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July - August 2012

Student Writings from IEI

My Happy Place By Abdullah (Saudi Arabia) I am happy when I sit on the seashore. I am happy because I feel comfortable, and I like to hear the voice of the waves and the seagulls sound. I like to sit for a long time and relax. My Goals By Abdullah (Saudi Arabia) I want to study for a bachelors quickly, and I want to get the highest score godwilling. Then, I will come back to Saudi Arabia. I will think of marriage. I want to travel all over the world, and then I will buy a very large palace with an area of approximately twenty thousand meters. After that, I do not know. Days of the Week By Mohammed (Saudi Arabia) My favorite day is Friday. I like this day because it is the weekend. I like the weekend because I go with my family and go to the mall and park and buy the home needs. My least favorite day is Monday. I dont like this day because it is the start of the new work week. My Best Friend By Zaina (Saudi Arabia) My best friends name is Dalal. She lives in Saudi Arabia in the city of Dammam. She is working in a job. She was studying at the university. My friend has a very good sense of humor. She is very close to me, and I consider her as a sister.

My Favorite Places By Bandar (Saudi Arabia) I like many places in the world, but I prefer just three. The first place is my house. I like my house, because I see my family in it. Also, I played there often. The second place is my farm, because there are a lot of trees and next to it are some tall hills. Also, there is a small house over the hills. My family and I sometimes play together there. Also, we sleep there. Third, I like the city of Mekkah. Moslems turn to this city when they pray. There is a huge mosque, and its name is Alhrm Almaky (Alkabh). Also, there are a lot of people and it is crowded everyday. Mekkah has nice weather and the people are friendly. Also, it has many tall buildings. One of them has a huge clock. Maybe it is the biggest clock in the world. Under this clock are ten flags for Saudi Arabia, and some flags for other countries. It has a mall to shop, and a big hotel is next to the mall. 1 Finally, I would like to go to all my favorite places again. Lost and Found By Cristina (Dominican Republic) One year ago, at night, I was going to bed. Then, my mom went to my room to tuck me in, and she gave me $20. Then, she said, Do not lose this money, because this money is for the whole week. I said, Dont worry, Mom. I wont lose the money. Then, I put the money in my backpack, but I didnt know that the money fell out. So, the next day, in the morning, I was ready to go to school. I took my backpack and went to school. At lunchtime, I was looking for my money. Then, I said, I cant believe I lost my money! When I got home and went to my room, I found my money on the floor, and I was very happy!

New Years Day By Emad (Saudi Arabia) I like New Years Day. First, I like this day because the people are very happy, and I enjoy the people meeting together. Second, I would like to go to New York City on this day. I think New York City is better than Miami. Times Square in New York City is the best place. Finally, I would like to see the countdown in Times Square. This would be my best holiday. France By Fayez (Saudi Arabia) I would like to go to France and visit the city of Paris, where I can see the Eiffel Tower. Also, I would like to visit the Palace of the Arts in Paris. Then, I would like to visit the city of Caanes. It is one of the most beautiful French cities. There are 1,200 museums in France, and the most important of these are the Louvre, the Musee dOrsay, and Chateau de Versailles. I hope to visit France in the near future. My Favorite Season By Habeeb (Saudi Arabia) All people have different opinions about their favorite season. Some people are interested in summer, and some people like another season. However, my favorite season is winter. Actually, I like all seasons but winter is my favorite season. I have liked it from childhood. For example, we can do something to get warm in winter. We can sit by the fireplace inside the house to get warm or wear a jacket outside to get warm. The opposite of winter is summer, and it is always hot outside. For example, if somebody works outside the house or the office, he needs to go inside to cool off. The sun is very hot in summer. So, my opinion is that all seasons are good, but I like winter the best. Jack and Sam By Homoud (Saudi Arabia) My friends Jack and Sam are the same in many ways, but also they are different. They are the same, because they have black hair and they are smart. Also, they love meeting new people at a party. However, they are different, because Jack loves to travel and he loves new experiences. Also, he is short-tempered. However, Sam is a very nice person, and he doesnt like to travel or have new experiences. For example, if you ask Jack to buy a ticket to Casablanca, he will say, Wow! Great! Lets buy a ticket! However, if you ask Sam to buy a ticket, he will tell you why he cant do that. Jack doesnt have any problem to try new experiences. He never asks you where or why. He just goes and does it. However, Sam will ask you about everything, and 2

say, No, sorry, I cant. Finally, I have two friends Jack and Sam. Jack is a very adventurous person. Sam is a copy of Jack, but he doesnt like adventures. My Friend By Mohammed (Saudi Arabia) My friend and I love to be stylish when we go out. Also, we like to spend a lot of money when we want to have fun. However, we are different in many ways. He is a big, fat man, but I am average. He is not comfortable with new people, but I enjoy meeting new people. He is not a sports lover, but I am a soccer lover. What can I say? We are just good friends. A Gift By Nawaf (Saudi Arabia) My friend is a rich man and he works in an office to buy and sell land. He sometimes helps me buy land when he gets land cheaper. I remember I bought two lands. Then, I got a lot of money for the first one. So, I told my friend I want to give you a gift. One month later, he gave me a gift. It was a new 2006 Ford car. I will never forget this gift. This is an important custom in Saudi Arabia to repay a gift between tribes. If someone doesnt repay a gift, then the man is rude. Some people have a celebration and give a gift and a big dinner. Simple Gifts and Expensive Gifts By Saud (Saudi Arabia) Everyone likes a gift from a person who loves him or her. Some gifts should be expensive, but others can be simple. It depends on the situation. Sometimes, it is not important for the gift to be expensive. Gifts are good things to remember the person who gave you the gift. For example, once my best friend gave me a special gift. It was a famous book and I have been interested in it, but it was not expensive. So, a gift is not supposed to be expensive in some situations. On the other hand, some gifts are supposed to be expensive, because its not possible to find it for a cheap price. For example, when I graduated, my father bought a car for me. It was expensive when you compare it with a simple gift. In some cases, there is no way to find it in a cheap price. When someone will get married, for instance, he will buy gold and jewelry, because the gift is supposed to be expensive. Finally, gifts make people happy and they remember you. So, both simple gifts and expensive gifts help you to have good relationships with friends.

A Very Special Person By Talal (Saudi Arabia) There was a special person in Saudi Arabia. He was very gentle and polite, and he is a famous person. He was a leader, and he was always a good advisor. He was a good collaborator, and he always planned for the future. He worked a lot of places. His name is Dr. Ghazi Al-Qosaiby, and it was a wonderful person. Also, he was smart, optimistic, practical, generous, funny, energetic, and kind. However, he

wasnt graceful, because he was fat. Actually, the King of Saudi Arabia liked him a lot, and the Saudi people liked him, because he was honest and practical. His jobs included minister for electricity, minister for water, and minister for work. Actually, he succeeded in all these jobs. In conclusion, when this man died, our country lost an important man. Saudi Arabia decided to name a new street in the city of Riyadh for him, and we will always remember Dr. Ghazi Al-Qosaiby.

Ramadan By Ahmad (Saudi Arabia) Ramadan in the U.S. is very different than in Saudi Arabia. In Saudi Arabia, all the restaurants are closed from the morning until the afternoon except the supermarkets. They stay open 24/7, but in the U.S., all the restaurants are open all day until 9 or 10 pm. In Saudi Arabia, the restaurants start to open from 4 pm until 3:30 or 4 am. In the U.S., the restaurants start to open from 8 am until 9 pm. In Saudi Arabia, people are going to go out and buy food that they need from a restaurant or usually the supermarkets and start to make their food. In the U.S., people are going to go out usually on the weekend. Fasting in the U.S. is so difficult because the day is too long and the people around you arent fasting, but in Saudi Arabia, it is much easier because all the people are fasting. Maturity By Ahmed (Saudi Arabia) Do you know what the best age in your life is? Maturity is important to quit your life when you were child and begin the second level in your life. At this time, you can make decisions, and you are responsible about it .Also, there are different kinds of maturity, including maturity of your body and maturity of your intellect. Maturity of your body means your body will be growing up significantly from age 10 to 16. The voice will change for both men and women. Then you will have a lot of hair everywhere on your body for boys, and you will have muscles. Also, you will be taller than now. Additionally, there is maturity of intellect .You can make decisions and you will be responsible for those decisions. You have to think about everything before you do it, like when someone gives you a cigarette. You have to think that if you take it, you will be a smoker for a long time .For example when I was in elementary school, my friend gave me 3 a cigarette. He said just try it, then I tried it. Look at me now. I have been a smoker for 3 years. Sometimes maturity will be negative. You will be nervous, and maybe you don't care about anything. Also, you can't depend on yourself .For example, someone has brothers and sisters. He is the oldest. He thinks they will do whatever he wants, no matter if they like it or not. He doesnt listen to anyone and is always annoying them. Ambition By Harumi (Nicaragua) I am going to define the topic ambition, which is a strong desire to do or achieve something. Ambition is a kind of feeling that you have when you want to get something, be successful, or do something the best you can. This something is what you call a purpose, that is, the reason for which something is done. Also if you want too much something or if you want to have success in something, you can get obsessed. That is a feeling that gets you preoccupied continually and can hurt you and your family in different ways. A strong desire to do something and be successful can be one meaning about ambition. To be successful means to achieve an objective or purpose, and also, if you understand it like having money, it can mean having achieved fame, fortune, or social status. For example, if you start your own business it is because you know how difficult it was to begin and all that you had to do to make it work. Also, if you set up a purpose, you will always have that ambition to do it the best you can and of course with the idea of succeeding. For example, if you have the determination of losing weight you will always have that ambition or desire (that can be a synonym) to get what you want, no matter what happens or what you have to face to do it. You can get frustrated because you cant achieve your purpose, because you have this ambition of being successful about getting your goal done. To get frustrated means to prevent a plan or

action from progressing, succeeding, or being achieved this has more to do with plans or actions, but getting frustrated can also mean to cause someone to feel dissatisfied or unsuccessful. That is mostly related to feelings or emotions. An example of this can be if you are working on a project, and you have this strong ambition to do it and succeed, like something that involves you needing to discover a vaccine or something that is going to help a lot of people. You tried it for months, but you just cannot do it or find it, and then you can get depressed and think that you are not worthy at all. That can lead to a strong depression or maybe to something else that wont have any solution. How is your ambition reflected in the people that are around you? What can happen when people get obsessed with something? The first question can be illustrated with this example. If you are working on a project that involves being out of the home for too much time, and you have family, this can be a source of distancing from your family because you are so involved that you cant allow that something to interrupt you. Maybe your family does not understand this and thinks that you are always outside and maybe in a bad mood that they would like to get distance from you; too. The second question can be illustrated with this other example: something that can happen as in the example before. You can get alone without family or friend. Another thing that can happen is that if you are so obsessed (which also can be another synonym-in a bad meaning-of ambition) that you do not know what is good and wrong, so you do whatever you can do or sometimes things that you are not able to do to get what you want, and you can hurt people and do illegal things. Another thing that can occur is that you can develop health problems because you do not care about you anymore: The only thing that you care about is getting done whatever your goal is. When you realize what you did it can be too late to change the things. So finally, ambition is something that can help you to complete your goal or purpose and success; but you had to have clear that everything has a final. If you are not able to do something, or the thing you are doing is affecting your family, you have to decide if the thing you are doing is really honorable or if it has a really meaning for you. What Does True Friendship Mean? By Ji Hyun (South Korea) We have a lot of friends. Maybe I think people dont have true friends. Sometimes, I worry about my true friend because I have a few true friends. But Im not sure about that, and I never think about true friendships meaning. That makes it difficult for me. First, true friendship means to not tell a lie because lying is very bad. I dont like lies. If you have 4

