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KABALE UNIVERSITY MASTERS DEGREE DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS 2010- 2011.

Editors 1. Professor Wesana Chomi 2. Professor Allen Babugura 3. Professor George Alibaruho 4. Dr.Christopher Zigira 5. Ms Lillian Tindyebwa 6. Ms.Lucky Ariho 7. Mr.Adalbert Aine-Omucunguzi 8. Mr.Tibenderana Narsis 9. Mr.Bagyenzi Henry

10.

Mr.Aryeija Warren

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Uwumukiza Francois Reg No: 08/M/KAB/MADS/1981/W Gender: Male Programme: Master of Arts in Development Studies Academic Unit: Postgraduate Unit Title of Dissertation: ISSUES AND PROGRESS IN ACHIEVING UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION IN RWANDA: A CASE STUDY OF THE NYARUGURU COMMUNITY. Supervisor: Prof. George Alibaruho Submission date: July 2011
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ABSTRACT The study was conducted in Nyaruguru community with an overall purpose to review progress and implementation, and policy issues in the way towards achieving universal primary education for all (MDG No. 2) taking the Nyaruguru community as a case study. A total of 110 households were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that was developed based on the information needed such as household characteristics, school attendance and household resilience while other related information was collected using document review method. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. The results showed that primary school enrolment rate for children aged 7 years is still low (70.5%) with no gender disparity (70.1% female and 71.0% male) which largely fall far below the national level (94.2%). This enables one to conclude that school attendance in Nyaruguru is off track when compared to the national situation and the UN MDG 2. In Nyaruguru community, primary education completion is not on track since the results showed a trend whereby the mean completion levels of children aged 13 years is considerably low. The mean completion levels for all grades were below the recommendable level of completion. Despite the fact that a lot has been achieved to ensure gender parity in school enrolment, a substantial gap is still noticeable in education completion rate by gender: the same results showed a gender disparity on education completion favoring boys. The following are some of the recommendations from this study. There is need to gender mainstream policies with extensive focus on their implementation in rural areas; such policies would seek for women economic empowerment and increased community awareness on child rights for both girls and boys alike. The decentralized local government should be empowered enough to implement gender related policies; and mechanisms for monitoring their implementations should be put in place so as to evaluate the policy performance and suggest changes wherever deemed necessary, which would improve chances of realizing MDG 2. Interviews on household resilience indicated that 86.9% reduced the number of meals per day while 75.9% would pass one or more days with no meals as a result of food scarcity. Such situation of food insecurity affects children of school age to a great extent hence hindering their school attendance and performance. The correlation analysis confirmed this relationship between school attendance and food security situation, whereby school attendance would decrease among food insecure households. Thus in order to ensure full enrolment and education completion among all children in Nyaruguru as one of the rural areas, the GoR, along with its development partners, should sharpen its focus on

interventions targeting the improvement of sustainable livelihood for rural families. While a lot has been achieved as of ensuring free primary education, a lot is also needed to ensure that rural households are food secure and their vulnerability to external shocks is kept at minimum levels. A countrywide study is so important to assess whether other rural areas like Nyaruguru are not far behind the national level in terms of achieving the second Millennium Development Goal, which seeks to ensure that by 2015 all children everywhere, girls and boys alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.

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Supervisor: Submission Date: ABSTRACT The human settlement policy (IMIDUGUDU) of the Rwandan government was a response to the pressing settlement needs brought about by the 1994 genocide which caused millions of deaths of Tutsi and internal displacement of the population. The objective of this research was to evaluate the role of IMIDUGUDU policy in addressing the consequent human settlement challenges, taking Kitazigurwa Model Village in Rwamagana District from its creation in 2009, as a case study. Specifically, the research focused on the following questions: are there prospects that the National Human Settlement Policy can improve the quality of houses in rural areas in view of the fact that most houses that were built in rural settlement centres during the emergency period (1997) are still incomplete? Given, that there are still many homeless families, particularly those who are vulnerable, could the IMIDUGUDU policy facilitate the creation of new and adequate housing? What are the socio-economic consequences of the IMIDUGUDU policy for people living in Kitazigurwa village and how does the policy improve Agriculture, Livestock and Environmental protection. A sample survey covering 30 families in this village and interviews (unstructured and structured) and conversations with respondents were conducted. Additionally, a questionnaire and structured interviews were administered to twelve (12) local leaders of Rwamagana District and the Eastern Province. Analysis of the data and the results showed that after settling in this village since 2009, the living conditions have been improved in the new houses compared to the previous houses, which were very small, scattered and constructed with poor building materials. The current houses have helped the local population to improve the standard of living, and limit the spread of many diseases such are skin and respiratory diseases. Improved security was another factor that the local population appreciated in the village. The social and economic conditions of people living in the model village have moderately improved. On one hand, there was an improvement for some sub-sectors like Health, Water and Sanitation and Social Cohesion; on the other hand, there was still a lot of work to be done for improvement in some sectors like Education, Creation of off farm activities and a culture of saving. From the perspective of agriculture and livestock, the population of this Model Village which had a culture of cultivating small and scattered mixed crops farms, now has adopted the new policy of land consolidation .They started also to adopt improved domestic animal breeding where new breeds (hybrid of purebred) have been introduced. Concerning environmental protection, the villagers adopted the use of energy saving stoves which do not require big quantity of firewood or charcoal; they also dug ditches in their landholdings to fight against erosion and to protect their

Murekatete Brigitte Female 08/M/KAB/MADS/097/W Master of Arts in Development Studies Postgraduate Unit HUMAN SETTLEMENT POLICY (IMIDUGUDU) AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN RWANDA :A CASE STUDY OFKITAZIGURWA MODEL VILLAGE RWAMAGANA DISTRICT 2009-2010 Prof. George Alibaruho 2010

lake Muhazi. All in all IMIDUGUDU policy has made a difference, compared to what was the case before, but much more lies ahead to be done.

