Anda di halaman 1dari 8

.

airetcab gnitalosi fo sdohtem cisab eerhT

.erutluc dexim a morf detalosi muiretcab fo epyt elgnis ro erutluc erup a stneserper ynoloc elbisiv elgnis A

noitacifitnedI .5 noitcepsnI .4 noitalosI .3 etabucnI .2 etaluconI .1

.tsigoloiborcim yb desu seuqinhcet rojam evif eht fo weivrevO

ht w o r g l ai b o r ci M ai d e M s e u qi n h c et ci s a b e vi F

epocsorciM smsinagroorciM gnirutluC fo sdohteM

Fig. 3.2 Isolation technique

Five basic techniques

Chapter 3

Fig. 3.3 Methods for isolating bacteria.

Fig. 3.1 A summary of the general laboratory techniques.

1. Inoculate 2. Incubate 3. Isolation 4. Inspection 5. Identification

Methods of Culturing Microorganisms

1
sc poT sc poT sciiiipoT sc poT

ai d e m x el p m o c r o cit e ht n y s n o N ai d e m cit e ht n y S

.seinoloc etercsid fo noitamrof eht selbane hcihw ,raga fo )%5-1( tnecrep hgih a niatnoc aidem diloS

.gnitset ytilitom rof desu eb nac hcihw ,raga fo )%1<( egatnecrep wol a niatnoc aidem dilos-imeS

.snoisufni dna sklim ,shtorb demret yllareneg era taht snoitulos desab-retaw era aidem diuqiL

a i d e m dil o S ai d e m dil o s -i m e S ai d e m di u qi L

s eit r e p o r p e e r ht ot g ni d r o c c a d eifi s s al C

Fig. 3.6 Solid media that are reversible to liquids

sepyt lanoitcnuF noitisopmoc lacimehC etats lacisyhP

Fig. 3.4 Sample liquid media

Media

11

Fig. 3.5 Sample semisolid media

Chemical content

Physical State

12

10

.aidem laitnereffid fo selpmaxE

.)roloc ynoloc .e.i( snoitcaer tnereffid wohs ot airetcab swolla aidem laitnereffid elihw ,worg ot airetcab fo epyt eno selbane aidem evitceleS

ai d e m l ait n e r effi D ai d e m e vit c el e S a i d e m d e h ci r n E

.)stcartxe lamina .e.i( erup ro denifed yllacimehc ton era taht stneidergni niatnoc aidem dehcirne ro xelpmoC

.)alumrof ralucelom nwonk .e.i( denifed yllacimehc era taht sdnuopmoc cinagroni dna cinagro erup niatnoc aidem citehtnyS

Table 3.2 Medium for the growth and maintenance of the Green Alga Euglena

Functional types of growth media

.airetcab suoiditsaf worg ot desu era aidem dehcirnE

Fig. 3.8 Comparison of selective and different Media with general-purpose media.

17

15

13

Fig. 3.7 Examples of enriched media

Table 3.4 Differential media

Fig. 3.7 Examples of enriched media

Chocolate agar

Blood agar

18

16

14

.snel raluco dna evitcejbo eht hguorht sessap thgil sa deifingam si nemiceps A

.seirotarobal hcraeser dna gnihcaet ni desu yllacipyt si epocsorcim dnuopmoc A

s ni at S s e p o c s o r ci m n o rt c el E s e p o c s o r ci m l a cit p O n oit ul o s e R n oit a cifi n g a M

setats cirehpsomta ,serutarepmet deiraV

.aidem noitatropsnart dna noitatnemref ,gnicuder era aidem suoenallecsim fo selpmaxE

.aidem laitnereffid a si raga yeknoCcaM dna ,aidem evitceles a si raga tlas lotinnaM

Fig. 3.8 Examples of media that are both selective and differential

Fig. 3.14 The parts of a student laboratory microscope

MacConkey Selective (Bile, crystal violet) for Gram (-)

MSA Selective (7% NaCl) for Staphylococcus

Microbial growth

23

21

19

Fig. 3.11 Carbohydrate fermentation broth

Fig. 3.15 The pathway of light and the two Stages in magnification of a compound microscope.