a good friend, you should tell the truth. When you tell a lie to your friend, she feels sad and angry. I can understand her mind. I tell the truth to my friends. That is important so your friends can believe you! In addition, true friendship means advice. In fact, I hate someones advice because when someone gives advice to me, I feel sad and angry. So, I dont give advice. However, if you have a best friend, you are allowed to give advice. A few of my friends give advice to me. For example, you should decrease your weight, you should call me, and you should have a warm character. I like my best friends advice because they knew everything more than my parents and brother. I would like for my bad points to change to good points! Furthermore, true friendship means communication. My friends and I often are busy because they are preparing their jobs and grades. They live in South Korea. However, I live in the U.S.A. now, and Im studying English. We cant meet for one year. Yet, we can communicate. For instance, we can use Facebook, Twitter, email, and calls. We dont stay together in the same country. Dont worry. Sometimes, you have to be in communication with your friend! Finally, I believe you have a true and good friend. Many people need true friends. I think friends are very important. A friend is a treasure. Kids and Adults By FiFi (China) Have you ever heard one sentence: One country, to be powerful in the world, depends on their young people? So, thats what I want to talk about kids and adults. Which are more important? When I was in Shanghai, I worked in the government. Once, we needed a person whos good at working with computers. There were lots of people who came to the interview. Finally, we had two people that both were just to this job. One was a young person who was a university student. The other was an engineer of using computers. So, we thought about that. How can we make a choice? Then we gave both of them a test. What about making a PPT to introduce themselves? Also, the student spent 10 minutes to do that, and it was not excellent, but it was really good. The old person spent a long time, probably like 30 minutes, but his job was better than the student. For this example, guess what happened? In fact, we chose the student. Why? First, the student spent a short time. Although his work was worse than this engineer, he was very quick, and his PPT was good. Second, he was a young person. It was a new beginning to him. He tried to do a good job in a short time. As we all know, in some cases, time is the most important thing in our life. Finally, the biggest reason was that we didnt mind if you made mistakes. Sometimes,

mistakes mean improvement. If you never make mistakes, one, that is impossible. Two, that means you wont improve yourself. So, all of us though that the student will be fine. In this situation, I want to say that kids are more important than adults for one country because humans need to improve in this world. We can never stop. Thats why we said, Wave to wave means improve! Of course, we should be thankful to our adults. They taught us everything and take care of us. All we can do is our best and try our best to be a useful person in our society as soon as possible. My Ambition By Mohammed Alessa (Saudi Arabia) At the first, I will talk about Ambition. Ambition means what is my dream, what I want to do or get in the future, or what I hope to have. Then I will try to run to or get that. My ambition is getting a good position in a new and big company. For that, there are many things to take or get that I concluded during last period of my work, so there are several factors to help me get my ambition. The first factor is to improve my English skills. I decided that when I was working and saw the job requirements because many important companies in my country share with foreign parties, so I need to improve my language to get my goal to communicate with the people. Also, the English language has becomes the most useful language in the world. Thus, I am interested in learning it. In order to get the best choice, I should choose a country that has the English language as its native language. My experience on that is I chose the USA to develop my language, and here I can do many things to leap. For example, I selected a good institute, live with a homestay and practice with others. What are the benefits that I will get? I believe that I can use this language everywhere. For instance, I can use it with my traveling, working, and negotiation. The second factor is to complete my education. Why? Because it will let me have a good chance to have many jobs and good positions. Also, it is a very important thing in my country, so my government spends a lot to develop it. Why did I decide to improve my education? I decided that for two reasons; the first is because all of the big and famous companies choose the one who has the highest degree of education. The second reason is all of my family and friends support my decision. Also, there are many students who have Bachelor degrees, so I should be more qualified. Then I will earn more skill and experience through my studies in another country. The third factor is to get new skills and experience. There are many ways, such as reading and listening. There are many books and sites that support and help me to improve my skills. Also, 5

having interviews with instructed people is helpful as well. I should help myself out when I am in need. For example, I like to go alone when I want to finish some papers and my work because that helps me and makes me speak. In the end, that was about my ambition and how I can achieve it. There are many things to help and support me to do it. Also, I think that the first thing is improving my language in order to reach my goal. Moreover, I think everyone has a different idea, so I recommend everyone who wants to achieve his/her ambition to work behind it very hard. What is Maturity? By Mio (Japan) Have you imagined what a mature person is? Maturity may have many different meanings depending on the person. My mature person who I have imagined is mentally satisfied, patient, decisive and adult. First, a mature person is mentally satisfied. The term mentally satisfied means that the person is sentient of happiness. For instance, a person who feels happy for the smallest things in life, has dinner with family, says Good night for loved one, or perhaps, finding a parking spot smoothly. Therefore, a mature person doesnt make all sorts of complaints. Second, a mature person has patience. In my view, the definition of patience is attentively listening to the conversationalist and giving the time for that person to express ones feelings without interruption. Also, this person can ask good question that inspire increased motivation in others, and has the ability to make the other person realize important things in a positive light. Third, a mature person is decisive. This person is rational and remains steadfast about whom one is. The person takes responsibility for ones own behavior, and doesnt blame others. Forth, a mature person should be an adult. Its not necessary, age has got nothing to do with the mature person, but I feel strange that people call minors mature. I feel this way because children should be protected socially. Also its natural for under aged kids to have limited rights. Therefore, I made it one condition that the mature person is old enough under the law. In conclusion, there is a mature person in the world, somewhere. One is mentally satisfied, patient, can make decisions by oneself and is an adult. This person is spending quiet life, and say thank you for something great at the end of the day.

Future Map By Ekab (Saudi Arabia) I agree with children learning another language because they can talk the second language. Like now, some people speak two languages, English and Chinese because the first is a superpower and the second will be. For example, countries send a lot of students to the U.S.A. because they will get good language and a good major. Furthermore, families must teach their children another language if it will help them when they go to a job to visit. Also, the first language isnt used now in this time. But, when the second language is started in school, they should find good teachers and books because these are the way to learn a language. For example, all students from Saudi Arabia get English language. Why? Because they didnt study English well, and they never looked to their future. They just look to their nose because the future is very far, but now they made a future map. I hope all people help their children learn a language and dont break their dreams because their time is changing. Ambition By Mohammed Alghamdi (Saudi Arabia) What does ambition mean? It means a strong desire to achieve something. The question is how to make your ambition be come true? My answer is easy. You need to imagine, and you need to ask yourself this question to improve yourself. The question is, will how you do it, will when you do it and what do you need to do? The things you need to make your Ambition become true are you must fluctuate, persevere and be acceptable. Every young person would like to see himself how he will be in the future, but he must move his butt to make it a reality. First of all, you have to make a fluctuation in your life, but you have to make a big change. Every person would like to make different things in his life. Sometimes change can be difficult because you're so used to doing things the way you've always done them. Old habits can tie you to an old identity, and that can stop you from having the life you want. For example, you're a person who doesn't know anything about business. In this situation, you have to make a big jump. Take a business class or meet people who know about business. After a while you will say to yourself, "I know how to make a good business. You can change your life and your job. If you have a good job and you see that you are able to have better than this job, change it because you will have many experiences and you will be an expert. The great thing about fluctuating is changing your life. Many people make changes in their life. I know that is the hardest thing, but with faith and power, it can be. It's "to be or not to be." 6

Second, many people, when they try to do something and they failed, they stop trying at the first time. We are supposed to persevere without quitting. In this life, we have to try and try and try, not forfeit. For example, Thomas Edison, who doesn't know that great guy? Edison kept trying to develop the electric lamp. Before his works, we did not have cameras, phones and recorded votes. He did a great job for himself and for us. That is a good example about keeping trying. Edison was a clever man. He kept trying without stopping. We can learn from Edison that nothing impossible is to stop trying. If you failed, try again. Perhaps you will get what you try to do or have. Third, the person who wants to make his ambition become true is supposed to be acceptable. He has to have a good body and great health, to have a better life and to be able to change everything. One of the reasons that the person can increase his mind is to be able to think fast and understand to prove himself in his profession. A person who knows how to use his mind can give multiple ideas adequate to make his life great. For example, if there is someone who doesnt know his duty in his life he will fall down. When I said fall down, I mean he will not make any accomplish and he will have a demoralize feeling. Our life is in our hands, and our mind is still working. We can do whatever we want. Finally, some people stop continuing to chase their dream, but if we use our minds to think and keep trying, it will become true. So, how to do it. You will change your life from the outset. That's my viewpoint, but dont avoid your friends because some of them will help you. It's necessary to persuade yourself to change or to leave something. It's really cleverest if you managed your changing. Comparing Ahmad and Ahmed By Shaher (Saudi Arabia) Ahmad is 22 years old. His personality is peaceful, nerdy, and smart sometimes. Ahmed is 19 years old. His personality is one of them like Ahmad also. He is peaceful also and eccentric sometimes. They live together, but every day they have a different opinion and fight, but not seriously. So, Ahmad is a nerd, and Ahmed is eccentric. It is a big difference although they are good friends. Being Truly Happy to Being Satisfied By Liliana (Ukraine) Id like to reflect on the differences and resemblances between being truly happy and satisfied. Some people think these are the same things. For example my classmate Madyna supposes just so. I have another opinion, and Id like to consider this theme in more detail. I see at the minimum three matters where there are differences in

between. It is the attainability, the power and the duration of happiness and satisfaction. The first one is the attainability. Everyone knows that it is a relatively simple matter in that someone becomes satisfied. If you are hungry, you would just eat something, and you will be satisfied. In contrast, it is very difficult to feel truly happy. Because, at first, the person has to have a great dream, and then he has to exert every effort for achievement of the dream, and it is a necessary condition for this. There is no guarantee that you will have a needed result, but if you have done it you are truly happy. The next distinction is the power of those feelings. Certainly, we know that strength of feeling of happiness is stronger than strength of feeling of satisfaction. If you are not satisfied, you can be a little sad or disappointed, but you won't cry from morning till night. On the opposite, if you are satisfied, you can give a smile one time, and that is enough. Happiness feels differently. I mean, everybody has sometimes seen people who were crying owing to happiness because people have been awfully overfilled by sensations. So, we see that happiness induces much more intense emotions than satisfaction. Last of all is duration. I dont know why the period of satisfaction is longer than the term of happiness, but its true. I just say that satisfaction could go on many years, whereas happiness continues only a few moments. For example, if we are satisfied of our profession, it can continue all our life. I mean, if each of us will recall some happy points in our life the birth of a child, the wedding, the getting of diploma, etc, we can make sure that happiness has continued a few moments only. And then happiness little by little transforms into satisfaction. I would say that happiness looks like a photo, and satisfaction looks like a movie. I mean that a photo fixes just one moment, whereas a movie continues for a time. Even if a movie has some poignant moments, the common impression from the whole movie is much calmer than from these episodes. They are like happiness and satisfaction, arent they? As a result, we see that being truly happy isnt the same as being satisfied. Probably, these feelings have some likeness, but obviously they differ in such points as the frequency, the intensity and the continuance. That is why we appreciate the moments of happiness so high. We keep these minutes in a depth of our heart and recur to them from time to time.