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Musana SergeUwimana Male 08/M/KAB/MA.HRM/059/W

Programme: Master of Arts in Human Resource Management Title of Dissertation: WORKPLACE SUPPORT PROGRAMMES AND JOB PERFORMANCE OF HIV/AIDS INFECTED EMPLOYEES INRWANDA

Supervisor: Academic Unit: Submission Date:

Prof. George Alibaruho Postgraduate Unit September, 2011

AB STRACT The HIV/AIDS pandemic is arguably the greatest threat facing the world today. The pandemic has a far-reaching impact on society and the workplace, in particular, including a reduction in certain skills levels, mortality and declining job performance of employees living with HIV or AIDS. In addition, the fear of discrimination and stigmatization prevents infected employees from disclosing their HIV status, thus driving the pandemic underground. Despite the potential negative impact that is looming, many employers still do not have any workplace support programmes in place to manage HIV/AIDS in their organizations. However, some employers have implemented workplace support programmes. This research, which was conducted in three districts within Kigali City in Rwanda, explored the influence of workplace support programmes on the job performance of employees that were living with HIV or AIDS. The findings suggest that job performance is positively influenced where workplace support programmes have been implemented. The findings were obtained from analyzing the participants responses and that of their employers by conducting interviews, and the results indicated that 58.3% of the participants employers had a formal HIV/AIDS committee or policy and a combination of workplace support activities to manage the influence of the pandemic in the workplace. The findings also indicate that 72.7% of participating employers appeared to have no mechanisms in place to manage HIV/AIDS, nor much workplace support programme activities that specifically focused on managing the influence of the pandemic in the workplace. Thus this study underlies the need for advocacy to increase awareness among employers to pro- actively put in place support programmes for HIV/AIDS infected employees as a matter of good business, besides the social obligations to do so.

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Gasirabo Claver 08/M/KAB/MADS/155/W Male Master of Arts in Development Studies RICE COOPERATIVES AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN RWAND:A CASE STUDY OF RICE COOPERATIVES SUPPORTED BY THE RURAL SECTOR SUPPORT PROGRAM Prof. George Alibaruho Postgraduate Unit September 2011

ABSTRACT The research aimed at analysing the contribution of rice farming to household welfare of rice farmers and improvement in standards of living of the community. At the national level, it assessed rice economys contribution to GDP, balance of payments and Food Security, with a focus on the impact of the Rural Sector Support Program RSSP (funded by the World Bank). The methodology used secondary data from library, archives from Ministries, Agencies, RSSP and relevant cooperatives. It used also primary data gathered from the field, using structured interviews, debates and group discussions. The study population was the total number of rice cooperatives members supported by RSSP, in different rice perimeters located in the three provinces covered by the study. The findings show that rice contribution, at the macroeconomic level, is still low considering its share of GDP and the level of imports of rice from abroad to fill the gap between national production and the consumption and nutritional needs of the population. However, rice production is increasing at very high rate considering its trend during the last couple of years, despite the fact that Rwanda is still importing 40% of its populations rice consumption. Therefore, rice is still a threat to the Balance of Payments since national production cannot satisfy local consumption, but evidence shows that this will change over time. The results show encouraging achievements and positive impacts of RSSP-1 on such indicators as agricultural production, food security, innovations in processing and marketing, infrastructure and the socio-economic status of households and general improvement of living conditions. The current phase RSSP-2 is emphasizing Cooperatives capacity building to enable the organizations to be self- sustaining and develop a greater range of services to members and promote rice production by increasing land and productivity in terms of yields per hectare. External factors and other donor/partners contributions are less tangible in the day- to- day operations of RSSPsupported cooperative members activities. But Government agencies, RADA and ISAR retain an important role; they provide certified seeds and fertilizers, without which poor seed quality would remain the most significant weakness in enhancing rice production growth rates. Based on the findings, it is strongly suggested that future interventions emphasize enhancing productivity levels, particularly by promoting adoption of upland rice cultivation and raising the standards of post-harvest processing of rice. This goal can be advanced through development and implementation of policies and clear rules and procedures for programs and participating institutions and better alignment of budgets to goals in the rice sub-sector.

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Niyonsaba Vronique 08/M/KAB/MHRM/183/W Male Master of Arts in Human Resource Management OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS, HEALTH WORKERS PERFORMANCE AND ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS IN RWANDA :A CASE STUDY OF HEALTH INSTITUTIONS IN MUHANGA DISTRICT, 2008 TO 2010 Prof George Alibaruho Postgraduate Unit May 2011

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ABSTRACT This research was conducted with the objective to study how occupational hazards within health institutions in Rwanda (Muhanga District) and measures taken to date to mitigate them can affect workers and organizational performance and upon completion to suggest applicable strategies to fix potential problems to the development of successful, healthier and safer work conditions so as to improve health facilities service delivery effectiveness. It relied on quantitative and qualitative data collected through two questionnaires; one addressed to a sample of forty-four healthcare providers and the other administered through individual interviews with owners or managers of public, government-assisted and private health facilities operating in Muhanga District, Southern Province of Rwanda. It was found that, within aforementioned facilities, workers face several types of risks: Accidents which consist of injuries from medical equipment, slips and trips, and falling down; Work-related diseases, mainly airborne infections, blood-borne infections, neck and lower back pain, hemorrhoids and varicose veins; Work-related stress and fatigue; Workplace violence. Factors influencing these risks were also identified; these are environmental factors (noise, hygiene conditions and smells, ventilation, narrow space and dispersion of units and location of some facilities), personal factors (worker behavior, psychological capabilities, inadequate skills),
organizational factors (work organization, understaffing, insufficient financial resources, long working day), and external factors (behaviours of patients and/or their relatives, special groups of patients, medical insurance schemes). A close relationship was established between these factors and the risks prevailing in the health facilities under study. It was also found that the risks mentioned above impact

