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Past perfect and past perfect progressive

The past perfect is used to refer to an event or situation which took place before another past event. Examples

Although she had considered post-graduate study, at the end of the year she decided to look for a job.

By the time he arrived, the lecture had already started.

The order of information in the sentence may be reversed. Example The lecture had already started by the time he arrived. Note: The past perfect is usually used in conjunction with a past simple verb. Both describe past actions or situations, but one event occurred earlier than the other. Sample Sentences 1. 2. By the time he began writing the report, he had completed most of his experiments. Before the new equipment was installed, lab work had been very slow

Here is a timeline for Sentence 1 earlier past | completed most experiments more recent past | began writing

Exercise practice

First: I finished my homework. Then: I went to bed. 1. I (go) to bed after I (finish) my homework.

First: Sam washed the dishes. Then: Sam turned on the TV. 2. Sam (turn) on the TV after he (wash) the dishes.

First: Frank threw the football. Then: Frank fell down. 3. Frank (fall) down after he (throw) the football.

First: I bought an airplane ticket. Then: Sara found a really good price. 4. After I (buy) an airplane ticket already, Sara (find) a really good price.

Last night I started to make dinner at 5:30, and finished at 5:50. At 6:00, my husband came home. 5. By the time my husband (come) home, I (make) dinner already.

Yesterday Maria fed the cat and then she went to work. 6. Maria (go) 7. to work after she (feed) the cat.

Peter was late. By the time he (get)

to the theater, the movie (start)



The teacher (give)

an exam by the time Jorge (arrive)

at school.


We (play)

cards for several hours after the children (go)

to bed.