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RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS

Lecture Notes

2012-2013 FALL Semester

Seyhan UYGUR ONBAŞIOĞLU

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1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 5

2. A Basic Approach to “Sustainability” ................................................................................. 7

3. Energy Situation for Turkey and Worldwide Energy Usage ........................................... 13

4. Efficiency and Effectiveness ............................................................................................ 19

5. Geothermal Energy .............................................................................................................. 24

5.1 Geothermal Background ............................................................................................ 24

5.2 Geothermal Power Production ........................................................................................ 29

5.2.1 Hydrothermal ( geo-hydrothermal) sources .............................................................. 30

5.2.3 Magma .............................................................................................................. 39

5.2.4 Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) ...................................................................... 39

5.2.5 Geothermal electricity applications in Turkey .......................................................... 40

5.3 Direct Use of Geothermal Energy (Ground Source Heat Pumps) .................................... 41

5.3.1 Use of geothermal energy in district heating in Turkey ............................................ 46

6. Wind Energy and Wind Energy Conversion Systems ........................................................... 48

6.1 Types of Wind Turbines ............................................................................................ 50

6.1.1 Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs) ............................................................... 51

6.1.2 Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) ................................................................... 52

6.2 Fundamental Concepts .............................................................................................. 54

6.2.1 Efficiency concept in wind energy conversion systems ............................................ 57

6.2.2 Rotor speed-wind velocity interaction ..................................................................... 58

6.2.3 The Betz limit .......................................................................................................... 60

6.2.4 Performance of the wind turbines ............................................................................. 63

6.3 Drag and Lift Machines .................................................................................................. 64

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6.4 Regulation ...................................................................................................................... 69

6.5 Analysis of Wind Regimes ............................................................................................ 73

6.6 Operation of the Wind Turbines ..................................................................................... 77

6.7 Commercial Wind Energy Conversion Systems .............................................................. 79

7. Biomass Conversion Processes ......................................................................................... 84

7.1 Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Digestion ................................................................. 84

7.1.1 Organic Wastes and Biomass Used as Feedstocks in Anaerobic .......................... 84

Digestion Process ............................................................................................................. 84

7.1.2 Fundamentals of Anaerobic Digestion ................................................................ 88

7.1.3 Reactor Types..................................................................................................... 90

7.1.4 Utilization of By-Products from In-Vessel Anaerobic Digestion Process ........... 91

7.2 Power Generation ...................................................................................................... 94

7.2.1 Direct Combustion ............................................................................................. 94

7.2.3 Thermal Gasification .......................................................................................... 95

8. Fuel Cells ......................................................................................................................... 96

9. Solar Energy..................................................................................................................... 97

9.1 Solar Collectors ......................................................................................................... 97

9.1.1 Modeling of Flat Plate Collectors ....................................................................... 99

9.1.2 Other Collector Types ............................................................................................ 101

9.1.3 Effect of Day-to-Day Changes in Solar Insolation ............................................ 103

9.2 Solar Systems .......................................................................................................... 104

9.3 Solar Cooling .......................................................................................................... 107

9.4 Solar Power Plant .................................................................................................... 108

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10. Photovoltaic Systems..................................................................................................... 111

10.1 Fundamentals of PV Cells .................................................................................... 111

10.2 p-n Junction and PV Circuit ..................................................................................... 116

10.3 Cell Characteristics.................................................................................................. 122

10.4 PV Components ...................................................................................................... 125

10.5 PV Systems ............................................................................................................. 135

11. REFERENCES............................................................................................................... 139

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1. Introduction
Energy is the most important problem of the world, because of two reasons: First; the sources are
limited. Considering the relationship between the standard of living and the energy usage, the
situation is being worse year by year. Secondly; the processes to convert the fossil fuels are
deeply hazardous for the environment.

Fortunately, the energy flows that occur naturally and repeatedly in the environment can be
harnessed for human benefit. The ultimate sources of most of this energy are the sun, gravity and
earth’s rotation.

In renewable energy literature, the words ”alternative” and “sustainable” are being used to
emphasize the possibility of using sources other than the fossil ones which will finish never.
Whatever they are called, “renewable”, “alternative” and “sustainable”, these energy systems are
planned as the parts of the solution to the energy problem by substituting the fossil sources with
the replenished ones.

Renewable energy is the energy obtained from the continuous or repetitive currents of energy
recurring in the natural environment. To assume any energy flow as “renewable” it should be
replenished at least at the same rate as it is used. A renewable energy system is an “alternative”
one, if it is able to provide some or whole part of the energy needs which is met by the fossil ones.
Such a system is also sustainable because the energy supply will sustain continuously, as the sun
continues to shine, gravity to apply on the objects and the earth to rotate. Fossil fuels, on the other
hand, like coal, petroleum and gas are the conventional ones having no sustainability. Nuclear
energy is another alternative to the sustainable usage but it is out of scope of this lecture, for its
being a controversial issue for more than a generation.

Table 1.1 includes a summary of the energy sources. As it is seen in this table, an alternative and
renewable source is always sustainable while a conventional source, even if it is renewable cannot
be assumed as sustainable. Hydroelectricity, classical biomass and wood for example are used to
be through the ages. However, no one can guarantee that the river will have the necessary head
continuously, the animals and the forests which are the sources of the classical biomass and the
wood will live forever.

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Table 1.1. Classification of the energy sources (excluding nuclear energy).
PRIMARY PRIMARY SECONDARY SECONDARY
FOSSIL RENEWABLE FOSSIL BASED RENEWABLE
SOURCES SOURCES SOURCES BASED
SOURCES
Conventional  Coal  Hydroelectricity  Electricity from  Electricity
 Petroleum  Classical biomass coal or gas. from renewable
 Gas  Wood  Petroleum
products

 Hydrogen  Hydrogen
energy energy generated
generated by by using the
thermal energy renewable
of the fossil energy sources.
fuels.

Non-  Geothermal
conventional Energy
(alternative)  Wind Energy
 Direct Solar
Energy
 Indirect Solar
Energy
 Sea-Wave
 Energy Ocean
Thermal
Gradients Energy
(OTEC)
 Modern Biomass
Energy
 Energy Cropping
 Energy Forest
 Tidal Energy

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2. A Basic Approach to “Sustainability”
There are too many definitions for sustainability.

One of them is that the ability of humanity to ensure that it meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs [1].

Another definition is that sustainability is the preservation of the productive capacity for the
foreseeable future [2].

For the biophysical aspect sustainability means maintaining or improving the integrity of the life
support system of the earth [3].

Based on these definitions, it is obvious that conventional-renewable energy systems or


applications are not sustainable. Especially for hydroelectricity, the third definition including the
integrity of the life support system is notable.

Fig. 2.1 is explanatory in discussion of the first definition. With such a steep change in
population it is not possible to sustain the future generations’ needs.

Fig. 2.1 Growth in the world population

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World energy consumption is rising faster than the population (Fig. 2.2) indicating that the
sustainability includes elements beyond the “needs” and” supplies”. For example, we might
want to sustain our standard of living, health, well-being, food and water supply while population
growth, unnecessary and excessive consumption, and mal-distribution of sources hinder the
sustainability. The list of the things to be sustained and the events which are handicaps of the
sustainability can be extended, of course.

Fig. 2.2 Per capita energy consumption versus gross national product (GNP) per
capita for a number of countries [6].

To be sustainable an energy conversion system must meet two conditions [5]: Endurance and
cleanliness.

Energy system must have good prospects for enduring indefinitely in terms of the type and level
of energy services it provides.

 Flows of the energy systems material and energy byproducts must not exceed the ability of
land, air and water to absorb and recycle them without significant negative disruption.

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 In fact endurance is correlated with the energy density. In Table 2.1 rough estimates for
energy density are given.

Table 2.1 Energy density for the fossil fuels [5].

resource Energy density [MJ/kg]

peat 15

wood 18

coal 20-30

natural gas 45

oil 50

The advantage of this high energy density of fossil fuels has been taken by industrialized
countries. However, economic output and energy use have not been at the same rate, always.
The evolution of the ratio of the energy use to economic output is called energy intensity.
Since 1950 energy intensity has significantly declined (Fig. 2.3). In spite of this success,
environmental problems of fossil fuels are still challenging. The emerging concern is the CO2
emissions from combustion. Analysts offer three major to fossil fuels:

Energy efficiency

Nuclear Power

Renewables

Among these alternatives energy efficiency have some points which are not discussed in
details. Some energy experts argue that promoting profitable energy efficiency investments
will lead to higher energy use and greater environmental impacts. The following formula
has greater importance form this point of the view:

E = E/GNP x GNP/POP x POP

Where E refers to energy, GNP is the gross national product and POP is the population.

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Fig. 2.3 History of the energy density (GDP refers to Gross Domestic Product) [5]

Renewable forms of energy, on the other hand are enduring and emission free, but their wide scale
development must overcome low energy density (Table 2.2), intermittency and inconvenient
location. These constraints can be costly and even cause significant environmental impacts.

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Table 2.2 Predictions for the energy density [5].

Unit 2000 2050 2100

POP billions 6 9.5 10.5

GDP $US tril.2000 32 80 230

GDP/POP $US/capita 5,300 8,400 22,000

Energy(E) EJ 429 770 1,390

Coal EJ 100 220 650


Oil EJ 163 160 110
Natural Gas EJ 95 200 160
Nuclear EJ 9 20 90
Hydropower EJ 9 20 30
Traditional biomass EJ 45 70 90
Modern biomass EJ 7 50 120
Wind EJ 0 20 90
Other Renewables EJ 0 10 50

E/GDP MJ/$US 13.6 9.6 6

E/POP GJ/capita 71.4 81 132

Share fossil fuels % 84 75 66

Annual growth E/GDP % -0.69 -0.93

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Table 2.3 General conversion factors for energy.

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3. Energy Situation for Turkey and Worldwide Energy
Usage
For Turkey, both the dependency on external sources and the responsibility in the
environmental pollution are problems to be solved immediately. The key and compound
indicators for Turkey are listed in Table. 3.1. The conversion factors for energy are present in
Table 3.2.

Table 3.1 Energy balance and CO2 emission for Turkey, in the year 2009 (compiled
from www.iea.org)

Primary energy consumption (quadrillion Btu) 6.5

Primary energy production (quadrillion Btu) 1.2

Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the 256


Consumption of Energy (Million Metric
Tonnes, Mt)

The majority of Turkey’s electricity comes from conventional thermal (coal and gas)
sources and the majority of Turkey’s coal production is for electricity generation. Due to
the technological problems, Turkey’s per GDP PPP (Gross Domestic Product Purchasing
Power Parity) carbon emissions figure is highly above the regional average (Table 3.2).

Table 3.2 Carbon Intensity using Market Exchange Rates (Metric Tonnes of Carbon
Dioxide per GDP PPP Thousand Year 2000 U.S. Dollars)

Turkey Europe World

0.32 0.29 0.45

The increasing standard of living increases the energy consumption in our country. Total
electricity consumption in 2009 is 165 TWh [6]. However, the electricity prices are very high

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comparing to GDP PPP per capita (around 11,000 US dollars). The electricity prices for
households and for the industry, in the year 2008 are 0.165 and 0.139 U.S. Dollars per Kilowatt
hour [7]. These values are around 0.1 U.S. Dollars per Kilowatt hour for the US (where GDP
per capita is around 45,000 US dollars) and 0.28 U.S. Dollars per Kilowatt hour for EU
countries (where GDP per capita is around 35,000 US dollars) [7].

This situation makes the impact of the energy problem faced by Turkey, which includes too
many risks for the sustainability.

On the other hand Turkey has a plenty of natural sources, especially, solar, wind and
geothermal (Figs. 3.1-3.3) .

Fig. 3.1 Turkey’s 1000 m depth temperature distribution map [8].

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Fig. 3.2 Global irradiation and solar electricity potential for Turkey. [9]

Fig. 3.3 Wind resources at 50 m above ground level for open planes in Turkey [10]

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In spite of such a large potential, share of total energy supply for renewable energy sources is
very low (Fig. 3.4).

Fig. 3.4 Share of total primary energy supply [6].

The current lecture aims to address the geothermal, wind and solar source usages which may
partly be solutions to Turkey’s energy problem. Because of increased interest in fuel cells,
hydrogen energy as a secondary energy source and combustion applications have also been
included at an introductory level.

Despite many people in engineering and political communities are interested in all “renewable
energy” concerns, the scope of this lecture is mostly the “engineering” side of the procedures
and systems. The person who passes this class should be able to design the system illustrated in
Fig. 3.5, for example. Here, the solar energy is repetitive; the waste energy (municipal waste or
organic wastes) is replenished almost at the same rate as it is used. The conversions can
performed via the Collectors, both flat and concentrated, Absorbers, Fuel Cells, Gas Turbines,
Photovoltaic, Chillers, and Internal Combustion Engines, so on. The engineer should know
every basic law and applicable assumptions in all these conversions.

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At this point, the following questions rise, and of course they cannot be answered only from
the engineering point of the view:

1-If we have to change our energy technologies within a very short time period what would be
the best alternatives?

2-How should we invest to develop better alternatives?