negatively individual workers performance since they are causes of absenteeism, low morale, tardiness, poor quality service, constant anxiety, demotivation of some medical staff and resignation. Organizational effectiveness is also adversely impacted in terms of payment for job not performed because of absence and sick leaves, difficulty in retention, cost of unplanned recruitment and training, expenses for medical care in case of injuries or occupational disease, reduced productivity and increase in patients complaints. When it comes to comparison of the situation between the three types of health facilities (public, GAHFs and private), there is not much difference between what happens in public facilities and in GAHFs. However, the situation is quite different when one compares these two types with private facilities; there are considerable differences

based essentially on the size, the services provided, the location, etc. For example, physical environment is more poorly designed and organized in most private facilities than in public and GAHFs. On the other hand, risks are more frequent and more severe in public and GAHFs than in private facilities than. Even the number of patients care about and services provided are more limited in private facilities, thats why problems like work overload, work-related stress and fatigue, are not felt as having the same weight on health, safety and welfare of employees and institutions as in public and GAHFs. As for institutional responses to fix the problems or risks that are likely to undermine health, safety and welfare of healthcare providers and then their job performance, owners or managers of health institutions have taken several measures. The first set of measures aim at improving physical environment and safe practices through JHA and norms of practice enforced by health authorities. This set of measures encompass designing better workplace, physical environment organization, restriction of exposure to hazardous equipment, providing for suitable protective equipment, training in the precautions to be taken, regular supervision, system and equipment maintenance, cleanliness and waste management, to mention some. The second set includes measures aiming at improving staff satisfaction, morale and effectiveness through institutional and organizational interventions. This set of measures encompass insurance for occupational diseases, accidents and old age, medical care and sick leave, compensation for overtime and special risks, promoting minimal conflict, teamwork support and communication, institutional support to victims, increased and regular salary, and so on. However, because of inadequate reporting system, the researcher was prevented from examining some predetermined indicators such as turnover rate, number of cases of victims of occupational accidents and diseases, workplace violence and work-related stress with its derived health problems and effect on job performance. Finally, some recommendations were formulated for health service providers, health institutions and health authorities, because, in spite of effort done to provide safe workplaces within health facilities under study, there are still areas of improvement which need to be taken into consideration adequately so that those efforts may have effective and sustainable outcomes for the sake of individual employees well-being and performance, work team performance and institutional effectiveness.

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Mugeni Nyampundu Mdiatrice 08/M/KAB/MADS/132/W. Female Master of Development Studies. BIOGAS USE AND HOUSEHOLD DEVELOPMENT IN GICUMBI DISTRICT,RWANDA. Postgraduate Unit Prof. George Alibaruho October 2011

ABSTRACT This dissertation aimed at exploring the potential socioeconomic effects of biogas use on household development and the environment in Rwanda. For this purpose, fieldwork was conducted in Gicumbi District in the Northern Province as a case study with the followingobjectives: (1) to examine the effect of cooking with biogas on household economy in Rwanda; (2) to investigate the influence of fertilisers from biogas on agriculture in Gicumbi District and (3) to explore the effect of biogas on household economy and development in Gicumbi district. Data collected from a sample of 100 participants were analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively; all open ended questions in both interview and questionnaires were tabulated, analyzed, presented and interpreted by using appropriate statistical tools.. The results show that biogas has the potential for increasing the attractiveness of life in rural areas. The findings of the study suggested that the main benefits of biogas plant to its owner were cooking, fertilizing and lighting facilities that saved a considerable amount of money, if the plant and appliances worked smoothly. Adoption of biogas certainly improves the natural environment as well as social environment. Biogas stoves are clean, safe and do not produce harmful gas. Women are among the principal beneficiaries of biogas programme. Their workload is greatly reduced. However, as installation of biogas plant is expensive, a mechanism needs to be established to make finance for domestic biodigesters available to everybody and under reasonable terms and conditions

Surname: Other Names: Reg No: Gender: Programme: Title of Dissertation: Supervisor: Academic Unit: Submission Date:

Gatarayiha Gilbert 09/F/MBA/046/PG Male Master of Arts in Business Administration INTERNAL CONTROL AND PROFITABILITY IN RWANDATEL Zehireyo Owoyesiga Wycliffe Postgraduate Unit October 2011

ABSTRACT The gist of this study was on the contribution of internal control function as a tool of profitability in Rwandatel Ltd. The study was based on the assertion that an effective internal control has a significant contribution on the profitability of a business firm. A sample size of 120 respondents was involved in this study. For a comprehensive study, the researcher adopted a cross-sectional survey design to capture information in relation with objectives of the study. A self administered questionnaire was designed; it involved close ended questions that were used for effective data collection among 120 participants. In relation to the first objective of the study concerning existing internal control systems, the respondents cited controlling organizational activities as the biggest share of the internal control systems, followed by monitoring controls. The second objective focused on application of internal controls. Majority of respondents observed that segregation of duties is one of the major applications of internal controls and this was represented by 48% respondents. Regarding contribution of internal controls to the profitability of organizations the study found out that 46% of the respondents acknowledged that internal controls such as: segregation of duties, control over assets, authorization and approval were a back borne of an organizations existence. The budget must be aligned with the organizations strategies as the prime determinant of quality budgeting. In addition to that, it was found that majority of respondents agreed that internal controls result into employee commitment. They stated that internal controls result into clear goal targets and allocation of resources. There was a significant positive effect of internal control function to the profitability of enterprises. The researcher found out that, an effective internal control function enhances the profitability of business fims,

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Ngabirano Christopher 09/F/KAB/MBA/022/PG. Male Master of Arts in Business Administration ROLE OF CO-OPERATIVE BANK CREDIT SERVICES IN THE GROWTH OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES : A CASE STUDY OF MUHIMA CO-OPERATIVE BANKRWANDA Zehireyo Owoyesiga Wycliffe Postgraduate Unit October 2011

