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Advanced Digital IC-Design

This lecture will

The MOS-transistor

Refresh the MOS-transistor function and models Especially, Especially short channel effects

Digital IC-Design

The Diode in an IC-device

The Diode

Diodes appears in all MOS-transistors (the drain & source area) They have parasitics that affects the performance (speed, power) Diodes should always be backward y biased (negative VBS)

Diode - The Simplest IC-device


Discrete component p
Metal p+ n+ Semiconductor n+ pp+

Advanced Digital IC-Design

ICstructure
SiO2

The MOS Transistor

pn-junctions

The MOS-transistor: An Old Invention


In 1925, Julius Edgar Lilienfeld described the first MOSFET structure
- U S Patent in 1930 U.S.

What is a MOS-transistor?
MOS = Metal Oxide Semiconductor
Polysilicon SiO2

In early thirties, a similar structure was shown by Oskar Heil


- British Patent in 1935

None of them built a working component The first working MOS-transistor was shown in the early sixties

Metal Oxide

Silicon, doped

Semiconductor

The MOS-transistor (or MOSFET)


Most important device in digital design Very good as a switch V d i h Relatively few parasitics Rather low power consumption High integration density Simple manufacturing Economical for large complex circuits

N-MOS Transistor
Gate Bulk Source Drain

Silicon Structure St t
Thin Oxide

Each box in the layout represents a mask or a step in the process

+ pp+

n+

n+

Mask Layout

P-MOS Transistor
Gate Bulk Source Drain

How does it Work?


Technologies N-Well N W ll P-Well VGS must be Opens a lager than a channel threshold VT

np

++

p n-

Twin-Tub
N-Well

VGS
Gate Source

VDS ID

VDS drives a current ID

The gate length sets the name of the technology

Drain

What is a MOS Transistor?

MOS a Four Terminal Device


Gate voltage controls the current from drain to source

A Switch VGS

Circuit Symbol VGS

Source connected to lower potential for n-channel devices ( (often to GND) ) Source connected to higher potential for p-channel devices (often to VDD)

G D

Ron eq

Bulk keeps the substrate at a stable potential. If not shown it is assumed to be connected to the supply/GND.
Gate

Source

Drain

Gate Source Bulk (Body) Drain

Infinite resistance when VGS < VT Req when VGS VT VT = Threshold voltage
Bulk (Body)

Important Dimensions
Gate Source Drain

How does the Transistor Work?


Technology development: When VGS is slightly increased g g Negative charges are attracted A depletion region is formed

W
tox

1993: 0.6 um 2003: 65 nm 2013: 18 nm?

VGS > 0

L
n+ n+ Depletion Region

The technology is named after the gate length L

Diode area

p-

How does it Work?


When VGS is increased above VT More negative than positive charges are attracted close to the gate (turns to n-type material) A channel is formed (Strong inversion)

Linear Region (Resistive Operation)


VDS is increased slightly Horizontal E-field from drain to source A current ID is established
VGS > VT VDS<VGS-VT

VGS > VT

ID
n+ n-channel p
-

n+ Depletion Region

n+ n-channel

n+ Depletion Region

p-

Linear Region (Resistive Operation)


ID is proportional to the vertical E-field
i.e. to the # of charges attracted by the gate voltage VGS

Linear Region (Resistive Operation)


I D = n Q W

n = Electron mobility = E-field over the channel


# of charges attracted by the gate Less charges in drain region

ID is proportional to the horizontal E-field


i.e. to the charge velocity caused by the drain voltage VDS

Q VGS VT Q VDS V = DS L I D = kn

VGS forms a vertical E-field n+ n+

I D = kn

V W (VGS VT DS )VDS 2 L

ID

V W (VGS - VT - DS ) VDS 2 L

(k 'n = nCox )

VDS establish a horizontal E-field p-

From charge conc.