3-What are the drivers that will encourage these alternatives?

4-Do we also change our behaviors?

Fig. 3.5 Sample system: Utilization of solar and waste energy to meet the
heat cold, steam, electricity and transportation needs.

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In contrast to fossil fuels, the availability of the most renewable energy sources fluctuates,
especially for the wind and solar energy. A fully renewable energy supply must not only convert
renewable energy sources into useful energy types, such as electricity or heat, but must also
guarantee their availability. This can be done through large energy storage systems, global
energy transport or adaptation of the demand to the available energy.

Also the difference between the reserve and resource should be taken into consideration.
Resource is the total energy which is technically accessible while reserve is the economically
recoverable portion of the resource.

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4. Efficiency and Effectiveness
Conversion efficiency does not have a single conclusion and for all energy conversions, laws
provide limits and the concepts for “efficiency” are defined. In the simplest approximation
efficiency is equal to output/input. The energy conversion paths (c for chemical, e for
electrical, m for mechanical, r for radiant and t for thermal) and the efficiencies of the selected
products are present in literature (Table 4.1) .

Table 4.1 Efficiencies of selected components [4]

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Originating from the facts that all real processes are irreversible and losses always occur, the
effectiveness values are used to measure the conversion processes. However, usually these concepts,
namely efficiency and effectiveness have been confused and used in misleading ways.

Simply to explain, the First Law of Thermodynamics is an energy balance equation, while the Second
Law is an inequality for entropy change. Entropy is a property of the substance which is hard to
explain from the practice of engineering but it is critical in decision making of the energy conversions.
Inevitably, as the total entropy (summation of the entropy changes of the system and the environment)
increases, the potential for the conversion once more, decreases. This means that the some part of the
availability (or exergy) is destroyed. Thus; the conversion is within two extremes: From a conversion
of complete destruction of the availability (maximum irreversibility occurs) to the zero destruction of
the availability (reversible processes).

Imagine a cold room (volume of V in m3, specific heat at constant volume cv in kJ/kg-K) at
temperature Ti [0C] initially and an amount of wood ( mass, m [kg], calorific value h [kJ]). When one
burns the wood, its total energy (m x h ) will be used to increase the temperature of the room air
(density in kg/m3) to the final temperature (Tf) :

(m x h)wood=(ρVcv)air(Tf-Ti) (4.1)

Since there is no possibility of recovering the converted energy to the calorific value of the wood at
the initial time, the whole availability of the wood has been destroyed and there is nothing to do with
the final room air.

Effectiveness (or second law analysis) is defined as

(4.2a)

(4.2b)

If any thermal source (fossil or renewable) is utilized to generate work for example the second law
efficiency is defined as

(4.3)

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For the wind energy utilization:

(4.4)

For all energy conversions there are three types of metrics (Table 4.2):

i- Ideal efficiency defined as (output/input),

ii- Actual efficiency limited by the laws of thermodynamics and fluid mechanics,

iii- Theoretical efficiency for which the effectiveness is equal to one (no availability
destruction).

Table 4.2 Examples of conversion metrics.

Utilization Conversion Ideal Actual Theoretical


System type

Geothermal Heat source to Carnot efficiency Thermal Electrical


power plant electrical efficiency, work/decrease in
work ηthermal geothermal brine
(about availability
10%)
Wind Energy Kinetic energy Betz limit* Power Electrical
Conversion to electrical coefficient, work/kinetic
System work cp energy of the wind
(around
30%)
Steam Power Chemical Carnot Efficiency Thermal Electrical
Plant energy to efficiency, work/decrease in
electrical ηthermal supplied heat
work (around 40 availability
%)
Photovoltaic Radiant Fill factor x Cell (Electrical
Cell energy to VocxIsc/(intensity efficiency, work+availability
electrical x cell area)* ηcell gained due to the
energy (around 25 thermal
%) potential)/decrease
in the availability
of the solar
intensity
 Discussed to be later on.

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Another, important metric is the heat rate. “Heat rate” is defined as the input energy per kWh output.
The smaller the heat rate is better:

energy in 1
Heat rate   (4.5)
energy out  thermal

1 Btu
Heat rate  x3412 x (4.6)
 thermal kWh

(1 kWh = 3412 Btu)

Especially for large scale investments another criteria should be life cycle assessment (LCA). The life
cycle assessment is an objective process to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a
product, process, or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and materials usage and
environmental releases, to assess the impact of those and to evaluate and implement opportunities to
effect environmental improvements [11].

During LCA,

i-energy and raw material requirements, emissions, effluents, solid waste and costs and mass
and energy balance of each process in system should be quantified. (Inventory)

ii- environmental burden through process design changes, material substition, recycle etc.
should be reduced. (Improvement)

iii-values should be assigned to each effect. (Impact)

An example of LCA is illustrated for hydrogen production via steam reforming in Fig. 4.1.

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Fig. 4.1 Inputs and outputs of the hydrogen production by steam reforming.

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5. Geothermal Energy

5.1 Geothermal Background


Geothermal energy is energy from the earth. It lies deep within the Earth. The respective
available annual energy globally is 996,000 PJ/year [12]. Currently, especially in our country,
the use of ground-source heat pumps using the soil as a reservoir is common. Since 99% of our
planet is hotter than 10000C, it should be a pervasive renewable energy source. However, the
problem is to access to this source. The technology of drilling is an important part of utilizing
geothermal energy. Fig. 5.1 illustrates the cut away view of the Earth’s composition.

(a)

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(b)

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(c)
Fig. 5.1 a) Schematic of the structure of the Earth b) Distance details. c) Utilization.

Much of the geothermal energy is inaccessible because of its great depths, but along the plate
boundaries, geothermal activity is close enough to the surface to be accessible. The active
geothermal zones are the zones with the most earthquake activity.

Example 5.1 Calculate the geothermal power potential of a site that covers 50 km2 with a
thermal crust of 2 km, where the temperature gradient is 240 0C. At this depth the specific
heat of rock is determined to be 2.5 J/cm3-0C, and the mean surface temperature is
measured at 150C.

Heat content:

Qh=50 x 2 x 1015 x (240-15) x 2.5= 5.625 x 1019 J

Assuming that the only 2 percent of the available thermal energy of the geothermal mass
could be used to provide power for electricity generation, how many years would it take
to produce 1000 MW/yr of power?
Total capacity to generate this power is 1000/0.02 = 50,000MW/yr
50,000 x 106 (W) x 3.15 x 107(s/yr) = 1.58 x 1018 J/yr
Lifetime production = 5.625 x 1019 / 1.58 x 1018 = 35 years

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Geothermal resources are characterized by their thermal and compositional
characteristics:

i-Hydrothermal or geohydrothermal,

ii-Geopressurized,

iii-Magma,

iv-Enhanced geothermal systems (hot, dry rock)

i- Hydrothermal resources are the most limited category among the four classes. However they
are easiest to harvest. In hydrothermal resources, water is heated and/or evaporated by direct
contact with hot porous rock. The porous or permeable rock is bounded with rock of low
permeability. Water trickles through the porous rock and is heated (and perhaps evaporated) and
discharged to the surface. Hydrothermal systems producing steam are called vapor dominated,
and if they produce mixture of hot water and steam they are called liquid dominated.

ii-Geopressurized resources include sediment-filled reservoirs and hot water confined under
pressures. The fluid temperature is range is 150-1800C. The pressure value is up to 600 bars. In
many of these systems the fluid contains methane up to 100,000 ppm. This is why the fluid is
called “geothermal brine” and it is highly corrosive.

iii-Magma or molten rock is under active volcanoes at accessible depths. Temperatures excess
650 0C.

iv-Hot dry rock (HDR) has the temperature in the excess of 2000C. However, as the name
implies, contain little amount of liquid. The method for harvesting this resource is to send the
water under the rock and reject the heat. This method is also called EGS (enhanced geothermal
system).

Table 5.1 gives the estimates for the geothermal resource in the World. Table 5.2 lists the
results of a very recent study [8] related to Turkey’s geothermal source.

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Table 5.1 Geothermal resource estimate [4] (1 quad = 1015Btu)

Table 5.2 Turkey’s geothermal resource base (in 1023J) between 3 to 10 km depth for
different temperature classes [8]

Comparing Tables 5.1 and 5.2, the average stored heat within 3 km below the earth for
Turkey which has an average of 4 x 1023 J is approximately 0.4 % of the world’s total
resource.

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5.2 Geothermal Power Production
38 years after the invention of the electric power generator by Werner von Siemens and 22
years after the start of the first power station by Thomas A. Edison in New York in1882,
geothermal power production was invented by Prince P. G. Conti in Lardarello, Italy in
1904.

Geothermal power production in Tuscany has continued since then and amounted to 128
MW of installed electrical power in 1942 and to about 790 MW in 2003. In 1958, a small
geothermal power plant began operating in New Zealand, in 1959 another in Mexico, and
in 1960 commercial production of geothermal power began in the USA within the Geysers
Field in California [13].

Today, the worldwide geothermal electricity net generation has increased to about 57
billion kWh in the year 2007 which corresponds to 0.3% of the total electricity net
generation whole over the world (www.eia.org). For Turkey this figure is 0.093 billion
kWh which is corresponding to 0.16% of the world’s total geothermal electricity
generation. The installed geothermal electric generation capacity has reached to 10.2 GW,
worldwide (Table 5.3). One of the main reasons for this success is the base load ability of
geothermal power generation. However, for Turkey, the installed electricity capacity by
utilization of the geothermal sources is around 95 MW, only [14].

Table 5.3 Installed geothermal electric generation capacity (top 10 countries and
world total, 2008) [13]

Country Installed capacity [GW]

US 2.9

Philippines 2.0

Indonesia 1.9

Mexico 1.0

Italy 0.8

Japan 0.5

New Zealand 0.5

Iceland 0.5

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El Salvador 0.2

Costa Rica 0.2

Worldwide 10.2

Today, geothermal power production is economic viable only when high temperatures are found at
relatively shallow depth. In regions with a normal or a slightly above normal geothermal gradient
of about 3 K / 100 m, one has to drill more than 5,000 m deep in order to achieve temperatures
above 150 °C. Such deep wells are expensive and there is a high risk of failure. For this reason
under economic considerations geothermal power production is mainly restricted to geothermal
fields with extremely high temperature gradients and high heat flows.

5.2.1 Hydrothermal ( geo-hydrothermal) sources


Fig. 5.2 illustrates the schematic of a vapor dominated geothermal system.

Fig.5.2 Vapor dominated hydrothermal system.

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Fig. 5.3 T-s diagram for the vapor dominated hydrothermal system.

The main problem is the solid contents of the brine. The solid particles are separated by the
means of the centrifugal separator and filtered. The vapor dominated systems require steam
>1750C. T-s diagram is given Fig. 5.3.

Problem 5.1 [15]

Liquid dominated hydrothermal systems are more abundant than the vapor dominated ones. In
these systems water is available at 150-3150C. When the pressure is reduced, the water is
flashed into a two phase mixture. Three systems are possible in liquid dominated systems:

I-flash (Figs. 5.4-5.5)


ii-total (Figs. 5.6-5.10)
iii-binary (Figs. 5.11-5.13)

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Fig. 5.4 Schematic of the flash liquid dominated geothermal systems.

Fig. 5.5 T-s diagram for flash liquid dominated systems.

One of the disadvantages of the flash system is that the brine with significant energy (at
point 3 f) is re-injected to the well. Energy is extracted from the vapor phase, only.

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Problem 5.2 [13]

Since re-injection of too much energy results in low efficiency in flash systems, a solution is
proposed: In total –flow concept design, the turbine is replaced by a mix-flow expander that
extracts energy from the vapor liquid mixture (Figs. 5.6-5.7). The mix-flow expander is a type
of biphase turbine.

Fig. 5.6 Schematic of total flow liquid dominated geothermal system.

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Fig. 5.7 T-s diagram of total flow liquid dominated geothermal system.

Problem 5.3 [15]

Consider a total-flow geothermal system using the same well bottom conditions as Problem
5.2. The fluid enters the expander as a saturated liquid and discharged at 10 kPa.
Determine the thermal efficiency, the heat rate, and the flow rate for a 10 MW system if the
mixed-flow expander possesses an isentropic efficiency of 0.50.

The biphase rotary separator was developed to extract power from a two phase , steam/water mixture
as indicated in Figs.5.6 and 5.7. The unit is made up of three main components, as shown in Fig. 5.8, a
series of two phase, a rotary separator and a liquid turbine. The two phase nozzle converts part of the
enthalpy of the two phase mixture into fluid kinetic energy. Passing through the nozzle, the mixture is
expanded from high inlet pressure to the low exit pressure with steam and water droplets intimately
mixed. The expanding gas accelerates, entraining liquid droplets with it, therefore increasing the
kinetic energy of the water and the steam. The result is a two phase jet.

The two phase jet has been directed tangentially onto the inner surface of a drum-shaped rotary
separator rotating at a speed close to that of the two phase jet. The high centrifugal acceleration forces
the heavier liquid towards the wall. Thus the liquid is separated from the steam. The separated liquid
rotates with the drum, while the steam flows inwardly to an exit port.