ABSTRACT The study was undertaken to establish the Role of Co-operative Bank Credit Services in the growth of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs): A Case Study of Muhima Co-operative Bank Rwanda. The specific objectives of the study were: first, to analyze the credit facilities offered by Muhima Co-operative Bank, secondly, find out the role played by credit facilities offered by Muhima Co-operative Bank in the growth of SMEs and lastly, to examine the challenges faced by SMEs in Rwanda. The above objectives were achieved using qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. The instruments that were used were; questionnaires, interview guides and secondary data. Data was then analyzed using Microsoft Excel. The tables and graphs that were a result of the analysis were later transferred to Microsoft Word. In addition to Microsoft Excel, SPSS for windows version 12 was also used for data analysis. The findings of the study revealed that Muhima Co-operative Bank credit facilities were instrumental in the growth of SMEs. This was through facilitating some people to start SMEs, enhancing the capital base and the stock of businesses. The credit facilities offered by Muhima Co-operative Bank ranged from business loans to overdrafts. However, SMEs were reported to be facing a lot of challenges both in accessing the credit facilities from banks and in their general business operations. The challenges included: lack of collateral to enable them secure loans from banks, limited amounts of money given to them from banks, limited business management skills, and competition from large established businesses. These were established to be undermining the efforts of Muhima Co-operative Bank.

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Niyikiza Pacifique 09/A/KAB/MBA/103/PG Male Master of Arts in Business Administration STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND COMMERCIAL GROWTH OF ENTERPRISES:A CASE STUDY OF URWIBUTSO ENTERPRISES LTD Zehireyo Owoyesiga Wycliffe Postgraduate Unit October, 2011

ABSTRACT This study examined the significance of strategic management and commercial growth in an enterprise. It is based on the economic assumption which states that there is a close relationship between strategic management of human resource practices and commercial growth. This study used chi square test to assess the hypotheses. The study was conducted in URWIBUTSO Enterprises Ltd among 50 respondents. Cross-sectional survey and a self administered questionnaire were used as an instrument to collect the data needed. Also an interview guide was designed to capture in-depth opinions from key informants. The study was guided by three objectives; the first objective examined predicators for an effective strategic management. It was found that human resource alignment is a key element in strategic management and it has direct effect on commercial growth of an enterprise. This was affirmed by 74.0% respondents who agreed that it enhances creativity for productivity. 70.0% agreed that success of the business depends on employees competency. 68.0% agreed that strategic management ensures that resources are well allocated and strengthens business relationshipThe second objective was to investigate the effect of strategic management on commercial growth. The last objective was to establish the relationship between strategic management and commercial growth. It was concluded that there was a significant relationship between strategic technology and commercial growth of an enterprise. It was analysed that, properly arranged HR practices can have a positive impact on a firm performance when they are properly implemented. Creating a proper fit or integration is the key issue in SHRM and it is this congruence in organizations HR practices that impact on the bottom line. It was concluded that our research examined firm performance by assessing some key variables that influence firm strategy development. Finally, the researcher commended that integrating all aspects of a company, is a sin-qua-non to a successful business strategy. Unit levels and functional levels should be integrated for any successful business strategy.

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Shaban Muhammed 09/F/MBA/002/PG. Male Master of Arts in Business Administration CREDIT RISK MANAGEMENT AS A TOOL OF PERFORMANCE IN VISION FINANCE COMPANY LTD KIGALI RWANDA Zehireyo Owoyesiga Wycliffe Postgraduate Unit October 2011

ABSTRACT The study examined the effect of credit risk management on the performance of commercial banks in Rwanda. Particular focus was on Vision Finance Company of Rwanda-Kigali. The research study was guided by the following objectives; capitalization, bank reserves, and credit operations and their effect on commercial banks performance. The study used across sectional survey design and descriptive statistical analysis based on 50 employees of Vision Finance Company of Rwanda. The research findings revealed an insignificant relationship between capitalization, bank reserves and credit operations on performance of Vision Finance Company. It was found out that the influence of the above factors on credit risk management and commercial bank performance is not much; thus others factor could be at play. These include: fluctuations in macro economic variables, poor client credit rating and staff incompetence among others.

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Mugisha Simon 09/KAB/MBA/A/072/PG Male Master of Arts in Business Administration FINANCIAL STATEMENTS IN DECISION MAKING AT ECOBANK RWANDA: THE CASE OF THE SCHOOL OF FINANCE AND BANKING RWANDA Zehireyo Owoyesiga Wycliffe Postgraduate Unit October, 2011

ABSTRACT This study aimed at finding out the role of analysis and interpretation of financial statements in decision making at Eco Bank Rwanda and determining whether financial statements help in making decisions. Objectives of the study were; to find out how analysis and interpretation of financial statements is done at ECO BANK; determine the liquidity position of Eco Bank Rwanda, and finally to find out the return on assets registered by Eco Bank Rwanda. It was conducted in Nyarugenge District Kigali city in the Republic of Rwanda. The literature relating to the financial statements was reviewed by consulting different books and electronic materials in the view of getting more insights on the subject matter which was financial statements and decision making. In chapter three the research design, population of the study, sample size, sampling techniques and data collection techniques are all explained. Data was analyzed, presented in tables and charts for further interpretation and conclusions. Major research findings from the research include: it was identified that financial statements are very important tools in decision making at Eco Bank Rwanda. This was confirmed by 93% of the responses asked, Financial statements provides reliable information to base on in making strategic decisions in an organization like expansion, dividends pay out and investment. Financial statements are often referred to while making decisions. Analysis and interpretation of financial statements at Eco Bank Rwanda is done through trend analysis, comparative analysis and ratio analysis. Liquidity position of Eco Bank Rwanda was revealed to be good and this was confirmed by computation of ratios especially cash ratios, return on assets during the years under the study was fluctuating and generally very low.