Ambition By Madina (Somalia) Ambition is a strong feeling of wanting to be successful in life and achieve great things. The people who have ambition easily desire many things in their life, but getting what they want is not ease to get. The people who have ambition always like doing something good or getting something good in their life, and on the other hand the same people lack ambition and dont want to try anything or do anything, because they believe they will not ever succeed. The people who lack ambition are not happy because they give up their life and choose to do bad things rather than have a dream, and they always think negatively. The People who have ambition are different. They wish many things in their life, and they believe their dream will come true one day. They always think positively. For example, one individual feels strongly that he or she can be a singer, doctor parent and many more. The majority of who have ambition reach their target at the early age, some of them get it when they get older, and unfortunately, some of them never get it. If you have a goal that does not mean you will always have success. Some people do, and some people dont, but having an ambition and thinking optimistically is a good thing. In conclusion, if you have ambition, you have a goal, and you are always thinking about reaching your goal, you will likely succeed and feel strong and happy. Ambitious By Abdullah (Saudi Arabia) Ambitions are goals everyone wants to achieve in real life, and we will have many obstacles or problems that make us sometimes give up or get weary from it, but most people acknowledge that ambitions are most important for all people to live better with goals. It is a part of our life. We have many goals in our life, and sometimes make it by ourselves and sometimes share it with others. In my opinion, goals are to get enough education, be successful in life, and form relationships. First of all, education is the most important in our live. IT makes live better, and with litter problem. The people who have enough education have great live and great job, and with all of that we will have great goal or ambition. Second, relationship is the part of a human people that we need to be success in. We have to keep a good impression with people, and that we have to work hard in. Relationships are one of my goals in life. Also, to be successful in live have to work hard and never give up or get weary. We always have problem in life and that going to hurt us in the 7

future, but if we planning for successful future we hopefully will receive. Be success in the future one of my goal too. Finally, with education, good relationship, and be successful in live are the most important in my live, and that all what I want and that most important goals for me. Future needs education and good relationship and with that we will have a good and the most successfully life. Maturity By Hesham (Saudi Arabia) What does maturity mean? Many is the ability to stand strong in a crisis. It is being able to have your own convictions regardless of the world around you. First, I think when do you have maturity I think you must be consist your principle because today the a lot of human in the world They didnt have whole maturity they missing the formula and they have Philosophy I like to the people have philosophy but a lot of people they didnt estimate of the human. Second, the a lot of people they maturity but they have suffering because they have a big Responsibility so accurate this is feeling hard but they challenge them self .also, they has discover of they live . But we should give them a lot of advice, guide, and consideration of them. Third, I think when you have maturity, you must be unbelievable because you change your look when you are younger. Also, you have a beard and mustache when you must be a man and your sound is bigger. Finally, I wish the people most be prefer to maturity for them live and they must be happy and always have fantastic if they have a good maturity. The Effect Of Learning The Piano In Brain By Hoki (South Korea) Have you ever heard that math and music are one subject in Greek? People had been thinking that learning instruments would be in close connection with development of brain, because there had been many famous scientists and doctors, like Albert Einstein and Thomas Alva Edison, who had great musical senses. The piano is one of the general instruments. Piano is played by the most notes than others at a time, due to be able to play a chord. Both hands have different skills to play, and ears should listen carefully to both sound. What`s more, It needs the technique of the pedal using feet. Is there any training that needs various actions at a moment as much as playing the piano? Therefore, playing piano can help stimulate the working of brain. 8

If children who are about 6 to 10 years old learn to play the piano, they would be smart. Our brain has two side; right and left brain which play the different role each. Right brain is a part that is emotional and sensitive as opposed to left brain which is a part that is logical and mathematical. Using left hand and listening to music are good for the development of right brain. Moreover, in early childhood, the growth of brain is very active. A research team, University of California Irvine announced that Musical training is the best practice that develops logical brain, memory, and essential abilities for mathematics and science. Besides, William Shaw who is a biochemist presented the evidence that piano lessons had improved learning ability of elementary students. All these facts have proved that learning to play the piano is important for our brain. As a consequence, we learn playing the piano not simply to enjoy the music. It is so much useful to grow our brain also. What I want to suggest is that educate your children about the piano for their future.
Reference data The Need of Early piano education - A master`s thesis by Hyo-Eun, Jung WonKwang University In South Korea l

The Obesity Risk By Hawra (Saudi Arabia) Obesity means having too much fat in the body that makes it so much overweight. It is kind of disease. It is caused by overeating or not exercising; therefore, the body saving more fat inside. Taking more calories than you burn will lead to obesity. In fact our bodies keep our weight at a healthy level by specific system, but in some people it doesnt work very well. Many people dont understanding the obesity epidemic and its dangers of it in a time that result in a large number of deaths. These people really need our help to know what it is. We must notify people about the awareness of obesity and impact on heart, blood sugar, and the biggest problem, psychological complications. In addition, with the development of medicine there is many kind of health diet and surgery treatment of obesity, but prevention is better than treatment. What do you estimate is the most danger of obesity? How? Our heart is an important and sensitive part of us. It role is to keep us alive. Obesity leads to saving excess fat all around members of the body, and accumulation fat on arteries of the heart hinders blood to continue its function, consequently get a heart attack. What are heart attacks? In the medical term it means the death of part of the heart tissue. The heart stroke occurs as a result of blockage of a coronary artery blood and fat of part of the heart tissue, thus led to death of the blockage. This artery was fed the heart. Maryam Al-gadhban

was very famous Kuwaiti actress. She was very very fat that affected her health. Over the time she had several diseases. Then she suffered heart attack. You may have heard a story like this. This makes it very serious risk. Did you know that obesity is one of the main causes to have type 2 diabetes? Obesity is a factor for this chronic disease. First what is the diabetes? Diabetes occurs because of imbalance insulin secretion leading to high blood sugar over the normal. The glucose sugar comes from the food we eat when it digests and uptake blood to be used as a source energy, and excess energy store it in liver and muscles. The pancreatic is excreted the insulin hormone. It has some riskiness. It consists of having blindness, like what happens with Maryam Algadhban before she died, or affect in your heart, kidney and the nervous system. If you take care of your body by eating healthy food and doing exercise then you will protect your body from all of this.

More importantly, another effect of obesity is the psychological threats. You may see the obesity people have depression and frustration about their body, and some of them have being mockery of the environment that make them an isolated individual. In addition, they suffering from difficult of controlling feelings It is very sore feeling; therefore, some of them make very strong diet to loss as much as possible in short time rather than change some approach in there live. Then they retrieved that weight which lost in the same way. These days there is many programs which take care of obesity people and awareness how to protect ourselves of it, such as the famous program, The biggest Loser which I see it a helpful and successful. You should have recognition about this significant subject to know how you can protect yourself and your family from the complications of obesity, such as what we said, including heart attack, diabetes and psychological problems.


Athletes and Drugs By Ali Alsogair (Saudi Arabia) Athletes have always represented their countries; therefore, they have to be strong enough to win and get advanced place among other countries. Thus, there are some athletes who use drugs to enhance their performance, even though it is not permitted. There are some people who agree with using drugs because it is helpful, especially after injury. Also, if the athletes use drugs, they could break a world record. In addition, drugs can help the athletes to be ready easily and quickly. First of all, Some people say that it should be allowed because drugs can be helpful for the athletes who just come back from injury, whether bone break or bruise. However, I think this is wrong because obviously when the body needs to heal before resuming exercise, physical training should increase gradually after injury, not suddenly like what the drugs enable them to do. Athletes will play well with drugs. Yet, they will suffer in the near future. Therefore, in the athletes world, safety should come first. Secondly, some others say that if the athletes take drugs they could break a world record. I would say this is not fair for the others who worked hard and prepared for months and sometimes years trying to achieve a moment of epitome to represent their countries. So, sports should involve not only winning and losing, but also practicing ethics. Finally, some people have thought that athletes should take drugs to make them 9 psychologically and physically ready, easily and quickly. That could be true, but that means anyone can be an athlete and no one needs to prepare before a race. Anyone could just take drugs and win. In conclusion, athletes should be an epitome to represent their countries well. Therefore, they have to have sportsmanship. In addition they have to keep their bodies healthy. So, the negative impact of drugs is greater than the positive effects. The Spirit of Modesty By Kasane (Japan) If I were asked to choose one symbol to represent my country, I would choose the spirit of modesty. Most Japanese are modest. We try to avoid fighting and to be peaceful. In fact, most Japanese dont interrupt the conversation when we are talking. If we want to say something when someone is speaking, we wait until the person finishes speaking. We listen carefully and also speak carefully, because language has a power, and the words that we speak may hurt someone. We were taught that words have a soul, and what we say will happen. So, we hardly ever speak bad words and try not to do that. Some people may think that Japanese cannot argue. It is true. Most Japanese are not good at disagreeing, because we would like to respect each other and everyones philosophy. We try to understand each personality and background. Sometimes, it is a weak point of Japanese, but it is also one of our greatest virtues.

Organic or Conventional Food By Ghosson (Saudi Arabia) Organic food or conventional (non-organic) food - this is the question. First of all, what does organic mean? According to US Department of Agriculture (USDA), organic is a production system that integrates cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity. So, all other kinds of food that arent produced this way are conventional and not organic. They defined this kind st of product in the beginning of the 21 century. Before th the 20 century, all the food was considered to be organic. In the mid-1900s, the difference between organic and conventional started to grow. In 2002 the USDA created a national organic standard. They found that some people suffered from health problems because of the chemicals in the food. Even though conventional food is more convenient for the farmer and the customer, organic food is safer and healthier. Some people say that organic food is too expensive. In fact, this is true. On the other hand, if people look at the expenses that they have to pay for sickness and health problems, they will prefer to pay some extra coins for organic food. As a result, two disturbing issues are that conventional food contains chemicals and fertilizers to promote plant growth, and farmers spray insecticides to reduce pests and disease. These all go in the body. Other people may say that conventional food is available all the time and everywhere. However, even though organic food is more difficult to find, people can grow their own plants like tomato, hot pepper and potato. Also, they can try a little harder to keep their body healthy and in good condition by finding farmers markets around their area and pay what they need every week. Our health deserves for us to work hard to keep it in good condition. Dealers may say that conventional food is easy to sell and profitable. However, farmers and sales personnel have to think about their customers and how they affect their society. Conventional products use herbicides to manage weeds and give animals antibiotics, growth hormones and medications to prevent disease and spur growth. Scientific research indicates that when people eat this kind of food in large amounts, it can cause cancers, fat, diabetes, and high blood pressure. In conclusion, conventional products cause a lot of health problems. These reasons should encourage everybody to try to use organic food to live a long life with a healthy and strong body. It is our responsibility in life to keep our body healthy, strong and safe. All people should raise their children to be careful about what they eat. When we all stand and refuse to eat conventional food, then maybe we can make a difference. 10

Children Playing Outside By Abdullah H. (Saudi Arabia) Children shouldn't play outside of their houses because there are many reasons to keep them away from the risks. Children shouldn't play on street outside the home because there are some reasons such as accident on street, bad habits. As result, kids might get kidnapped if they play every day on the street. Children shouldn't play on street outside the home because nowadays some people drive their cars madly and we have to keep children away from the street. Some children dont care while the cars on the road. And they might get killed in an accident. Some families allowed their kids to play on street because they low income or in fact they're poor people they dont have money to buy toys for their kids to keep them in safety places. The child will get affected by people on the street and their acts. An important thing is that the child might grow up among bad people. The child will see people who smoke then the child will do it also while no one knows about it. Sometimes, the children save what the people talk about while they play on street and ideas of criminal. The children might get kidnapped on street. Some families leave their children playing on street outside the home a couple of hours without care about them. There are many bad people kidnappers of children. We heard and watched a moves why bad people kidnapped kids from the street. Some people kidnap children bargain to get money. Finally, we must learn how to save kids of the risks. Children should play in a private area for children only. If the children play inside their homes or in private area the results will be the best because there are many children who get kidnapped on the street every day. Effects of the 2010 Earthquake in Chile By Roxana (Argentina) In February 2010, a severe earthquake hit Concepcion in Chile. It measured 8.8 on the Richter scale and caused extensive damage and loss of life. This was followed by many aftershocks ranging from 4.9 to 6.9 in magnitude (Los Andes News). The earthquake happened because the area sits where the Nazca plate meets the South American plate, and the Nazca plate shifted and created a "thrust fault" 21 miles below the earth's surface. This shift caused a massive movement that traveled upwards and made the landmasses move violently. This effect of this shift was immediate and devastating not only to property and material things but also to human life. I know because I was living in Mendoza, Argentina, which is in a

direct line with Santiago, and there in my house we were hit by an aftershock that measured 5.5 after traveling through the Andes mountain range. In Concepcion, services such as communication, electricity and water were cut off. The houses that survived did so without light or water to cook by. Basic needs for life were gone. Many houses fell down so many people were left homeless, eventually living in tent cities. Travel was impossible. Roads were destroyed. The international airport in Santiago was almost destroyed and was closed for several days. Tourists and Chileans were stuck there with no flights to leave. This stopped all flights into Chile, so people returning were stuck in foreign countries mostly without news of their loved ones. The earthquake even caused people's attitude to change, making honest people do things they would not normally do. Because of a lack of food, people began looting and some were stealing. The police were not able to control so the military had to intervene. This was a very tough decision for a country that had been under military rule for so many years. In conclusion, earthquakes affect many people and in many different ways. It can even cross countries borders, as it did into Argentina. However the people and the government pulled together and eventually they overcame the hardships. Team Sports By Ali Alyami (Saudi Arabia) Playing a team sport is more beneficial to build a childs character than an individual sport. When you play a team sport, you prove your skills and play better than you did before, because you learn from your team. They always help you and they will tell you what you need to do to be professional. The sport teams are looking to be the best one, so they work together. You can build your character with your team. In addition, if you play an individual sport, you are more likely to do many mistakes. However, with a team sport, even if you make mistakes, the others are going to cover for it. You will get many chances. Finally, I really prefer to play a team sport more than an individual sport. I can get experience and help from my teammates, and they cover me if I make mistakes. I can build my character easier than with individual sports.

