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Engineering

C A PA C I T Y C A L C U L AT I O N S F O R S T E A M L O A D S
When BTU Load is Known

Capacity of
steam required
(lbs/hr)
When Square Feet Equivalent
Capacity of
Direct Radiation (EDR) is Known
steam required
(lbs/hr)
When Heating Water with Steam
Capacity of
steam required
(lbs/hr)
When Heating Fuel Oil with Steam Capacity of
steam required
(lbs/hr)
When Heating Air with Steam Coils Capacity of
steam required
(lbs/hr)

BTU
1000

= Sq ft. of EDR
4
=

GPM x Temp Rise F


2

GPM x Temp Rise F


4

CFM x Temp Rise F


900

HEATING AIR WITH STEAM PIPE COILS


Steam lbs/hr =

A x U x (r) T
L
A = Area of heating surface in sq. ft.
U = Heat transfer coefficient
(2 for free convection)
(r) T = Steam Temperature Air Temperature in F
L = Latent heat of Steam BTU / lb

STEAM TRAP SIZING AND SELECTION


Drip Trap on Steam Mains:

Should be sized for 2X safety factor at full differential pressure


Primary choice for trap: 1/2 WD600L Thermodynamic
3/4 WD600L Thermodynamic
Place trap every 200 ft. depending on type size, pressure,
and piping configuration.

Steam Tracing:

Typically a trap is placed approximately every 100 ft.


Primary choice for trap: 1/2 WT2000 Thermostatic
1/2 WT1000 Thermostatic
Bucket traps and thermodynamic traps are used on critical
tracing applications where no condensate can back-up.

Process Applications:

2X safety factor based on differential pressure

ENGINEERING

When used to drain a heat exchanger being supplied


by a modulating control valve using less than 30 PSIG
steam pressure, trap must handle full load at 1/2 PSI
differential pressure.
When used to drain a heat exchanger being supplied
by a modulating control valve using with steam pressure
greater than 30 PSIG use 2.5X safety factor at fulI
differential pressure.
Primary choice for trap: Float & Thermostatic

428 Jones Boulevard Limerick Airport Business Center Pottstown PA 19464 Tel: 610-495-5131 Fax: 610-495-5134

www.watsonmcdaniel.com

189

Watson McDaniel reserves the


right to change the designs
and/or materials of its
products without notice.
2006 Watson McDaniel Company

Engineering
Properties of Saturated Steam
Pressure Temp.
(F)

Sensible

Heat (BTU/lb)
Latent

Total

Volume (ft3/lb)
Cond
Steam

133
161
179
192
203

101
129
147
160
171

1018
1002
991
983
976

1119
1131
1138
1143
1147

0.01626
0.01640
0.01650
0.01659
0.01666

143.3
75.41
51.41
39.22
31.82

212
215
219
222
224
227
230
232
235
237
239
244
248
252
255
259
262
265
267
268
271
274
277
279
281
282
284
287
289
291
292
294
296
298
303
307
312
316
320
324
328
331
335
338
341
344
347
350
353
356
358
361
363

180
184
187
190
193
195
198
201
203
206
208
212
216
220
224
228
231
234
236
237
240
243
246
249
250
251
254
256
258
261
262
263
265
267
272
277
282
286
291
295
298
302
306
309
312
316
319
322
325
328
331
333
336

970
968
966
964
962
961
959
957
956
954
953
950
947
944
942
940
937
935
934
933
931
929
927
925
924
923
922
920
918
916
916
915
913
912
908
905
901
898
895
892
889
886
883
881
878
876
873
871
868
866
864
861
859

1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1160
1162
1163
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1174
1174
1175
1176
1177
1177
1178
1178
1178
1179
1180
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1190
1191
1192
1192
1193
1194
1194
1195
1195