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Twagirimana Jean Marie Vianney

09/F/MBA/027/PG
Male Master of Arts in Business Administration FINANCIAL STATEMENTS ANALYSIS AS A TOOL OF DECISION MAKING IN CT GIKONDO MICROFINANCE RWANDA Zehireyo Owoyesiga Wycliffe Postgraduate Unit October 2011

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ABSTRACT The study set out to analyze the impact of financial statements analysis in decision making in CT Gikondo micro finance- Rwanda. The researcher was prompted to carry out this study because decision making financial area in CT Gikondo micro finance appears to be still weak despite the existence of an efficient financial statement analysis mechanism. The study was guided by the following specific objectives; to establish the impact of financial statements analysis in decision making, to find out the influence of financial statements analysis in decision making and examine the relevance of financial statements analysis in decision making. The study employed a cross sectional survey design where different categories of relevant staff were involved. The study comprised of 35 employees and data was corrected using closed and open ended questionnaires. Data corrected was analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis, based on frequencies and percentages. Findings revealed that financial statements analysis positively affected decision making.

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Rukundo Jean Claude 09/A/KAB/MAPPM/087/PG Male Master of Arts in Project Planning and Management BUSINESS PLANNING AND COMMUNITY HEALTH WORKERS COOPERATIVES IN RWANDA: A CASE STUDY OF COALE-BONEZIMIRIRE NYABIHU DISTRICT Barigye Godfrey Postgraduate Unit October, 2011

ABSTRACT This work focused on the Business Planning and Community Health Workers Cooperatives in Rwanda taking COALE-BONEZIMIRE as a case study. In order to meet Rwandans social welfare goals, especially in health sector, the Government of Rwanda decentralized some health services delivery to the community through the Community Health Workers (CHWs) model, based in villages. The Community Health Workers are the volunteers elected by the population to work as the catalysts for revitalizing and expanding access to health services. They were set up in 1995 after Rwandan Genocide of Tutsi of 1994. From 2009 up to now the country has 60,000 Community health Workers whose associations are changing into cooperatives. This research had an underlying hypothesis that a well prepared Business Plan makes the business successful while a poorly prepared one makes is likely to make the business fail. The research generally aimed at investigating the extent to which the business plan elaborated by COALE influenced this cooperatives development and performance from 2009 to April 2011. Specifically the researcher aimed at analysing COALE business planning strategies and their implementation; evaluating COALEs achievements from April 2009 to April 2010; and examining the relationship between COALEs business planning strategies and the cooperatives development in the country. This study is a case study that consists of an in-depth investigation of a single group COALE, but with the intention to make a generalization to similar groups. Its findings revealed that the cooperatives archives are poor as they dont contain some necessary pieces of information about the cooperatives profits and losses rates. This problem results from the fact that the cooperative doesnt employ any experts who are qualified in business management and cooperative development. What is interesting with this cooperative is that all its members are aware of the cooperatives objectives and thus, are very focused in their effort to achieve them. The study recommends that COALE and other cooperatives with similar problems should employ experts to help them with technical skills for business planning and development.

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Murora Susan 09/F/MAPAM/017/PG Gender: Male Programme: Master of Arts in Public Administration and Management Title of Dissertation: CHALLENGES IN SERVICE DELIVERY UNDER THE DECENTRALISATION PROGRAM. A CASE STUDY OF KAYONZA DISTRICT LOCAL GOVERNMENT-RWANDA. Supervisor: Barigye Godfrey Academic Unit: Postgraduate Unit. Submission Date: October, 2011.
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ABSTRACT The study focused on challenges in service delivery under the Rwandan governments decentralization program, taking Kayonza District Local Government as a case study.. A wide range of scholarly works were reviewed and appropriate analytical framework and methodology to acquire information were developed. Using survey design, it was possible to get variety of views and opinions from Kayonza district local leaders and local people (abaturage) who were sampled and selected by simple random technique. The views, opinions, attitudes and experiences of respondents were obtained using questionnaires as the main instrument. The study revealed that there were deficiencies in service given by the local government under decentralization program due to lack of motivation among staff, staff turnover due to low salary, job instability, lack of training in the core area of responsibility and unplanned and poorly managed meetings. Another set of factors negatively affecting service delivery are mainly capacity issues; for example, insufficient staff, insufficient funds, lack of information resources , lack of enough time to execute planned activities due to unplanned meetings, lack of transport facilitation, lack of training in the core areas of responsibility and language barrier. The study recommends that the Central Government should find mechanisms of addressing these issues, including revising salary structures and other work-related benefits and initiating staff development programs to reduce staff turnover.

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Magoba Ronnie 09/F/MA.PPM/013/PG

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Male Master of Arts in Project Planning and Management


of Dissertation: AN ASSESSMENT OF EFFECTIVE LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT SERVICE DELIVERY: A CASE STUDY OF CAMP-RWANDA

NYABIHEKE

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Zehireyo Owoyesiga Wycliffe Postgraduate Unit October, 2011