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In the bi phase turbine the rotational speed of the liquid turbine (NU) is about 60 % of that of
the rotary separator (Ns) [16]. The spent liquid is collected by the stationary diffuser.

The usual arrangement for the bi phase plant is the topping arrangement (Fig. 5.9). The
remaining steam from the separation is sent to the conventional condensing turbine . In the
bottoming arrangement on the other hand, the discharge water from a conventional flash
separation is passed through a biphase plant, instead of being directly injected (Fig. 5.10).

Fig. 5.8 View of a biphase turbine [16]

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Fig. 5.9 Schematic of topping arrangement [16]

Fig. 5.10 An example of bottoming arrangement [16]

Another common system being utilized by a number of existing geothermal systems is the binary
system (Fig. 5.11). In flash systems, when a steam phase separates from boiling water, CO 2is the
dominant (over 90% by weight) non condensable gas. In most geothermal systems, non-condensable
gases make up less than 5 % by weight of the steam phase. For each megawatt-hour of geothermal
electricity produced in USA, for example, the average emission of CO 2 is about 18% of that emitted
when natural gas is burned to produce electricity [17]. In binary systems since all of the produced
fluid is injected back into the reservoir there is no emission.

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Fig. 5.11 Schematic for the binary liquid dominated geothermal system.

In these systems, two fluids are involved: the hot brine and a working fluid (generally a
hydrocarbon). The working fluid circulates in the closed portion of the system. The
working fluids include propane, isobutene, isopentane, and water ammonia. The boiling
points of these fluids are lower than that of the water. The special attention in these
systems should be given to the heat exchanger design. Only the heat exchanger and hot
brine transport components are exposed to the harsh and corrosive brine conditions.

It should be noted that the Rankin cycle efficiency for the organic fluids used is little
different to that for water/steam between the same two top and bottom cycle
temperatures. The cycle efficiency is slightly low for the organic fluids. Even though the
cycle efficiency is about the same value, in the two cases, the overall efficiency, which is
proportional to the generated electrical energy, is considerable higher for the organic
fluid.

(5.1)

Fig. 5.12 shows two cycles one using R114 in one case and water in the other.

As a consequence of organic fluid having a lower ratio of latent heat of vaporization


versus specific heat capacity than that of water results in some limitations in heat
exchange process (Fig. 5.13).

37
R114 H2O
Hot source temperature [0C] 140 140
Top cycle temperature [0C] 105 105
Carnot efficiency [%] 24.2 24.2
Maximum obtainable 13.2 13.2
efficiency [%]
Rankine cycle efficiency [%] 10.1 10.9
Overall efficiency [%] 5.5 3.6

Fig. 5.12 Comparison of two cycles one using R114 as the secondary fluid, and the other is
using water [16].

Fig. 5.13 Extraction of energy from the geothermal brine [16].

38
5.2.2 Geopressurized sources

These resources may have pressures up to 1000 bar and temperatures between 150-1800C.
They are 2000-9000 m in depth. They have high content of dissolved methane and
dissolved solids typically30-80 ft3/barrel (approximately 16%). These brine solutions are
corrosive and difficult to handle. Technical problems and high costs have precluded only
pilot studies. A major enhanced geopressure electrical generating project has been initiated
in US the first stage of the project calls for developing a total of 200 geopressurized wells
in the States of Mississippi and Texas. The project is expected to ultimately generate base
load electrical power of at least 400 megawatts. Total capital cost is estimated to be $280
million [18].

5.2.3 Magma
Magma is the molten rock, under the volcanoes (temperature exceeding 650 0C). Methods for
harvesting magma are speculative only. In case of reaching this source magma pools also
would produce hydrogen because at 6000C iron oxide reacts with water and produce
hydrogen:

2FeO+H2O→2FeO1.5+H2 (5.2)

Although the potential is great, magma based plants are years away (See www.
Magma-power.com).

5.2.4 Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS)


These systems involve injecting water into the source and circulating it through the dry
rocks. Because of the low thermal conductivity of the rocks large surface areas are
necessary. The rocks can be fractured by sending pressurized water (at 200 atm. for
example). An example of such an application is present in (Fig. 5.14).

39
Fig. 5.14 Schematic of an EGS power plant [19].

5.2.5 Geothermal electricity applications in Turkey


Table 5.4 illustrates the update data about the geothermal power plants in Turkey. This data is
changing according to the bidding for transferring the consents of some of these fields from the
state to the private sector.

It is reported that in 2011 another 17.5 MWe power plant in Hidirbeyli would be commissioned
[20]. All these activities have indicated that power generation capacity in the last 4 years has
increased fourfold.

Table 5.4 Geothermal power plants in Turkey (updated from [14]).

Power Plant Name Start-Up Installed Power Resource Temperature[0C]


Date [MWe]
Dora-I 2006 7.35 172
Dora-II 2010 11.1 174
OmerBeyli 2009 47.4 231
Bereket 2007 7.5 145
Tuzla-Çanakkale 2010 7.5 171
Kızıldere-Denizli 1984 17.8 243
Total 97.85

40
5.3 Direct Use of Geothermal Energy (Ground Source Heat Pumps)
The heat pump is a "device which absorbs heat at a certain specific temperature (cold side)
and releases it again at a higher temperature level (warm side) after adding drive work”.

Hence a heat pump can withdraw thermal energy from a heat source at a low temperature
level (e.g. ambient air).

A few meters below the surface, the ground temperature remains nearly constant. Using the
ground as a heat source/sink allows improved performance over a heat pump using the
atmosphere as heat source/sink (conventional heat pumps).

Conventional heat pumps possess COP values of around 3, while GSHPs (geothermal source
heat pumps) have COP values approaching 4. However, GSHP systems cost twice that the
conventional heat pump systems [15].

The general configuration of a GSHP has been shown in Fig. 5.15.

Fig. 5.15 Schematic of a GSHP system [15].

The heat exchanger transfers energy between the compressor refrigerant and the ground
via a circulating pump in the ground loop. The utilization of the ground as a heat
source/sink is in several ways as shown in Fig. 5.16.

41
(a) (b)

(c)

Fig. 5.16 GSHP ground loop configurations a) Closed loop horizontal, b) closed loop
vertical, c) Open loop [15].

In a closed loop system, a loop is buried in the earth around the home. Virtually all loops built
today use high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. This type of pipe is specifically designed to
be buried in the ground and is marked “geothermal” or “geo”. Joints are made by fusing or
melting the pipe and fittings together, which makes a nearly leak-proof connection. Mechanical
joints are not used in the ground. A loop made out of HDPE can last 50 years or more.

42
A mixture of antifreeze and water is circulated continuously through the loop and heat
pump, transferring heat from or to the soil respectively, as heating or air conditioning is
needed. In a closed-loop system, the fluid never comes in contact with the soil. It is sealed
inside the loop and heat pump.

In an open-loop system, ground water is drawn up from a well and through the heat pump,
then typically pumped back into a return well. New water is always being pumped through
the system when it is in operation. It is called an open-loop system because the ground water
is open to the environment.

Over the years the industry has developed standards for GXS (Geothermal Heat exchanger
Systems) installation. The best known standard is CSA C448.2-02 Design and Installation of
GeoExchange Systems for Residential and Other Small Buildings.

Open loops, or ground water GXS, take heat from well water that is pumped directly through
the heat exchanger in a heat pump. The required flow of well water is determined by the
capacity of the heat pump. In the coldest part of the winter, heating a typical 150-m2 new
home takes 20 000–30 000 L of water per day, or a flow rate of 0.4–0.5 L per second. A
larger home will need proportionally more water [21].

To utilize the low temperature geothermal source, absorption heat pumps are applicable. The
absorption cycle is a process by which refrigeration effect is produced through the use of two
fluids and some quantity of heat input, rather than electrical input as in the more familiar
vapor compression cycle (Fig. 5.17).

43
Fig. 5.17 Thermal compressor in a heat pump.

In the absorption system, a secondary fluid or absorbent is used to circulate the refrigerant.
Because the temperature requirements for the cycle fall into the low-to-moderate temperature
range, and there is significant potential for electrical energy savings, absorption would seem to
be a good prospect for geothermal application.

Absorption machines are commercially available today in two basic configurations. For
applications above 00C (primarily air conditioning), the cycle uses lithium bromide as the
absorbent and water as the refrigerant. For applications below 0 0C, an ammonia/water cycle is
employed with ammonia as the refrigerant and water as the absorbent.

44
Problem 5.4 The cooling load for a computer room near to a geothermal power plant is
12,000 Btu/h. The room temperature should be kept constant at 220C. If the well
temperature is 800 , calculate the COP of the system for 40% LiBr and 60% LiBr for the
rich and the poor solutions, respectively.

The high pressure in the system is 7 kPa. The mass flow rate of the rich solution to the
mass flow rate of the pure refrigerant is 10.

Fig. for Problem 5.4 Enthalpy versus concentration for LiBr-water solution.

45
5.3.1 Use of geothermal energy in district heating in Turkey
District heating in Turkey started in 1987 heating 1500 households [22]. Later the system was
expanded to 2500 subscribers. As seen in Table5.5, by 2007, Turkey had 20 district heating
systems working with geothermal energy. Of these district heating systems, one in Saraykoy is
heated by the waste heat coming from bottoming binary power plant in Kızıldere. Table 5.5
shows that low temperature geothermal resources are mostly used in district heating with the
exception of Balçova and Simav, which have medium grade resources that could also have been
used for power generation purpose. About 6 million square meter space are heated by district
heating with a capacity of 395 MWt.

According to Serpen et al. [22], district heating projects has been stalled in Turkey for the
following reasons: (1) no geothermal resource close to towns available anymore, (2) hard
competition from natural gas industry despite high natural gas costs, (3) disappointments with
geothermal district heating systems because of lack of heat supply in some of them and (4)
weak economics of such projects due to high heating costs.

46
Table 5.5 Turkey’s district heating systems [22].

47
6. Wind Energy and Wind Energy Conversion Systems
Wind power has obvious benefits in that it causes no air or water pollution, its small size and
quick installation reduces the risks from market uncertainty, and its rapidly declining cost has
been the great success story of renewable energy. It has exhibited the most rapid growth among
all renewable energy sources (Fig. 6.1).

8.0
7.0
6.0
percentage, %

biomass
5.0
solar
4.0
geothermal
3.0
wind
2.0
1.0
0.0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
year

Fig. 6.1 Contribution of non-hydroelectric renewables to the world’s total electric


generation from the renewables (compiled from [14]).

The contribution of the non-hydroelectric sources to the total(renewable + fossil based) electric generation is
illustrated in Fig. 6.2.

1.4
1.2
percentage, %

1.0 biomass
0.8 solar
0.6 geothermal
0.4 wind
0.2
0.0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
year

Fig. 6.2 Contribution of non-hydroelectric renewables to the world’s total (renewable +


fossil based) electric generation (compiled from [14]).

48
The growing trend is valid for also Turkey, as well as US and European countries (Fig. 6.3).

3.0
2.5

percentage, %
2.0 US
1.5 Europe
1.0 Turkey

0.5
0.0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
year

Fig. 6.3 Contribution of wind energy to the total (renewable + fossil based) electric generation
for US, Europe and Turkey (compiled from [14]).

Electricity produced from the wind produces no CO2 emissions and therefore does not contribute
to the greenhouse effect. Wind energy is relatively labour intensive and thus creates many jobs. In
remote areas or areas with a weak grid, wind energy can be used for charging batteries or can be
combined with a diesel engine to save fuel whenever wind is available. Moreover, wind turbines
can be used for the desalination of water in coastal areas with little fresh water, for instance the
Middle East.

At windy sites the price of electricity, measured in $/kWh, is competitive with the production price
from more conventional methods, for example coal fired power plants.

One of the drawbacks of wind energy is that wind turbines create a certain amount of noise when
they produce electricity. In modern wind turbines, manufacturers have managed to reduce almost
all mechanical noise and are now working on reducing aerodynamic noise from the rotating blades.

Another disadvantage is that wind energy can only be produced when nature supplies sufficient
wind. However, for most countries, which are connected to big grids and can therefore buy
electricity from the grid in the absence of wind.

49
6.1 Types of Wind Turbines
There are various classifications of WTs (Wind Turbines). The classification depending on the
amount of the generated power is as follows:

small (< 25 kW)

medium (25-100 kW),

large (100-1000 kW)

very large (>1000 kW)

Wind turbines are classified also depending on their rotation direction (Fig. 6.4):

-Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT)

-Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT)

HAWTs have their axis of rotation horizontal to the ground and almost parallel to the wind
stream. Most of the commercial wind turbines fall under this category but HAWTs should have
a yaw control mechanism to keep them pointed into wind where the VAWTs do not need such a
mechanism. Depending on the number of blades, horizontal axis wind turbines are further
classified as single bladed, two bladed, three bladed and multi bladed

Fig. 6.4 HAWT on the left (three bladed) and VAWT (Darrieus) on the right.