0.01672
0.01674
0.01676
0.01679
0.01681
0.01683
0.01685
0.01687
0.01689
0.01690
0.01692
0.01696
0.01699
0.01702
0.01705
0.01708
0.01711
0.01713
0.01715
0.01716
0.01719
0.01721
0.01723
0.01726
0.01727
0.01728
0.01730
0.01733
0.01735
0.01737
0.01738
0.01739
0.01741
0.01743
0.01748
0.01753
0.01757
0.01761
0.01766
0.01770
0.01774
0.01778
0.01782
0.01785
0.01789
0.01792
0.01796
0.01799
0.01803
0.01806
0.01809
0.01812
0.01815

26.80
25.21
23.79
22.53
21.40
20.38
19.46
18.62
17.85
17.14
16.49
15.33
14.33
13.45
12.68
11.99
11.38
10.83
10.57
10.33
9.874
9.459
9.078
8.728
8.563
8.404
8.104
7.826
7.566
7.323
7.208
7.096
6.883
6.683
6.230
5.837
5.491
5.184
4.911
4.665
4.444
4.242
4.059
3.891
3.736
3.594
3.462
3.340
3.226
3.119
3.020
2.927
2.839

(Hg vac)

25
20
15
10
5

ENGINEERING

(psig)

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
25
26
28
30
32
34
35
36
38
40
42
44
45
46
48
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145

Pressure Temp.
(psig) (F)
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
185
190
195
200
205
210
215
220
225
230
235
240
245
250
255
260
265
270
275
280
285
290
295
300
310
320
330
340
350
360
370
380
390
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
900
1000
1250
1500
1750
2000
2250
2500
2750
3000
3194

366
368
371
373
375
377
380
382
384
386
388
390
392
394
395
397
399
401
403
404
406
408
409
411
413
414
416
417
419
420
422
425
428
430
433
436
438
441
443
446
448
460
470
480
489
497
505
513
520
534
546
574
598
618
637
654
669
683
696
706

Sensible

Heat (BTU/lb)
Latent

Total

339
341
344
346
349
351
353
355
358
360
362
364
366
368
370
372
374
376
378
380
382
384
385
387
389
391
392
394
396
397
399
402
405
408
411
414
417
420
423
426
428
441
453
464
475
485
494
504
512
529
545
581
614
644
674
703
734
766
805
906

857
855
853
851
849
847
845
843
841
839
837
836
834
832
830
829
827
825
823
822
820
818
817
815
814
812
811
809
808
806
805
802
799
796
793
790
787
785
782
779
777
764
752
740
729
718
707
697
687
667
648
601
556
510
463
413
358
295
211
0

1196
1196
1196
1197
1197
1198
1198
1198
1199
1199
1199
1200
1200
1200
1200
1201
1201
1201
1201
1202
1202
1202
1202
1202
1203
1203
1203
1203
1203
1203
1203
1204
1204
1204
1204
1204
1204
1204
1205
1205
1205
1205
1205
1204
1203
1203
1202
1200
1199
1196
1192
1182
1169
1155
1137
1116
1092
1061
1016
906

428 Jones Boulevard Limerick Airport Business Center Pottstown PA 19464 Tel: 610-495-5131 Fax: 610-495-5134
Watson McDaniel reserves the right to change the designs and/or materials of its products without notice

190

www.watsonmcdaniel.com

Volume (ft3/lb)
Cond
Steam
0.01818
0.01821
0.01824
0.01827
0.01830
0.01833
0.01835
0.01839
0.01841
0.01844
0.01847
0.01850
0.01852
0.01855
0.01857
0.01860
0.01863
0.01865
0.01868
0.01870
0.01873
0.01875
0.01878
0.01880
0.01882
0.01885
0.01887
0.01889
0.01891
0.01894
0.01896
0.01901
0.01906
0.01910
0.01915
0.01919
0.01923
0.01927
0.01932
0.01936
0.01940
0.01961
0.01980
0.02000
0.02019
0.02038
0.02056
0.02074
0.02092
0.02128
0.02164
0.02256
0.02352
0.02456
0.02572
0.02707
0.02871
0.03097
0.03465
0.05078

