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# POWER SYSTEM LAB STUDY OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF INSULATIORS

Object : To study the construction and fittings 6.6 /11KV standard disc and 6.6 /11KV pin insulator and to be acquainted with their power frequency test procedure (dry test). Measurement : Measure the main dimensions of : (a) 11KV standard disc insulator. (b) 11KV pin insulator and tabulate the results as follows :(1) Total creepage distance (2) Protected creepage distance (3) Maximum diameter . (4) Axial height ..

Report : (1) Find the ratio of the creepage distance to axial height for both the insulators. (2) Find the ratio of protected creepage to total creepage length and discuss the importance of these creepage distances. (3) Show the mounting arrangements. (i) Suspension, (ii) Tension. (4) Draw the front view of the insulators.

## TRANSFORMER INSULATING OIL CHARACTERISTICS

OBJECT : Determination of dielectric constant and dielectric dissipation factor (Tangent Delta) of transformer insulating oil. INTRODUCTION : The dielectric dissipation factor (tangent delta) is the ratio of active power to reactive volt-amperes (W/VAr). This is equal to the tangent of delta (), by which the phase difference between applied voltage and resulting current () deviates from II/2, For practical insulators where is larger than 85 the power factor and dissipation factor are numerically same. Resistivity is the ratio of the dc potential gradient in volts per centimeter paralleling the current flow within the specimen to the current density in amperes per square centimeter at a given instant of time and prescribed condition. This is numerically the same to the resistance between the opposite faces of a centimeter cube of the liquid. It is expressed in -cm. I.S. 6103-1971 and I.S.6292-1971 specifies the method of test for resistivity and dissipation factor respectively. PROCEDURE : A) CLEANING PROCEDURE : 1) By using carbon tetrachloride or distilled benzene clean the oil test cell a) Separate the component parts of the three terminal oil test cell i.e. outer case and inner case electrode and keep them on the glass plate. b) Fill the outer case, partially with cleaning agent. c) Assemble the component parts with solvent contained in outer case. d) Shake the cell assembly vigorously and separate the parts and throw the cleaning agent. e) Repeat the above procedure twice or thrice with fresh solvent. 2) Dry the cell to around 60 centigrade. 3) The cleaned dry empty cell should show resistance above 109 M when measuring the resistance by the mega ohmmeter. If not repeat the above cleaning process again. 4) The cleaning of the cell should be done before or after every test. B) MEASUREMENT PROCEDURES :

## PROCEDURE FOR MEASUREMENT OF DIELECTRIC CONSTANT :

For this measurement following equipment are used : a) Oil loss angle meter b) Three terminal oil test cell. Before proceeding to make this test, clean the oil cell thoroughly. Testing empty clean cell by resitivity test setup may ensure this. The resistance should be practically infinite. Make the connection as follow : 1. Connect the oil loss angle meter to 230VAC, 50Hz power supply. 2. Switch on the equipment. 3. Keep Operate switch in Set zero position & HT ON/OFF switch jin HT OFF position.

4. Keep voltage at zero. 5. Mount the cell on an insulation base plate. Connect the Empty cell to the Oil Loss Angle Meter by the cables provided. The connection should be made as follows. a) Terminal, marked H.V., marked L.V., marked Guard should be of the oil cell respectively. 6. Now put Operate switch in HV ON position. 7. Switch HT ON/OFF switch to HT ON position & press. Switch marked as press to measure volts. 8. Set desired voltage by increasing set volts variac above 300V & above. 9. Switch set zero/operate to operate position & with the help of potentiometer marked as Null adjust the null meter to read 1.0. 10. Switch set zero/operate switch to set zero position. 11. Do not after to disturb the voltage or null control knob. 12. Pour required quantity of oil in the cell. 13. Now set SET ZERO/ OPERATE switch to Operate position. 14. Null Meter will show a different reading. This new reading directly shows the dielectric constant of the sample under test. 15. Note that this gives the Dielectric Constant in the range of 0 to 10. PROCEDURE FOR RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENT : As per the I.S. 6103-1971 the test should be made while the temperature of the inner electrode is within 0.5C of the desired test temperature. For this test the equipments are Million Megohm Meter, three terminal oil test cell and heating chamber. Clean the oil cell thoroughly as explained and place it on insulation base plate such as glass or Pyrex sheet. For measurement at room temperature proceed as follows : a) b) c) Connect the resitivity test setup, and select the range required. Push the MEASURE push button control. Set the meter to read infinity, Push DISCHARGE push button and connect the empty oil cell to the

when test terminals are open. instrument. Make the connections properly (HV, LV and guard to be Back Panel of heating chamber respectively and heating chamber leads green to guard and black to LV marked on the oil cell. HV is direct connected through relay contact when the Acrylic box is covered). d) Push MEASURE push button and read the value of resistance, it should show. If not remove the test cell after pushing the DISCHARGE push button control. Repeat the cleaning procedure till you are getting the resistance as infinity at the highest range of interest. e) f) g) h) CONNECT OR DISCONNECT THE TEST CELL ONLY WHEN THE Pour the required quantity of oil in the test cell. Connect the test cell to instrument. Put the voltage control to +500V. INSTRUCENT IS IN DISCHARGE MODE.

i) j) minutes. k) l) m) n)

Push CHARGE push button, after 1 minute of charging push the Push DISCHARGE push button and keep the cell in this position for Total resistance is Meter reading (Current flowing through test cell in the Calculate the resistivity. After 5 minutes of discharge, reverse the polarity of the applied voltage with Repeat step h to k to calculate the resistivity. Average resistivity obtained

## MEASURE push button and note down the reading of oil.

unit of nano amp., and test voltage = 500v dc. from volt mtr. i.e. R = V/I. Resistivity = Resistivity show in ohm x Cell constant. the help of a switch provided in the front panel. from direct & reverse polarity measurement is the normal value of resistivity. PROCEDURE FOR MEASUREMENT OF TAN : For this measurement following equipments are used :a) Oil loss Angle Meter. b) Three terminal oil testing cell. c) Heating chamber. 1) Clean the oil cell properly. Get sure that resistance across the cell is almost infinity. 2) Pour the oil to be tested in the oil cell gradually; the oil enters the space cavity in between the two electrodes of the cell through holes provided. 3) Keep the oil cell in heating chamber. 4) After inserting the probe in the oil cell carefully, switch on the heating chamber; the meter on the heating chamber will indicate the temperature of the oil inside the cell. 5) Keep OPERATE/SET ZERO switch in set zero position. 6) Keep voltage zero. 7) Keep HT ON/OFF switch in HT ON and set voltage (500V). 8) Set zero on digital panel meter with the help of set zero pot. 9) Connect HV, LV, and guard leads from oil loss angle meter to heating chamber. 10) When the temperature of the oil cell inside the heating chamber reach 90C or desired temperature (the test is normally done at 90C as recommended by I.S.I.), then heater supply will cut of automatically and heater will go off. The trip may change if required by adjusting the TRIP SET control. 11) Put OPERATE/SET ZERO switch in operate position. 12) When the temperature is 90C, with the help of NULL control adjust the null meter to read 5.0 or arrow marked in center. 13) Again put OPERATE/SET ZERO switches in set zero position. Set the zero on tan meter carefully with the help of SET ZERO control. 14) Put OPERATE/SET ZERO switch in HV ON position and read the value of tan on the meter in percentage.