50
6.1.1 Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs)
HAWTs have low cut-in wind speed values and they can easily be furled. ( Cut-in velocity is
the wind velocity value at which the wind turbine starts to produce power.) In general, they
show relatively high power coefficient (See below). However, the generator and gearbox of
these turbines are to be placed over the tower which makes its design more complex and
expensive.

Most of the present commercial turbines used for electricity generation have three blades
because they are more stable as the aerodynamic loading will be relatively uniform. Machines
with more blades (6, 8, 12, 18 or even more) are also available.

The ratio between the actual blade area to the swept area of a rotor is termed as the solidity.
Hence, multi-bladed rotors are also called high solidity rotors. These rotors can start easily as
more rotor area interacts with the wind initially. Some low solidity designs may require external
starting.

Consider two rotors, both of the same diameter, but different in number of blades; say one with
3 blades and the other with 12 blades. Which will produce more power at the same wind
velocity? As the rotor swept area and velocity are the same, theoretically both the rotors should
produce the same power. However aerodynamic losses are more for the rotor with more number
of blades. Hence, for the same rotor size and wind velocity, we can expect more power from the
three bladed rotor.

Some applications , on the other hand, like water pumping require high starting torque. For such
systems, the torque required for starting goes up to 3-4 times the running torque. Starting torque
increases with the solidity. Hence to develop high starting torque, water pumping wind mills are
made with multi bladed rotors.

Based on the direction of receiving the wind, the two and three bladed HAWTs can be also
classified as upwind and down wind turbines as shown in Fig. 6.5.

51
Fig. 6.5 Upwind and downwind turbines.

For the upwind turbines, which are the most common, as the wind stream passes the rotor first,
they do not have the problem of tower shadow. However, yaw mechanism is essential for such
designs to keep the rotor always facing the wind. For the downwind rotors, as the rotors are
placed at the lee side of the tower, there may be uneven loading on the blades as it passes
through the shadow of the tower. On the other hand, downwind machines are more flexible and
may not require a yaw mechanism.

6.1.2 Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs)


VAWTs are classified as drag and lift lift devices based on their operating principles.

Darrieus turbine illustrated on the right in Fig. 6.4 is a lift turbine, since the shaft torque results
primarily from lift on the blades. Savonios turbine (Fig. 6.6), on the other hand is drag type
VAWT, since drag of the wind on the cups generates the torque on the axis.

Lift and drag are the components of the force perpendicular and parallel to the direction of the
relative wind respectively. It is easy to show theoretically that it is much more efficient to use
lift rather than drag when extracting power from the wind.

52
Fig. 6.6 Savonious turbine

VAWTs can receive wind from any direction. Hence complicated yaw devices can be
eliminated.

The generator and the gearbox of such systems can be housed at the ground level, which makes
the tower design simple and more economical. Moreover the maintenance of these turbines can
be done at the ground level. The major disadvantage of some VAWT is that they are usually not
self starting. Even the most common types of VAWTs, The Darrieous and the Savonious
turbines have not been commercialized. That is why a detailed explanation of the HAWTs will
be provided in this lecture.

53
Fig. 6.7 Schematic of a HAWT and the nomenclature.

6.2 Fundamental Concepts


Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy of the air particles to the mechanical or electrical
form. .Turbine blades are the main tools to realize this conversion. The efficiency of the
conversion basically depends on the followings:

1-Meteoroligal data;

2-Topography of the site;

3-Blade profiles;

4-Number of blades;

5-Tower height.(See Fig.6.7)


54
The tower height is important since wind speed increases with height above the ground and
the rotor diameter is important since this gives the area A in the formula for the available
power. The ratio between the rotor diameter D and the hub height H is often approximately
one. The rated power is the maximum power allowed for the installed generator and the
control system must ensure that this power is not exceeded in high winds.

The rotational speed of a wind turbine rotor is approximately 20 to 50 rpm and the
rotational speed of most generator shafts is approximately 1000 to 3000 rpm. Therefore a
gearbox must be placed between the low-speed rotor shaft and the high-speed generator
shaft.

The rotor is the wind turbine component that has undergone the greatest development in
recent years. The aerofoils used on the first modern wind turbine blades were developed for
aircraft and were not optimized for the much higher angles of attack frequently employed
by a wind turbine blade. Blade manufacturers now started to use aerofoils specifically
optimized for wind turbines.

Different materials have been tried in the construction of the blades, which must be
sufficiently strong and stiff, have a high fatigue endurance limit, and be as cheap as
possible. Today most blades are built of glass fibre reinforced plastic, but other materials
such as laminated wood are also used.

The kinetic energy of a stream of air with mass m and moving with a velocity is

1
E mV 2 (6.1)
2

Consider a wind rotor of cross sectional area A exposed to this wind stream as shown in
Fig. 6.7 . The kinetic energy of the air stream available for the turbine can be expressed as

1
E  a vV 2 (6.2)
2

where ρa is the density of air and v is parcel available to the rotor.

55
The air parcel interacting with the rotor per unit time has a cross-sectional area equal to that of
the rotor (AT) and thickness equal to the wind velocity (V). Hence energy per unit time, that is
power, can be expressed as
1
P  a AT V 3 (6.3)
2

From Eq. (6.3), we can see that the factors influencing the power available in the wind stream
are the air density, area of the wind rotor and the wind velocity.

Effect of the wind velocity is more prominent owing to its cubic relationship with the power.

Power also depends on the elevation and temperature to a certain extent because density is a
function of these parameters: ρa =f(Z,T) where Z and T are elevation and temperature,
respectively.

Fig. 6.8 illustrates the dependence of the air density on temperature and elevation.

Fig. 6.8 Change of air density with respect to temperature and elavation.

It is obviously seen from Eq. (6.3) that when the wind velocity is doubled, the available power
increases by 8 times. In other words, for the same power, rotor area can be reduced by a factor
of 8, if the system is placed at a site with double the wind velocity. Hence, selecting the right
site play a major role in the success of a wind power projects.

56
6.2.1 Efficiency concept in wind energy conversion systems
Definition of efficiency for wind energy conversion systems (WECS) is different than that of
thermal conversion systems. There is no cost for WECS. The input is the kinetic energy of the
air particles which is free of charge!. However, a wind turbine cannot extract the theoretical
power (Eqn. 6.3) completely from the wind. When the wind stream passes the turbine, a part of
its kinetic energy is transferred to the rotor and the air leaving the turbine carries the rest away.

Then actual power produced by a rotor would decide by the efficiency with which this energy
transfer from wind to the rotor takes place.

This efficiency is usually termed as the power coefficient (Cp). Thus, the power coefficient
of the rotor can be defined as the ratio of actual power developed by the rotor to the
theoretical power available in the wind.

2 PT
CP 
 a AT V 3

(6.4)

where PT is the actual power developed by the turbine rotor.

The actual power or the power coefficient which is its ratio to the theoretical power depends mainly
on the profile of the rotor blades, blade arrangement and setting etc.

A designer would try to fix these parameters at its optimum level so as to attain maximum Cp at a
wide range of wind velocities.

Here, the velocity range is also important because the wind velocity is not constant.

57
6.2.2 Rotor speed-wind velocity interaction
To go into details in the correlation of the above parameters with the power coefficient, the
force balance on the rotro blades should be analyzed. The thrust, experienced by the rotor and
the torque are:

1
F  a AT V 2 (6.5)
2

1
T  a AT V 2 R (6.6)
2

Where R is the radius of the torque. (6.6) is the maximum theoretical torque. In practice the the
rotor shaft can develop only a fraction of this maximum:

2TT
CT  (6.7)
 a AT V 2 R

CT is the torque coefficient and TT is the actual torque developed by the rotor.

The profiles and the settings of the blades are effective on the efficiency of the WETC because
the power developed by a rotor at a certain wind speed greatly depends on the relative velocity
between the rotor tip and the wind.

These cases can be analysed:

i-Slow rotor – fast wind velocity

Consider a situation in which the rotor is rotating at a very low speed and the wind is
approaching the rotor with a very high velocity. Under this condition, as the blades are moving
slow, a portion of the air stream approaching the rotor may pass through it without interacting
with the blades and thus without energy transfer.

ii-Fast rotor-slow wind

Similarly if the rotor is rotating fast and the wind velocity is low, the wind stream may be deflected
from the turbine and the energy may be lost due to turbulence and vortex shedding.

In both of the above cases, the interaction between the rotor and the wind stream is not efficient
and thus would result in poor power coefficient.
58
This means that the ratio of the rotor to the wind velocity is an important factor. This ratio is called
tip speed ratio:

R 2NR
  (6.8)
V V

Where Ω is the angular velocity and N is the rotational speed of the rotor. There is an
optimum λ for a given rotor at which the energy transfer is most efficient :

2 PT 2TT 
CP   (6.9)
 a AT V 3
 a AT V 3

Combining Eqns. (6.7) and (6.8):

C P R
  (6.10)
CT V

Example 6.1

Consider a wind turbine with 5 m diameter. The rotor is rotating with 130 rpm at 10 m/s wind
velocity. CP=0.35. Calculate a)the tip-speed ratio; b) torque coefficient; c) torque available on
the rotor shaft. Assume ρ=1.24 kg/m3.

Area of the rotor is At=π52/4=19.63 m2

Angular velocity is

Tip-speed ratio is:

59
Torque coefficient is:

For this torque coefficient the torque available on the rotor shaft can be calculated:

6.2.3 The Betz limit


The conventional analysis of HAWT originates from the axial momentum concept introduced
by Rankine, which was further improved by Froudes for marine propellers. One can imagine a
circular duct to construct this theory (Fig. 6.9).

Fig. 6.9 Scheme for axial momentum theory.

Section 1 in Fig. 6.9 denotes the place where the upstream wind comes through the rotor but not
disturbed by it. After the wind velocity is reduced by the rotor , it leaves the imaginary circular
duct through Section 2 (downstream). Subscripts “T” , “U” and “D “refer to the rotor , upstream
and downstream sections, respectively.

In this theory ideal flow conditions have been assumed. In other words, the flow is assumed
to be incompressible and homogeneous. The rotor is considered to be made up of infinite
number of blades. Static pressures far in front and behind the rotor are considered to be

60
equal to the atmospheric pressure. Frictional drag over the blades and wake behind the rotor
are neglected.

VT is the velocity at the turbine section. According to the law of conservation of mass, the
mass of air flowing through these sections is equal. Thus:

 a AV   a AT VT   a A'V ' (6.11)

The thrust force experienced by the rotor is due to the difference in momentum of the
incoming and outgoing wind, which is given by

F   a AV 2   a A'V ' 2 (6.12)

Assuming that the density of the air remains constant

F   a AT VT (V  V ' ) (6.13)

The thrust can also be represented as the pressure difference in the upstream and downstream
sides of the rotor:

F  ( pU  p D ) AT (6.14)

Applying the Bernoulli Eqn.

 aV 2  aVT2
p  pU  (6.15a)
2 2

 aV ' 2  aVT2
p  pD  (6.15b)
2 2

From equations (6.15a) and (6.15b)

 a (V 2  V ' 2 )
pU  p D  (6.16)
2

Substituting the above equation in Eqn. (6.14) results in

 a AT (V 2  V ' 2 )
F (6.17)
2

61
Comparing Eqns. (6.13) and (6.14),

(V  V ' )
VT  (6.18)
2

is obtained which means that the velocity of the wind stream at the rotor section is the average
of the velocities at its upstream and downstream sides. Here, also another factor is obtained,
indicating the degree with which the wind velocity at the upstream of the rotor is slowed down
by the turbine:

(V  VT )
a (6.19)
V

The factor given in Eqn. (6.19) is called “axial induction factor”.

From Eqns. (6.18) and (6.19)

VT  V (1  a) (6.20)

and

V '  V (1  2a) (6.21)

As it is discussed earlier, the power imparted to the wind turbine is due to the transfer of kinetic
energy from the air to the rotor. The mass flow through the rotor over a unit time is

m  AT VT (6.22)

Hence, the power developed is:

1
PT   a AT VT (V 2  V '2 ) (6.23)
2

Substituting the the relationship between the rotor velocity and the downstream velocity,

1
PT   a AT V 3 4a(1  a ) 2 (6.24)
2

Thus, the power coefficient can be written in terms of induction factor:


62
C P  4a(1  a) 2 (6.25)

To search for the value of the induction factor generating the maximum power,

dC P
0 (6.26)
da

is applied and

1 16
PTMAX   a AT V 3 (6.27)
2 27

is obtained.

Thus; the maximum theoretical power coefficient of a horizontal axis wind turbine is 16/27,
known as the Betz limit.

Example 6.2 [15]

A 12 m/s wind at 96 kPa and a temperature of 210C enters a two bladed wind turbine with a
diameter of 12 m. Calculate a) the power of incoming wind. b) the theoretical maximum power
that could be extracted. c) a reasonable value for attainable power. D) the rotor speed in RPM,
required for part c) and the torque for part c).

6.2.4 Performance of the wind turbines


The performance of a wind rotor is usually characterized by the variations in its power
coefficient with the tip speed ratio (Fig. 6.10). As both these parameters are dimensionless, the
cp-λ curve (Fig. 6.10) will represent the rotor performance irrespective of the rotor size and site
parameters.