2.756
2.678
2.605
2.535
2.469
2.407
2.347
2.291
2.237
2.185
2.136
2.089
2.044
2.001
1.960
1.920
1.882
1.845
1.810
1.776
1.744
1.712
1.682
1.652
1.624
1.596
1.570
1.544
1.520
1.497
1.473
1.428
1.386
1.346
1.309
1.273
1.240
1.207
1.177
1.148
1.120
0.9992
0.9010
0.8195
0.7509
0.6922
0.6415
0.5971
0.5580
0.4922
0.4390
0.3410
0.2740
0.2248
0.1864
0.1554
0.1293
0.1062
0.0835
0.0508

Engineering
Warm Up Loads in Pounds of Steam per hour per 100 ft. of Steam Main
Outside Temperature at 70F Based on Sch. 40 Pipe Up to 250 PSI. Sch. 80 Above 250 PSI. Sch. 120 5 & Larger Above 800 PSI
0F
Steam
Correction
Pressure
Factor
2
2-1/2 3
4
5
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
24
(psig)
0
5
10
20
40
60
80
100
125
150
175
200
250
300
400
500
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1750
1800

6.2
6.9
7.5
8.4
9.9
11.0
12.0
12.8
13.7
14.5
15.3
16.0
17.2
25.0
27.8
30.2
32.7
38
45
52
62
71
78
80

9.7
11.0
11.8
13.4
15.8
17.5
19.0
20.3
21.7
23.0
24.2
25.3
27.3
38.3
43
46
50
58
64
72
79
87
94
97

12.8
14.4
15.5
17.5
20.6
22.9
24.9
26.6
28.4
30.0
31.7
33.1
35.8
51
57
62
67
77
86
96
106
117
126
129

18.2
20.4
22.0
24.9
90.3
32.6
35.3
37.8
40
43
45
47
51
75
83
91
98
113
126
140
155
171
184
189

24.6
27.7
29.9
33.8
39.7
44
48
51
55
58
61
64
69
104
116
126
136
203
227
253
280
309
333
341

31.9
35.9
38.8
44
52
57
62
67
71
75
79
83
89
143
159
173
187
274
305
340
376
415
448
459

48
48
58
66
78
86
93
100
107
113
119
125
134
217
241
262
284
455
508
566
626
692
746
764

68
77
83
93
110
122
132
142
152
160
169
177
191
322
358
389
421
670
748
833
922
1018
1098
1125

90
101
109
124
145
162
175
188
200
212
224
234
252
443
493
535
579
943
1052
1172
1297
1432
1544
1584

107
120
130
146
172
192
208
222
238
251
265
277
299
531
590
642
694
1132
1263
1407
1558
1720
1855
1902

140
157
169
191
225
250
271
290
310
328
347
362
390
682
759
825
893
1445
1612
1796
1988
2194
2367
2427

176
198
213
241
284
316
342
366
391
414
437
456
492
854
971
1033
1118
1835
2047
2280
2524
2786
3006
3082

207
233
251
284
334
372
403
431
461
487
514
537
579
1045
1163
1263
1367
2227
2485
2767
3064
3382
3648
3741

308
324
350
396
465
518
561
600
642
679
716
748
807
1182
1650
1793
1939
3227
3601
4010
4440
4901
5285
5420

1.5
1.44
1.41
1.37
1.32
1.29
1.27
1.26
1.25
1.24
1.23
1.22
1.21
1.20
1.18
1.17
1.16
1.16
1.15
1.14
1.13
1.13
1.13
1.13

Running Loads in Pounds of Steam per hour per 100 ft. of Steam Main
Outside Temperature at 70F Insulation 70% Efficient.