Worldwide Effects of Japans Nuclear Power Plant Accident By Jordan (South Korea) Have you ever heard about the terrible 2011 Japanese earthquake? According to Lauren Tarshis article in the Scholastic Scope, the quake was 40 miles off Japans coast, and it sent shockwaves hundreds of miles in every direction. Then, the quake triggered a series of massive waves called a tsunami. This tsunami was hundreds of miles wide, and it raced across the ocean at jet speeds. It hit Japans northeastern coast with such incredible force that anything in its way was obliterated. Consequently, approximately 20,000 people died. Entire towns were simply erased by the raging waters. The disaster caused another terrible calamity, which was the demolition of Fukushima No.1 nuclear power plant. This accident is the second worst accident related to nuclear power plants since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in Ukraine in 1986. After the 2011 Japanese earthquake, many countries decided they are supposed to try to change their policies about nuclear power plants. There are various ways countries established new plans. Some countries announced the end of their nuclear power plants. Other countries declared they would seek to decrease their reliance on nuclear power and try to find other ways, such as the development of alternative energy sources. In addition, all countries examined their nuclear power safety regulations. The 2011 Japanese earthquake and power plant accident affected every countrys political views about nuclear power production and consumption. First of all, a few countries like Germany, Switzerland and Italy announced the end of their nuclear program. For example, in his BBC News article about Germanys choice, the writer Stephen Euns stated, Germanys coalition government has announced a reversal of policy that will see all the countrys nuclear power plants phased out by 2022. The decision makes Germany the biggest industrial power to announce plans to give up nuclear energy. Our natural resources like oil and coal are definite. However, as our civilization has developed since the industrial revolution, a lot of natural resources have already been used and the present demand is more than the past. Nuclear power was invented in order to satisfy the excessive demand, and it has many strong points except safety. Most countries which have used nuclear power know about both faces of nuclear energy, because it is not only useful but also risky. However, it was difficult to choose to use or not, because nuclear energy is essential for their development. The 2011 Japan crisis pushed countries to choose one option - development or safety. Accordingly, they chose their safety. In fact, European countries can buy power from neighboring countries when they are short on power. Probably, 11

their decision was a little easier than other countries which are poor in natural resources. A second effect of nuclear power plant accident in Japan is development of alternative energy sources. A writer for the Japanese publication Mainichi suggests that the government, which has pledged to reduce Japans reliance on nuclear power, should shift its energy policy toward developing renewable energy and energy-saving technologies. Moreover, it should clearly show how many years it will take before all nuclear power plants are decommissioned as well as how electric power can be secured and what kind of life styles members of the public should adopt until that goal is achieved (Taku). Japan realized the serious danger of nuclear power more than other people, because they had such a terrible experience. However, Japan says it still needs to use this risky energy until they find alternative energy sources. In addition, Japan can produce a few natural resources, but they are not enough to cover energy consumption. So, Japan tries to find renewable energy and energy-saving technology as soon as possible. Many Japanese want to stop using nuclear power. Even if they use nuclear energy unavoidably, they might be anxious and could tremble for fear because another crisis could occur anytime. Many people hope that these. Japaneses endeavors can release them from future acute ordeals. Another different effect of 2011 Japan disaster is change of safety management processes. Yun Choul-Ho, president of the South Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety said, There is no change in the governments plan for expansion of nuclear power plants. We believe there is no alternative to nuclear energy at this stage, and instead we can take this opportunity for reviewing nuclear safety, as well as for expanding exports of nuclear technology (qtd. in Woo). The government seems to believe that the benefits from nuclear energy are bigger than potential woes, despite the crisis in Japan. South Korea does not have any other choice which replaces current energy production, as Yun Choul-Ho already mentioned. In fact, all of South Koreas natural resources rely on imports from other countries. It is difficult to obtain resources with rational prices, because the cost of resource has increased gradually. So, nuclear power plants are the best way to produce the energy without importing natural resources. However, the 2011 Japanese disaster exposed the safety problem of nuclear power plants. This situation could be good lesson to South Korea. If South Korea doesnt have any alternative way and has to keep using nuclear power plant, then it should review nuclear safety. Even though South Korea is not quake-prone, nobody can be sure about natural disasters. Many citizens of South Korea may not want their family to live in polluted country. Also, they wish South Korea should figure out safety problems from imperfect to perfect. Consequently, these efforts 12

will cause all the world to trust South Koreas aptitude. To sum up, the 2011 Japanese power plant accident affected world-wide polices about energy production plans. It caused not only more safety checks, but also development of alternative energy resources. Also, this disaster made some countries eliminate dependence on nuclear energy. It is hard for many countries to decide their plans about energy, but they should find alternative plans. Then, each country has to choose their ways and persevere to achieve their goal. Finally, it is essential that people should not suffer from such an agonizing disaster again. What are the Causes and Effects of Illiteracy? By EunJung (South Korea) Nowadays, people watch and communicate with other people from their own country and many other countries through Internet or Facebook. The world is getting developed more and more. However, do you know that many people in the world cannot read and write? You may not believe in the fact, but it is true. According to UNICEF, Nearly a billion people, two-thirds of them women, will enter the 21st century unable to read a book or write their name (David Boaz). Even in the United States, it is estimated that 93 million U.S. adults have Basic and Below Basic literacy skills (National Coalition For Literacy). If so, why does the world have the problem of illiteracy? Parents and societys prejudice about education, social instability, and poverty cause illiteracy. Besides, it affects personal, family, and national problems. The environment in which a person lives is very important. Two crucial factors causing illiteracy are parents and society. A few months ago, I watched Joohos story through You-tube. Jooho, a 12-year-old boy, lives with only his mother in Korea. Even though he goes to school, he is not able to read and write well because his mother is illiterate. Also, his mother is not interested in her sons education. Furthermore, education is officially banned for Afghanistan women. The government and their fathers or grandfathers do not agree with the idea of allowing their daughters and wives to become educated. Therefore, 87 percent of Afghan women are not able to read and write at all. In this way, the limited view of parents and society makes people illiterate. Another cause of illiteracy relates to war and conflicts in the world now. According to Global Security, Africa, to a greater extent than any other continent, is afflicted by war. Africa has been marred by more than 20 major civil wars since 1960. Rwanda, Angola, Sudan, Liberia, and Burundi are among those countries that have recently suffered serious armed

conflicts (Global Security). When a nation is not stable, people suffer from severe issues: economic damage, food production, famine, and education. In reality, a lot of African people cannot read and write; they have never even been to school. They have to wander from one place to another to survive. Children are forced to hold guns to be involved in war, not to hold pencils. In war or conflicts, it must be natural for people not to be illiterate. One of the major causes of illiteracy is poverty. If a family is very poor, the family doesnt have fundamental necessities such as food, housing, and clothes. Of course, they cannot support their children to go to school because they have no money with which to purchase books and school supplies and pay for school expenses. Most children of the poor family work at an early age. In her book about poverty in Uganda, Katie Davis says, Day after day, I witnessed poverty that was unimaginable. Hungry, naked, fly-covered children lay in the dirt crying for a mother who would never come because HIV had taken her life. I met parents who made cakes of mud and salt to fill their childrens bellies. As I walked my students home, I also met other children along the way, school-age boys and girls who, for some reason, were not attending classes. What I learned was shocking to me: Their guardians, be it an aunt or uncle, mother, father, or grandparents, could not afford the mere US $20 the school charged to cover operating costs for a three-month term (Davis p31-32). Moreover, there are also certain cases that countries are poor. Some governments do not provide enough schools and other educational institutions. Some children have to walk to school far away from their house. Others have to give up their education because there is no school around them. As a result of illiteracy, people cannot get a good job. In Joohos story, because his mother cannot work at a better place due to her illiteracy, she worked at a factory before and now is working in a factory, too. Illiterate people have difficulty being independent. The consequence of personal poverty causes family poverty. Like inevitable destiny, when parents are uneducated and poor, their children have a hard time overcoming indigence and illiteracy. Furthermore, the problem affects a countrys economy. Human beings are great resources in each country. However, if countries have a high illiteracy rate, the countries never develop. Many developing countries have had the tragedy for a long time, but still they are destitute. A Korean TV program shows several grandmothers who live in a small island, where they were learning Korean. Their faces were full of joy because of the fact that they could finally 13

read and write Korean. However, still now, many people all around the world are forced to interrupt their education since parents and communities dont have any interest in education; countries go through a war; or, people are very needy. Moreover, a lot of illiterate peoples suffering affects not only themselves but also their families and their countries. Works Cited Boaz, David. IlliteracyThe Bad News and the Good. Cato Institute. 20 Jan. 1999. Web. 30 Jul. 2012. Davis, Katie. Kisses from Katie. Howard. p3132. Oct. 2011.pdf. 2 Aug. 2012. The World at War. Global Security. 7 Apr. 2012. Web. 1 Aug. 2012. The causes and effects of stress By Kseniia (Ukraine) The ringing of the alarm makes us wake up. We open our eyes, get up from our warm bed and start our new day, which is going to be full of events: expected and unexpected, pleasant and unpleasant, and more or less stressful. If we begin to analyze, we can see that each day is a stage of the big marathon called life, where we try to survive and to occupy a particular niche in society. Since modern life is so diverse, changeable and unpredictable, its full of stress for us. Here I would like to talk about the causes and effects of stress on people. First of all, lets find the definition of stress. Dr. Susan Michie from the Royal Free and University College Medical School states that [The generally accepted definition today is one of interaction between the situation and the individual. It is the psychological and physical state that results when the resources of the individual are not sufficient to cope with the demands and pressures of the situation] (67). In other words, stress is a condition caused by any kind of environmental pressure on a personality, whose physiological traits are not able to fix it. From this we can infer that what is stressful for one person, might not be stressful at all to another one. So what causes stress? There are many reasons and they can differ from person to person. I will only write about the most common stressful agents, in my opinion, and financial problems can be one of them. They cause the main stress in the world like, for example, payments for a credit card, cost of living and health concerns. We know that many people are anxious about the financial crisis now.

