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1. PROBLEM STATEMENT To study the pull-out behavior of post installed anchor bar by using a new analytical model of two infill layer assembly. A two infill layer analytical model use to simulate the deformational behavior of post installed anchor bar is to be developed. The infill material used to fix the post installed anchor bar in surrounding concrete of a structure has divided into two layers whose effectiveness has to be checked under cyclic loading from envelop of hysteresis loop, energy absorption capacity, load carrying capacity and from damaged capacity evaluation in the surrounding concrete. Background Research has been going on into the field of seismic retrofitting for the last several decades focusing on the development of retrofitting methods, strategies and advancements in material technology which provide better resistance against earthquake forces. The basic requirements needs to be fulfilled by seismic retrofitting can be categorized as follows; Increasing the global capacity Strengthening Increasing local capacity of structural element stiffness or strength ductility / deformability Localizing the damage

Many methods for seismic retrofitting have been developed by various research organizations, universities and government institutes. These methods range from being building specific to ones that are applied to bridges. Some of these methods are named as below; FRP jacketing, Concrete jacketing External post-tensioning Base isolators Steel plate jacketing

Among these techniques the method that is most commonly used for retrofitting concrete bridge piers is the method of concrete jacketing. Reinforced concrete (RC) jacketing enhances the shear strength of RC piers as a whole and the ductility capacity of the pier base. This technique is most commonly applied to area around the cut-off, the base of bridge pier, and other areas that need seismic rehabilitation depending on the requirements of the existing bridge pier. The typical thickness added by the RC jacketing method is around 200 mm. Raw materials needed to apply this method are easily available and it does not require any factory fabrication of components used in retrofitting, along with the lower need of skilled work force to carry out this type of retrofitting makes concrete jacketing method an attractive option to be applied for seismic retrofitting.

Applications In order to increase the seismic capacity, post installed anchor bar with two infill layer assembly has variety of applications, some of which are listed below; Retrofitting of damaged structural elements Raising and controlled dismantling of structures Soil stabilization / rock stabilization Slope stabilization Controlled damage in out of plane structures by using dissipative anchor device, etc.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW The unpredictable nature of earthquake in terms of intensity and location makes the disaster prevention and recovery preparation more important. The chief preparations for such a calamity quick restoration of the facilities, the most important facilities are the transportation infrastructure facilities as their restoration helps in restoring the local economy, access to public utilities etc. So for this purpose the bridges and train viaducts are the most important. In case of bridges the most important aspect of the structure is the bridge piers which face the brunt of the force and most of the damage caused by the earthquake is concentrated in piers. Hence in order to make the area get back on track of recovery these piers play a pivotal role. The basic concept of seismic rehabilitation is to avoid shear failure of piers caused by large earthquakes resulting in the collapse of RC viaducts and bridges (see Fig.1). To enhance the seismic capacity of the whole structural frame, the aim is to increase the ductility capacity of column members through seismic rehabilitation in order to allow better absorption of earthquake energy, but enhancing the flexural strength of the column members is not properly done. The reason for this is that if the flexural strength of the column members damaged by an earthquake is enhanced, future earthquake damage may occur in beam members and foundation members. Since repair and strengthening of beams and foundation members is more difficult than for column members, it is considered important to restrict damage after seismic rehabilitation to column members. Post-installed anchor bars are installed to improve the flexure and shear resistance of the structures. The investigations and applications of an anchor embedded in a hardened cementations material such as concrete have been carried out for many decades. For convenience and efficiency researchers adopted post-installation for bonding the reinforcements into the concrete by drilling a hole into hardened concrete footing and installing the anchor bar using an adhesive infill material.

Cook, et al.1-5) analyzed the behaviors of single adhesive anchors and single headed or un headed grouted anchors under tensile load in concrete. They summarized the general failure modes of these anchorage systems as pull-out

Fig.1, Shear failure at viaduct piers South Hyogo Prefecture (1995)

of a concrete cone, deboning at anchoradhesive or concreteadhesive interface, fracture of anchor, and combination of some of these failure modes as shown in Fig. 2. The various factors influencing the bond strength of anchor were also evaluated and it was found that bond strength between concrete and anchor reduced for wet, moist and un-cleaned holes.

Fig. 2 Failure modes of anchor pull-out (Cook et al.)