2-1/2

10

12

14

16

18

20

24

0F
Correction
Factor

10
30
60
100
125
175
250
300
400
500
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1750
1800

6
8
10
12
13
16
18
20
23
27
30
36
43
51
60
69
76
79

7
9
12
15
16
19
22
25
28
33
37
44
52
62
73
85
93
96

9
11
14
18
20
23
27
30
34
39
44
53
63
75
89
103
113
117

11
14
18
22
24
26
34
37
43
49
55
69
82
97
114
132
145
150

13
17
24
28
30
33
42
46
53
61
68
85
101
119
141
163
179
185

16
20
27
33
36
43
50
54
63
73
82
101
120
142
168
195
213
221

20
26
33
41
45
53
62
68
80
91
103
131
156
185
219
253
278
288

24
32
41
51
56
66
77
85
99
114
128
164
195
230
273
31
347
358

29
38
49
61
66
78
92
101
118
135
152
194
231
274
324
375
411
425

32
42
54
67
73
86
101
111
130
148
167
214
254
301
356
412
452
467

36
48
62
77
84
98
116
126
148
170
191
244
290
343
407
470
516
534

39
51
67
83
90
107
126
138
162
185
208
274
326
386
457
528
580
600

44
57
74
93
101
119
140
154
180
206
232
305
363
430
509
588
645
667

53
68
89
111
121
141
168
184
216
246
277
365
435
515
610
704
773
800

1.58
1.50
1.45
1.41
1.39
1.38
1.36
1.35
1.33
1.32
1.31
1.30
1.27
1.26
1.25
1.22
1.22
1.21

Pipe Size

428 Jones Boulevard Limerick Airport Business Center Pottstown PA 19464 Tel: 610-495-5131 Fax: 610-495-5134

www.watsonmcdaniel.com

ENGINEERING

Steam
Pressure
(psig)

191

Watson McDaniel reserves the


right to change the designs
and/or materials of its
products without notice.
2006 Watson McDaniel Company

Engineering
SIZING STEAM PIPES

Saturated steam lines should be sized for a steam velocity of 4800 to 7200 ft/min.
Piping on pressure reducing stations should be sized for the same steam velocity on
both sides of the regulator. This usually results in having a regulator smaller than the
piping and having larger piping on the downstream side of the regulator.
Example using Steam Velocity Chart (opposite page):
100 PSIG Inlet Pressure to control valve
25 PSIG Outlet Pressure
1000 lbs/hr flow rate
Determine pipe size required
Upstream Piping:
Enter Velocity Chart at A 1000 lbs/hr.
Follow line to B 100 PSIG Inlet Pressure
Follow line vertically upwards to C 1-1/2 Pipe Diameter
Steam Velocity at D shows 4800 ft./min.
Downstream Piping:
Enter Velocity Chart at A 1000 lbs/hr.
Follow line to E 25 PSIG Outlet Pressure
Follow line vertically upwards to F 2-1/2 Pipe Diameter
Steam Velocity at G shows 5500 ft./min.

PRESSURE DROP IN SCHEDULE 40 PIPE


100 PSIG Saturated Steam
For other pressures use correction factors
psi 0
5
0
factor 6.9 6.0 5.2

10
4.3

15 20
3.6 3.1

3/4"

1"

40
2.0

30
2.4

60
1.5

1-1/4" 1-1/2"

75
1.3

90 100 110 125 150 175 200 225 250 300 350 400 500 600
1.1 1.0 0.92 0.83 0.70 0.62 0.55 0.49 0.45 0.38 0.33 0.29 0.23 0.19

2" 2-1/2"

3"

4"

ENGINEERING

Pressure Drop psi/100 ft.

15.0

5"

6"

8"

12" 14" 16" 18" 20"

10"

10.0
9.0
8.0
7.0
6.0
4.0

24"

3.0
2.0

1.0
.9
.8
.7
.6
.5
.4
.3
.2

.1
100

200 300 400500

1,000

4 5

10,000

3 4

5 6 7 8 10,000

Steam Flow lbs/hr


* Shaded portion is for sizing temperature pilot, solenoid, or temperature-solenoid combination valves only.
+ Specify Low Pressure T Pilot

192

428 Jones Boulevard Limerick Airport Business Center Pottstown PA 19464 Tel: 610-495-5131 Fax: 610-495-5134

www.watsonmcdaniel.com

10,000

Engineering
STEAM VELOCITY CHART
(Schedule 40 Pipe)
1"

20,000
1/2
"

1 "
1/4

"