They are afraid of losing their jobs, which are the source of their income and it can lead to an inability to pay bills or the accumulation of credit card bills. Also college students may be overwhelmed by having to pay back student loans, while elderly who live on fixed incomes may worry about how they will pay for their heating bill or purchase groceries. Clearly, all these can lead people to stress. Other causes of stress are work and study environment like long hours, work overload, time pressure, difficult or complex tasks, lack of breaks, lack of variety, and poor physical work conditions (space, temperature, light). Intense competition within the organization and the achievement of a career limit by employee result stress too. In addition, a style and inadequate management practices with a poor coordination inside of a work place can be quite stressful as well. Personal and social relationships are no less important in causing a stress in our lives like relationships between children and parents, a wife and a husband, or a new place for living and for studying. Attitudes, emotional reactions, states of thinking and features of human behavior are other factors which can lead to stress. Also it can be caused by unrealistic expectations and the reevaluation of personal features, too high demands on themselves. Scientists invented the Holmes-Raye scale which helps them and evaluates the way stress changes with events. According to it, during divorce the stress is 73% and 31% during buying a house. But the most stressful occurrence in the world is the death of a spouse. However, even happy events, such as a wedding or a birth of a child, can be stressful for people. Finally, lets see what effects of stress on people are. Responses to stress may be in the areas of feelings (anxiety, depression, irritability, fatigue), behavior (being withdrawn, aggressive, tearful, unmotivated), thinking (difficulties of concentration and problem solving) or physical symptoms (palpitations, nausea, headaches). If stress persists, there can be changes in neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, autonomic and immunological functioning of the body, leading to mental and physical illness (for example anxiety, depression, heart disease). Also, self-reported effects of stress on eating behavior may appear. And it displays at increasing of eating different snack-type food by people who are stressed out (Physiology & Behavior 511). 14

However, as we cant avoid stress in everyday life, we should work on learning skills of active coping and relaxation, and developing a lifestyle that creates a buffer against stress. In addition, we should focus more on positive things. I do believe that positive thinkers are less prone to suffer from stress. Going shopping By Rakan (Saudi Arabia) Going shopping is one kind of hobbies which most women enjoy doing because they want to find out if there are any new styles of clothes. They want to buy new clothes to look pretty or imitate famous actresses and hang out with friends to have fun. These are most common reasons for some women to go shopping. Some women like to go shopping because it is one of the hobbies they enjoy. Each woman has different hobbies. For example, some women like to go shopping, but others might be interested in playing sports, cooking food or traveling. Women who like to go shopping go to a lot of malls to find out if there are any new clothes. Also, they spend most of their days to go from mall to mall just to see if there are any new designs and if they do not find these designs, they will go to another mall on another day. Also, they like to choose their clothes by themselves, because each woman has different ways to choose and wear the clothes. For example, some women look for clothes which are famous brands like dress is made cotton or silk and they do not care about if these clothes are expensive. In addition, some women buy clothes and makeup and accessories to look more pretty and attractive to men. Moreover, they diet and exercise to be slim and then they go to the hair salon to get a haircut to look great. Some of them like to imitate actresses by the way that actresses walk or talk or dress. Some women like to hang out with their friends and go to have fun at the mall. On the other hand, hanging out is great to talk to each other and make more friends. For example, they call each other and determine which day to go to the mall and can ask for opinions. Some Women do not realize that go shopping is a big problem because some of them spend most of their salaries on expensive clothes and accessories. They work hard the whole month to get good salary which then disappears because they are buying clothes and they will not have enough money to pay their bills or money to live off until they will get paid the next month. A few women might even borrow some money from a friend or relative to buy clothes which may affect the relationship between them and their

friends or their relatives. For example, they might endanger the relationship which is more important than anything else or they probably have problem with the bank because they use their credit card a lot. Furthermore, they waste a lot of time shopping while their children may need them during that time. If they used the time that they wasted by sitting and taking care of their families or doing something is useful, then also their closets could be full of clothes. That might affect them to be bad habit or something calls shopping addicted. In conclusion, if some women cannot control themselves to buy a lot of clothes, at least they should buy cheap clothes which are not expensive. So they do not have to spend or lend money and if they do not want to keep their old clothes, they can donate them to poor people who do not have enough clothes to wear. In a few years, cable TV will be a thing of the past By Eric (Taiwan) In a few years, cable TV will be a thing of the past. Do you also agree with that? In the future, cable TV, Internet and telecommunications will be combined. People will change the usual way to watch TV, and use simpler and more convenient ways. There are a lot of websites for watching movies or programs, like YouTube on the Internet. We can watch these in any place that has the Internet. People gradually reduce the usage time of traditional cable. Of course, there are still a few people will continue to use it, such as the older people dont know how to use computer or Internet, but in the lives of most people computers and the Internet are already indispensable. So most people can accept the use of the Internet to do anything, including watching movies. So I believe cable TV will soon be a thing of the past because it is a future trend. In the past, people were accustomed to using the cable to watch movies or programs. In recent years, the development of the Internet has been very fast. People can use the Internet to do a lot of things. Perhaps there are some older people do not know how to use the Internet. But now the young children in school have to accept the education of computer courses. In Taiwan, there are a lot of older people who have also begun to learn how to use computer and Internet at a community college. I admit that watching TV with cable has some benefits, such as signal transmission stability. But have you ever missed the movies or TV programs that you love? We may not stay at home waiting for the movies or TV programs all day. Our plans arent one hundred percent in accordance with the television. However, we can use the Internet to watch any program we want to see. And we wont constraint of schedule programs. We can watch them any time. Moreover, if we use the Internet, it is more than only the function of watch movies. It can do many things, such as 15

search data etc Use Internet is more convenient than cable TV. It is simple, quick and easy. So I think that the traditional cable TV will be a thing of the past product. Many people may think, by using cable TV, they can choose a lot of channels and programs to watch. I think this is wrong. Why? For example, do you know how many people use YouTube a day? The answer is 40 million people use that, one hundred million times to hits video, and every day forty-five thousand new videos are added. This shows that many people are using YouTube to watch videos, and adding a video is also very fast. You can quickly find the video that you want. In addition, do you often watch shows or movies in other countries? In Taiwan, young people usually use the Internet to watch movies or programs from different countries, such as the Korean TV drama or Japan variety shows. We always use the Internet to watch these, because with cable TV cant see the programs of other countries. However, the Internet is different. It isnt confined to any country. With cable TV you can only watch own countrys TV. The selectivity is less than the Internet. So I think the Internet will replace cable TV within the few years. Final, I want to talk about the price. Now most people are using the Internet and cable TV. Each month, we have to spend $65 on the use of cable TV, and the Internet costs about another $60. Think about it, if we pay65 and indeed we can only watch TV. This is not very efficient, because we pay it only to watch TV. But using the Internet is different. Why? Of course, you still have to pay $60, but it has the same functionality on cable TV, plus you can also use the Internet to do other things. Obvious it is the interests of bigger than cable TV. So if the Internet can replace the cable TV, then why not cancel cable TV? If we do that, we also can save some money. And in the future, the Internet's transmission will become more stable than cable TV, because the Internet delivery method will be changed to fiber optic transmission. It will be more rapid and stable. The Internet is convenient, offers a low price, and a good selection. It has proven that the Internet can replace the cable. In the future, the Internet is a trend, because it is fast, easy, and even the transmission stability. So the cable TV will become a thing of the past. The effect of online shopping on my shopping habits By Yuta (Japan) As the Internet and logistic systems are improving more and more, the amount of online shopping has been increasing. According to the website, the U.S. e-commerce was 72 billion U.S. dollars in 2002 and 256 billion dollars in 2011. The rate was increased by about 3.5 times in

less than ten years. Almost 20 years ago, when we wanted to buy something, we normally had to go to the nearest shops. If we could not find the items we wanted we had to go to the center of the city. However, nowadays, we can easily go to many shops all over the world through the Internet. Furthermore, online shopping allows us to compare price easily and do shopping from our home. And even the items that are really rare, we dont need to wonder around looking for it. Certainly, one advantage of online shopping that is comparing prices easily is really good for customers like us. However, it has brought difficult circumstances to many brick-and-mortar shops. The appeal of real stores is having real items available. Even though we can read a lot of reviews of items when we are on the Internet, it might be difficult to choose the best item from a lot of items without seeing and handling it directly. However, this appeal point does not lead to sales. These days, my shopping habits are changed. For example, when I want to buy electronics like a TV, a PC, a printer, a digital camera, a vacuum cleaner, my shopping habits are as follows. First, I go to a huge electronics retail store. There I compare the items features, performance, looks, and prices through looking at them and handling real items. I ask a sales clerk if I have questions. And after deciding which item Im going to buy, I compare prices between the retail shop and online shops by using my smart phone. If I see that the price is lower in an online shop, I will go back home and order it on the Internet. In general, the prices of online shops are lower than that those of brick-and-mortar shops, because costs of display include lighting spaces, decorations, and labor costs that do not accrue so much for the online shops. The most important thing for online shops is the price of the items. It is difficult to find differences between online shops, thus they compete the lowest price. Although we can buy items cheaper, shops have to make an effort to put a low price tag. On the other hand, how can the brick-andmortar shops sell items and earn the money? Many huge electronics retail stores give customers a rewards card. Instead of cutting prices, electronics stores give us enough shopping points to making up for the price difference with online shops. An effect of giving shopping points is motivating customers to come again. In addition, some huge electronics retail stores do not only have brick-and-mortar shop but also online shop. Brick-and-mortar shops dont want to act a role of display. As online shops have developed, the brickand-mortar shops have changed their sales methods. When I recently went to a famous electronics retailer, I asked a shop clerk where the audio cable was, because I could not find the cable that I wanted to buy. The shop clerk said to me Please buy it online. 16

For that shop, the border between online and offline seems to be vague. I was a little bit surprised and felt sad that the opportunity of seeing real things in a store seemed to be shrinking. Why the governments should involve in family planning to limit population growth By Sandy (India) These days the world population is increasing more and more. The most populated countries in the world are China and India. For example, if we take India, the population rose from 1.2 billion in 2000 to 1.3 billion in 2011.The expected population in 2050 is 1.6 billion. If the population keeps growing like this, what consequences will happen? We need to stop this. If we dont stop now, it will be the major problem in future. In China the government implemented one-child-policy to limit population growth and the expected population in 2050 is 1.303 million. This is less than the expected population in India and China is gradually decreasing its population. So, government definitely should think about its population. Every country should maintain the population at an optimum level but it should get involved in another way without violating the individual rights. One reason why the government should get involved is to preserve the natural resources. Natural resources are land, water, air, oil etc. If the population increases the future generations might get problem with the resources and people may hard to find whatever they needed. Population growth is driving all of our resource problems, including water and energy. Frequent water crises in many parts of the world caused failure of agriculture leading to hunger and starvation. Frequent water crises often lead to migration of people and animals to other places thus causing overload on the resources of those areas. Some people say that why the government shouldnt get involved in family planning is, involving in family planning is violating ones personal rights. So, the government should not directly involve in family planning. Government should educate the people about family planning and it should provide tax credit to families who have fewer children. Furthermore, people should think about population of the country globally rather than personally. A second reason why the government should get involved is poverty. The number of mouths to feed is increasing day by day and at the same time, the amount of food needed is increasing. Many countries depend on import of food materials. Therefore, limiting the size of the family is necessary on national interest. For instance, if one family has more children than they are able to raise children, what will happen? The parents may not be able to give all needs what they want and they may not be provided sufficient food. And also, if the population

increases, the quality of life decreases. Furthermore, Poverty not only effect on families, but it also effect on the countrys economic development. Why the government shouldnt get involved is, people say that population is regarded as strength of the country. It may be right but what is the use of the population without sufficient resources? Overpopulation effect on resources, job opportunities, quality of life, and then what is the need of strength. Finally, controlling overpopulation saves one third of maternal deaths. For example, in India, maternal mortality rate was 230,000 in 2008 and it was increased to 287,000 in 2010. As the population is increasing, the mortality rate is increasing. By controlling the overpopulation, the number of women dying from pregnancy and childbirth can be decreased. However, some people say that involving in individual rights is not fair and its opposite to some cultural aspects. In some religions birth control is not allowed and in some cultures people prefer boys rather than girls. It may be their custom but its not right. People should treat girls and boys as equals. Some parents send their boy children to schools and girls to work because they dont treat the girl and boy equally and they think that girls no need to study. Therefore, governments need to get involved in this type of situation. For example, the government could have any law like one family can have only two children. In that case, people give same priority to their children irrespective of gender and maybe in the future, the gender discrimination would be completely eradicated. In conclusion government should get involved in family planning but it has to be limited to some boundaries. It is especially, more needed in overpopulated countries. In addition, the parents should be more responsible and careful. Our nations depend on everyone. Its everyones right to build their nation strong. So, controlling the overpopulation is not only the government responsibility but individuals also responsible for overpopulation. Therefore, Government may involve in family planning regarding overpopulation to build its nation strong and to give quality of life to people but it should not get too involved in personal rights. Is hosting the Olympics helpful or harmful to a country? By Heidi (Germany) I think hosting the Olympics is very helpful for the countries that get chosen to do so. These countries have a chance to change the city to a modern, life-friendly urban space and to make it to an environmentally-friendly view that everybody will like. The whole world looks at this city und everybody will say; thats is a beautiful and interesting city. There are many reasons to host the Olympics in your country, like new buildings, big stadiums, new parks, 17