63
λ (tip speed ratio)

Fig. 6.10 Power coefficient versus tip speed ratio for different wind turbine configurations.

6.3 Drag and Lift Machines


Items exposed to the wind are subjected to forces in both the drag direction (parallel to
the air flow) and the lift direction (perpendicular to the air flow).
The old Dutch windmills utilized lift as well as drag. Lift devices evolved with a small
number of blades.
The high-lift, low-drag shapes, referred to as airfoils, that were developed for airplane
wings and propellers in the early part of the twentieth century were quickly incorporated
into wind machines to produce the first modern wind machines, usually known as wind
turbines.
Wind turbines use the lift generated by the blades to produce power.
Fig. 6.11 illustrates the flow field about a moving drag device [23]. The drag results
from the relative velocity between the wind and the device, and the power that is

64
generated by the device (the product of the drag force and the translation or blade
velocity) may be expressed as

(6.28)

where P is the power extracted from the wind,


D is the drag force per unit length in the span direction (into the page),
l is the length of device in the span direction (into the page),
v is the blade velocity,
ρ is the air density,
V is the steady free-stream wind velocity.
c is the device width (perpendicular to the wind, in the plane of the page).
CD is the drag coefficient:

The blade velocity of the device must always be less than the wind velocity or no drag
is generated and no power is produced.
The power extraction efficiency of the device may be expressed as:
the ratio of the power extracted by the device to the power available in the wind
passing through the area occupied by the device (the projected area of the device),
known as the power coefficient, Cp.

Fig. 6.11 Definition of drag

65
The power available is

(6.29)

as it is decribed previously, in Eq. (6.3).

Thus; cP for a drag machine is

(6.30)

Fig. 6.12 illustrates a lift machine. It depicts an airfoil that is moving at some angle relative to
the wind and is subject to both lift and drag forces. The relative wind across the airfoil is the
vector sum of the wind velocity, V, and the blade velocity, v.

The angle between the direction of the relative wind and the airfoil chord (the straight line
from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the airfoil) is termed the angle of attack, .

The power extracted by this device may be expressed as

(6.31)

where c is the chord length, and CL is the lift coefficient.

66
Fig. 6.12 Schematic of lift induced airfoil.

As the angle of attack appearing in Fig. 6.12 increases beyond a certain value, the lift levels off and
then drops slightly and the drag begins to rise rapidly (Fig. 6.13). This is due to separation of the
flow from the upper surface of the airfoil, a flow condition referred to as stall.

67
Fig. 6.13 Profile and performance characteristics of S-809 airfoil [23].

68
Lift-type machines tend to have only a few blades, while drag-type machines tend to have
many blades. Thus, the difference in the turbine performance coefficient (now based on the
rotor frontal area rather than the blade frontal area) of actual wind machines is much less than
might be expected from the analysis presented above.
A well-designed lift-type machine may achieve a peak power coefficient (based on the area
covered by the rotating turbine blades) of 0.5–0.59, while a pure drag-type machine may
achieve a peak power coefficient of no more than 0.2. Some of the multi bladed drag-type
windmills actually utilize a blade shape that creates some lift, and they may achieve power
coefficients of 0.3 or slightly higher.
The drag machines rotate slowly and produce high torque, whereas the lift machines rotate
quickly and produce low torque. The slow-rotating, high-torque drag machines are very well
suited for mechanical power applications such as milling grain and pumping water.
On the other hand, extensive experience has shown that fast-rotating, lift-type machines are
much easier to adapt to electrical generators and can produce electricity at a significantly lower
cost of energy than drag-type machines.

6.4 Regulation
All turbines incorporate some method of regulating or limiting the peak power produced. The
entire turbine, including the rotor, the transmission and the generator, must be sized to handle the
loads associated with peak power production.
While high winds (above, for example, 25 m/s) contain large amounts of available power,
they do not occur very often, and the power that can be captured is very small. This is
illustrated in Fig. 6.14. In this figure, the power density is the power per unit of rotor area that is
available for capture by a wind turbine. This takes into account the amount of time that the wind
actually blows at each wind speed (the probability density that is also shown on the figure).

69
Fig. 6.14 An example of windspeed and windpower probability densities [23]

Generators and transmissions operate most efficiently at their design conditions, typically close to
their maximum capacity. These efficiencies drop off quickly at conditions below design. Cost trade-
off studies reveal that it is far more cost effective to limit the maximum power level to that achieved
at, for instance, 13–14 m/s and to shut the turbine down completely at a cutout wind speed of, for
example, 26 m/s, as illustrated in Fig.6.15, than to try to capture the maximum amount of power at
the higher wind speeds. Under these conditions, the transmission and generator are operating near
design conditions for a significant portion of the time, and the turbine can be built with far less
material than would be required for a turbine that generates peak power at 25 m/s.
The additional energy captured due to the increase in generator and transmission efficiencies at the
lower wind speeds is usually many times greater than that lost due to limiting the peak power at the
rather infrequent winds above 14 m/s (refer to the wind speed distribution in Fig. 6.14.)
Nearly all modern large horizontal-axis turbines now use blade pitch control, where either the entire
blade or a portion of it is rotated about the longitudinal axis to change the angle of attack and,
therefore, the power output of the turbine, to limit peak power.

70
Fig. 6.15 Sample power curves for stall-regulated and pitch-regulated wind
turbines.

If we re-draw Fig. 6.12 to illustrate the velocity components, we may define the local
pitch angle, θ, as the angle between the direction of the airfoil chord and the rotor plane.
In fact, the local pitch, , is a combination of the pitch angle, p, and the twist of the
blade,β, as

 = p + β (6.32)

where the pitch angle is the angle between the tip chord and the rotor plane and the
twist is measured relative to the tip chord. In Fig. 6.16, the free stream velocity is
substituted by the wind speed at the rotor plane (Eq. 6.20) and the blade speed is
extended to the value due to the radial induction factor, a’.

71
Fig. 6.16 Velocities at the rotor plane.

Some turbines are designed with fixed-pitch blades, and rely on airfoil stall at high winds to
limit the maximum power output of the machine.
A stall regulated wind turbine is normally operated at an almost constant rotational speed (N)
which means

Ωr(1+a’)=constant

and thus the angle of attack increases as the wind speed at the rotor plane, V(1+a) increases
(Fig. 6.16). As the local angles of attack are increased, the blades stall, causing the lift
coefficient to decrease and the drag coefficient to increase, as we have discussed, previously
(Fig. 6.19).

Table 6.1 What happens when the wind velocity increases (or flow angle in Fig.6.16
increases) to a value exceeding the nominal power?

Pitch regulation Stall regulation


Twist angle, β Adjusted (Eqn. 6.32) constant
Pitch angle (angle between Increased (Eqn. 32) constant
the tip chord direction and
rotor plane) Fig. 6.16
Angle of attack,  Kept constant or adjusted increases
(Fig. 6.16)
Lift and drag coefficients, CL Obtained due to  (Fig. 6.13) CL decreases, CD increases.
and CD
cp Obtained due to CL and CD Goes to zero
and wind velocity (Eqn.
6.31)
Power Achieved to be constant. NO POWER!

72
Example 6.3
Design the rotor for an aero generator to develop 100 W at a wind speed of 7 m/s.
CP = 0.4; CL = 0.8; angle of attack = 40; number of blades = 3; rotational speed = 500 rpm.
Radial induction factor, a’=0.

Find:

a) Rotor diameter,

b) Local pitch angle at r/R = 0.2; r/R = 0.4; r/R = 0.6; r/R = 0.8; r/R = 1.0

6.5 Analysis of Wind Regimes

The earth receives around 1.7x1014 kW of power from the sun in the form of solar radiation.
This radiation heats up the atmospheric air. The intensity of this heating will be more at the
equator (0o latitude) as the sun is directly overhead. Air around the poles gets less warm, as
the angle at which the radiation reaches the surface is more acute. The density of air
decreases with increase in temperature. Thus, lighter air from the equator rises up into the
atmosphere to a certain altitude and then spreads around. This causes a pressure drop around
this region, which attracts the cooler air from the poles to the equator. This movement of air
causes the wind.

Thus, the wind is generated due to the pressure gradient resulting from the uneven heating
of earth’s surface by the sun. As the very driving force causing this movement is derived
from the sun, wind energy is basically an indirect form of solar energy. One to two per cent
of the total solar radiation reaching the earth’s surface is converted to wind energy in this
way.

The wind velocity is not the same everywhere, on the world. Changes in velocity and
direction of wind near the surface, say up to 100 m above the ground, is more important as
far as energy conversion is concerned. In this region, the wind pattern is further influenced
by several local factors.

The wind power density is the available average wind power per m 2of wind turbine area.

73
The wind power density is measured from class 1(lowest) to class 7 (highest) and is
specified at nominal 10 m and 50 m elevations (Table 6.2)

Table 6.2 Wind power density classes [15].

Statistics of the wind speed


The probability of occurrence of a given wind speed is expressed by the Weibull distribution,

k v k 1  v 
h(v, k , c)  ( ) exp  ( ) k  (6.33)
c c  c 

Here, c is the scale parameter and k is the shape parameter.

The shape parameter controls the shape of the distribution. The larger the shape
parameter, the closer the distribution comes to Gaussian.

The scale parameter controls the value of the mode (the most probable speed). The larger
the scale parameter, the higher the mode, and the lower the probability of the given speed
less than the mode.

The shape parameter is dimensionless. The scale parameter is in the same dimensions with the
speed. For wind analysis, the shape parameter value is usually 2 [15]. k = 2 usually provides an
acceptable match for most of the cites (Fig. 6.18).

74
Fig. 6.18 Weibull distribution for c=10mph and varios k values.

The smaller the value of the scale parameters, the more hours at lower wind speeds. As
the value of the c increases, the mode wind speed values increase, and the number of
hours per year at wind sped higher than the mode increases (Fig. 6.19).

75
Fig. 6.19 Weibull distribution for k = 2 and varios c values.

The mode speed represents the most probable speed.


Vmean   h(v, k , c).v.dv (6.34)
0

Since, the wind power is proportional to the cube of the wind speed, the average power density
available for collection per unit of swept area is

 1
Poweravailable   . .h(v, k , c).v 3 .dv (6.35)
0 2

Thus, the speed of interest for wind energy is the root-mean-cube-speed


Vrmc  3 0
h(v, k , c).v 3 .dv (6.36)

and the average annual power density becomes

76
1
Poweravailable  Vrmc
3
(6.37)
2
A reasonable power coefficient value for a modern, well designed turbine (See Fig. 6.10) is 0.5.
The annual average extraction power density can be cast as

1
Powerext .  Vrmc
3
(6.38)
4
The total energy that can be extracted per year for a given distribution is the integral of (6.38)
for each velocity over all possible velocities.

Example 6. 7 [15]

6.6 Operation of the Wind Turbines

Operation at the maximum cp would maximize the energy extracted from the wind but there are
factors limiting this ideal case such as generator capacity. The maximum speed range will occur
for only a few hours for a given speed distribution. Sizing a generator for an input
corresponding to the maximum speed range would result in an oversize generator that would
operate at maximum output only a few hours within a year. The tip-speed ratio would have to be
maintained constant, in case of providing maximum cp. As the wind speed increased, the rotor
rotation rate would have to increase to maintain a constant cp. However, the radial stresses are
proportional to the rotational speed. Thus, operating at high speeds with constant tip-speed ratio
would require a robust wind turbine.

The ultimate purpose of a wind turbine control strategy is to regulate the power output of the
turbine a s function of wind speed and direction.

77
The major factors affecting the power produced by a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS)
are

(a) the strength of the wind spectra prevailing at the site and its availability to the turbine

(b) the aerodynamic efficiency of the rotor in converting the power available in the wind to
mechanical shaft power and

(c) the efficiencies in manipulating, transmitting and transforming this power into the desired
form.

Fig. 6. 20 shows the typical regimes of a turbine speed control.

Fig. 6.20 Typical regimes of a turbine speed control.

Example 6.8 [15]


The system described in the previous example is specified to have cut-in speed of 5m/s, a cut-
out speed of35 m/s, and a rated generator input of7.5 kW/m2. The maximum power coefficient
cp is 0.5. Determine and plot the following for both the system with no controls and and the
system controlled to meet the constraints: a) The power density of the system, b) the c p versus
wind speed required, c) the energy extraction, d) the total extracted by the system.

78
Capacity factor is one of the important indices for assessing the field performance of a wind
turbine. It is the ratio of the energy actually produced by the system to the energy that could
have been produced by it, if the machine would have operated at its rated power throughout the
time period:

ET
CF  (6.39)
PRATED T

The capacity factor for a reasonable efficient turbine at a potential site may range from 0.25 to
0.4.

A capacity factor 0.4 and higher means that system is very efficient.

6.7 Commercial Wind Energy Conversion Systems


Up to now a single wind turbine have been analyzed. On the other hand, wind turbine farms are
becoming common. For wind turbines employed in arrays, the recommended space is 2-4 rotor
diameters facing the prevailing wind and 8-12 diameters parallel to the wind. For more than a
single row of wind turbines in an array , the turbine locations in the succeeding rows are
staggered [15]. Fig. 6.21 shows a schematic of the recommended spacing of wind turbines on
wind farms.

