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Shale Gas

Changing the Game.

Pankaj K Mishra

History of Natural Gases

The discovery of natural gas was by the ancient peoples of Greece, Persia, and India many centuries ago.

It was about 2,500 years ago where the Chinese did there own natural gas exploration and recognized natural gas could be put to work by using bamboo shoots to transport the gas from swallow wells.

It wasn't until 1626 where are railroad conductor, Edwin Drake discovered natives igniting gases that were seeping into and around Lake Erie in America.

Natural gas was first used in America in 1816 to illuminate the streets of Baltimore with gas lamps. Lamplighter walked the street at dusk to light the lamps.

In 1821, William Hart dug the first successful gas well in what is now the Village of Fredonia. By 1825, it supplied enough natural gas for lights in two stores, two shops and a grist mill. Expanding on Hart's work, the Fredonia Gas Light Company was formed in 1858.

Today, natural gas accounts for 24% of total energy consumed in the United States. An energy which was only use to light street lamp is now safely transported into homes for cooking, heating, and to powered electricity.

Natural Gas Reserves

Natural Gas ReservesInclude all the deposits are gas that are still in the ground waiting to be trapped. Natural Gas ReservoirsAre only those gas deposits that geologist know , or strongly believe ,can be recovered given todays prices and drilling technology

Shale Gas:

How soon the previously unthinkable becomes routine

What is Shale Gas?

Natural gas Unconventional Found in certain types of shale 2,000-7,000 feet deep Low permeability Prevalent in the area 2,300 trillion cubic feet in U.S.

Extraction Extraction
Leasing land Exploration Drilling Hydraulic fracturing Horizontal drilling Collecting Restoration

Natural gas that exists in shale deposits. Formed by the mud of shallow seas that existed 350 million years ago. Shale containing natural gas is generally sandwiched between two thick, black shale deposits.

Global Shale Gas Basins

Top Reserve Holders

Shale Gas Potential

North America is currently the most profitable shale gas producer Worldwide development of shale gas plays are expected to develop, especially in Europe and Asia

Shale gas contributes an 11% rise in natural gas in the U.S. Pennsylvania Marcellus Shale contains about 500 trillion cubic feet of natural gas

How much is left?

By the end of 2008 shale gas production in the U.S. was up to 31.8 trillion cubic feet The U.S. contains an estimated 5,000 trillion cubic feet of shale gas only 500 trillion cubic feet recoverable. With current technology only about 10% of shale gas is recoverable. It is estimated that the shale gas in the U.S. is enough to meet the United States gas needs for the next 90 years.

Difficult to Obtain?
Although shale gas is one of the fastest growing trends in onshore oil and gas exploration there is still a long way to go! Better, more efficient technology needs to be obtained. Natural gas historically has only provided 22% of the total energy consumed.

Difficult to Obtain
Each gas shale basins is different and each has a unique set operational challenges. European shale gas Basin geology is so complex that each well becomes a PhD Thesis

Environmental Issues: The overview

Protection of Groundwater Wildlife Impacts

Community Impacts

Ground Water Issues

Chemicals are added to water to aide in fracturing the rock This adds to the amount of contaminated groundwater

Reduce , Reuse, Recycle

It takes 2 million to 4 million gallons of water to drill and fracture a horizontal shale gas well Only.1%-.8% of total water use in agriculture

Wildlife Impacts
Gas development can adversely affect animal habitat and wildlife.
They can drill underneath sensitive areas like wetlands to reduce wildlife disturbances.

Community Impacts

+ Points
Natural Gas is the cleanest of all fossil fuels
Can reduce the emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere

Plentiful Money $ Economy

Cleaner Jobs Low Maintenance

The main products of natural gas combustion are carbon dioxide and water vapor.
Carbon dioxide is a less potent pollutant .

+ Points
Natural gas does not contribute much to smog
Emits low levels of nitrous oxide and almost no particulate matter

Can be used to fuel vehicles

Cut down on the emissions from gasoline and diesel.

Thank You !