and many shops. I want to explain so that you can also have an opinion. Every four years, a new country will be chosen to host the Olympics. Every country thinks about it and puts a plan together about what they have to do. Such an event must be well thought through, because they must build new and modern buildings, or a big stadium, which is also very important for their image. Before they will be chosen to host the Olympics, the country must show that they are ready for this big event. They must meet certain requirements. That means they build hotels, office rooms, restaurants, parks, and other facilities for the athletics, so that the visitors and all guests of the Olympics will be satisfied. However, critics say that it too expensive and that the people will suffer if the country goes bankrupt. However, if I want to change my country and help it develop to a good working economy, I must invest money into my country. Yes, it is expensive but once the new buildings are built many people will enjoy the modern city. There is another reason to host the Olympics. During the Olympics the city and the entire country can advertise and get contracts with different kinds of business in other countries. This can help the country to maintain their business after the Olympics and they can make a profit. In addition, visitors can visit the main city and learn the history of that country. The visitors will see that the country has a good infrastructure and think about coming to visit more often or even live in this country. Nevertheless, people are the opinion, that when the Olympics come to an end, the country wont have any money, like 1976 in Montreal in Canada. Back then, the country needed 20 years to recover. That is the truth, but many reasons led to this bad event (Stadiums by Munsey & Suppes). In a report someone wrote that [i]n 1970 when Montreal was named to host the Summer Olympics 1976, organizers estimated it would cost $310 million to stage the Games. However, due to political corruption, mismanagement, labor disputes, inflation, and a $ 100 million outlay for security to prevent another Munich, the final bill came to more than $ 1.5 Billion. The difference from the first point to the final point is too much and this can only lead to a disaster. The games in 1984 in Los Angeles for example made a profit of $250 million which shows that if you have an excellent organization you can do it. My last argument is that during the Olympics and afterwards there will be more jobs, and business for the athletes in the form of endorsements like advertising products. The business ranges from the shoes, clothes, food to sport equipment. In addition, people can learn more about other cultures and they can be very proud of their own country. Through the Olympics new ideas are developed like new sport activities. Some people want to be more active or healthy like the athletes and they go to the fitness center. Critics think after the Olympics there will be

no more jobs and the people dont have more money to live. However, when a country will evolve and will be among the best countries in the world you must attempt to bring your country forward and this is a big challenge to host the Olympics.

The Olympics are very important and can be helpful for all people in the country that will host them. That can lead to a better life and to a wellregarded country. It is only a little step with a big effect, having people learn more about the culture and people of that country.

The One Child Policy in China By Lei (China) Preface Mao, the chairman of China after 1949, came into power and said, Of all things in the world, people are the most precious. He opposed birth control and the import of contraceptives. Under his leadership, the population of China grew up double to the times before. Thats because he believed that birth control was a capitalist plot, which could weaken the country and make it in dangerous. Mao realized that too many people might be in big trouble in the 1970s. A new policy of late, long and few was popularized with the slogan: One is good, two is OK, three is too many. This policy forced couples to sign statements to get married later, wait to have children longer and the best way was to only have one child. The one child policy was implemented with the year after he died (One-child Policy in China). Introduction The one-child policy has been implemented in China for over 30 years. Although the policy controlled the population of China, the harm it brought is more then the benefit it gave us. Under this policy, the truth is there are more helpless people like exhausted young people, childless families, aborted women, and undocumented children. Background China began experimenting with the one-child policy in 1979, three years after Maos death, to control the ever-growing population of China and to cut down the consuming of scarce resources. Pursuant to the policy, every couple could only own one child except if the first child is a girl, but if the second one was still a girl, they could not have any more children. In some places of China, the couples can only have one child whether the child is a boy or a girl. This policy has been implemented from that time to now, so, if a family has two sons that might be very uncommon. The truth is that only 35 percent of China is covered by the one-child policy, and most of the 35 percent are urban areas. According to the conventional wisdom of China, people have to sacrifice themselves to help the overall situation which means the interests of the country which includes people having to give up to having more then one child to control the population of China (Wikimedia). Benefits of the Policy The population of China is controlled very successfully by the one-child policy, specifically in the cities. The average woman in China had almost six children in 1970, but now the number is two. The birthrate changed between 1970 and 1980. It dropped from 44 per 1000 to 18 per 1000, but the demographers said that 16.7 per 1000 or 1.7 children per family is the best birthrate rate for China. According to one Chinese official, 300 million births have been prevented by the one-child policy. The number is the same as the population of Europe. People have been helped out of difficult life by the decrease of the population, and the decrease of the population also has improved the economy of China (One-child Policy in China). Defects of the Policy Fines The government always implements the statutes to force the people to follow the one-child policy rules, although the policy theoretically is voluntary. The government will fine parents who have additional children. Depending on the different areas of China, the fine is from $370 to $12800. It is much higher than almost are Chinese peoples annual income. If the parents dont want to pay the fine, they might lose their jobs and the extra children will not have their ID (One-child Policy in China). Forced Abortions Sometimes the governments punishments are very excessive. A Shanghai woman who had her second child got pregnant in the 1980s. She was fired from her job, forced to have an abortion and was sent to a psychiatric hospital. In the early 2000s, she was still in a labor camp and had been tortured. Into the mid 2000s, the local government of Shandong searched for the families, which had more children. They forced the parents who had a second child to get sterilization and forced abortion on the woman who pregnant with their third child. No one was allowed to hide their relatives who had extra children except if they wanted to go to jail until the escapees 18

surrendered. According to a woman, she said she had been hustled into a van, taken to the hospital, forced to consent and given a sterilization operation in 10 minutes (Birth Control and Abortion in China). According to another woman her relatives were thrown in jail by the local government and they were denied and threatened with torture because she was seven months pregnant. The local government told her relatives that they would not be released until the woman had an abortion. At last, after 24 hours, she delivered a dead fetus by a doctor who had inserted a needle into her uterus. Furthermore, in 1983, the family-planning committees forced fourteen women to abort. In 2006, six women were forced to have an abortion (The Brutal Truth). Troubles of Customs Hundreds of millions of Chinese people have to pack the train and highway to return to their hometowns during the Chinese New Year. But there is a kind of group of people who are young urban married couples who are the only one child in their families, choose whose home town to return to might be a very hard decision for them every year. These young couples are that kind of people who were born during the 34 years of the one-child policy. They grew up and went to the other provinces, studied in the universities of the other larger cities. After graduated, they stayed and worked in the larger city and got married there. And every Chinese New Year, they have to decide whose parents and home town they have to visit. Thats very hard to choose by emotion, especially for the old people Chinese because they always live alone and far away from their children. According to Lin Youlan, who is from Chongqing, a city in southwest of China, she married her husband, Li Haibin, whose home town is Shandong, on the east coast of China. They live in Beijing and they are both the only children of their families. She said that they always fight about the problem of whose hometown they have to go back to because both of them want to go back their home to celebrate Chinese New Year. Li has to visit his parents who are not in good health because he is the only son. He said that in the Shandong province, men must celebrate the Spring Festival with their own families, and the wives should spend the Lunar New Year at their husbands homes. So he is very worried about how the others would look at his parents if he didnt go back home during the Chinese New Year. In Chinese traditional, people have to spend the Lunar New Years Eve and the first day of the New Year at the home of husbands parents, and they will spend the second day with the wifes family. But now, if people want to follow these rules, it is very hard because in the past days, married couples almost came from the same place or some short distance apart. Also, some Chinese couples who are the only child in their families want to visit both of their parents. According to Chen Juan and her husband, Huang Feilong, they were both from the Hunan province, but their cities were a three hour drive apart. They had spent the Chinese New Year three times at his parents home and one with her family, after they got married in 2008. They fight about this almost every year. They would spend the next Chinese New Year half in his parents home and the other half would be spent with her family. The most difficult thing in China during the holiday is it is very hard to buy any tickets whether bus or train. So its also very hard to make traveling between two families (Richburg). Children Born Outside the State Plan Children who are additional always have a very hard time. Some of them will not be able to have a birth certificate and proper documentation. That might affects their whole life, which means they will not be allowed to go to school, find a job when they grow to an adult, and everything for them is illegal. Many parents who have more than two children will not declare all their children because if they declare all their children, the children also cant have their identity. Maybe that action will make children and their parents both in trouble. In China, there are more or less 6 million undocumented children, which are also called black permit children. These kind of children are born and raised in secret and never registered with the government. Most of them are girls. Most of these girls are the third daughters. Sometimes they are called excess children because before they were born, their parents thought they were boys (ONE-CHILD POLICY IN CHINA). Childless Families Over a million Chinese families lost their adult children. Almost all of them are in their 50s, and they had lived happily with their only children for over 20 years. This is the time to prepare new homes or dowry for their offspring, but some unexpected calamities took away their children. From that time, they have been living with the pain that no one can imagine expect the people who have the same experience. Its very difficult for them to conceive again. They always miss their lost children, and its very difficult for them to celebrate the holiday with the families, which have children. The only way for them when they are old is spending rest of their life in the nursing home with the others childless families (Gao, Jing). Conclusion To the Chinese government, the one-child policy was very successful in its 30 years. However, hiding the success, the more we see are the harms of humanity. We cant negate the benefits the policy brought to us, but the most important to us is a more humanistic policy. Work Cited "Facts and Details." BIRTH CONTROL AND ABORTIONS IN CHINA. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. <>. 19