79
Fig. 6.21 Wind turbine arrangement for wind farms [15].

Three examples of commercial wind turbines used in these farms, or can be provided for single
applications are given below.
GE 1.5 MW

GE Energy manufactures large wind turbines with nominal outputs of 1.5 MW, 2.5 MW, 3
MW and 3.6 MW. The technical information for the 1.5 MW family is given in Table 6.2.
The power curve of the turbine is illustrated in Fig. 6.22.

Table 6.3 GE Power 1.5 MW specifications [15].

80
Fig. 6.22 Power vs wind speed for GE 1.5 MW.

The Vestas V52 850 kW

It is a popular wind turbine worldwide. The specifications is given in Table 6.3.

Table 6.3 The Vestas V52 850 kW specifications.

The power curve for this turbine is illustrated in Fig. 6.23 with the sound levels.

81
Fig. 6.23 The power vs wind speed for VestasV52 850 kW.

Bergey 10 kW-Excel

This is a small turbine for residential and small commercial needs. The specifications, and
power curve for this turbine are given in Table 6.4 and Fig. 6.24, respectively.

Table 6.4 Specifications for Bergey 10 kW-Excel

82
Fig. 6.24 Power curve for Bergey 10 kW Excel.

83
7. Biomass Conversion Processes

Transformation of waste materials into energy can generally be accomplished through


i-) biological, ii-) thermal, and iii-) chemical processes.

7.1 Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Digestion


The anaerobic digestion process, carried out in the absence of oxygen, involves the use of
microorganisms for the conversion of biodegradable biomass material into energy, in the form
of methane gas and a stable humus material. Anaerobic digestion can occur under control
conditions in specially designed vessels (reactors), semi-control conditions such as in a landfill,
or under uncontrolled conditions as it does in the environment.

7.1.1 Organic Wastes and Biomass Used as Feedstocks in Anaerobic

Digestion Process

The general scheme for a controlled anaerobic digestion process is shown in Fig. 7.1. The
recovery of energy involves
I-feedstock preparation,
ii-methane gas generation,
iii-stabilization of digested solids, and
iv-the utilization of digester gas and humus as a source of energy and soil amendment,
respectively.

Major sources of waste materials considered as a feedstock for anaerobic digestion process
are (1) municipal solid waste (MSW), (2) agricultural animal waste, (3) crop residues, biomass,
and energy crops, and (4) wastewater treatment plant sludge (WWTPS).

The typical composition of MSWin the U.S. is shown in Fig. 7.2. The corresponding diagram
for Turkey is illustrated in Fig.7.3. The composition of MSW may vary greatly by season,
geographical area, and community socio-economic level(Fig. 7.3 is for Istanbul). The
extrapolation of results from one location to another, therefore, may not be valid and should be
done with caution. As shown in Fig. 7.2 , paper, yard waste, and food waste are the principal
biodegradable organic fractions (The corresponding value for Turkey is 49% , excluding other
non-combustibles of 20%). The biodegradability of these waste materials varies substantially as
reported in Table 7.1.

84
Fig. 7.1 General flow diagram of bioenergy recovery system [23].

Fig. 7.2 A typical MSW composition in the U.S [23].

85
Fig. 7.3 A typical MSW composition in Turkey. Compiled from [24].

Table 7.1 Biodegradabality of waste compounds in US [23].

Factors such as particle size, time, and environmental conditions (i.e., temperature, nutrient
requirements, etc.) will influence the final outcome of biodegradation. Characterization of a
typical organic substrate is given in Fig. 7.4.

The fraction of ash typically depends on the nature of the organic substrate. Volatile solids (VS)
is measured as loss on ignition. Only the biodegradable volatile solids (BVS) fraction of the VS
has the potential for bioconversion largely, because of the presence of refractory volatile solids
(RVS) which, in most digester feedstocks, is mostly lignin. Lignin is a complex organic
material which is difficult for anaerobic bacteria to degrade and normally requires a long period
of time for complete degradation. It is clear from Fig. 7.4 that organic substrates with high RVS
and ash contents have a low biodegradability.

The most common method to estimate biodegradability is the measurement of lignin content.

86
Fig. 7.4 Characterization of a typical organic substrate.

It is an analytical method commonly used for determining the BVS fraction of an organic
substrate and is based on the measurement of the crude lignin content of the VS.
The following empirical relationship was developed to estimate the biodegradable
fraction of an organic substrate from lignin test results:

Biodegradable fraction (BOF) = 0.83–0.028 X LC (7.1)

where LC is the lignin content, as a percentage of the VS.

Example 7.1 Estimate the total BVS weight (mass) of a 100 tn./d MSW material recovery
facility.

Use the following information:


1. Assume that the composition of a typical MSW waste stream given in Fig. 7.2 is valid:
2. Typical characteristics of MSW sub-fractions:

87
Solution:
According to Fig. 7.2

Dry weight has been calculated from TS percentage.

Again from Fig. 7.2:

where BF has been calculated from Eq. (7.1).

7.1.2 Fundamentals of Anaerobic Digestion


The general anaerobic transformation of the biodegradable organic fraction of MSW can be
described by the following equation:

(7.2)
(For a proper bacterial metabolism, a variety of nutrients must be present in the substrate.)

For practical purposes, the overall conversion of the organic fraction of solid waste to methane,
carbon dioxide, and ammonia can be represented by the following equation:

(7.3)

88
Where s=a-nw-m; r=c-ny-2s

The terms CaHbOcNd and CwHxOyNz are used to represent (on a molar basis) the composition of
the organic material present at the start and the end of the process, respectively. If it is assumed
that the organic wastes are stabilized completely, then the corresponding expression is

(7.4)

Example 7.2 Estimate the total theoretical amount of gas that could be produced from MSW
under anaerobic conditions. Assume that 78% by weight of the MSW is organic material,
including moisture. Further assume that the moisture content is 20%, the VS are 83.5% of
the total organic solids, the BVS are 75% of the VS, and only 90% of the biodegradable VSwill
be converted to biogas. The overall chemical formula for the biodegradable organic material is
C60H95O38N.
Solution:

From Eqn.(7.4) with the given formula:

Assuming the densities of methane and carbon dioxide, 0.0448 and 0.1235 lb/ft3 respectively;

89
7.1.3 Reactor Types

Fig. 7.5 shows various reactor types used in anaerobic digestion.

Fig. 7.5 Typical reactor types used for anaerobic digestion: (a) batch reactor, (b)
complete-mix continuous flow reactor, (c) anaerobic contact reactor, (d) vertical plug-flow
reactor, (e) horizontal plug-flow reactor, and (f) attached growth reactor.

90
Batch Reactor
A batch reactor is fed once, and then the biotransformation is allowed to proceed until
completion before any material is added or removed. Batch processes are necessary when the
biotransformation being performed requires a long reaction time. Solids which are treated
undiluted are often treated with batch reactors.

Complete-Mix Continuous Flow Reactor


A reactor to which a waste stream is fed and a treated effluent stream is withdrawn continuously
is known as a continuous flow reactor. Most municipal wastewater sludge treatment processes
are continuous feed processes, as municipal sludge is produced continually. The average
residence time of material in a continuous feed reactor can be determined using the following
equation:

t = V/Q (7.5)
where t is the residence time; V is the reactor volume and Q is the volumetric flow rate.

These reactors can also be described as well-mixed or as continuous stirred-tank reactors


(CSTRs).

Anaerobic Contact Reactor


The anaerobic contact process (ACP) is used to overcome the disadvantages of the complete-
mix reactor without recycle. To enhance the rate of treatment, biomass is separated from the
effluent and returned to the reactor. Biomass recycle can be used to reduce the reactor size and
cost.

Plug-Flow Reactor
All plug-flow reactors are continuously or semi-continuously fed. In a plug-flow reactor,
material passes through, ideally, without interacting with the material fed in before or after it.
The reactor can be either vertical or horizontal flow.

Anaerobic Attached Growth Reactor


Anaerobic attached growth reactors are used to prevent the depletion of the bacterial population
within the reactor and, thus, improve digester efficiency.

Reactors with Recycle Flow


Often it is advantageous to recycle and mix effluent from an anaerobic reactor (digestate) with
the inflowing waste stream (see Figure 7.5c, d, and e). Recycling is especially advantageous
when it is necessary to inoculate the incoming waste with bacteria that have acclimated to the
system. Recycling systems, however, add costs, both capital and operational, to a system.
Hence, unless it is necessary, the use of a simpler, unrecycled system is typically favored.

7.1.4 Utilization of By-Products from In-Vessel Anaerobic Digestion Process

The gas produced during anaerobic digestion of biodegradable organic material in a healthy
fermentation system, called biogas, consists mainly of a mixture of methane (CH4) and carbon
dioxide (CO2) with small amounts of other gases, including hydrogen sulfide (H 2S), hydrogen
(H2), nitrogen (N2), and low molecular weight hydrocarbons.

91
Typically, digester gas has 50%–75% methane and 25%–50% carbon dioxide; the remaining
gases are present in very small quantities. The composition of biogas, as obtained from various
sources, is reported in Table 7.2.

Because biogas normally consists of a mixture of gases, biogas characteristics must be


evaluated for each individual case. However, in many cases, the physical characteristics of the
three main gas constituents, namely methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide, can be used
to characterize biogas. Some physical and chemical characteristics of the principal gases found
in biogas are presented in Table 7.3.

As a comparison, the weight of methane is roughly half that of air at 200C (weight ratio=1 m3
of methane/1 m3 of air=0.716 kg/1.293 kg=0.554). Methane gas is not very soluble in water.
Only three units of methane (by volume) can be dissolved in 100 units of water at 200C and 1
atmosphere pressure. Methane is a very stable hydrocarbon compound and upon complete
combustion it produces a blue flame and a large amount of heat. The complete combustion of 1
m3 of methane can release 38 MJ or about 9500 kcal. In comparison, a complete combustion of
biogas yields a caloric value of about 20–26 MJ/m3 (depending on the methane content), which
represents a low fuel value compared with methane gas alone. In addition, biogas requires a
pressure of about 34,450 kPa to liquefy it for storage. Therefore, biogas requires a larger storage
volume for a given amount of energy than other fossil fuels.

Table 7.2 A typical composition of biogas produced from BOF/MSW

92
Table 7.3 Physical characteristics of biogas

Table 7.4 lists some examples of the use of 1 m3 of biogas, at 60%–70% methane content, for
common energy-consuming purposes.

Table 7.4 Equivalent uses of biogas [23]

The physical characteristics of the humus produced from an anaerobic composting using the
sorted biodegradable organic fraction of MSW are presented in Table 7.5. The most effective
use of the humus material is as a soil amendment. Alternatively, because the humus is
combustible, it appears that it can be fired directly in a boiler, when mixed with other fuels, or
palletized for use as a fuel source.

93
Table 7.5 Physical characteristics of humus produced from BOF/MSW by the anaerobic
composting process [23]

7.2 Power Generation


Although biomass encompasses many kinds of organic matter, fibrous plant material can be
characterized as solid, carbonaceous fuel of high volatile content and heating value of about
18 MJ/kg. Either direct combustion or thermal gasification can be used to transform this
chemical energy into electric power. Direct combustion releases heat that can be used in Stirling
engines or Rankine steam power cycles. Thermal gasification yields flammable gases suitable
for firing in internal combustion engines, gas turbines, or fuel cells.

7.2.1 Direct Combustion

Combustion is the rapid oxidation of fuel to obtain energy in the form of heat. Since biomass
fuels are primarily composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, the main oxidation products are
carbon dioxide and water although fuel-bound nitrogen can be a source of significant nitrogen
oxide emissions.
Depending on the heating value and moisture content of the fuel, the amount of air used to burn
the fuel, and the construction of the furnace, flame temperatures can exceed 1650 0C.
Solid fuel combustion consists of four steps, which are illustrated in Fig. 7.9: heating and
drying, pyrolysis, flaming combustion, and char combustion. Heating and drying of the fuel
particle is normally not accompanied by chemical reaction. Water is driven from the fuel
particle as the thermal front advances into the interior of the particle. As long as water remains,
the temperature of the particle does not raise high enough to initiate pyrolysis, which is the
second step in solid fuel combustion.
Pyrolysis is a complicated series of thermally driven chemical reactions that decompose organic
compounds in the fuel.
Oxidation of the volatile gases above the solid fuel results in flaming combustion. The
ultimate products of volatile combustion are CO2 and H2O although a variety of intermediate
chemical compounds can exist in the flame, including CO, condensable organic compounds,
and long chains of carbon known as soot. Combustion intermediates will be consumed in the
flame if sufficient temperature, turbulence, and time are allowed. High combustion temperature
94
assures that chemical reactions will proceed at high rates. The next step in combustion of solid
fuels is solid–gas reactions of char, also known as glowing combustion, familiar as red-hot
embers in a fire.

Fig. 7.9 Processes of solid fuel combustion.

