Guide for EMTP like software

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

33 tayangan

Guide for EMTP like software

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering The University of British Columbia 2356 Main Mall Vancouver, B. C. Canada, V6T 1Z4 Tel.: +1 604 822-2793, Fax: +1 604 822-5949 Email: hermannd@ece.ubc.ca, WWW: http: www.ece.ubc.ca

These notes were rst used in 1997 98 in a Graduate Course ELEC 553 "Advanced Power Systems Analysis". The help of the following graduate students in that course is gratefully acknowledged: S. Bibian, B. D. Bonatto, J. D. Bull, J. Calvino-Fraga, N. Dai, Y. Duan, J. A. Hollman, F. A. Moreira, R. A. Rivas, T.-C. Yu.

Web page created by: Daniel Lindenmeyer and Benedito Donizeti Bonatto.

Contents

1 Computer Programs for Electromagnetic Transients in Power Systems 2 Contributions from Research at UBC to Various Versions 3 Information for EMTP Users 4 Major Applications of MicroTran 3 4 5 6

5 Major Di erences to Short-Circuit, Power Flow Load Flow and Stability Programs 13

5.1 Di erences to Short-Circuit Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.2 Di erences to Power Flow Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.3 Di erences to Stability Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 Steady-state Solution Similar to Short-Circuit Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transient Solution with Simple Single-Phase R-L Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transient Solution with Single-Phase R-L Circuit for Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transient Solution with Single-Phase -Circuit for Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transient Solution with Single-Phase Distributed Parameter Line . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison between R-L, -Circuit, and Distributed Parameter Line Representations Frequency Scan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16 17

18 20 22 23 24 25 26

1

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Transient Solution with Three-Phase R-L Circuit for Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transient Solution with Three-Phase -Circuit for Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transient Solution with Three-Phase Distributed Parameter Line . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison between R-L, -Circuit, and Distributed Parameter Line Representations Transient Solution with Detailed Generator Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transient Solution with Actual Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transient Solution for Simultaneous Three-Phase Short-Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . Short-Circuits on HVDC Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30 31 33 36 36 38 39 41

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EMTP versions

Technical University Munich 1963 rst publication May 1964. BPA EMTP probably no longer used by Bonneville Power Administration; may use ATP now; non-commercial. Was distributed for free because of Freedom of Information Act in U.S.A.. UBC MicroTran R ; commercial. Most of it owned by University of British Columbia; distributed by Microtran Power System Analysis Corporation in Vancouver, Canada. DCG EPRI EMTP DCG = Development Coordination Group, EPRI = Electric Power Research Institute in U.S.A.; commercial. Ontario Hydro is the commercializer. ATP Alternative Transients Program of W. S. Meyer; free, but requires a license, which is not available to everybody. NETOMAC Siemens; commercial. Morgat and Arene Electricit de France; commercial. e EMTDC Manitoba HVDC Research Centre; commercial. PSIM H. Jin; commercial. Primarily for power electronics studies. SABER; commercial. For power electronics studies. SPICE, PSPICE, ...; commercial. Occasionally used for power electronics studies. ?

Contributions to BPA EMTP and indirectly to DCG EPRI EMTP and ATP, and in some cases to UBC version MicroTran:

TACS of Laurent Dub Transient Analysis of Control Systems. e Multiphase untransposed transmission line with constant parameters of K. C. Lee CP line model". Frequency dependent transmission line of J. R. Mart .

Three-phase transformer models of H. W. Dommel and I. I. Dommel BCTRAN" in BPA EMTP, DCG EPRI EMTP, and ATP; part of input preprocessor MTD in MicroTran. Synchronous machine model of V. Brandwajn type 59 in DCG EPRI EMTP and ATP. Synchronous machine data conversion of H. W. Dommel earlier versions in BPA EMTP, DCG EPRI EMTP, and ATP; latest version in MicroTran.

Underground cable models of L. Mart .

New line constants program and improved frequency dependent line model of J. R. Mart .

EMTP Newsletter from 1979 to 1987, edited by H. W. Dommel co-editor W. S. Meyer to 1984, D. Van Dommelen 1985 to 1987, with help from I. I. Dommel and G. Empereur. EMTP News from 1988 to 1993, edited by D. Van Dommelen, with help from G. Empereur and A. Laeremans. EMTP Review from 1987 to 1990, for users of DCG EPRI EMTP, edited by W. F. Long. Harmonics and Transients Tech Notes, for members of PATH Users Group, Electrotek Concepts, Inc.. Various User Groups set up or sanctioned by W. S. Meyer. CAN AM EMTP News from 1994 ? to now for ATP users, edited by W. S. Meyer and Tsu-huei Liu. H. W. Dommel, EMTP Theory Book, 2nd edition. MicroTran R Power System Analysis Corp., Vancouver, Canada, 1992. Latest update: April 1996. J. A. Martinez-Velasco, editor, Computer Analysis of Electric Power System Transients. IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, U.S.A., 1997. Specialized Conference IPST International Power System Transients Conference, co-chaired by M. T. Correia de Barros and H. W. Dommel: IPST'95 in August 1995 in Lisbon, Portugal. IPST'97 in June 1997 in Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. IPST'99 in June 1999 in Budapest, Hungary.