"Facts and Details." ONE-CHILD POLICY IN CHINA. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. <>. Gao, Jing. "Over a Million Chinese Families Lost Their Only Adult Children, End up with an Empty Nest." Ministry of Tofu . Guangzhou Daily, 10 May 2012. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. <>. "One-child Policy." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 08 Oct. 2012. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. <>. Richburg, Keith B. "Dilemma for Chinas One-child Generation: Where to Spend New Year." Washington Post. The Washington Post, 18 Jan. 2012. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. <>. "The Brutal Truth." The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 23 June 2012. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. <>. Red Wine By Yanlin (China) Introduction Wine which is usually made from grades, is a kind of fermented alcoholic drink. All the grapes are natural, which means they could be fermented without the extra sugars, acids, enzymes, or other nutrients. Yeast consumes the sugars in the grapes and converts them into alcohol. Different kinds of grapes and strains of yeasts could produce different types of wine. The famous variations are the result of the fact that the sum of the very complex interaction between the biochemical development of the fruit, reactions involved in fermentation and human intervention in the overall process, is a final product in which tens of thousands of chemical compounds may be present in amounts varying from a few percent to a few parts per billion. Wines usually are named after the fruits from which they are produced. If they are made from other fruits, such as, apple wine, elderberry wine or plum wine, they are called fruit wine generically. Such as barley wine, sake, and ginger wine, can also deal with a higher alcohol content of starch-fermented. To date back to thousands of years, wine had already had a rich history with the earliest known production event around 8,000 years ago on the domain of present-day Georgia. First, it appeared in the Balkans about 4500 BC and was very popular in old Greece and Rome. In addition, wine has also had an important position in religion over all history. The Greek God, Dionysus, and the Rome equivalent Bacchus could remember that the wine and the drink are also used in Christian Eucharist ceremonies and the Jewish Kiddush. The making of red wine The following paragraphs will discuss the different kinds of elements which would usually be thought to make the quality of a good wine. It could be different categories, such as: climatic conditions, soil, grape varieties, exposure of the slopes where vines are grown, and age of vines(Ginsburgh, Victor, Muriel Monzak, and Andras Monzak). Climate The period between November and March is the dormant period of red wine grapes. During April and September are the most important climatic conditions only. At the beginning of April, the vines bud sprouts at that time. The problem, which was only observed during seven days in 1984, is the frost. Hail is the other problem in April. It could cause widespread damage to the coming vintage and even to subsequent vintages (Ginsburgh, Victor, Muriel Monzak, and Andras Monzak). Between April and June, which is the period that usually has rain. But the heat, sunshine, and dry weather between mid-July and mid-September will be the main determinants. After September 15, people usually start to harvest, and the late harvesting (beginning of October) is usually the sign of previous poor weather conditions and leads to bad vintages (Ginsburgh, Victor, Muriel Monzak, and Andras Monzak). Soil In the Medoc region, soil could be divided from heavy clay to light gravels. One usually distinguishes four types of soil, present in different kinds of proportions, such as clay-chalky, gravelly, gravel-sandy and sandy soil. Some soils are better than others. The deep gravel bed which is just like in Pauillac, seems to be the best, although there are outstanding wines produced in the much poorer gravel-sandy. Few small differences in soil might lead it to a very different style (Ginsburgh, Victor, Muriel Monzak, and Andras Monzak). However, "(soil) is not, as the Bordelais would have one believe, the only element necessary to make a great wine" (Parker (1985, p. 505)). Besides soil density, chemical composition also has an important effect. There are four chemical components, which are chosen by people that are thought to be essential. They include nitrogen, phosphoric acid, lime and magnesia. They are used to maintain the complex mineral and chemical equilibrium, although fertilizer is kept to a minimum (Ginsburgh, Victor, Muriel Monzak, and Andras Monzak). 20

Grape varieties Medoc wines are made from a combination of five varieties of grapes used in different proportions: Cabernet Sauvignon (40 to 85%), Merlot (5 to 45%), Cabernet Franc (0 to 30%), Petit Verdot (3 to 8%) and Malbec, in small proportions (less than 2%). These varieties ripen and are harvested at different times. Weather conditions are the most important effect which might influence some vineyards more than others at certain moments, in accordance with the grape varieties used. Obviously, each variety has its own influence on the characteristics of wines, such as Cabernet Sauvignon is poor in sugar, the richest in tannin, and allows wines to age; Merlot, the first to ripen is less tannic and richer in sugar than Cabernet Sauvignon; this makes the association of both varieties very attractive. Cabernet Franc ripens earlier than Cabernet Sauvignon, adds bouquet and tends to produce lighter wines; Petit Verdot ripens late (and is therefore used only in small proportions), is very tannic and rich in sugar, adding alcohol to the wine; Malbec is being replaced more and more by Merlot, with which it shares the same qualities. It is worth noting that grape varieties may lead to different outcomes according to the type of soil on which they are grown(Ginsburgh, Victor, Muriel Monzak, and Andras Monzak). Exposure Slopes exposed to the East and the Southeast are protected from Western winds and dominant in the area. Moreover, the dew could be quickly dried by rising sun, and lower the risk of the grapes to go rotten. Western slopes are usually closer to the river Garonne, and are more likely to have a gravelly soil. Furthermore, there is light reflection from the river over the slopes (Ginsburgh, Victor, Muriel Monzak, and Andras Monzak). Age of vines Old vines just produce less, but a wine has better quality. Mouton-Rothschild vines are 43 years old on average, so are the vines at Lafite-Rothschild, another Pauillac First- Growth. At first, age does not seem to be necessary: Pichon Lalande, classified as a First-Growth by Parker, has vines the average age of which is 22 years only. The age of the vines is represented by six dummy variables, Age1 to Age6, which take the value 1 if vines of Age are present, and the value 0 otherwise. Despite the preceding remarks, the six coefficients clearly point out that age matters a lot: they are negative for young vines, and monotonically increase as the vines get older. All the coefficients are strongly important(Ginsburgh, Victor, Muriel Monzak, and Andras Monzak). The health benefits of red wine According to Mind, Mood & Memory, lots of past studies showed that temperate drinking red wine could help people to gain benefits for their body and brain. Those benefits are thought to be associated with a compound, which is called resveratrol. Resveratrol is a very powerful antioxidant which could neutralize the effects of celldamaging free radicals associated with contamination, stress metabolic course and other elements. Brain Effects Studies suggest that drinking red wine might have different kinds of benefits, which includes protecting brain and the reduction of risk of AD(Alzheimers disease). It could lower the beta-amyloids, which form damaging plaque in the brain and are associated with AD; Modulation of cell communication in regions of the brain important to memory; Protection of brain cells against disease, oxidative stress, damage associated with diabetes, and neurodegenerative processes, and amelioration of the effects of trauma to the memory regions of the brain (Mind, Mood & Memory). Ocular Health A statistical analysis which is about age, sex, smoking habits, systemic steroid use and diabetes, shows the five-year incidence of any type of cataract was 32.2% among non-drinkers; but, just 13% of people who moderately drinking wine could occur cataracts. A lower risk of any type of cataract was specifically found among red wine drinkers. Particularly, red wine drinkers were found to have a lower risk of both cortical and nuclear cataract formation. However, it doesnt have important association that is noted for posterior subcapsular cataract development. The real relationship between moderate wine consumption and a lower risk of cataract formation is still not completely understood. New research just suggests that the association is related to ingestion of certain antioxidants found in red wine (Karpecki). Anti-Aging Benefits Some studies suggest drinking red wine could lengthen peoples life and keep people feeling younger than before. Resveratrol may also serve as an anti-aging medicament because it has ability to prevent inflammation. Another study showed that grape skins and seeds used to produce the tannins found in wine, are equally effective in reducing myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury, As a result, they have an important effect in cardioprotection (Olivier). Another additional study found that resveratrol possesses pro-Inflammatory properties and prevents the formation of blood clots in mice, who consumed large quantities of the resveratrol compound lived about 33% longer than the mice who didnt receive the supplement. Finally, grapes have also been found to contain quercetin, a powerful flavonoid and antioxidant that has been shown to prevent low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or bad cholesterol, from accumulating in the artery walls (Karpecki). Conclusion 21

For most people, a four-ounce glass of wine is appropriate at one time. Men could get benefit from drinking about one or two times per day. Women should drink only one time per day to earn the maximum benefits. It doesnt mean that you ought to start drinking alcohol if you dont drink it right now. People who drink occasionally have a higher mortality rate than the people who drink temperately on a regular basis. There is a growth risk for elevated serum triglycerides, which means fat in the bloodstream, in those people who drink three or more times per day. Furthermore, over a long-time, too much alcohol depletion might cause the damage of nerve cells, the liver, and the pancreas. Heavy drinkers also have risks for malnutrition, as alcohol may substitute for more nutritious foods. However, the studies clearly show that regular, moderate consumption of red wine is really good for your health ( Mind, Mood & Memory). Works Cited Ginsburgh, Victor, Muriel Monzak, and Andras Monzak. "Red Wines of Medoc/What Is Wine Tasting Worth?" N.p., Apr. 1992. Web. 8 Aug. 2012. "Is the Compound Resveratrol a Natural Neuroprotectant? Evidence Suggests That This Antioxidant, Found at High Levels in Red Wine, Delivers Benefits for the Brain." Mind, Mood & Memory, Sept. 2009. Web. 8 Aug. 2012. Karpecki, Paul M. "A Toast to Wine and Your Ocular Health: Compounds Found in Red Wine May Decrease Your Chances of Decelopong Cataracts, AMD and Several Other Ocular Conditions." Review of Optometry, 15 Feb. 2008. Web. 8 Aug. 2012. Mitry, Darryl J., David E. Smith, and Per V. Jenster. "China's Role in Global Competition in the Wine Industry: A New Contestant and Future Trends." International Journal of Wine Research. CAST REPORT, Jan. 2009. Web. 8 Aug. 2012. N, Gall. "Is Wine Good for Your Heart?" Postgraduate Medical Journal, Mar. 2001. Web. 8 Aug. 2012. "Wine." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 08 Aug. 2012. Web. 08 Aug. 2012. <>. Soleas, George J., Eleftherios P. Diamandis, and David M. Goldberg. "Wine as a Biological Fluid: History, Production, and Role in Disease Prevention." Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis, 1997. Web. 8 Aug. 2012. Olivier, Rachel. Red Wine Consumption & Associated Health Benefits, the Resveratrol Story. Rep. Original Internist, Sept. 2008. Web. 8 Aug. 2012. Motivation By Paulo (Brazil) Introduction This paper was done with the objective to give some explanation about motivation and how it can influences people's behavior. We know that people have different interests and each one has a particular view about all the things that she/he interacts with. The motivation theories try to explain what that view is and how they interact in different ways such as work, studies, and relationships in the human life. Compiling some studies about the topic, this paper shows two different theories, also it shows some common points between both theories, and in addition some practical examples are given. Needs Theory According to Maslow, the motivation's theory is first shown by two main points that he calls the Physiological Needs. It expresses the idea of the human's body needs to survive and the natural response for the lack of resources that the body needs to keep in good state. The first point was developed by Cannon and it is called Homeostasis. It shows the body's necessities through an experiment that analyze chemical variations in the body such as water content, sugar content, fat content, and other chemicals. The second point studied by Young shows the reaction of the human in encountering lack of food and the tendency to develop specific food desires and hunger increase (quoted in Maslow). Maslow also explained that these needs for food sometimes can not be directly related just because of hunger, but it can be inferred from some lacking of other needs such as comfort or dependence. In addition, it can also be satisfied by other sources like smoking cigarettes and not only by eating food. Succeeding in the physiological needs, safety needs are the subsequent subject that have relation with all that are involved with our safeness feelings such as security, stability, protection, and anxiety. When most of the physiological needs are already satisfied, the safety needs takes place and turn it in a new goal. In addition, not necessarily following a sequence, Maslow talks about many kinds of human's needs such as, the belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, and the self-actualization needs. All of these needs reflect the stimulus of a human's motivation to active their goals, like the example cited above, food is one of the principal human needs. In consequence, it turns to be a higher motivator when the body is sick of this. In addition, the gratification came as a result of that process, when you have needs and then you satisfy them, you have the feeling of pleasure to be done with something that you had sickness from. 22