From Horizontal E-Field

Saturation Region
VDS = VGS VT Strong inversion reached precisely (i.e. VGD = VT) No channel close to the drain

Saturation Region
Insert VDS = VGS - VT in the linear equation

VGS > VT

VDS=VGS-VT

ID
n+ n+ VDS /2" p-

V W (VGS VT DS )VDS L 2 W V V I D = kn (VGS VT GS T )(VGS VT ) L 2 k W I D = n (VGS VT ) 2 2 L I D = kn

Channel Length Modulation


VDS > VGS-VT

Channel Length Modulation Saturation VDS > VGS-VT

Pinch off

The effective channel length is modulated by VDS g y Electrons are injected through the depletion region
VGS>VT VDS>VGS-VT

ID
n+ L L n+

I D = kn
Pinch off

W (VGS VT ) 2 (1 + VDS ) L

= Empirical constant

The Threshold Voltage VT


The substrate is slightly doped (p- for NMOS) There are always free electrons in the substrate To form a channel, we need to attract these negative charges T f h l dt tt t th ti h The threshold is when the number of negative and positive charges are equal The value of VT is thus set by the p-doping concentration

The Bulk (Body) Potential


The bulk is most often connected to GND (VDD for PMOS) Negative VSB opens the diode; Not Allowed Positive VSB makes it h d t attract negative charges t P iti k harder to tt t ti h to the channel That is, the threshold voltage will increase

VGS > VT
p+
n n-channel p+

VSB

VGS

n+

n+

Depletion Region

Strongly p-doped

p-

The Threshold Voltage VT

MOS Model for Long Channels


Widely used model for manual calculations
VDS VGS VT ; I D = kn VDS W V ((VGS VT )VDS DS )(1 + VDS ) L 2 kn W 2 VGS VT ; I D = (VGS VT ) (1 + VDS ) 2 L
2

VT = VT 0 + ( 2F + VSB 2F )
F = Fermi potential increases with the acceptor concentration Low threshold Low voltage transistors but they are leaky y y Two threshold voltage technologies can be used for low power

kn = n Cox VT = VT 0 + ( 2F + VSB 2F )

Added to avoid discontinuity y

Velocity & Mobility


The electron (hole) velocity is related to the mobility

Velocity & Mobility


( )
The electron (hole) velocity is related to the mobility The velocity is also dependent on the E-field

( )

( )

n = 0.038

m2 = Electron mobility Vs m2 p = 0.013 = Hole mobility Vs

Typical 0.35m technology

The mobility is dependent on doping concentration Often determined empirically Note that the electron mobility is about 3 times higher

m s m p = p s

n = n

Velocity Saturation ( sat )


VDS forms a horizontal E-field

Velocity Saturation ( sat )

( )

An increased E-field leads to higher electron velocity However at a critical E-field ( c ), the velocity saturates due E field to collisions with other atoms

n = n DS E
n (m/s)
it y Mo b il

Constant Velocity

sat

m 105 for both electrons and holes s


n+ n+

sat = 105 m/s

Co

ns

Source

Drain

E c
sat

The mobility is not constant when velocity saturation is reached

ta

nt

EDS [V/um]

VDS establish a horizontal E-fieldp

ID versus VDS
0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.5 1.0
VDSAT = 0.63 V VGS = VDD = 2.5 For both

ID versus VGS
x 10
-4 -4

ID (mA)
6

VGS-VT = 2.5 - 0.43 = 2.07 V

x 10 2.5

Long channel Long-channel model Short-channel model

5 2 4
ID (A)

quadratic

linear
1.5
ID (A)

3 2 1 0 0

0.5

quadratic d ti
0.5 1
VGS(V)

1.5

2.5

0 0

0.5

1
VGS(V)

1.5

2.5

VDS (V)
1.5 2.0 2.5

Long Channel

Short Channel

ID versus VDS
Linear ID(VGS)

Model for Manual Analysis


Quadratic ID(VGS)

VDS = VGS - VT
0.6 06 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 VDS (V) Long Channel VGS= 1.5 VGS= 1.0 2 2.5 ID (mA) VGS= 2.5 VGS= 2.0

0.25 0 25 ID (mA) 0.2

A first order model of the velocity


VGS= 2.5 VGS= 2.0

0.15 0.1 0.05 0 05 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 VDS (V) Short Channel VGS= 1.5 VGS= 1.0

