. Such dual certified product does not meet 304H specifications and may be unacceptable for high temperature applications.

Applications
Typical applications include: Food processing equipment, particularly in beer brewing, milk processing & wine making. Kitchen benches, sinks, troughs, equipment and appliances Architectural panelling, railings & trim Chemical containers, including for transport Heat Exchangers Woven or welded screens for mining, quarrying & water filtration Threaded fasteners Springs

Chip Formation & Chip Breaker

The type of chip produced depends on the material being machined and the cutting conditions at the time. These conditions include the type of tool used tool, rate of cutting condition of the machine and the use or absence of a cutting fluid.

Continuous Chip
This leaves the tool as a long ribbon and is common when cutting most ductile materials such as mild steel, copper and Aluminium. It is associated with good tool angles, correct speeds and feeds, and the use of cutting fluid.

Figure 7. Continuous Chip

Discontinuous Chip
The chip leaves the tool as small segments of metal resulted from cutting brittle metals such as cast iron and cast brass with tools having small rake angles. There is nothing wrong with this type of chip in these circumstances.

Figure 8. Discontinuous Chip

Continuous Chip with Builtup Edge


This is a chip to be avoided and is caused by small particles from the workpiece becoming welded to the tool face under high pressure and heat. The phenomenon results in a poor finish and damage to the tool. It can be minimised or prevented by using light cuts at higher speeds with an appropriate cutting lubricant.

Figure 9. Continuous Chip with Buildup Edge

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