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Structure & Bonding

Made of metal atoms & non-metal atoms (e.g. sodium chloride, magnesium oxide) Metal atom loses outer electron(s) and becomes a positive metal ion. Non-metal atom gains these electron(s) and becomes a negative non-metal ion. The positive and negative ions attract, forming the ionic compound.

Made of just metal atoms (e.g. copper, iron, silver, aluminium brass) Metal atoms lose their outer electrons and become positive metal ions. The electrons are now delocalised (able to move freely). This sea of negative electrons act as a glue between the positive metal ions.

Made of just non-metal atoms (e.g. carbon dioxide, water, sulfur; silicon dioxide, diamond [C], graphite [C]) Two non-metal atoms share one or more of their outer electrons (enough to gain a full outer shell). The shared pair of electrons is a chemical bond and keeps the atoms joined together.

Crystals (lattices) of alternating positive (metal) and negative (non-metal) ions

Ordered structure (pure metal) or disrupted structure (alloys) with free electrons

Simple Covalent Small molecules of non-metal atoms

Giant covalent Structures (lattices) of non-metal atoms

Does not conduct electricity as it does not contain charged particles. Exception: Graphite because each carbon only has 3 bonds when it could have 4; graphite has free electrons Strong and high melting/boiling point because of many strong covalent bonds between all the non-metal atoms. Graphite is slippery because the layers can slide over each other. Nanoparticles are much smaller than normal particles. This means they have a very high surface area and because of this react a lot easier. They can be ionic, covalent or metallic.

Conducts electricity as a liquid & when dissolved because the positive and negative ions are free to move around in these states. High melting/boiling point because of strong attraction between positive & negative ions which take a lot of energy to separate.

Conducts heat & electricity in all states because the structure contains electrons which are free to move. Strong, high melting/boiling point because of the attraction between positive ions and the free electrons. Malleable because layers of metal atoms can slide over each other (not in alloys, which are stronger.

Does not conduct electricity or heat as it does not contain charged particles. Low melting/boiling point because of weak forces between the molecules (intermolecular forces) Usually liquids or gases at room temperature because of this.