= n = = sat n c

for c for f c

Model for Manual Analysis

A Unified Model for Manual Analysis

A first order model of the velocity y saturated region:

I DSAT

VDSAT 2 W = n Cox ((VGS VT )VDSAT ) 2 L

Vmin 2 W I D = k ((VGS VT )Vmin )(1+ VDS ) L 2


' n

Vmin = min(VGS VT , VDS , VDSAT )

A Unified Model for Manual Analysis


' I D = kn

Three Regions
VDSAT

V 2 W ((VGS VT )VDS DS )(1+ VDS ) Resistive 2 L


0.15 0 15

0.63 V
I D (mA)

VGS = 2 V

ID =

' kn W (VGS VT )2 (1+ VDS ) Saturated 2 L

0.1

Linear

Velocity saturated

VGS = 1.5 V

' I D = kn

V 2 W ((VGS VT )VDSAT DSAT )(1+ VDS ) Velocity saturated L 2

0.5

VGS = 1 V

VGS-VT
0 0

Saturated
1

VDS (V)
2

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The PMOS Transistor


Velocity saturation is less pronounced for PMOS due to lower mobility
0 x 10
-4

Sub-threshold Region
The sub threshold drain current have an exponential relation to the gate voltage (compare to bipolar)

VGS = -1.0V -0.2 VGS = -1.5V -0.4


ID (A)

-0.6

VGS = -2.0V 2 0V

Assume that all variables are negative!

ln(ID)

Super-threshold region (Super-VT) Sub-threshold region (Sub-VT)


VT 1 2 3

-0.8

VGS = -2.5V

-1 -2.5

-2

-1.5
VDS (V)

-1

-0.5

VGS (V)

MOS Dynamic Behavior

MOS Capacitances
Source Gate Drain

yp p Two Types of Capacitance


Junction Capacitance
- Diode areas - Divided in two parts - area and side wall

CGS
n+

CGD
n+

tox

CSB

CG

CDB

Channel Cap. Junction Cap. p Overlap Cap.

Gate Capacitance

- Gate to Bulk - Gate to Source/Drain

Xd

11

Junction Capacitance
Drain/Source Diffusion
Bottom

Junction Capacitance

CDiff = CBot + CSW

CDiff = CBot + CSW CBot = Cj Area CSW = CjSW Perimeter Cj in F/um2 CjSW in F/um

G at e

Dont count the wall towards the channel

Ch To an wa ne rds l

W Ls
Side Wall

Nonlinear: dependent on the diode voltage

Gate Capacitance
Gate Source Drain

Channel Capacitance
Xd
Cut off Linear

CG = Cox W Leff
CGS

Leff
CGD CGB

n+

n+

n+

n+

CG depends on the region p g

Saturation

COX in F/um2

n+

n+

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Overlap Capacitance
Gate

Conclusions - Static Behavior


Source Drain
' I D = kn

CGD = Cox W Xd CGS = Cox W Xd

Xd Leff
CGS CGB CGD

V 2 W ((VGS VT )VDS DS )(1+ VDS ) Resistive 2 L

Cox in F/um2
Or CGD = Co W CGS = Co W

ID =

' kn W (VGS VT )2 (1+ VDS ) Saturated 2 L

' I D = kn

V 2 W ((VGS VT )VDSAT DSAT )(1+ VDS ) Velocity saturated L 2


Threshold Voltage

Co in F/um

VT = VT 0 + ( 2F + VSB 2F )

A Unified Model for Manual Analysis

Conclusions - Dynamic Behavior CG = Cox W Leff


CGD = CGS = W Cox

Vmin 2 W ID = k ((VGS VT )Vmin )(1+ VDS ) L 2


' n

Xd

Gate Capacitance

Vmin = min(VGS VT , VDS , VDSAT )

CDiff = CBot + CSW CBot = Cj Area CSW = CjSW Perimeter


Junction J ti Capacitance

VT = VT 0 + ( 2F + VSB 2F )

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