Cook, et al.1) also developed a procedure for strength evaluating of closely spaced anchors bars and pointed out that full embedment length spacing can ensure these anchors to achieve their individual strengths. Li, et al.6) and Colak7) found that the addition of filler into epoxy adhesive reduced the shear strength of adhesive anchors. Bickel and Sheikh8) predicted that the shear capacity of single adhesive anchor using two methods with proper adjustments and Skla and Ashour9) found that the tensile capacity is linearly proportional to the embedment length by introducing artificial neural networks for predicting the tensile capacity of single adhesive anchors. Beard and Lowa10) used ultrasonic guided waves to successfully inspect the maximum embedment anchor length for a grouted anchor as shown in fig. 3. Gray11) reviewed the theories developed to explain the fiber de-bonding process in matrix and explain that fiber-matrix interfacial de-bonding was categorized into two types of resistance, elastic bonding and frictional shearing resistance. Moreover, the contribution of the elastic bonding to the total resistance offered for de-bonding decreased with the increase of the fiber embedment length. According to the characteristics of stresses and deformations in the fibers and
Fig. 4, Classic fiber pull-out problem

Fig. 3, Pulse-echo test configuration for inspection of post-tensioning tendons using guided waves (Beard and Lowe)

matrices, a shear-lag model shown in Fig.4 was applied widely into the theoretical analyses by Gray11), Hsueh12-14), Stang and Shah15) and Sumitro and Tsubaki16) which assumes that the axial stresses in the matrix are negligible compared with those in the fiber and that the shear stresses in the fiber are so small that they can be ignored relative to those in the matrix. The shear-lag approach considers equilibrium between the fiber and the matrix. The fiber and matrix are then put together by displacement continuity conditions at the interface. The stress and displacement distributions of the fiber and matrix can be obtained using differential equations. The behaviors of the composites after de-bonding were extensively analyzed and two approaches were developed the first was the strength criterion, where interfacial de-bonding is examined in terms of the interfacial shear stress and an second approach based on fracture mechanics known as the fracture energy-based criterion expressed in terms of energy equilibrium, was introduced to analyze the interfacial de-bonding behaviors including pull-out of inclined fibers from matrix (see Gray11), Hsueh12-14), Stang and Shah15), Sumitro and Tsubaki16), Naaman et al17)., Ouyang et al.18), Gao et al.19) and Morrison et al.20)), and took into account friction at the de-bonding zone. The whole pull-out loadend slip relationship of fiber was also gained accurately by Naaman et al.21-22) using strength criterion considering the process of fiber pull-out from the beginning of loading to the complete interfacial de-bonding. Most of the studies emphasize that the interfacial de-bonding crack only appears at the position where the fiber enters the matrix, however Bazant and Desmorat23) analyzed a pullpull geometry of fiber or bar pull-out test and presented two interfacial de-bonding cracks developing from both ends with the same lengths assuming both the fiber and matrix have the same axial rigidity (fig. 5). Then interfacial shear stresses and the tensile stresses distributions in the fiber were analytically obtained. Based on Bazants and Desmorats23) work Shutong et al.24) have carried out a theoretical analysis on pull-out of anchor choosing the interfacial parameters randomly and found that initial and maximum pull-out load increase with the increase in mortar layer thickness. Zhimin et al.25) also proposed an analytical solution for the pull-out response of FRP rods embedded in steel tubes using the philosophy of fiber pull-out from the matrix and verified the findings experimentally. Most recently, Saleem and tsubaki26-27) introduced a new type of anchor infill assembly structure as shown in fig. 6, along with an analytical model to simulate the pull-out

Fig. 5, Fiber pull-out problem

Fig. 6, Conceptual Diagram of anchor-infill assembly

deformational response of post installed anchor bar. The purpose of this model was to investigate the influence of infill layer material properties such as stiffness and strength on the deformational response of the post installed anchor bars. It was found from the numerical analysis that influence of the parameters such as internal friction angle, the compressive strength and the tensile strength of pull-out behavior is less significant as compared with that of shear strength and elastic modulus. The influence of the interface properties of the infill material of the post installed anchor bar was investigated using a two layer analytical model having two pre-existing cracks at the top. The bond between the anchor bar and infilled material was Fig. 7, Two-layer anchor-infill model examined by using the fracture energy based criterion as well as strength criterion. It was concluded in the studies that the elastic model of infill should be large to reduce the pull-out displacement and the increase of the shear strength of infill makes the pull-out large. Studies conducted by Saleem and Tsubaki26-27) were also verified by finite element analysis by considering a 2-D anchor infill assembly model. From comparison it was concluded that analytical model is more conservative as it predicts a lesser load level for the initiation of debonding as compared to finite element method. Also, comparison was made by varying the thickness of first and second infill layer respectively and it was concluded that there exist good agreement between the analytical model results as the differences were consistently less than 5% for both the cases. 3. OBJECTIVES & SCOPE OF STUDY The primary purpose of this research is to extend an already existing 2-D anchor infill layer model into a 3-D anchor infill layer model by using FEM software. The specific objectives will be as follows: To analyze 3-D anchor infill layer model with single crack extension. To analyze 3-D anchor infill layer model with simultaneous crack extensions. To optimized the influencing interface properties of infill layer such as elastic modulus and shear strength by using sensitivity analysis. To carry out a comparison between the results obtained from finite element analysis and experimental results available. 4. METHODOLOGY The present study will comprise of the following phases: The first phase will include a detailed literature review on the pull-out analysis of post installed