Microscope

24

22

20

4
lasopsid dna ecnanetniaM

noitazilirets serutluc kcotS erutluc eruP erutluc dexiM

ecnaraeppa cipocsorciM

noitacifitnedI noitcepsnI

noitabucnI

.epocsorcim tsartnoc-esahp dna ,dleif-krad ,dleif-thgirb a fo selpmaxE

s n e mi c e p s d e ni at s d e v r e s e r p r o e vil e v r e s b O s ei r ot a r o b al ni d e s u yl n o m m o c t s o M

f o n oit a cifi n g a m m u mi x a m a e v a h ll A

.lio noisremmi gnisu yb desaercni eb nac noituloseR

.ylraelc stcejbo deifingam sehsiugnitsid noituloseR

Fig. 3.16 Effect of wavelength on resolution

- RP= 500nm/2 x 1.25

-Resolving power (RP) = Wavelength (nm)/2 x NA of objective lens

- Capacity to distinguish or separate two adjacent objects from one another.

Optical microscopes

Dark-field

29

27

25

Figs. 3.17 and 3.18 Workings of an oil immersion lens, and effect of magnification.

Fig. 3.19 Three views of a basic cell

Bright-field

30

28

26

5
s n e mi c e p s e ht f o e nilt u o n a w ei V s n e mi c e p s d e ni at s n u e vil e v r e s b O

lacofnoC tnecseroulF ecnerefretni laitnereffiD tsartnoc-esahP dleif-kraD dleif-thgirB

X0002

.epocsorcim lacofnoc a fo elpmaxE

e l bi si v f o n oi s si m e s e s u a c n oit ai d a r V U e y d r o ni at s e c n e c s e r o ul F

deniats si nemiceps -ypocsorcim tnecseroulf fo elpmaxE

.ecnerefretni laitnereffid dna tsartnoc-esahp fo elpmaxE

Phase-contrast

Fluorescent

li at e d r al u ll e c l a n r et n i w ei V s n e mi c e p s e vil e v r e s b O

Confocal

35

33

31

Fig. 3.20 Visualizing internal structures

Fig. 3.22 Confocal microscopy of a basic cell

Fig. 3.21 Fluorescent staining on a fresh sample of cheek scrapings from the oral cavity.

36

34

32

6
. e g a mi l a n oi s n e mi d - e e r ht a m r of ot d e ni b m o c e r a s e g a mi n e mi c e p s d e n i at s n u r o e c n e c s e r o ul F l o ot cit s o n g ai D e y d m o rf t h gil

.nemiceps eht dnuora rehtar tub ,nemiceps eht ot dnib ton seod eyD
s n i at s e vit a g e N

nemiceps eht ot sdnib eyD


s ni a t s e viti s o P

.sepocsorcim nortcele dna lacitpo fo nosirapmoC

.sepocsorcim nortcele dna lacitpo fo yrammuS

)MES( ypocsorciM nortcelE gninnacS fo elpmaxE

) M E S ( e p o c s o r ci m n o rt c el e g n i n n a c S

sllec fo serutcurts lanretni weiV


) M E T( e p o c s o r ci m n o rt c el e n oi s si m s n a r T ) X 0 0, 0 0 1 ( n oit a ci fi n g a m h gi h y r e V

)MET( ypocsorciM nortcelE noissimsnarT fo elpmaxE

Table 3.6 Comparison of light microscopes and Electron microscopes

segami lanoisnemid-eerhT
Toxoplasma

Fig. 3.25 A false-color scanning electron micrograph

Electron microscopy

41

39

37

Fig. 3.24 Transmission electron micrograph

Table 3.5 Comparison of types of microscopy

100,000X

Coronavirus - SARS

Stains

42

40

38

.sniats laiceps dna laitnereffid ,elpmis fo selpmaxE

strap llec niatrec ezisahpmE

niats eluspaC .xE niats marG .xE

l ai c e p S

seyd deroloc tnereffid-owT


l ait n e r effi D

eyd enO
el p mi S

.dnuorgkcab eht dnib taht )egrahc evitagen( seyd cidica era sniats evitagen dna ,sllec egrahc evitagen dnib taht )egrahc evitisop( seyd cisab era sniats evitisoP

Table 3.7 Comparison of positive and negative stains

Fig. 3.25 Types of microbial stains

Have a great time in lab!!

47

45

43

Fig 4.2

Sinple vs Differential Stains

46

44