Steady-state coupling e ects between adjacent power lines, or to adjacent communication lines. Table 4.1: Induced voltages and grounding currents line phase simulation Voltages on lines in operation L1 360 kV L2 550 kV Induced voltages on open line L3 A 28.20 kV B 14.19 kV C 8.04 kV Grounding currents when L3 A 10.78 A line is grounded B 3.26 A C 1.53 A measurement 372 kV 535 kV 30 kV 15 kV 10 kV 11 A 5A 1A

Frequency scans to obtain frequency dependent impedances and other frequency responses e.g., transfer functions.

Detailed waveforms of fault currents in ac and dc systems shown later in these notes. Switching surges from switching transmission lines, capacitors, transformers, and reactors.

Fault surges.

Figure 4.5: Measured and calculated overvoltage on unfaulted phase single-line-to-ground fault 3

Figure 4.6: Measured and simulated propagation of voltage surge from impulse generator through substation 4

Mode of Oscillation Amplitudes injection frequencies 1st peak 3rd peak Tests EMTP Dev. Tests EMTP Dev. Tests EMTP Deviation kHz kHz V V V V Measurements homoon the set polar 230 235 2 65 65 0 43 47 8 of busbars two-wire 283 300 5.6 70 70 0 45 50 10 Measurements homoat the transpolar 250 230 8 63 69 8 41 48 14 former terminals two-wire 300 285 5 70 65 7 45 49 8 Type of measurement

Ferroresonance.

10

Subsynchronous resonance.

Figure 4.9: Measured and calculated shaft torque during out-of-phase synchronization 6 Inrush current.

11

Power electronics.

v i

Electrical Cable v i

I.M.

2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 -500 -1000 -1500 -2000 -2500 310 315 320 ms 325 330 V

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Chapter 5 Major Di erences to Short-Circuit, Power Flow Load Flow and Stability Programs

Phasor equations replaced by di erential equations. For example, the phasor equation V = di j!LI for an inductance is replaced by the di erential equation v = L dt ; similar for capacitance, etc..

00 Generator in short-circuit programs is E 00 behind Xd ; in MicroTran it can be as simple as that, and as detailed as needed on electrical and mechanical side. For series capacitors, net reactance Xtransmissionline , Xcapacitor is used in short-circuit programs; in MicroTran, it becomes an L-C circuit with voltage drop described by di + 1 Z t idu + v vline+capacitor = L dt C capacitor 0 0 Short-circuit programs solve three single-phase networks, one with positive, one with negative, and one with zero sequence parameters negative sequence solution usually omitted by assuming Znegative = Zpositive; MicroTran uses M-phase representations e.g., three-phase equations for single-circuit lines, or six-phase equations for double-circuit lines, etc.. In short-circuit programs, phase shift through delta-wye transformers is usually ignored, which can lead to wrong currents on delta side if not corrected for; in MicroTran, phase shift through delta-wye transformers is automatically correct. Fault conditions can become complicated in short-circuit programs, particularly for simultaneous faults. In MicroTran, short-circuit conditions are simple because everything is in phase

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quantities e.g., Va = 0 for a short from phase a to ground; simultaneous faults are easy in MicroTran. Example: Va,high = 0 and Vb,low = Vc,low for short a" to ground on high side and short between b" and c" on low side; high side fault represented by a closed switch from a" to ground, and low side fault by a switch between b-low" and c-low". MicroTran produces the following e ects, which cannot be obtained from short-circuit programs: decaying dc o set in fault current, decaying ac amplitude with detailed generator model, more than one frequency with series capacitors, di erent X R ratios automatically accounted for.

EMTP programs use steady-state solutions for the system of linear node equations , either to get initial conditions for transient simulations, or to get steady-state solutions at one frequency, or at many frequencies in so-called frequency scans. You can de ne voltage and or current sources for these solutions, by specifying the sources with respect to magnitude and angle. You cannot specify real and reactive power, or real power and voltage magnitude, in these linear solutions. The incentive for power ow solutions with EMTP-type programs came from the fact that these programs allow users to set up cases in great detail, such as untransposed lines single-circuit, double-circuit, etc., single-phase distribution lines connected to three-phase substations, etc. Such cases cannot be solved with classical power ow programs, which assume that the power system is completely "balanced" all voltages and currents symmetrical and represented by the single-phase positive sequence network only. In the ATP version of the EMTP, a power ow option was added which uses a Gauss-Seidel type iteration method. This method is unreliable with respect to convergence, and only works for some cases. In the DCG EPRI version of the EMTP, a power ow option was added which uses Newton's iteration method. This method is much more reliable. This option also takes physical constraints into account, such as 9 : 14

specifying the total three-phase power for generators, rather than the power for each phase, to make sure that the generator, seen from the network side, has the correct negative and zero sequence impedance in the power ow solution, etc., specifying the total three-phase power for loads, rather than the power for each phase, if the loads have known impedance ratios Zneg =Zpos and Zzero=Zpos. MicroTran does not have a power ow option at this time. If one were to be added, it might be a completely separate program that just uses EMTP input data.