anchor bar into two infill layer assembly. The second phase will be the development of 3-D modeling of anchor infill layer assembly by using FEM software. The third phase of the research will include to analyze the already established 3-D model in second phase on FEM software by considering single layer crack extension and then simultaneous crack extension in two infill layers, respectively. The fourth phase will consist of comparison between the finite element method and experimental results already available. The fifth and the final phase will be range of applicability of conclusions and recommendations for future research. 5. RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE/ APPLICATIONS 1) The research work will be very helpful in introducing a new anchor infill assembly as a new technique for retrofitting of structures. 2) To minimize the deformational response of structure during earthquakes, anchor infill assembly will provide new innovations with respect to infill material properties used for practical purposes. 3) To economize the retrofitting method as compared to other available expansive retrofitting technique e.g. steel plate jacketing, tuned mass dampers etc. 4) This research will lead to a new class of post-installed anchor infill assembly which upon use in retrofitting process can result in improvement of restoration time as compared to other retrofitting techniques available. 5) Optimized interface properties of infill layers obtained from sensitivity analysis can yield better design for retrofitting of structures in future. 6. RESEARCH TIME TABLE Tentative time schedule for the research work is shown below

Sr. No. Activities Sept '12 Weeks 1 Literature Review 1 2 3 4 1 Oct'12 2 3 4 1 Time (Months) Nov12 2 3 4 1 Dec'12 2 3 4 1 Jan'13 2 3 4 1 Feb'13 2 3 4

Development of 3D anchor infill model

Sensitivity analysis Analyze model with single crack extension

Analyze model with simultaneous crack extension

6 7 8

Comparison Thesis write up Seminar preparation

7. REFERENCES 1) Cook, R.A., Doerr, G.T. and Klingner, R.E.: Bond stress model for design of adhesive anchors, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 90, Pt. 5, pp. 51424, 1993. 2) Cook, R.A., Kunz J., Fuchs W. and Konz, R.C.: Behavior and design of single adhesive anchors under tensile load in uncracked concrete, ACI Structural Journal, Vol 95, Pt. 1, pp. 926, 1998. 3) Zamora, N.A., Cook, R.A., Konz, R.C. and Consolazio, G.R.: Behavior and design of single, headed and unheaded, grouted anchors under tensile load, ACI Structural Journal, Vol 100, Pt. 2, pp. 222230, 2003. 4) Subramanian, N. and Cook, R.A.: Behavior of grouted anchors, Indian Concrete Journal, Vol 78, Pt. 4, pp. 1421, 2004. 5) Cook, R.A. and Konz R.C.: Factors influencing bond strength of adhesive anchors, ACI Structural Journal, Vol 98, Pt. 1, pp. 7686, 2001. 6) Li Y.J., Eligehausen R., Oz, bolt J. and Lehr, B.: Numerical analysis of quadruple fastenings with bonded anchors, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 99, Pt. 2, pp. 149156, 2002. 7) Colak, A.: Parametric study of factors affecting the pull-out strength of steel rods bonded into precast concrete panels, International Journal of Adhesion, Vol. 21, Pt. 6, pp. 487493, 2001. 8) Bickel, T.S. and Shaikh, A.F.: Shear strength of adhesive anchors, PCI Journal, Vol.47, Pt. 5, pp. 487493, 2002.