1 "
1/2

3/4

12,000
10,000
8,000

2"

Process Steam
8,000-12,000 FPM

1 "
2/2

3"

4"

Heating Systems
4,000-6,000 FPM

5"

6"
8"

Flash Vent Lines


3,000 FPM

6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000

10

2,000

"
"

12
"
14 6"
1

1,000

Multiply Chart Velocity


by Factor below to get
Velocity in Schedule
80 Pipe

20,000

Factor
Pipe Size
1.30
1/2"
1.23
1.23"
3/4" & 1"
1-1/4" & 1-1/2" 1.17
1.12
2" to 16"
0
25 0
20
0
15 25
1 00
1

10,000
8,000
6,000
5,000
4,000

75
50

Capacity Pounds Per Hour

50,000
40,000
30,000

25

3,000
10
5

2,000
0

A
E

75

ENGINEERING

0
25 0
20
0
15 25
1 00
1

1,000
800
600
500
400

50

300
25
10

200
5
0

100
Steam Pressure PSIG
(Saturated Steam)
428 Jones Boulevard Limerick Airport Business Center Pottstown PA 19464 Tel: 610-495-5131 Fax: 610-495-5134

www.watsonmcdaniel.com

193

Watson McDaniel reserves the


right to change the designs
and/or materials of its
products without notice.
2006 Watson McDaniel Company

Engineering
PERCENT (%) FLASH STEAM
Produced when condensate is discharged to atmosphere or into a
flash tank controlled at various pressures
Condensate
Pressure
(PSIG)

5
10
15
20
30
40
60
80
100
125
150
200
250
300
350
400

1.6
2.9
3.9
4.9
6.5
7.8
10.0
11.8
13.3
14.9
16.3
18.7
20.8
22.5
24.1
25.6

0.0
1.3
2.4
3.3
5.0
6.3
8.5
10.3
11.8
13.5
14.9
17.3
19.4
21.2
22.8
24.2

Flash Tank Pressure (PSIG)


10
20
30
40

0.0
1.1
2.1
3.7
5.1
7.3
9.1
10.6
12.3
13.7
16.2
18.2
20.0
21.7
23.1

0.0
1.7
3.0
5.3
7.1
8.7
10.4
11.8
14.3
16.4
18.2
19.9
21.4

0.0
1.4
3.7
5.5
7.1
8.8
10.3
12.8
14.9
16.8
18.4
19.9

0.0
2.3
4.2
5.8
7.5
9.0
11.5
13.7
15.5
17.2
18.7

60

80

100

0.0
1.9
3.5
5.3
6.8
9.4
11.5
13.4
15.1
16.7

0.0
1.6
3.4
4.9
7.6
9.8
11.7
13.4
15.0

0.0
1.8
3.3
6.0
8.2
10.2
11.9
13.5

SIZING CONDENSATE RETURN LINE,


VENT LINE AND FLASH TANK
Velocity in Condensate return Lines should be between
4000-6000 ft/min. In order to size the pipe we must know
Condensate Load (lbs/hr)
Inlet Pressure to Steam Traps (PSIG)
Return Line System Pressure
Example: using Condensate Line, Flash Tank, and Vent Line
Sizing Chart (opposite page):
160 PSIG Steam trap discharging to a 20 PSIG Flash Tank.
Condensate Load is 3000 lbs/hr
From the Percent Flash Steam Chart we find that 12.4%
of the condensate will flash into steam.
Therefore .124 X 3000 = 372 lbs./hr. of flash steam
will be produced
Enter Condensate Line Sizing chart at A 372 lbs/hr

ENGINEERING

Move horizontally to point B 20 PSIG Flash Tank Pressure


Move vertically upwards to point D to determine a 5
Flash tank Tank Diameter is needed to keep velocities
less than 600 ft/min.
Continue to move vertically to point E to determine that the Vent
Line on the Flash Tank should be 2 Diameter in order to keep
velocities less than 4000 ft/min.
Continue to move vertically to point C to determine that the
Condensate Line Diameter should be 1-1/2 Diameter to
maintain line velocities between 4000 - 6000 ft/min.