Needs represent an internal energy force that directs behavior actions that permit the satisfaction and release of the need itself. For example, satiation. This is what makes us to do whatever we do. Needs can be primary directly related to our biological nature; for example, the need for food, or they can be secondary, related to our personality (Stell). Bostan says that for motivation, achieving a goal is influenced by both personal and situational factors. Personal factors are a persons needs, motives, and goals, and situational factors are opportunities and possible incentives provided by the environment. Needs represent states of disequilibrium which means lack of something in an organism that orients the organism towards certain goals that will reduce the needs. According to Murray, needs are a major source of human motivation, this arises from the person's environment interactions. The goals continue to satisfy the needs that determine human motivation. He defines two sets of needs: viscerogenic and psychogenic. Viscerogenic needs are physiological in nature and are characterized by periodic body changes such as the need for water, food, urination, etc. Psychogenic needs are psychological in nature, concerned with a persons mental and emotional states. Two important factors that affect needs are strength and periodicity. A need is considered strong if it occurs during a regular time under certain conditions, or if it occurs occasionally with great intensity, or if it is persistent for a long period of time. Periodicity is the active and inactive cycles of a need. Viscerogenic needs are inclined to periodicity and psychogenic needs show and a tendency in favor of periodicity (quoted in Bostan). The concept of human needs proves to be useful because it provides a mean of understanding how various social forces and interpersonal environments affect the human action. More specific considering a particular contextual factor such as a monetary reward, an opportunity for choice, or a performance evaluation is probably to support satisfaction of the basic psychological needs, people are able to predict the effects of that factor on such outcomes as motivation, behavior, affect, and well-being. In addition, the postulation of basic needs helps explain why only some efficacious behaviors actually enhance well-being, whereas others do not (Deci). Self-determination According to Deci, self-determination is defined by two points: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic is about the things that motivate the person on their own. We can say that is something that came from inside of the person and created a self-motivation. This depends on how interested the person is in the subject and if it gives pleasure when it is made and they do without the need of force in an unnatural manner. Deci states as an example: the child who reads a book for the inherent pleasure of doing so is intrinsically motivated for that activity. Intrinsically motivated behaviors represent the prototype of self-determination they emanate from the self and are fully endorsed. In comparison with the above sub-topic(Needs Theory) we can understand that intrinsic motivation also fits with that theory. On the other hand, extrinsic motivation comes in a way outside of the person. It is something that stimulates the interest about the subject. It is a different form of motivation and it gives a propose to do what needs to be done. For the extrinsic motivation, Deci identified four different types: external, introjected, identified, and integrated forms of regulation. Internalization is a proactive process that begins with some outside stimulus and then it changes for self-motivation. For example, a student that doesn't have interest in some subject. If that student has the teacher's approval, it can help the student's motivation turning on an intrinsic motivation. In selfdetermination theory, internalization is viewed as a motivated process. Deci believes that people are inherently motivated to internalize and integrate with themselves the regulation of uninteresting activities that are useful for effective functioning in the social world and that the extent to which the process of internalization and integration proceeds effectively is a function of the social context. External regulation is when the motivation came from the environment to the person. The student who does an assignment for the teacher's praise or because of the parents pressure is acting through an outside motivation. External regulation represents the least self-determined form of extrinsic motivation. Introjected regulation is not considered as self-determined; it is the action through a regulation that needs to be followed. For example, a student that arrives in class on time to avoid felling like a bad person is regulated by introjects. Identified regulation occurs when the person has come to value the behavior and has identified it and accepted the regulatory process. With identification, the regulatory process becomes more completely a part of the self, so the person does the activity inclined for it. A good example shown by Deci is: A student who willingly does extra work in mathematics because the student believes it is important for continuing to succeed at mathematics. The motivation is extrinsic because the activity is performed primarily because of its usefulness or instrumentality for the goal of improving math performance and succeeding in future endeavors, rather than because it is interesting. Conclusion Studying deeper into motivation, it is possible to understand how the human behavior acts in different ways with different situations. It is interesting to know what moves us to do something which sometimes we don't percept and we just act. For example, our needs are the most potential motivator that for a lot of people happens naturally. That research brought the acknowledgment not only about the mind and motivation of the human in itself, but also the understanding of how the environment around a person can motivate to do whatever he/she does. 23

With this research, it is possible do keep a deeper and interesting study about the use of motivation in all kind of different fields that is possible. In addition, talking about personal life or also about companies, that study show been a powerful tool to improve the human thinking and acting. It may help not only a personal situation, but it can also transform the way that a company works and acts with their employees making a completely potential healthy environment for both sides. Works Cited Bostan, Barbaros. "Player Motivations: A Psychological Perspective." Interactive and Digital Media Institute, National University of Singapore 7 (2009): 1-32. Web. 24 July 2012. <>. Deci, Edward L., and Richard M. Ryan. "Self-Determination Theory: A Macrotheory of Human Motivation, Development, and Health."Canadian Psychology 49 (2008): 182-85. 28 May 2008. Web. 24 July 2012. Deci, Edward L., and Robert J. Vallerand. "Motivation and Education: The Self-Determination Perspective."EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST (1991): 325-46. Print. Maslow, Abraham H. Motivation and Personality. 3rd ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1987. Print. Steel, Piers, and Cornelius J. Konig. "Integrating Theories of Motivation."Academy of Management Review 31.4 (2006): 889-913. Web. 26 July 2012. Automobiles Power Over Our Life By Akiko (Japan) There are some necessities for our life. They are varied according to each country. In the case of America, it can be said that cars are one of the most important commodities. In the case of my country, cars are one of the options. People in my country do not necessarily need to have a car, since there are many choices for transportation. However, cars are necessary to lead a life here in America. Why are cars so important in the United States? This paper examines the influences of cars on our life. 1. Automobiles influence on people People in the US need cars to lead a life, because there are no other convenient transportation systems. However, it turns out that people tend to prefer cars. The following research results explain why people prefer cars for their transportation means. The first research by Hoyle and Knowles shows that people have a tendency to use cars for further mobility. They point out that this tendency comes from human needs. Mobility is a fundamental human activity and need (quoted from Paterson). The second research by Maxton and Wormald shows that people have a tendency to use cars not only for the practical necessities of life but also for our emotions. They mention that there is a deep psychological connection between freedom and movement (quoted from Paterson). The third research by Marsh and Collet shows that people consider cars as a symbol of ones independence. The factors which could make people reduce car use are not financial reasons or environmental reasons, but independence. There is a strong mental connection between cars and independence. It makes people feel resistant to reduce car use (quoted from Tertoolen, Van Kreveld and Verstraten). The last research by Abelson and Levi shows that certainty influences peoples decision-making. People prefer options which provide certain outcomes more than uncertain outcomes. It causes people to choose car use (quoted from Meertens, Van Lange and Van Vugt). From those research results, it was revealed that people utilize cars for pursuing more mobility, freedom, independence and certainty. If we choose cars, we can go anywhere we want and anytime we want. On the contrary, if we choose other transportation such as trains or buses, we have to lose mobility since the timetables and routes are fixed. Moreover, we have to lose certainty since we have to wait for trains or buses. Therefore, people tend to choose cars for their transportaion. 2. Automobiles influence on the environment Since people tend to prefer cars as mentioned above, the number of cars has increased. At the same time, it has entailed some unfavorable problems. Cars need large quantities of resources not only for its fuel but also for its manufacturing process, etc. By consuming such resources, cars cause adverse effects on the environment including global warming, air pollution, and resource depletion. First of all, cars are one of the main causes of CO2 emissions. According to Paterson, cars produce 23 percent of the CO2 emitted into the atmosphere for fuel use. Moreover, cars produce other CO2 for manufacturing, road construction, etc. He mentions that CO2 emissions from the other major sectors have been almost stable since the 1970s, and the automobile sector is the key to decrease CO2 emissions. However, in spite of technical 24

developments, CO2 emissions from the automobile sector have not decreased, because car use has enormously increased (quoted from Paterson). Next, other transportation has possibilities to decrease the adverse effects on the environment. For example, as trains are powered by electricity, they can reduce the carbon footprint and fossil fuel use. If electricity is generated from renewable or nuclear energy, further advantageous effects are expected. Actually, the US government tried to build an efficient rail network. For instance, the Obama administration announced the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. The President stated Through the Recovery Act, we are making the largest investment in infrastructure since the Interstate Highway System was created. That investment is how we can break ground across the country, putting people to work building high-speed rail lines. The Act includes investment for railroads (quoted from Peterson). People began to realize the necessity of organizing a railway system, because car use depletes valuable natural resources and causes harmful effects on the environment. To solve this problem, other transportation systems might be a solution. 3. Automobiles influence on other transportation In the case of my country, other transportation systems are well organized. Especially, trains and subways are so convenient that most commuters make use of them for their daily life. In contrast, in the case of America, cars have been a dominant form of transportation. Why have other transportation systems not been fully utilized for their daily life in the US? There are some different backgrounds between the US and Japan. First, there is a difference from a geographical viewpoint. Whereas Japans land area is about 378,000 square kilometer, the US land area is about 9,629,000 square kilometer. Furthermore, the population density of Japan is 384.8 per square kilometer, but the one of the US is 32.2 per square kilometer. The US has a huge land area, which is the worlds third largest (quoted from UN Data). Given the data, it might be almost impossible to construct well-organized train or subway networks in the vast land of the US. Next, there is a difference from a management viewpoint. The largest railroad in Japan used to be owned by the government, but it was privatized in 1987. Also, many other railroads are owned by private companies. As Japanese railroad companies have to manage their own, it is vital for them to make efforts to attract more customers. In the case of America, Amtrak, the American railroad company, is partly owned by the government. Though Amtrak has insisted that it can become a self-sustaining operation, in reality, they cannot make up the difference between incomes and expenditures (quoted from McCrany). The cost for building and maintaining infrastructure is huge. Also, aging cars and equipment need to be replaced (quoted from Myers). However, the financial situation does not permit it. Amtrak has received federal subsidies every year since its launch in 1971 (quoted from McCray). They can not afford to create an attractive system for customers. For those reasons, it makes it more difficult to expand the railway system in the US than in other countries. Here, a question arises: Why have interstate highways been successful in expanding in the vast land of the US, though railroads have missed the chance of expanding? It is very helpful to study the relation between automobiles and politics. 4. Automobiles influence on society Since American automobile companies have strong power on politics as well as on the economy, there are some causes why other transportation systems do not efficiently work. The first cause is the automobile industrys influence on politics. The automobile industry has lobbied lawmakers to build free roads. Lind, the director of the American Conservative Center for Public Transportation, states that the federal government spent $1.4 billion on highways in 1921, $11.5 billion by 1960, and $425 billion by 2006 (quoted from McCrary). They have spent more energy and used more taxes for building more free roads. As a result, there was less chance for railroads to be fully developed. The second cause is the automobile industrys influence on economy. The automobile industry has greatly contributed to the economic development. It is clear from the famous name Fordism. Ford introduced assembly lines in the process of manufacturing cars. This method of manufacturing has increased worker productivity and decreased product prices. This method was introduced to other industries, too. The car industry restructured the entire industry (quoted from Paterson). The last cause is the automobile industrys influence on society. Cars have contributed not only to the automobile industry but also to the associated industries especially, the oil and steel industry and the road construction industry. The car, oil, steel and construction industry, etc. have formed the most powerful coalition. It has had an influence both on political and economic aspects. Especially for the US, the strength of the car industry is crucial in increasing the strength of the US economy over the world. Eventually, the car industry had an influence on the overall society. Support for the car industry means increasing the state power itself (quoted from Paterson). Thus, as the number of cars has increased, the influence of cars on the society has strengthened. Having understood the importance of the car manufacturers, legislators started to subsidize car use compared to other transportation. It resulted in downgrading the public transportation. Conclusion 25

Automobiles have brought a variety of influences over society, including favorable effects and unfavorable effects. If we continue depending on automobiles, natural resources will be depleted and the environment will be severely harmed. To solve the problem, the public needs to understand the significance of meeting our transportation demands in an environmentally-friendly way for the future generations. We need to reconsider our life styles, understand the preciousness of natural resources, and focus our eyes on the environment where we live for the future. Work Cited - McCrary, Lewis A nation derailed: passenger trains united a continent can they do so again? The American Conservative 10 Aug 2011: p22+ online - Meertens, Ree, Van Lange, Paul and Van Vugt, Mark Commuting by car or public transportation? A social dilemma analysis of travel mode judgements John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 1996: p373-395 - Myers, Randy This is the renaissance of rail. All aboard the mass-transit express? Maybe, but dont expect a smooth ride. CFO, The Magazine for Senior Financial Executives Apr 2011: p40+ Online - Paterson, Matthew Automobile Politics: Ecology and cultural political economy Cambridge University Press 2007: p91-120 - Paterson, Matthew Car culture and global environmental politics British International Studies Association 2000: p253-270 - Peterson, Eric High speed rail stimulus funding: a down payment on a new direction in American transportation Mass Transit Jun 2010: p44+ Online - Tertoolen, Gerard, Van Kreveld, Dik and Verstratn, Ben Psychological resistance against attempts to reduce private car use Elsevier Science Ltd 16 Jan 1997: p171-181 - World Statistics Pocketbook United Nations 2011: Online