Stability programs solve the electrical network with phasor equations of the type Y V = I with iterations for nonlinear loads, and use di erential equations only for the mechanical part of the generator with the swing equation" !J d! = Pmech , Pelec. Di erential equations are dt also used for ux decay in generators, for excitation and governor systems, etc. Stability programs usually solve the single-phase positive sequence network only. Single-line-toground faults are included in the positive sequence network by adding the impedances Znegative and Zzero seen from the fault location as a shunt impedance Znegative +Zzero at the fault location. EMTP programs use M-phase representations. Stability programs are faster, because EMTP-type programs use three-phase representations and solve everything with di erential equations. There are special cases where EMTP-type programs are used for stability studies: cases where non-power-frequency oscillations in the electric network are important, such as studies of subsynchronous resonance, cases where the backswing" is important = generator angle decreasing immediately after a fault for a few milliseconds, before it increases, cases where negative sequence currents in generators become important, and other special cases.

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Rarely p.u., usually actual quantities. See SSR fact sheet for comparison between two approaches. Careful if nonlinearities! t related to fmax of interest. Unfortunately not automatically chosen. Basic data: type 0 branch: R-L-C type 1,2,3 ... branches: M-phase symmetric -circuit type 51, 52, 53 ... for input with higher accuracy type -1,-2,-3 ... branches: M-phase distributed parameter line nonlinear R,L switches, diodes, thyristors sources

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For simultaneous three-phase short-circuits, we can use a single-phase representation with positive sequence parameters. As an example, we use the First IEEE Subsynchronous Resonance Benchmark Model" IEEE Task Force, First benchmark model for computer simulation of subsynchronous resonance", IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-96, pp. 1565-1572, Sept. Oct. 1977. The connection to the in nite bus through an impedance is left o here, to simplify the case.

Figure 7.1: Single-Phase Network Per unit values are used at this stage because those familiar with short-circuit and power ow studies may be more used to per unit values, numbers used here are easier to compare with the numbers in the publication. 17

In general, actual units are better for transient studies, and we will switch to actual units later on. With XOPT = 60, input for inductive branches will be as reactance !L in at 60 Hz. 00 The generator is represented as a voltage source E 00 behind Xd . Assume Vgen = 1:0 p:u: RMS 00 . for E The values for this single-phase case are the positive sequence values. The fault resistance is assumed to be 0.04 p.u. In the IEEE benchmark case, it is inductive, but a resistive fault impedance is more realistic. Maybe the impedance in the IEEE benchmark case represented a short line from the bus to the fault location.

Data le: 1 STEADY.DAT This steady-state solution shows what you would obtain from a conventional short-circuit Vprefault 1 program with phasor solutions, namely Ifault = Rtotal+j!Ltotal = 0:06+:j00:404 p:u:, or jIfault j = 2:448 p:u:. Note that the series capacitor is represented as a negative reactance in such phasor solutions. Leave t and tmax empty or set them zero. Then only a steady-state solution will be performed. Use tstart = ,1:0 any negative number in the source data to indicate that source is already present in steady state before transient simulation begins at t = 0. Use tclose = ,1:0 in the data for the switch simulating the fault, to indicate that the switch is already closed in steady state before transient simulation begins at t = 0. Ask for fault current with 1" in column 80 of series capacitor data line do not ask for switch current because switch current from steady-state solution is not available at this time. If you want a complete steady-state output, insert 1" in column 38 of time data line.

* File "1_STEADY.DAT". * To demonstrate the various ways of calculating short-circuit currents, the * "First IEEE Subsynchronous Resonance Benchmark Model" is used as an example * IEEE Task Force, "First benchmark model for computer simulation of sub* synchronous resonance", IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-96, * pp. 1565-1572, Sept. Oct. 1977. The connection to the infinite bus through

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* an impedance is left off here, so that the case can also be run with the * student version. Per unit values are used, to make it easier to compare the * numbers used here with the numbers in the publication. * * In this case, the generator is represented as a voltage source E" behind X"d. * The values for this single-phase case are the positive sequence values. The * fault resistance is assumed to be 0.04 p.u. in the IEEE benchmark case, it * is inductive, but a resistive fault impedance is more realistic. * * This steady-state solution shows what you would obtain from a conventional * short-circuit program with phasor solutions. Note that the series capacitor * is represented as a negative reactance in such phasor solutions. * * * * * * * . gen a cap $ * * . b $ = = = * * 14 . gen cap $ = = = $ = = = End of level 4: User-defined voltage output Level 5: End of data case = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = . . . 1.4142 . . . Voltage or current sources 60. -90. -1. = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = . . . . -1. . . Time-controlled switch 1.0 0.04 = = . . a cap b 0.02 . . . . Lumped RLC branch 0.275 0.50 -0.371 1 . . 0. . . 0. . . . Time card 1 . . . . . . . Case identification card 60 Steady-state solution, short circuit in single-phase circuit