194

428 Jones Boulevard Limerick Airport Business Center Pottstown PA 19464 Tel: 610-495-5131 Fax: 610-495-5134

www.watsonmcdaniel.com

Engineering
CONDENSATE LINE, FLASH TANK, and VENT LINE SIZING
(Schedule 40 Pipe)

Velocity
(ft/sec)
100

Velocity
(ft/min)
6000 Condensate
4000 Return Line
3000 Vent Pipe

66
50

2000

"

"

1/2

3/4

1"

1 "
1/4
1 "
1/2

2"

3"

1 "
2/2

4"

5"

6"

8"

"

10

"
12
"
14
"
16
"
18
"
20
"
24
"
26
"

28
"
30

33

1000

17

600 Flash Tank


Diameter

10
50,000
0
10 0
8

Multiply Chart Velocity


by Factor below to get
Velocity in Schedule
80 Pipe

40 0
3

20,000

20
10
5
0

10,000
8,000

Factor
Pipe Size
1.30
1/2"
1.23
3/4" & 1"
1-1/4" & 1-1/2" 1.15
1.12
2" & 3"
1.1
4" to 24"
1.0"
26" to 30"

5,000
0
10 0
8 0
6
40 0
3

3,000
2,000

20
10
0

1,000
800
500

A
300

ne

200

Li
e
at g)
ns si
de (p
on nk
C Ta
in sh
re la
su r F
es o
Pr

Flash Steam Flow Rate (lb/hr)

60

30,000

0
10 0
8 0
6
40 0
3

100
80
60
50
40
30

20
10
5
0

ENGINEERING

20
10

428 Jones Boulevard Limerick Airport Business Center Pottstown PA 19464 Tel: 610-495-5131 Fax: 610-495-5134

www.watsonmcdaniel.com

195

Watson McDaniel reserves the


right to change the designs
and/or materials of its
products without notice.
2006 Watson McDaniel Company

Engineering

Single Stage Pressure Reducing Station Using Pilot-Operated Regulating Valve

ENGINEERING

Series Pressure Reducing Stations for Multi-stage Reduction of Pressure

196

428 Jones Boulevard Limerick Airport Business Center Pottstown PA 19464 Tel: 610-495-5131 Fax: 610-495-5134

www.watsonmcdaniel.com

Engineering
Parallel Pressure Reducing Station Using Two Pilot-Operated Regulating Valves

Automatic Control of Batch Processor with Electrical Time Sequence Programmer

ENGINEERING

428 Jones Boulevard Limerick Airport Business Center Pottstown PA 19464 Tel: 610-495-5131 Fax: 610-495-5134

www.watsonmcdaniel.com

197

Watson McDaniel reserves the


right to change the designs
and/or materials of its
products without notice.
2006 Watson McDaniel Company

Engineering
Combined Pressure and Temperature Control of Heat Exchanger

ENGINEERING

Pressure Reducing Station using Air Pilot and PL2 Control Panel

198

428 Jones Boulevard Limerick Airport Business Center Pottstown PA 19464 Tel: 610-495-5131 Fax: 610-495-5134

www.watsonmcdaniel.com

Engineering
Instantaneous Hot Water Heater with PTL Temperature Controller

Using PMP for Proper Drainage of Heat Exchanger Application

ENGINEERING

428 Jones Boulevard Limerick Airport Business Center Pottstown PA 19464 Tel: 610-495-5131 Fax: 610-495-5134

www.watsonmcdaniel.com

199

Watson McDaniel reserves the


right to change the designs
and/or materials of its
products without notice.
2006 Watson McDaniel Company

Engineering
Flash Steam Recovery at Pressure Above or Below Atmospheric Pressure

ENGINEERING

Pump Trap Combination When Vertical Space is Limited

200

428 Jones Boulevard Limerick Airport Business Center Pottstown PA 19464 Tel: 610-495-5131 Fax: 610-495-5134

www.watsonmcdaniel.com