The study focused on assessing the effectiveness of logistics management and service delivery in an organization, taking Nyabiheke Refugee Canp in Rwanda as a case study. The hypothesis that aligned logistic management enhances quality service delivery undergirded the study. In assessing the effectiveness of logistics managementin the case study the primary yardstick was that quick and quality service delivery enhanced customer satisfaction and increased customer trust and retention. In the investigation, the researcher adopted a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. Both questionnaires and interview guide were designed to elicit a wide scope of information to support the topic of study. The questionnaire comprised of both open and close- ended questions; it was also a self administered questionnaire. With respect to the first study objective, i.e to establish the effect of logistics planning on service delivery in Nyabiheke Refuge Camp, the findings revealed that there was a significant association between effectiveness of logistic management and quality of service delivered and customer behavior. This finding affirmed that the quality of logistics management determines service process thereby increasing the importance of efficiency in logistics service provision which results into customers shorter delivery times and more accurate services. With respect to the second objective of the study, i.e to asses the influence of fleet management on service delivery in Nyabiheke Refuge Camp, the investigation revealed that fleet management had a direct positive effect on quality of service delivery.). It was therefore concluded that fleet management, regarding timeliness and accuracy, increased quality of service delivery; all had direct impact on service quality in terms of delivery processing. With respect to objective three of the study, i.e. to examine the influence of warehousing management on service delivery in Nyabiheke Refuge Camp, the investigation showed that 78.0% of respondents agreed that quality of service delivery is basic to customer satisfaction. Therefore it was noted that customers could be satisfied when they are able to obtain the quantities they desire in a timely fashion. Further, the study found that, 84.0% agreed that service providers agility was related to customer behavior. Finally,

on the establishing relationship between service providers and service delivery the study findings revealed that there was a significant relationship between logistic systems of service providers and service delivery; by and large, it is believed that the adoption of effective management systems in either fleet or warehousing, enhances service quality. These findings are in agreement with findings of (Loebbecke and Powell, 1998) who stressed that the accessibility of delivery status at any time and the immediate notification of delays or other delivery problems are regarded as basic information needs in the logistics chain. In conclusion, it was found that effective logistics management, fleet management and warehouse management have direct impact on service delivery. 19

Surname: Other Names: Reg No: Gender: Programme: Title of Thesis:

Supervisor: Academic Unit: Submission Date:

Munganyika Desanges 09/F/MBA/008/PG Male Master of Arts in Business Administration AN ACCOUNTING SYSTEM AS A TOOL OF INSTITUTIONAL GROWTH: A CASE STUDY OF KIGALI INDEPENDENT UNIVERSITY- RWANDA Zehireyo Owoyesiga Wycliffe Postgraduate Unit October, 2011

ABSTRACT This studys investigated the extent to which accounting system is a tool of institutional growth; it was based on the economic assumption that has been held by several accounting theorists that have long recognized that the accounting information system is an integral part of an organizations control system and that accounting information provides critical decisioninfluencing and decision-facilitating information for control. Therefore, this study was after examining the effect of accounting system in Kigali Independent University-Rwanda in a case study approach. The researcher employed a self administered questionnaire as the instrument capable of capturing the needed data to support the objectives of the study. The study involved 50 respondents that were composed of accountants, auditors and administrators. The study was guided by three central objectives namely; significance, efficiency and relationship between accounting system and growth. The findings showed that an accounting system facilitates simplified presentation format of information. The study indicated that accounting systems improve on the accounting process by offering and presenting suitably and efficiently information that leads to effective decision-making through the application of multidimensional visualization technology to match the dimensionality of the momentum accounting information, thereby enhancing the understanding of that information. Further still, Chi-Square Tests was run to establish that there is a significant relationship between accounting information system and efficiency. This was based on the findings that IT investments enhances more efficient processing of information and makes the systems implementation to align with the firms strategy. Therefore, it was concluded that accounting system and information system impact on firms performance. This results from information systems alignment with companys objectives. Accounting systems ability to capture the entires organization information positions the business to set competitive frontline since it is upon quality of information the quality decisions that advances the firms operations to a new profitable edge. It is also presumed that firms in informational sophistication differ considerably from the non-aligned group firms. The difference is highly significant in analytical based applications. In other words, it was noted that applications are central in achieving the optimal utilization of information system. The researcher recommended that an investigation should be conducted on how human resources affect the quality of accounting processing in relation with information system. It is based on the fact that technology does not necessary necessitates quality of information. And lastly the researcher suggested for a further study on the effectiveness of accounting system on quality information and examines the core aspect that necessitates quality processing.

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Surname: Other Names: Reg No: Gender: Programme:


Title of Dissertation:

Rubayiza Mpfizi Apollinaire 09/F/MBA/005/PG. Male Master of Arts in Business Administration


FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE IN THE GROWTH OF SMALLAND MEDIUM ENTREPRISES IN RWANDA: A CASE STUDY OF VISION FINANCE COMPANY (2008-2010)

Supervisor: Academic Unit: Submission Date:

Ibe Ignatious Chukwudi Postgraduate Unit October, 2011

ABSTRACT There is no consensus in Rwanda on the definition of a small and medium scale ( SME) business. The ministere du commerce (MINICOM) defines it as an enterprise having investment capital up to a certain amount of money and employing up to a certain number of persons. It is also defined as establishment whose annual turnover does not exceed a certain amount of Rwandan Francs. (But the numbers should be given in the definition by MINICOM) The small business is an institution that is highly self-initiated, self-financed and closely self-managed. Other features of small business are: it is generally labor- intensive, the techniques of production are predominantly crude and simple, only few firms may introduce sophisticated machines. Small businesses thrive mainly in local environments. The scope of operation of small business is circumscribed around the native town of the entrepreneur. They are usually unwilling to open branches in other towns. The management and control of the small business is simple, as only few people are usually involved. Small capital is usually required, not as a fast rule but owing to difficulties in sourcing fund for expansion. This forms the bulk of issues and focal concern of this study. The effect of financial management assistance on the growth of small and medium enterprises in Rwanda speaks volume if brought to bear and spells doom if neglected. The study in its chapters emphasizes the presence of small and medium enterprises in Rwanda and their management to eradicate poverty and promote the economy of the whole country.