$ = = =

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Data le: 1 SIMPLE.DAT Change t to 50 s, and tmax to 0.1 s. Step size t is related to maximum frequency which 1 you expect or want to see in the results: fmax = 8t , if you want 8 points per cycle at the highest frequency. Change tclose of switch to 0, so that fault is initiated at t = 0 topen = 1:0 will keep switch closed during transient solution to tmax = 0:1s. Ask for fault current output with 1" in column 80 of switch data line. Ask for capacitor current and voltage with 3" in column 80 of capacitor data line. If it is a simple series connection of resistances and inductances assuming that the series capacitor simply decreases the line inductance, which is not correct as shown in the next case, then there is an exact solution for the rst-order di erential equation of the R-L circuit. With a voltage source of vt = Vmax sin!t + , we obtain:

i h it = q 2 Vmax sin!t + , , sin , e, Tt ; Rtotal + !Ltotal 2

L total where = tan,1 !Ltotal , T = Rtotal , Rtotal = 0:06 p:u:, !Ltotal = 0:404 p:u:, f = 60 Hz. R total For , = 0 , there is no dc o set. For , = 90 , there is maximum dc o set. In high voltage systems, R !L. In that case, maximum dc o set occurs when the voltage is just going through zero, vt = Vmax sin!t. With maximum dc o set, the peak current is twice as high as without dc o set if the decay is very slow, or somewhat less than twice as high with faster decay. As seen from above equation, 1 total the decay time constant is ! Xtotal . R Knowing the dc o set is important because it

increases the mechanical forces between busbars carrying the current and return current by a factor of up to 4, increases the power dissipation i2 Rarc in the circuit breaker arc by a factor of up to 4, and

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may prevent zero crossings for the rst few cycles in three-phase short circuits close to generator terminals see notes "Simple Sources and Machine Models"; in reality, the arc resistance will probably create enough decay to create zero crossings early enough for the circuit breaker to operate. The dc o set in the fault current is taken into account in the circuit breaker standards. Older standards provided data for the in uence of the decaying dc o set on circuit breaker ratings as functions of X R ratios. Newer standards use symmetrical current ratings dc o set implicitly assumed, and show ratios of asymmetrical to symmetrical interrupting capabilities as a function of contact parting time. Exercises: Create the data le for this case and run the case. Include the exact solution for an R-L circuit for comparison purposes. It consists of a sinusoidal component and of a decaying dc component. As explained on page 9-24 of the Reference Manual revision 1997, this decaying dc o set component can be simulated with the double-exponential h i 1 impulse function it = Imax e t , e t with = , T , and = , 500 . t Inject both components into a node EXACT", which has a resistance branch of 1:0 to ground. Ask for the current in that branch. In the lines for the source data, use -1" in columns 9-10 to signal that the ac and dc components are current sources rather than voltage sources. Change tclose to 1 4 of a cycle, and comment on the changes which you see in the fault current.

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Data le: 1 RL.DAT The transient results of the previous case are not correct. For transient simulations, a capacitor must be modelled as a capacitance this is always correct, for transient and steady-state solutions. A negative reactance can only be used for steady-state solutions. 1 The value for !C in per unit is 0:371 . Therefore, with f = 60Hz : C = 0:3711120 = 7149:8 10,6p:u:. With COPT = 0, input is in F or , p:u: The fault current looks reasonable now, with the second frequency created by the L-C circuit clearly noticeable.

Figure 7.3: Transient Solution with RLC In reality, a protective gap will spark over across the capacitor when the voltage becomes too high, to protect the capacitors. This is discussed in data le 1 RLGAP.DAT. Exercises: Create the data le for this case and run the case. Modify the case by putting a protective spark gap in parallel with the series capacitor use the voltage- dependent switch" for the gap. Assume that the gap sparks over when the voltage reaches 1.8 p.u. Observe the fault current and the current in the spark gap. 22

Disable the critical damping adjustment scheme CDA with "1" in column 68 of the time data line, and change t to 1ms larger t shows numerical oscillations clearer. Observe the numerical oscillations in the gap current and capacitor current one should be the negative of the other.

Data le: 1 PI.DAT We need the capacitance for the -circuit, which we can nd as follows: From Sbase = 892:4 MV A and Vbase = 500 kV , we get a positive sequence reactance of X1 = 140:07 . Based on known, typical per mile values of 0.5 to 0.6 mile for 500 kV lines, we can guess the line length as 250 miles. By ignoring the resistance, the wave velocity becomes c = pL10 C 0 . Since we know c = :5 300 000 km s 186 411.4 miles s, f = 60Hz, and L0 = 2500120 p.u. mile, C 0 becomes 5:4244584 10,6 p.u. mile. A -circuit is branch type 1" 1, 2, ...n for n-phase -circuits, or 51, 52, ... for input with higher accuracy. Therefore, add 1" in column 2 of the R-L-C data line, and the capacitance value for the 250 miles in columns 39-44, C = 5:4244584 10,6 250 = 1356:1 10,6p:u:

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If we were to move the fault location to the end of the transmission line in node cap", we would short-circuit the shunt capacitance at node cap" of the -circuit. If the fault impedance were zero, this would theoretically produce an in nite current spike of in nitely small duration. Without the critical damping adjustment scheme for the suppression of numerical oscillations CDA, numerical oscillations would appear in the fault current. See data le 1 PINUM.DAT for this case with numerical oscillations in the current. Exercises: Create the data le for this case and run the case. Move the fault location to node cap", assume zero fault resistance, and observe the fault current. Put a 1" in column 68 of the data line for t, etc., to bypass CDA, and observe the fault current again. Re-run it again with tclose changed to 1 4 cycle. Observe the fault current again.

Data le: 1 LINE.DAT It is very easy to change a -circuit into a distributed parameter line. We can de ne the line length in any units we want, as long as we are consistent. By using 250 miles" as one unit of length, the values for the total R, X, C which we already have for the -circuit become the distributed parameters per unit length. Simply add a -" to column 1; -1, -2, ...-n indicates that it is an n-phase line with distributed parameters. Use 1.0 for the length, in columns 45-50.

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Figure 7.5: Transient Solution with Distributed Parameters Without CDA, numerical oscillations can occur in the fault current with the -circuit model. With the distributed parameter model, there are no numerical oscillations, because node "cap" does not have a lumped shunt capacitance, but sees travelling waves from the transmission line instead. See data le 1 LINUM.DAT. Exercises: Create the data le for this case and run the case. Put a 1" in column 68 of the data line for t, etc., to bypass CDA, and observe the fault current again.

7.6 Comparison between R-L, -Circuit, and Distributed Parameter Line Representations

Exercises: Superimpose the fault currents from the three line models on the same plot. Comment on the similarities and di erences. The fault current is reasonably accurate with all three representations. The distributed parameter line model is the correct model, but it can only be used as long as the travel time 1.34 ms in this case is larger than the step size t 50 s in this case. 25

Figure 7.6: Comparison between R-L, -Circuit, and Distributed Parameter Line Representations

Data le: 1 FREQ.DAT To understand the di erences between the three line models, we can do a frequency scan", which is a number of steady-state solutions from fmin to fmax , in steps of f . We will set up the case in such a way that we obtain the frequency-dependent network impedances seen from the fault location. To obtain the impedance seen from the fault location, we have to add fmin = 1:0 Hz, f = 0:2 Hz, fmax = 500 Hz to the data line with t, etc. remove the fault switch, short-circuit all sources in the network, inject 1 A RMS current into node "b" where the fault occurs, and ask for the voltage in b", which will be equal to the impedance because of V = Z I , where I = 1:0. The following plots show the impedance for all three line models. The frequency-dependent impedance obtained with the distributed-parameter line model, with recurrent resonance points, is the correct one. When we say correct", we assume that the distributed parameters R0, L0 , C 0 are constant. As we will see later, they are frequencydependent, particularly for the zero sequence. 26

The -circuit reproduces the series resonance caused by the series capacitor very well at 39.5 Hz instead of 39.7 Hz, as well as the rst resonance caused by the line capacitance at 125.3 Hz instead of 124.3 Hz. The R-L line model duplicates the series resonance with a slight error at 41.5 Hz instead of 39.7 Hz, but is unable to duplicate any of the resonances caused by the line capacitance.

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In addition to the positive sequence parameters, we also need the zero sequence parameters now: The zero sequence source reactance is the transformer reactance alone, because the transformer is seen as an internal short on the delta side, and disconnected from the generator, X0 = 0:14 p:u: The zero sequence line impedance is R0 = 0:5 p:u:, X0 = 1:56 p:u: We assume a single-line-to-ground fault in phase A of node b". In high-voltage transmission systems, 90 or so of all faults are single-line-to-ground. We will also look at the overvoltages in the unfaulted phases at node b". The steady-state overvoltages do not depend on the fault-initiation angle" angle where fault occurs, counted from zero crossing of the pre-fault sinusoidal voltage. The transient overvoltages depend very much on the fault initiation angle. They are largest in one of the unfaulted phases if the fault occurs when the voltage is just at its maximum. We therefore use tclose = 0:0041667 s fault initiation angle = 90 . With a fault initiation angle of 90 , there is little dc o set in the fault current. The circuit breaker duty is therefore less than with a fault initiation angle of 0 , but the latter produces higher transient overvoltages. Transient overvoltages during line energization can be minimized with controlled closing closing when the voltages are more or less equal on both sides of the circuit breaker contact. The disadvantage is the maximum dc o set in the fault current if we happen to re-close into a permanent fault.

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Data le: 3 STEADY.DAT This steady-state solution shows what you would obtain from a conventional short-circuit program with phasor solutions. While short-circuit programs usually work with positive and zero sequence networks, MicroTran works with phase quantities. See Appendix A for relationship between sequence and phase quantities. Replace the single-phase R-L branch with three coupled branches use the -circuit branch types 1, 2, 3, or branch types 51, 52, 53 for higher accuracy input, for the three coupled branches, and leave the eld for the capacitances blank. When you use the pre-processor MTD", there is a device" entry form for symmetric -circuits which allows you to input zero and positive sequence parameters. If you have a version of MTD which creates cascade connections of -circuits, make certain that you specify the number of sections as 1 and the length as 1. The positive and zero sequence parameters Z1, Z0 are then converted internally to self and mutual impedances with 1 Zs = 1 Z0 + 2Z1 ; Zm = 3 Z0 , Z1 : 8.1 3 Use the positive sequence capacitance value to model the three-phase series capacitor station as three uncoupled R-L-C branches, with values in C- eld elds for R, L blank. The zero sequence capacitance is identical to the positive sequence capacitance for the series capacitors, and equal to the capacitance of each phase. If the data shows a zero sequence capacitance di erent from the positive sequence capacitance, then the data is in error. We use capacitance representations now, and not negative reactances, because we already know that this is correct for steady-state solutions as well as transient simulations. With short-circuit programs, the fault current for a single-line-to-ground fault in phase A is found from , IA = 3 VAZprefault 8.2 Z1 + 2 + Z0 It is usually assumed that the negative sequence impedance is equal to the positive sequence impedance, Z2 = Z1 . Using phase quantities, we get the same answer from IA = VA,prefault 8.3 Zs since Zs = 1 Z0 + 2Z1. The phase quantities formula is easier to understand than the sym3 metrical component formula. 29

Exercises: Find the fault current from the above formula. With Z0 = 0:54 + j 1:329 p:u: and Z1 = 0:06 + j 0:404 p:u: , we get jIAj = 1:341 p:u:. Create the data le for this case and run the case, and compare the result with above hand calculation.

Data le: 3 RL.DAT Except for adding t, tmax , and setting tclose = 0 for the switch, the data le should be the same as in 8.1. Exercises: Create the data le for this case and run the case. Observe the transient overvoltages on the unfaulted phases.

30

Data le: 3 PI.DAT Assume that the wave velocity in zero sequence is 70 of the wave velocity in positive sequence. From the velocity of a lossless line, c0 = pL`10C `0 , and with c0 = 210000 km=s 1 56 0 130487:95 miles=s and L00 = 250:120 p:u:=mile, C0 becomes 3:5481805 10,6 p:u:=mile. The zero sequence capacitance value for the 250 miles becomes C = 3:5481805 10,6 250 = 887:045 10,6 p:u:

Figure 8.4: Transient Solution with : Voltages on Unfaulted Phases Exercises: Create the data le for this case and run the case. Observe the transient overvoltages on the unfaulted phases. If we look at the short-circuit current, we see an initial spike. It is caused by discharging the -circuit capacitance through the series capacitor and the 0:04 p:u: fault resistance. The time step of 50 s is too large to simulate this spike well enough. Change t to 1 s, and reduce tmax to 0:005 s, to see the correct time constant T = RC for the decay of the spike. Note that this spike is unrealistic because the -circuit is not valid at the high frequencies contained in this spike. To get the time constant for the decay of the spike, nd the self impedance looking into one phase of the 3-phase shunt capacitance matrix at the end of the -circuit: From Z1 = j!1C1 2 1 and Z0 = j!1C0 , we get Zs = 1 Z0 + 2Z1 = j! 1734:8 p:u:, which implies a capacitance 3 2 of 576:4 , p:u: This, in series with C = 7149:8 , p:u: for the series capacitor, produces a Ctotal = 533:4 , p:u:, or T = R Ctotal = 21:3s. This is what you should be able to see in the plot with t = 1s. v The peak value of the spike should be Rfault , if v is the instantaneous voltage at the instant p when the fault occurs; with v = 1:35 2 and Rfault = 0:04 p:u:, we get ipeak = 47:7 p:u:. This is close to 45:7 p:u: on the plot. The di erences may be caused by the fact that high frequencies do not just see the shunt capacitance of the -circuit, but the series impedance as well, though the latter is much larger. The nal steady-state fault current is now slightly lower 1:2071 p:u: RMS, compared to that from the coupled R-L model for the line 1:3413 p:u: RMS, because of the shunt capacitance of the line. As we will see later in Section 8.4, the correct answer is actually 1:3106 p:u: 32

Data le: 3 LINE.DAT We assume that the line is perfectly transposed balanced. Data input is in the form of zero sequence parameters on the data line for the rst phase: R0 = 0:50 p:u:, X0 = 1:56 p:u:, C0 = 887:045 , p:u:, length = 1:0, and positive sequence parameters on the data line for the second phase: R1 = 0:02 p:u:, X1 = 0:50 p:u:, C1 = 1356:1 , p:u:

Exercises: Create the data le for this case and run the case. Observe the transient overvoltages on the unfaulted phases. For the very sharp overvoltage peak, the step size of 50 s may be too large. Rerun the case with 1 s and tmax = 0:01 s.

Figure 8.7: Transient Solution with Line: Voltages on Unfaulted Phases Obtain the nal steady-state fault current from a steady-state solution. The fault current contains travelling wave transients now. Because of travelling waves, the current can jump suddenly at the fault location. This has been veri ed with eld tests; see the comparison below between measurements and EMTP simulations in the Hydro-Quebec system:

Figure 8.8: Measured and calculated fault current and overvoltages in Hydro-Quebec system 10 34

Figure 8.9: Measured and calculated initial part of fault current in an expanded time scale 10 The nal steady-state fault current 1:3106 p:u: RMS is higher now than the one obtained from the -circuit model for the line 1:2071 p:u: RMS. The di erence is caused by the fact that a nominal" -circuit, which we used here, is reasonably accurate only up to approx. 100 miles at 60 Hz. For a nominal -circuit, the series impedance is simply the series impedance per unit length, multiplied with the length: Zseries = Z 0 l. For 250 miles, an exact equivalent -circuit would be better than a nominal -circuit, but the exact equivalent -circuit can only be used in steady-state phasor solutions. For the exact equivalent -circuit, the series impedance is Zseries = Z 0 l sinh l l : 8.4 The distributed parameter model is converted to an exact equivalent -circuit for pure steadystate phasor solutions no transient simulation starting from ac steady state inside MicroTran. If the exact equivalent -circuit is approximated with a cascade connection of nominal circuits, the steady-state fault current comes closer to the exact solution. With ve nominal -circuits, we obtain 1:3065 p:u: RMS 0.3 error, and with ten nominal -circuits we obtain 1:3096 p:u: RMS 0.08 error. The preprocessor MTD" has a device input option for creating cascade connections of nominal -circuits automatically. The cases with cascade connections of nominal -circuits are probably too big to t into the student version of MicroTran.

35

8.5 Comparison between R-L, -Circuit, and Distributed Parameter Line Representations

The plot below shows the fault current for the three line models.

Figure 8.10: Comparison between R-L, -Circuit, and Distributed Parameter Line Representations For the transient overvoltages, only the distributed parameter line model gives meaningful answers. Even that model is not good enough if constant R0 , L0, C 0 is assumed. A frequencydependent line model is needed to get realistic answers for single-line-to-ground faults, where the frequency dependent zero sequence parameters play a large role. The frequency dependent line model will be discussed later.

Data le: 3 GEN.DAT 0 00 The data for the detailed generator model, with Xd , Xd , Xd , etc., is available from the IEEE SSR benchmark model 11 : Xd = 1:79 p:u:, Xd0 = 0:169 p:u:, X 00 d = 0:135 p:u:, Xq = 1:71 p:u:, Xq0 = 0:228 p:u:, X 00q = 0:200 p:u:, Td00 = 4:30 s, Td000 = 0:032 s Tq00 = 0:85 s, Tq000 = 0:050 s Ra = 0, Xl = 0:13 p:u:, f = 60 Hz, if 0 = 1:0 p:u: or 600 A 36

Connection: wye, solidly grounded

Since we are using p.u. values at this point, set Vrating = 1 V 10,3 kV and Srating = 1 V A 10,6 MV A, to keep the generator data in per unit. The data for the mechanical part is left o because we assume here that the speed does not change. With a detailed generator model, the step-up transformer with its delta-wye connection has to be modelled, too. Use the inverse reactance matrix representation, and assume that the threephase bank is made up of single-phase transformers. The connection is achieved by simply using the correct node names on the coupled branches. For example, the rst single-phase transformer has the rst branch connected from a-A" to ground" and the second branch from gen-A" to gen-B". This automatically creates the correct phase shift between the wye and delta side as well. Since the voltages on the delta side lag 30 degrees behind the voltages on the wye side, the generator voltage angle must be changed from ,90 to ,120 for phase a". Exercises: Create the data le for this case from 3 LINE.DAT. For the transformer bank, you may p want to use MTD" to create the transformer model. Use Vrating = 3 on the delta side, Vrating = 1:0 on the wye side, and Srating = 1:0. Why? Run the case, and observe the di erences in the fault current with respect to the results from Section 8.4 they are not too large for the single-line-to-ground fault, but become larger for the three-phase fault in Section 8.8. The charging current in the pre-fault steady-state solution may exceed the Var-absorption capability of the generator. Older MicroTran versions may stop with a negative eld current message. Message in newer versions is more detailed. Cure: add shunt reactors, or connect to in nite bus as in original IEEE case.

37

Data le: 3 GENOHM.DAT Studies with MicroTran are usually made with parameters in actual units, rather than in per unit. Parameters in actual units are usually less confusing than p.u. values, particularly if the case contains nonlinear inductances or nonlinear resistances. Exercises: Convert the data le 3 GEN.DAT to the data le 3 GENOHM.DAT in actual units , F , V , A, etc.. For the transformer, you may want to create the model again with p MTD", by using Vrating = 26 kV on the delta side, Vrating = 500= 3 kV on the wye side, and Srating,1phase = 892:4=3. Verify that the results are identical with those from Section 8.6. You may want to use the scaling factor in the plotting program for this comparison.

38

Data les: 3 LINE3.DAT and 3 GEN3.DAT 00 The di erences between the model with E 00 behind Xd and the detailed generator model are more noticeable for the fault currents of a three-phase fault beyond the rst few cycles. For a three-phase fault, the rotor uxes decay more noticeably. As a consequence, the ac 00 component of the fault current changes from its initial subtransient value determined by Xd , 0 to its transient value determined by Xd, and nally to its steady-state value determined by Xd . Exercises: Convert the data les 3 LINE.DAT and 3 GEN.DAT to the data les 3-LINE3.DAT and 3 GEN3.DAT for the three-phase short-circuit. Run the cases and compare the fault current.

39

40

Short-circuit currents on HVDC lines, and related transient overvoltages, can only be calculated with EMTP-type programs.

Figure 8.14: Measured and calculated transient overvoltage on unfaulted pole of HVDC line 12

41

Assume that a three-phase transmission line is represented with series R-L branches. For steady-state solutions, the voltage drop along the three phases would then be

2 6 4

3 2

3 7 5

A.1

where Zs is the self impedance of each phase with ground and ground wires providing the return path, and Zm is the mutual impedance between phases. In Equation A.1, we assume that the transmission line is balanced" perfectly transposed. Otherwise, the matrix would be

2 6 4

3 7 5

A.2

still symmetric, Zba = Zab, etc.. Equations A.1 with phase quantities are coupled. They become simpler, namely decoupled, if we work with symmetrical components", by transforming phase quantities Ia , Ib , Ic to sequence" quantities Izero, Ipositive , Inegative :

2 6 4

Vzero Zzero 0 0 Izero 7=6 0 76 I Vpositive 5 4 Zpositive 0 5 4 positive Vnegative 0 0 Znegative Inegative

3 2

3 7 5

A.3

Since the matrix is diagonal, we can solve the equations separately for zero, positive, and negative sequence quantities, as if we had three single-phase networks rather than one three-phase network. This is a transformation based on eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The transformations are 42

and

Ia 1 1 1 1 p 6 1 a a2 7 6 Ib 7 ; 4 5 4 5 3 1 a2 a Ic

1 1 Izero a2 a 7 6 Ipositive 5 4 a a2 Inegative

3 2 3 7 5

3 2

A.4 A.5

1 1 p 61 4 3 1

where a = ej120 , a2 = e,j120 . The transformations for voltages are identical. Above transformations are normalized". If unnormalized usual practice in power industry, the factor in Equation A.4 is 1 , and in A.5 it is 1. 3 The symmetrical components have a physical meaning: 1. Zero sequence currents are identical in the three phases as can be seen from Equation A.5 if only Izero is present.

2. Positive sequence currents are the symmetrical currents in the three phases during normal operation as can be seen from Equation A.5 if only Ipositive is present. When the phasors are rotated counterclockwise, the phases appear in the normal "positive" sequence a, b, c.

3. Negative sequence currents are also symmetrical currents in the three phases as can be seen from Equation A.5 if only Inegative is present, but they appear in reverse negative" sequence when phasors are rotated counterclockwise.

43

Approach in MicroTran: Symmetrical component equations make no sense for untransposed lines, because the transformed matrix in sequence quantities is no longer diagonal. All network components must be three phase with symmetrical component equations. If a single-phase distribution line one phase conductor and one neutral conductor were connected to a three-phase substation, that would be di cult to model with symmetrical components. For reasons of generality, MicroTran therefore works with phase quantities, even when input data is given in sequence quantities. The zero sequence impedance can be obtained from Equation A.1. With all voltages equal, we need only the rst equation for Va , and with Ib = Ia , Ic = Ia, we get Va = Zs + 2Zm Ia The zero sequence impedance subscript zero" or 0" is therefore: A.6 A.7

Z0 = Zs + 2Zm

For the positive sequence impedance, we use in Equation A.1 Ib = a2Ia , Ic = aIa , and we get Va = Zs , Zm Ia The positive sequence impedance subscript positive" or 1" is therefore: A.8 A.9 A.10

Z1 = Zs , Zm

Similarly, the negative sequence impedance subscript negative" or 2" becomes

Z2 = Zs , Zm

44

Bibliography

1 M. B. Hughes, R. W. Leonard, and T. G. Martinich, Measurement of power system subsynchronous driving point impedance and comparison with computer simulations," IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-103, pp. 619 - 630, March 1984. 2 C. A. F. Cunha and H. W. Dommel, Computer simulation of eld tests on the 345 kV JaguaraTaquaril line," Paper BH GSP 12 in Portuguese, in II Semin
rio Nacional de Produ~o e a ca Transmissao de Energia El
trica, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 1973. e 3 J. R. Mart
, Accurate modelling of frequency-dependent transmission lines in electromagnetic

transient simulations," IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-101, pp. 147 - 157, Jan. 1982. 4 M. Rioual, Measurements and computer simulation of fast transients through indoor and outdoor substations," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 5, pp. 117 - 123, Jan. 1990. 5 H.W. Dommel, Case Studies for Electromagnetic Transients, 2nd Edition, Microtran Power System Analysis Corporation, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 1993. 6 D. H. Baker, Synchronous machine modeling in EMTP," IEEE Course Text: Digital Simulation of Electrical Transient Phenomena, No. 81 EHO173-5-PWR, IEEE Service Center, Piscataway, N.J., 1980. 7 Transformer Inrush Current, Test Case 1., Microtran Power System Analysis Corporation, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 1990. 8 A. C. S. de Lima, personal communication, July 1998. 9 W. Xu, J. R. Mart
, and H. W. Dommel, A multiphase harmonic load ow solution technique,"

IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 6, pp. 174 - 190, Febr. 1991. 10 R. Malewski, V. N. Narancic, and Y. Robichaud, Behavior of the Hydro-Quebec 735-kV system under transient short-circuit conditions and its digital computer simulation," IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-94, pp. 425 - 431, March April 1975. 11 IEEE Task Force, First benchmark model for computer simulation of subsynchronous resonance," IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-96, pp. 1565 - 1572, Sept. Oct. 1977. 45

12 D. J. Melvold, P. C. Odam, and J. J. Vithayathil, Transient overvoltages on an HVDC bipolar line during monopolar line faults," IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, PAS96, pp. 591 - 601, March April 1977.

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