7.2.3 Thermal Gasification


Gasification is the high temperature (7500C–8500C) conversion of solid, carbonaceous fuels into
flammable gas mixtures, sometimes known as producer gas, consisting of carbon monoxide
(CO), hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), nitrogen (N2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and smaller
quantities of higher hydrocarbons. The overall process is endothermic and requires either the
simultaneous burning of part of the fuel or the delivery of an external source of heat to drive the
process.

The high volatile content of biomass (70–90 wt%) compared with coal (typically 30–40 wt%)
and the high reactivity of its char make biomass an ideal gasification fuel.

Not only can producer gas be used for generation of heat and power, it can serve as feedstock
for production of liquid fuels and chemicals. Because of this flexibility of application,
gasification has been proposed as the basis for “energy refineries” that would provide a variety
of energy and chemical products, including electricity and transportation fuels.

Solid–gas reactions in gasification convert solid carbon into gaseous CO, H2, and CH4 :

95
The first of these reactions, known as the carbon–oxygen reaction, is strongly exothermic and
is important in supplying the energy requirements for drying, pyrolysis, and endothermic solid–
gas reactions. The hydrogenation reaction also contributes to the energy requirements of the
gasifier, although significantly more char reacts with oxygen than hydrogen in the typical air-
blown gasifier. The fourth step of gasification is gas-phase reactions, which determine the final
mix of gaseous products:

Gasifiers are generally classified according to the method of contacting fuel and gas. The four
classes of gasifiers are updraft (countercurrent), downdraft (concurrent), fluidized bed, and
entrained flow. These are illustrated in Fig. 7.9.
.

Fig. 7.9 Types of biomass gasifiers: (a) updraft, (b) downdraft, (c) fluidized bed, (d)
entrained flow.

8. Fuel Cells
See the Chapter 10 of Hodge BK, Alternative Energy Systems and Applications, John Wiley and Sons,
2010. [15] You may find some parts of the chapter in the Addendum of these lecture notes..

96
9. Solar Energy

9.1 Solar Collectors


A solar thermal collector is a heat exchanger that converts radiant solar energy into heat. In
essence, this consists of a receiver that absorbs the solar radiation and then transfers the thermal
energy to a working fluid.
The classification of solar collectors (Table 8.1) can be made according to the type of working
fluid (water, air, or oils) or the type of solar receiver used (nontracking or tracking).
Most commonly used working fluids are water (glycol being added for freeze protection) and
air. Table 9.1 identifies the relative advantages and potential disadvantages of air and liquid
collectors and associated systems. Because of the poorer heat transfer characteristics of air with
the solar absorber, the air collector may operate at a higher temperature than a liquid-filled
collector, resulting in greater thermal losses and, consequently, a lower efficiency.
The choice of the working fluid is usually dictated by the application. For example, air
collectors are suitable for space heating and convective drying applications, while liquid
collectors are the obvious choice for domestic and industrial hot-water applications. In certain
high-temperature applications, special types of oils are used that provide better
heat transfer characteristics.

Table 9.1 Advantages and disadvantages of liquid and air systems [23].

The second criterion of collector classification is according to the presence of a mechanism to


track the sun throughout the day and year in either a continuous or discreet fashion (see Table
9.2). The stationary flat-plate collectors are rigidly mounted, facing toward the equator with a
tilt angle from the horizontal roughly equal to the latitude of the location for optimal year-round
operation. The compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs) can be designed either as completely
stationary devices or as devices that need seasonal adjustments only. On the other hand, Fresnel
reflectors, paraboloids, and heliostats need two-axis tracking. Parabolic troughs have one axis
tracking either along the east–west direction or the north–south direction.

A third classification criterion is to distinguish between nonconcentrating and concentrating


collectors. The main reason for using concentrating collectors is not that more energy can be
collected but that the thermal energy is obtained at higher temperatures. This is done by
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decreasing the area from which heat losses occur (called the receiver area) with respect to the
aperture area (i.e., the area that intercepts the solar radiation). The ratio of the aperture to
receiver area is called the concentration ratio.

Table 9.2 Types of solar thermal collectors

The flat-plate collector is the most common conversion device in operation today, since it is
most economical and appropriate for delivering energy at temperatures up to about 100 0C. The
construction of flat-plate collectors is relatively simple, and many commercial models are
available.
Figure 9.1 shows the physical arrangements of the major components of a conventional flat-
plate collector with a liquid working fluid. The blackened absorber is heated by radiation
admitted via the transparent cover. Thermal losses to the surroundings from the absorber are
contained by the cover, which acts as a black body to the infrared radiation (this effect is called
the greenhouse effect), and by insulation provided under the absorber plate. Passages attached
to the absorber are filled with a circulating fluid, which extracts energy from the hot absorber.
The simplicity of the overall device makes for long service life.

98
Fig. 9.1 Cross section and isometric view of a flat plate collector.

9.1.1 Modeling of Flat Plate Collectors


The instantaneous (or hourly, because radiation data are normally available in hourly time
increments only) steady-state useful energy qC in watts delivered by a solar flat-plate collector
of surface area AC is given by

(9.1)

where F is the plate efficiency factor, which is a measure of how good the heat transfer is
between the fluid and the absorber plate; η0 is the optical efficiency, or the product of the
transmittance and absorptance of the cover and absorber of the collector; U L is the overall heat
loss coefficient of the collector, which is dependent on collector design only and is normally
expressed in W/(m2 0C); TCm is the mean fluid temperature in the collector (in 0C); and IT is the
radiation intensity on the plane of the collector (in W/m2). The + sign denotes that negative

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values are to be set to zero, which physically implies that the collector should not be operated
when qC is negative (i.e., when the collector loses more heat than it can collect).
However, because TCm is not a convenient quantity to use, it is more appropriate to express
collector performance in terms of the fluid inlet temperature to the collector (T Ci). This equation
is known as the classical Hottel–Whillier–Bliss (HWB) equation and is most widely used to
predict instantaneous collector performance:

(9.2)
where FR is called the heat removal factor and is a measure of the solar collector performance as
a heat exchanger, since it can be interpreted as the ratio of actual heat transfer to the maximum
possible heat transfer. It is related to F’ by

(9.3)
where mC is the total fluid flow rate through the collectors and cpc is the specific heat of the
fluid flowing through the collector.

Factors influencing solar collector performance are of three types: (i) constructional, that is,
related to collector design and materials used, (ii) climatic, and (iii) operational, that is, fluid
temperature, flow rate, and so on.

From an overall heat balance on the collector fluid and from Equation 9.2, the expressions for
the instantaneous collector efficiency under normal solar incidence are

(9.4)

where ηn is the optical efficiency at normal solar incidence.

The optical efficiency η0 depends on the collector configuration and varies with the angle of
incidence as well as with the relative values of diffuse and beam radiation. The incidence angle
modifier is defined as Kη=(η0/ηn). For flat-plate collectors with 1 or 2 glass covers, Kη is almost
unchanged up to incidence angles of 600, after which it abruptly drops to zero.

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Fig. 9.2 Collector efficiency curve for a double glazed flat-plate liquid collector.
(Panel area is 1.2 m x 1.25 m and insulation thickness is 10.2 cm.)

Example 9.1
From the thermal efficiency curve given in Fig. 9.2, determine the performance parameters of
the corresponding solar collector. (See the equations (9.3) and (9.4)
How would the optical efficiency be effected at a solar incidence angle of 60 0 for a flat-plate
collector with two glass covers?
where θ is the solar angle of incidence. Take b0=-0.17.

9.1.2 Other Collector Types


Evacuated tubular collectors
One method of obtaining temperatures between 100 and 200 0C is to use evacuated tubular
collectors.
The advantage in creating and being able to maintain a vacuum is that convection losses
between glazing and absorber can be eliminated. There are different possible arrangements of
configuring evacuated tubular collectors (Fig. 9.3).

101
Compound Parabolic Concentrators
The CPC collector, discovered in 1966, consists of parabolic reflectors that funnel radiation
from aperture to absorber rather than focusing it. The right and left halves belong to different
parabolas (hence the name compound) with the edges of the receiver being the foci of the
opposite parabola (Fig.9.4).

102
Fig. 9.4 Cross section of a CPC.

9.1.3 Effect of Day-to-Day Changes in Solar Insolation


To predict long-term collector performance at a specified and constant fluid inlet temperature
TCi merely by assuming average hourly values of ITand Ta would be erroneous and lead to
underestimation of collector output because of the presence of the control function, which
implies that collectors are turned on only when qC>0, that is, when radiation IT exceeds a certain
critical value IC.

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This critical radiation value is found by setting qC in Eqn. 9.2 to zero:

(9.5)

A small increment  to account for pumping power and stability of controls can also be included
if needed by modifying the equation to

(9.6)
Then Eqn. (9.2) can be rewritten in terms of IC:

(9.7)

9.2 Solar Systems


Solar thermal systems can be divided into two categories: standalone or solar supplemented.
They can be further classified by means of energy collection as active or passive, by their use as
residential or industrial. Further, they can be divided by collector type into liquid or air systems,
and by the type of storage they use into seasonal or daily systems.

Standalone systems are systems in which solar energy is the only source of energy input used
to meet the required load. Such systems are normally designed for applications where a certain
amount of tolerance is permissible concerning the load requirement.
Solar-supplemented systems, widely used for both industrial and residential purposes, are
those in which solar energy supplies part of the required heat load, the rest being met by an
auxiliary source of heat input. Due to the daily variations in incident solar radiation, the portion
of the required heat load supplied by the solar energy system may vary from day-to-day.
However, the auxiliary source is so designed that at any instant it is capable of meeting the
remainder of the required heat load.
Active systems are those systems that need electric pumps or blowers to collect solar energy. It
is evident that the amount of solar energy collected should be more than the electrical energy
used. Active systems are invariably used for industrial applications and for most domestic and
commercial applications as well.
Passive systems are those systems that collect or use solar energy without direct recourse to any
source of conventional power, such as electricity, to aid in the collection. Thus, either such
systems operate by natural thermosyphon (for example, domestic water heating systems)
between collector, storage, and load or, in the case of space heating, the architecture of the
building is such as to favor optimal use of solar energy.

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Passive heating systems contain the five basic components of all solar systems:
1. Collector: windows, walls and floors
2. Storage: walls and floors, large interior masses (often these are integrated with the collector
absorption function)
3. Distribution system: radiation, free convection, simple circulation fans
4. Controls: moveable window insulation, vents both to other inside spaces or to ambient
5. Backup system: any non-solar heating system

For direct gain (Fig 9.5), sunlight enters the heated space and is converted to heat at absorbing
surfaces. This heat is then distributed throughout the space and to the various enclosing surfaces
and room contents.

Fig. 9.5 Direct gain.

For indirect gain category systems, sunlight is absorbed and stored by a mass interposed
between the glazing and the conditioned space. The conditioned space is partially enclosed and
bounded by this thermal storage mass, so a natural thermal coupling is achieved. Examples of
the indirect approach are the thermal storage wall, the thermal storage roof, and the northerly
room of an attached sunspace.
In the thermal storage wall (Fig. 9.6), sunlight penetrates the glazing and is absorbed and
converted to heat at a wall surface interposed between the glazing and the heated space. The
wall is usually masonry (Trombe wall) or containers filled with water (water wall), although it
might contain phasechange material. The attached sunspace (Fig. 9.7) is actually a two-zone
combination of direct gain and thermal storage wall. Sunlight enters and heats a direct gain
southerly “sunspace” and also heats a mass wall separating the northerly buffered space, which
is heated indirectly. The “sunspace” is frequently used as a greenhouse, in which case, the
system is called an “attached greenhouse.” The thermal storage roof (Fig 9.8) is similar to the

105
thermal storage wall except that the interposed thermal storage mass is located on the building
roof.

Fig. 9.6 Thermal storage wall

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Fig. 9.7 Attached sunspace

Fig. 9.8 Thermal storage roof

9.3 Solar Cooling


Solar cooling using various refrigeration cycles is technically feasible and has been
demonstrated several times over past few decades. However, application of these systems has
not become popular due to the unfavorable economics. The most widely used methods applied
to solar cooling and air conditioning are vapor compression cycles, absorption-cooling cycles,
and desiccant cooling. The vapor compression refrigeration cycle is probably the most widely
used refrigeration cycle. The vapor compression refrigeration cycle requires energy input into
the compressor which may be provided as electricity from a photovoltaic system or as
mechanical energy from a solar driven heat engine.

In an absorption system, the refrigerant is evaporated or distilled from a less volatile absorbent,
the vapor is condensed in a water- or air-cooled condenser, and the resulting liquid is passed
through a pressure-reducing valve to the cooling section (evaporator) of the unit. The refrigerant

107
from the evaporator flows into the absorber, where it is reabsorbed in the stripped absorbing
liquid and pumped back to the heated generator. The heat required to evaporate the refrigerant
in the generator can be supplied directly from solar energy as shown in Fig. 9.9 (See also Fig.
5.18).

Fig. 9.9 Solar driven absorption cycle.