Surname: Other Names: Reg No:

Nshimyumukiza Ephron 09/ F/MBA/062 /PG 21

Gender: Programme:

Male Master of Arts in Business Administration

Title of Dissertation: THE CONTRIBUTION OF BUDGETING FUNCTION TO THE PROFITABILITY OF BRALIRWA BREWERIES LTD Supervisor: Zehireyo Owoyesiga Wycliffe Academic Unit: Submission Date: Postgraduate Unit October,2011

ABSTRACT The main objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of budgeting function to the profitability of Bralirwa Breweries Ltd. The study was based on the hypothesis that budgeting makes a significant contribution to the profitability of a business firm. It was found that the effectiveness of budgeting results from multiple determinants, which included the level of employee participation, the level of IT integration in the day to day of the business, the flexibility of the budget and clarity of the objectives of the firm. A sample size of 50 respondents was involved in this study. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted to capture information in relation with the specific objectives of the study. A self administered questionnaire was designed; it involved both open and closed questions which were used for effective data collection among 50 participants. With respect to the significance of budgeting function, it was revealed that 92.0% of the respondents recognized that budgeting enhances financial coherence for the enterprise and that it provides a focus for an organization respectively. Thus, budgeting is part and parcel of strategic management used to set an organization on an appropriate path to success and guide its managers decisions and activities. On the determinants of an effective budgeting, the study found that 88.0% of the respondents acknowledged that budgets must be aligned with the organizations strategies and this is the prime determinant of quality budgeting. On the link between budgeting function and profitability, it was found that (94.0%) of the respondents agreed that budgeting results into employee commitment; for instance where subordinates are not aware of the results of their efforts, they are not able to feel success or failure and consequently do not feel motivated and are indifferent to improving their performance. Further still, 88.0% of those participating in the survey stated that budgeting results into clear goal and targets and priorities for allocation of resources. Overall, , it was established that there was a significant effect of budgeting function on profitability; hence budgets are more than just an instrument that helps management to plan and control firm activities. The study therefore, concluded that, flexibility, IT integration activity based budgeting enhances the profitability of the business firm.

Surname:

Hategekimana 22

Other Names: Reg No: Gender: Programme: Title of Dissertation:

Supervisor: Academic Unit: Submission Date:

Samson 08/M/KAB/MBA/220/W Male Master of Arts in Business Administration INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN RWANDA: A CASE OF ENERGY WATER AND SATISFACTION (EWSA) IN NGOMA BRANCH Dr. Dabo Christopher SP Postgraduate Unit October, 2011

ABSTRACT Due to the advancement in technology, the conditions in which business is business is conducted has rapidly changed. This study sought to assess the impact of Information Technology (IT) customer satisfaction with specific reference to the Energy Water and Sanitation Authority (EWASA). The main objectives of the study were to investigate the extent to which information technology is used in providing customer services in Rwanda and to assess customer satisfaction with the services. Data was collected using both the qualitative and quantitative methods, including questionnaires, interviews and documentary analysis. The findings of the study showed that customer satisfaction was determined by several factors which included the fast service delivery, quality service, online service, personnels good professional behavior and system automation. The study also found that information technology was most used in customer services and had greater impact on customer satisfaction. However, it was suggested that customer services could be improved through more effective marketing by providing accurate information on the companys range of products and services , periodic training of staff and regular updating Suggested recommendations are to improve the marketing way in order to increase satisfaction of customers by proving them full information about companys products/services, periodic training ( information technology and customer care service) and no confusion of information technology with simple computer and periodic updating of UWASA websites.

Surname: Other Names:

Arigye Mugonjo Odomaroh 23

Reg No: Gender: Programme: Title of Dissertation:

Supervisor: Academic Unit: Submission Date:

09/A/KAB/MAEDGT/094/PG Male Master of Arts in Educational Management A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PRIVATE AND UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION SCHOOLS PERFORMANCE IN PRIMARY LEAVING EXAMINATIONS IN KISORO DISTRICT, UGANDA Helen Chinedum Onuoha Postgraduate Unit October, 2011

Abstract There has concern over pupils poor performance in the Universal Primary Education (UPE) schools in contrast to the private schools in Uganda. This research was carried in four private and four UPE selected schools in Nyakabande sub-county and Kisoro Town Council with the following objectives: (1) to compare the performance of Private and UPE schools in PLE in the chosen area. (2) to identify the possible causes for poor performance in the UPE schools and (3) to investigate whether the managerial skills used in private and UPE schools determine the performance at primary leaving examinations. The study involved 120 respondents who comprised of 8 head teachers, 8 SMC/PTA , 80 pupils and twenty- four officials and opinion leaders from both the UPE and private schools. By use of questionnaires, the study found that to a greater extent, private schools had better motivated staff and pupils, and that they monitored the effectiveness of teaching-learning process. The private schools were profit-oriented and always aimed at utilizing teachers to do more work with less pay as compared to UPE where they were relatively better paid and sure of pension benefits yet their output was less adequate. To improve the quality of UPE delivery, the study recommends that teachers in UPE schools should follow the curriculum guidelines, prepare lessons according to the timetable and teach more effectively. Parents, on the other hand, should take the leading role in educating their children rather than merely leaving them to the government as UPE children. At the same time, head teachers and School Management Committees were to encourage improved teacher quality by carrying out routine monitoring and supervision of teaching and learning process. School administrators should not shun their roles of effectively monitoring the teaching and learning process. At the same time, the inspectors of schools should carry out thorough, effective inspections and make sure that all subjects are taught as timetabled. The District Education Officer, other district officials and political leaders should complement the inspectorates work by mobilizing and sensitizing the community on their roles on basis of the existing education ordinance and policies.