9) Sakla, S.S.S. and Ashour, A.F.: Prediction of tensile capacity of single adhesive anchors using neural networks, Computer Structure, Vol. 83, pp. 17921803, 2005. 10) Beard, M.D. and Lowe, M.J.S. and Cawley, P.: Ultrasonic guided waves for inspection of grouted anchors and bolts, Journal of Material Civil Engg, Vol. 15, Pt. 3, pp. 212-218, 2003. 11) Gray, R.J.: Analysis of the effect of embedded fibre length on fibre de-bonding and pull-out from an elastic matrix, Part 1, Review of theories, Journal of Material Sciences, Vol. 19, Pt. 3, pp. 861-870, 1984. 12) Hsueh, C.H.: Elastic load transfer from partially embedded axially loaded fibre to matrix, Journal Material Science Letter, Vol 7, Pt. 5, pp. 497-500, 1988. 13) Hsueh, C.H.: Interfacial de-bonding and fiber pull-out stresses of fiber-reinforced composites, Journal of Material Science and Engineering, Vol. 123, Issue 1, pp. 1-11, 1990. 14) Hsueh, C.H.: Consideration of radial dependences of axial stresses in the shear-lag model for fibre pull-out, Journal of Materials and Science, Vol 29, Pt. 7, pp. 18011806, 1994. 15) Stang, H., Li, Z. and Shah, S.P.: Pull-out problem: stress versus fracture mechanical approach, Journal of Engg and Materials, Vol. 116, Pt. 10, pp. 21362150, 1990. 16) Sumitro, S. and Tsubaki, T.: Micromechanical fiber pull-out model for steel fiber reinforced concrete, J. Materials, Conc. Struct. Pavements, JSCE, No.599, Vol. 40, pp. 155-163, 1998. 17) Naaman, A.E. and Shah, S.P.: Pull-out mechanism in steel fiber-reinforced concrete, Journal Struct. Division, pp. 1537-1548, 19761. 18) Ouyang, C., Pacios, A. and Shah, S.P.:Pull-out of inclined fibers from cementations matrix, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 120, Pt. 12, pp. 26412659,1994. 19) Gao, Y., Mai, Y. and Cotterell, B.: Fracture of fiber-reinforced materials, Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Vol. 39, Pt. 4, pp. 550572, 1988. 20) Morrison, K.J., Shah, S.P. and Jenq S.Y.: Analysis of fiber debonding and Pull-out in Composites, Journal of Engg. Mechanics, ACSE, Vol. 114, Pt. 2, pp. 277-294, 1988. 21) Naaman, A.E., Namur, G.G., Alwan, J.M. and Najm, H.S.: Fiber pull-out and bond slip. I: Analytical study, Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 117, Pt. 9, pp. 27692790, 1991. 22) Naaman, A.E., Namur, G.G., Alwan, J.M. and Najm, H.S.: Fiber pull-out and bond slip. II: Experimental validation, Journal of Structures. Engg, Vol 117, Pt. 9, pp. 27912800, 1991. 23) Bazant, Z.P. and Desmorat, R.: Size effect in fiber or bar pull-out with interface softening slip, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 120, Pt. 9, pp. 19451962, 1994. 24) Shutong, Y., Zhimin, W., Xiaozhi, H. and Jianjun, Z.: Theoretical analysis on pull-out of anchor from anchor-mortar-concrete anchorage system, Journal Engineering Fracture

Mechanics, Vol. 75, pp. 961-985, 2008. 25) Zhimin, W., Shutong, Y., Jianjun, Z. and Xiaozhi, H.: Analytical solution for the pullout response of FRP rods embedded in steel tubes filled with cement grout, Journal of Material and Structures, Vol 43, pp. 597-609, 2010. 26) Saleem, M. and Tsubaki, T.: Multilayer model for pullout behavior of post-installed anchor, Proc. Framcos-7, fracture mechanics of concrete structure, AEDIFICATIO Publishers, Germany, Vol. II, pp, 823-830 2010. 27) Saleem, M. and Tsubaki, T.: Influence of mechanical properties of infilled materials on pullout behavior of post-installed anchor bar, Proc of JSCE 11th International summer symposium, Japan, Vol. 49, No. 6, PP.237-240, 2009.


The research proposal entitled Pull-Out Analysis of Post-Installed Anchor Bar in Two Infill Layer Assembly of Umair Ahmad has been discussed in the meeting of the Program Committee of Structural Engineering Division held on ______________. All proposed suggestions have been incorporated. The proposal may kindly be placed in the meeting of the PGRC for further necessary action.

Signature of the Supervisor

Signature of the Student

Members of program committee, Structural Engineering Division

1. Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ilyas 2. Dr. Asad Ullah Qazi 3. Dr. Asif Hameed 4. Dr. Rashid Hameed

__________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________

5. Dr. Aun Bashir 6. Dr. M Saleem __________________________

9. COMMENTS OF THE COMMITTEE The proposal may kindly be placed in the meeting of PGRC for onward forwarding to the D.G. Research through Dean, Faculty of Civil Engineering.

---------------------------------Signature of Supervisor Dr. Muhammad Saleem

-----------------------------------Signature of Student Umair Ahmad 2010-MS-CES-20 Dated.........................

Endst. No. CED/.

The research proposal entitled Pull-Out Analysis of Post Installed Anchor Bar In Two Infill Layer Assembly of Umair Ahmad has been discussed in the meeting of the PGRC of Civil Engineering Department held on ______________. The committee recommended forwarding the proposal to DG(R) through Dean Faculty of Civil Engineering for further necessary action.

Chairman Department of Civil Engineering

Dean Faculty of Civil Engineering

DG Research University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore.