Anda di halaman 1dari 2

Layer 7 -Application Layer: Application layer is the top most layer of the OSI model.

This layer provides network services to the end users. Protocol Data Unit [PDU] is called Data at this layer. Mail, ftp, telnet, DNS, NIS, NFS are the example of network applications. One wi dely-used application protocol is HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol), which is the basis for the World Wide Web. Everything at this layer is application-specif ic. This layer provides application services for file transfers, e-mail, and oth er network software services. Layer 6- Presentation Layer: The presentation layer provides a variety of encodi ng and encryption functions that are applied to the application layer data. Thes e functions ensure that information sent from the application layer of one syste m will be readable by the application layer of another system. Protocol Data Uni t [PDU] is called Data at this layer. Examples of format conversions include ASCII text for documents and .gif and JPG for images. This layer performs code conversion, data translation, compression and encryption. Layer 5-Session Layer: Determines how two devices establish, maintain and manage a connection - how they talk to each other. These connections are called sessio ns. Communication sessions consist of service requests and service responses tha t occur between applications located in different network devices. These request s and responses are coordinated by protocols implemented at the session layer. P rotocol Data Unit [PDU] is called Data at this layer. For example, SQL is a Session layer application that manages multiple queries to the SQL database. It's what allows multiple people to log in to, say, the Intra net at the same time. Layer 4- Transport Layer: This layer provides transparent transfer of data betwe en end systems, or hosts, and is responsible for end-to-end error recovery and f low control. It ensures complete data transfer. Protocol Data Unit [PDU] is call ed a Segment at this layer. Transport layer is responsible for breaking the data into segments, establishing an end-to-end logical connection between machines, and providing for error hand ling. Transport layer functions typically include flow control, sliding Window, Multip lexing, Virtual circuit Management, Three way handshake, Error checking and reco very. The two most common Transport layer protocols are TCP and UDP. Common Transport Layer Ports 21 FTP 22 SSH 23 telnet 25 SMTP 53 DNS 80 HTTP 110 POP3 143 IMAP 443 HTTPS Layer 3- Network Layer: This layer provides switching and routing technologies, creating logical paths, known as virtual circuits, for transmitting data from no de to node. Routing and forwarding are functions of this layer, as well as addre ssing, internetworking, error handling, congestion control and packet sequencing . Protocol Data Unit [PDU] is called a Packet at this layer. Data at this level is packaged into packets. The network layer supports both con nection-oriented and connectionless service from higher-layer protocols. Common protocols on the Network layer are BGP and OSPF. RIP is another Network l ayer protocol, but is not used on larger networks because of its inefficiency. Layer 2- Data Link Layer: At this layer, data packets are encoded and decoded in to bits. It furnishes transmission protocol knowledge and management and handles errors in the physical layer, flow control and frame synchronization. Protocol Data Unit [PDU] is called a Frame at this layer. The data link layer is divided into two sub layers: The Media Access Control (MAC) layer and the Logical Link C

ontrol (LLC) layer. The MAC sub layer controls how a computer on the network gai ns access to the data and permission to transmit it. The LLC layer controls fram e synchronization, flow control and error checking. It communicates with network cards, manages physical layer communications betwee n connecting systems and handles error notification. Frame Relay, ATM, and DSL all work on the Data Link layer. Layer 1: Physical Layer: This layer conveys the bit stream - electrical impulse, light or radio signal -- through the network at the electrical and mechanical l evel. It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier, including defining cables, cards and physical aspects.Protocol Data Unit [PDU] is called a Bit at this layer. Fast Ethernet, RS232, and ATM are protocols with physical layer components. Com mon examples of things that work on the Physical layer are Fiber Optic cables, C AT5 (Ethernet) cables, and Copper Twisted Pair.