9.4 Solar Power Plant


Even though solar radiation is a source of high temperature and energy at origin, with a high
radiosity of 63 MW/m2, sun–earth geometrical constraints lead to a dramatic dilution of flux
and to irradiance available for terrestrial use only slightly higher than 1 kW/m2, and
consequently, supply of low temperatures to the thermal fluid. It is therefore an essential
requisite for solar thermal power plants and high-temperature solar chemistry applications to
make use of optical concentration devices that enable the thermal conversion to be carried out at
high solar flux and with relatively little heat loss. A simplified model of a concentrating solar
thermal power (CSP) plant is depicted in Fig. 9.10.

108
Fig. 9.10 Flow diagram of a typical solar thermal power plant

Solar thermal power plants with optical concentration technologies are important candidates for
providing the bulk solar electricity needed within the next few decades. Four concentrating solar
power technologies are today represented at pilot and demonstration-scale: parabolic trough
collectors (PTC), linear Fresnel reflector systems (LF), power towers or central receiver systems
(CRS), and dish/engine systems (DE (Fig. 9.11).
PTC and LF are 2D concentrating systems in which the incoming solar radiation is concentrated
onto a focal line by one-axis tracking mirrors. They are able to concentrate the solar radiation
flux 30–80 times, heating the thermal fluid up to 3930C, with power conversion unit (PCU)
sizes of 30–80 MW, and therefore, they are well suited for centralized power generation with a
Rankine steam turbine/generator cycle in dispatchable markets. CRS optics are more complex,
since the solar receiver is mounted on top of a tower and sunlight is concentrated by means of a
large paraboloid that is discretized into a field of heliostats. This 3D concentrator is therefore
off-axis and heliostats require two-axis tracking.

109
Concentration factors are between 200 and 1000 and unit sizes are between 10 and 200 MW.
Therefore, they are well suited for dispatchable markets and integration into advanced
thermodynamic cycles. A wide variety of thermal fluids, like saturated steam, superheated
steam, molten salts, atmospheric air or pressurized air, can be used, and temperatures vary
between 3000C and 10000C. Finally, DE systems are small modular units with autonomous
generation of electricity by Stirling engines or Brayton miniturbines located at the focal point.
Dishes are parabolic 3D concentrators with high concentration ratios (1000–4000) and unit sizes
of 5–25 kW.

Fig. 9.11 Schematic diagrams of the four CSP systems scaled up to pilot and
demonstration sizes.

Typical solar-to-electric conversion efficiencies and annual capacity factors,


are listed Table 9.3.

Table 9.3 Characteristics of Concentrating Solar Power Systems

110
10. Photovoltaic Systems
Photovoltaic systems generate electricity directly from solar irradiation. These systems are
made-up of arrays. Arrays are composed from modules and modules are formed by cells. The
hierarchy is illustrated in Fig. 10.1.

Fig. 10.1 Components of a photovoltaic system.

Basically, the principle of a cell, which is the fundamental block of a PV (Photovoltaic) system
is connected to the semiconductors.

10.1 Fundamentals of PV Cells


As it is known the atoms have equal numbers of protons and electrons and this number is the
atomic number appearing in the Periodic Table. Silicon for example, which is the most common
111
material used in electronic, micromechanical systems and PV systems has 14 electrons. The
electrons are positioned in the orbits around the nucleus of the atom and the number of electrons
located at the outermost orbit determines the characteristics of that material. The outermost
band is called “valence band”. The conductivity of a material depends on the difference in
energy between an electron in the valence band and the one in the conduction band (Fig. 10.2).
This difference is called “band energy”. For the insulators this energy is greater than 3 eV. 1
electronvolt (eV) is equal to 1.6 x 10 -19 J. The conductors have relatively empty valence bands
while the semiconductors have band energies less than 3 eV (Table 10.1).

Fig. 10.2 Band energy and conductivity.

112
Table 10.1 Band gap energies for some PV materials

Silicon, Si is an intrinsically semiconductor. To accelerate the electron dislodge, this material is


doped by several materials, like boron, antimony (stibium) and phosphide. Among these
materials boron (B) and stibium (Sb) have 3 and 5 electrons, respectively, in their valence
bands. Thus, 1 electron in doping with Sb and 1 hole in doping with boron will be generated
(Fig. 10.3).

Fig. 10.3 Doping silicon for extrinsic semi conductivity.

In general, if the number of electrons in the valence band of the dopant is greater than that of the
base material free electrons will be contributed. This is a n-type semi-conductor. On the other
hand, if the number of electrons in the valence band of the dopant is less than that of the base

113
material holes will be contributed which results in a p-type semi-conductor. In a junction of
such p and n type semi-conductors the electron flows will be enhanced.

In Fig. 10.4, such a junction exposed to light is shown. If the photon energy is sufficient to
dislodge the valence band electron, the electron will jump to the conduction band and the
current flow will be initiated.

Fig. 10.4 Schematic of a PV cell.

To force the valence electron to jump the photon energy should be greater than the band energy.
The energy of the photon is:

E=hν (10.1)

Where h is Planck’s constant, ν is the frequency, ν=c/λ

h= 6.625 x 10-34 J sec.

c=3 x 108 m/sec (speed of light)

and λ is the wavelength of the photon. Thus the wavelength of the light to produce electricity
can be determined.

114
Example 10.1 [15]

Photons with a wavelength greater than 1.12 µm contain insufficient energy to dislodge a
valence electron and will induce no photovoltas effect on the silicon. If the wave length is less
than 1.12 µm there is such an effect. However, a single photon can dislodge only a single
electron and the difference between the band gap energy and the photon energy is absorbed as
heat by the PV cell (Fig. 10.5).

Fig. 10.5 Solar irradiation and band gap energy [15].

115
If E is the photon energy and E 1.12 is the energy required for the excitement of the valence
electron, E/E1.12 =λ/λ1.12, excess energy is :

E –E1.12=E[1-λ/λ1.12] (10,2)

Excess energy, i.e. energy above the band gap equivalent, is passed on to the crystal in the form
of heat.

That is why the theoretical efficiency of a cell depends on the band gap (Fig. 10.6).

Fig. 10.6 Efficiency vs. band gap energy.

10.2 p-n Junction and PV Circuit


When the p and n type semi-conductors have been joined the n-type will be charged positively,
while p-type will be charged negatively (Fig. 10.7).

116
Fig. 10.7 Flow of electrons and holes through the junction.

If a forward bias have been applied to such a junction (Fig. 10.8), the depletion region seen on
Fig. 10.7 will be narrowed and electrons will flow with very small resistance.

117
Fig. 10.8 Forward bias

A reverse voltage (Fig. 10.9) drives the electrons away from the junction, preventing
conduction. The application of a reverse voltage to the p-n junction will cause a transient
current to flow as both electrons and holes are pulled away from the junction. When the
potential formed by the widened depletion layer equals the applied voltage, the current will
cease except for the small thermal current.

118
Fig. 10.9 Reverse bias

Thus, during the photodiode operation, in the absence of illumination only a very small amount
of current will flow through the circuit which is called “dark current” or “saturation current”
(Fig. 10.10).

(a)

119
(b)

Fig. 10.10 a) Process in an irradiated solar cell b) I-V curve for the solar cell.

It is shown in the equivalent circuit (Fig. 10.11) that the relation between the current density
over the cell (Js), through the junction (Jj) and over the load (JL) is:

(10.3)

120
Fig. 10.11 The PV equivalent circuit.

Through the junction, the current density Jj is the difference of the dark, or saturation, current
density (J0) and the light or illumination current density (Jr) (Fig. 10.12):

(10.4)

Fig. 10.12 Current density at the p-n junction.

The correlation between these two current density values, namely, the dark and the illumination
one is given as [15]:

121
(10.5)

where e0 = 1.6 x 10-19 J/V (charge of one electron), k = 1.381 x 10-23J/K (Boltzman’s constant)
and T is the cell temperature.

Thus; the junction current density is :

(10.6)

And the load current density is:

(10.7)

10.3 Cell Characteristics


The two extreme cases determine the cell characteristics. If the cell is short circuited, RL=0, then
JL=JS and from Eqn. (10.7) V=0.

When the circuit is open, no current over the load, JL=0 and in Eqn. (10.7), V is substituted by
Voc, open circuit voltage. Voc is calculated as:

(10.8)

Given the open circuit voltage and temperature of the cell ratio of the cell current density to the
saturation (dark) current density (J s/J0) can be solved and then dividing Eqn. (10.7) by J s

122
(10.9)

is calculated. This is a characteristics of the cell while the Voc=0.6 usually.

Fig. 10.13 Current density-voltage curve (for T = 300 K)

The power is:

(10.10)

As it is seen in Fig. 10.13, the load current density decreases slowly as the voltage increases
from zero, however, it decreases rapidly to the zero at open circuit voltage conditions. At the
short circuit condition also, the power delivered is zero. Between these two extremes there is a
maximum power point:

(10.11)

123
However, maximum power is not available during the cell operation. Instead, the highest power
is possible for only,

(10.12)

The value defined in Eqn. (10.12) is also called P MPP (Fig. 10.14).

Fig. 10.14 Maximum possible power and cell characteristics.

where FF is called the fill factor and depends on empirical correlations.

Thus; efficiency of a PV cell is defined as

(10.13)

The maximum power to the load is also directly proportional to the solar irradiation incident on
the cell (Fig. 10.15)

124
Fig. 10.15 Effect of solar radiation on the load current.

10.4 PV Components
Fig. 10.1 illustrates the sequence of the PV components. The example table includes the main
specifications for a PV system [15].

125
Table 10.2 Example of photovoltaic cell specifications [15].

In Table 10.3, it is seen clearly that Pmpp is less than Pmax=IscVoc. Fig. 10.16 implies that
operating the cell at different current and voltage values will affect the power output.

Table 10.3 Circuit and voltage values for a typical cell [15]

126
Fig. 10.16 Current-voltage curve for the cell mentioned above.

Series and parallel cell configurations follow the same rule with DC circuits (Fig. 10.17)

Fig. 10.17 Two identical cells a) connected in series b) connected in parallel.

127
Example 10.2 [15]

The specifications for the Photowatt PV cells are listed in Tables 10.2-3. Since Pmpp=2.53 W for
this class,

To provide the correct voltage, the cells should be connected in series:

Two rows of 25 cells connected in series will deliver 126.5 W (Fig. 10.18).

Fig. 10.18 Cell configuration for Example 10.2.

128
Thus individual solar cells can be arranged to meet the specified voltage and power
requirements. Such an arrangement is also called “module”. The I-V curve and the tabular
information for the modules are similar to that of the cells (Fig. 10.19 and Table 10.4).

Fig. 10.19 I-V curve for BP3160 PV module [15].

129
Table 10.4 Specifications for two of the BP 3160 modules [15].

NOCT appearing in table 10.4 is Normal Operating Cell Temperature. According to the
temperature coefficients for current (α), voltage (β) and power (γ), temperature effects can be
estimated:

130
Example 10.3 [15]

Table 10.5 Solar data for Example 10.3

The explanation for the constant tilt, one-axis tracking and the two-axis tracking is given in Fig.
10.20.

131
Fig. 10.20 Arrangement of the cells.

From the solar data (Table 10.5)

132
Here, IF and IT are the solar irradiation values, for the fixed tilted and two-axis tracking cases,
respectively.

133
According to Table 10.4, the nominal power generation is 160 W. Thus;

134
Fig. 10.21 Monthly generation for Example 10.3

10.5 PV Systems
Mainly, there are two types of PV systems: Stand-alone and grid connected. From the simplest
to the complicated the systems can be listed as:

-Direct coupled (for low kWs where the grid is not available)

-Systems with battery storage

-Systems with back-up (generator) power

-Hybrid power systems

-Systems connected to the electric grid

-Systems for utility power production

The first four items are generally stand-alone systems.

The schematics for each system are given in Figs. 10.22-25.


135
Fig. 10.22 Direct coupling system

Fig. 10.23 Stand alone systems with battery storage.

Battery characteristics are:

-Voltage (V),

-Charge capacity (A-hour) (energy retrieval/charge potential)

-Cycle capability

-Depth of discharge

Voltage x charge capacity=energy stored in the battery.

136
For example: 12 V, 50 A-hours give 600 Wh of energy.

Cycle capability is the number of charge/discharge cycles.

The depth of the discharge gives what percentage of the stored energy at full capacity may be
extracted without damage to the battery.

For PV applications batteries should have high cycle capacity and high depth of discharge
capability.

Automotive batteries require large amount of power draw over a short period of time ( engine
cranking time) with a low depth of charge. Thus, automotive batteries ae not suitable for solar
storage.

Example 10.4 1275 amp-hours at 12 volts in 6 cell-battery-pack. Energy = 12 x 1275/1000


=15.3 kWh. Its price is 2275 USD.

Table 10.6 Depth of percentage for the battery in Example 10.4

Depth of discharge significantly affects battery life.

Example 10.5 How many sets of battery (in Example 10.4 and Table 10.6) would be
needed to store and retrieve 10 kWh per day for four days for a solar PV system?

137
If the depth of discharge has been chosen 50%, battery storage capacity should be 80 kWh. A
single battery set stores 15.3 kWh.

6 sets will be enough.

Fig. 10.24 Hybrid system

138
Fig. 10.25 Grid connected PV system.

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ADDENDUM

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