Surname:

Habimana 24

Other Names: Reg No: Gender: Programme: Title of Dissertation:

Supervisor: Academic Unit: Submission Date:

Augustine 09/F/KAB/MBA/057/PG Male Master of Arts in Business Administration THE ROLE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN THE PROMOTION OF SAVINGS AND INVESTMENTS IN RWANDA: A CASE STUDY OF COGEBANQUE. Ibe Ignatius Chukwudi. Academic Unit October, 2011

ABSTRACT The study was conducted to assess the role of commercial Banks in the promotion of savings and investment in Rwanda. The specific objectives of the study were to analyze the impact of Commercial Banks on savings and investment and to determine other factors that affect savings and investment. Purposive sampling was used to select 20 Bank staff and 30 business operators (customers) due to their knowledge in loan and business operations and other related activities. Using questionnaires, interview guides, and analysis of secondary data, the study found that 53% of the respondents held that high bank deposit charges would scare off potential customers who make regular deposits at any of the banks branches while 47% of the respondents would maintain their deposit and withdrawal patterns in spite of the high bank charges. A three percent (3%) savings decline was, however, recorded in the period compared to the previous years. It was also established that GOGEBANQUE had a proportionately higher contribution (of 50%) in promoting savings and investments than other banks (for instance, Ecobank (24%) and Bank of Kigali (26%)).It is recommended that commercial banks in Rwanda should reduce their charges on loans and other services to attract more customers. Government should ensure strict compliance of commercial banks to policy guidelines to maximize service delivery.

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Surname: Other Names: Reg No: Gender: Programme: Title of Dissertation:

Supervisor: Academic Unit: Submission Date:

Myasiro Elie 09/A/KAB/MBA/021/PG. Male Master of Business Administration. THE RELEVANCE OF WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT ON THE PROFITABILITY OF MANUFACTURING COMPANIES IN RWANDA: A CASE STUDY OF SULFO RWANDA INDUSTRIES SA Prof. Allen Babugura Postgraduate Unit October, 2011

ABSTRACT This study analyses the relevance of working capital management on the profitability of manufacturing companies in Rwanda; A case study of Sulfo Rwanda industries SA over the period of five years from 2005 -2009. The study was carried out mainly using secondary data through the analysis of Annual Financial statement reports. Data analysis involved the use of descriptive statistics, financial ratios and Z-score. The research examined the effect of various variables of working capital management including the current ratios, quick ratios, and inventory turnover ratios in days, average collection and payment period, debt ratio, cash conversion cycle on the net profitability of Sulfo Rwanda Industries SA. The results showed that there was a relationship between working capital management and profitability of Sulfo Rwanda Industries SA. The findings also revealed that the company holds a high level of inventory and that that negatively asffected the quick liquidity of the company. Furthermore, it was found that increasing short term liabilities contributed to the reduction of working capital. The research also found that there was a positive relationship between fixed assets and profitability of the company. On basis of the findings, it was recommended that Sulfo should invest much more in fixed assets than in current assets, reduce the level of inventory because high level of inventory impacts negatively on their term survival and liquidity. Sulfo should also reduce the payment period that was found to be very long in order to maintain the trust of their creditors.

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Surname: Rwalinda Other Names: Celestin Reg No: 09/A/KAB/MAHRM/028/PG Programme: Master of Arts in Human Resource Management Title of Dissertation: WORKERS PERCEPTION OF THE CRITERIA AND EFFECTS AND TRANSFERS IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS IN RWAND Supervisor: Christopher Dabo Samaila Academic Unit: Postgraduate Unit Submission Date: October, 2011 ABSTARCT This study was undertaken to find out the Evaluation of workers perception on the Criteria and effects of promotion and transfers in public institutions in Rwanda with ONATRACOM Transport Company as a case study. The study found that demographical background did not influence the criteria of promotion and transfers in public institution. The correlation was seen to be positive one and the practice of taking gender, experience, education level and gross salary into considering a persons promotion was seen as lacking consistency. Further evaluation of the workers perception of the criteria used for promotion and transfers in the public institution showed that the workers often had mixed ideas due to low communication level within the organisation which resulted into grape vine stories. The employees interaction with human resource managers was very low and that made work stressful for employees and many of them were not always happy with the criteria used in transfers and promotions in the public institution .In spite of that, the results of this study showed that there was no nepotism in deciding on transfers and promotions. As a result, the effects of transfers and promotions were seen to have a positive value rather than negative effect to both employees and work performance itself. Finally, the study recommendations changing administration procedures and some current administrators who seem unable to make improvement of ONATRACOM Transport Company.

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Surname: Mukeshimana Other Names: Boniface Reg No: 09/F/KAB/MAPPM/039/PG Gender: Male Programme: Master of Arts in Project Planning and Management Title of Dissertation: THE EFFECT OF ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION REFORMS ON POVERTY REDUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT IN RWANDA: A CASE STUDY OF RWAMAGANA DISTRICT Supervisor; Naris Tibenderana Academic Unit: Postgraduate Unit Submission Date: October, 2011 ABSTRACT Rural electrification is believed to contribute to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Vision 2020 through various channels in Rwanda. This study investigated the impact of rural electrification on the households lighting usage, home study, energy expenditures and business income. Household data that were collected in Rwamagana District in cells with access to electricity grids have been used. For comparison, relevant data on households that were already connected and those that were in the same cell but not yet connected were considered. The comparison between the two groups showed that life was better in households with electricity than in those without. The study found indications of positive effects on home studying and increased business income but domestic lighting and charging of mobile phones were the most important uses of electricity. It was also found that in business houses working hours had increased considerably and the quality of their business had improved. Therefore, the profound changes in social life of rural people due to provision of lighting show that rural electrification has had great impact on peoples lives and it was believed to have positive impact on Vision 2020.

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Surname: Other Names: Reg No: Gender: Programme: Title of Dissertation:

Supervisor: Academic Unit: Submission Date:

Byamukama George 09/KAB/MADS/090/PG Male Master of Arts in Development Studies AN INVESTIGATION OF THE CONTRIBUTION OF FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION POLICY ON POVERTY REDUCTION IN RWAMAGANADISTRICT, REPUBLIC OF RWANDA Frank Akampa Postgraduate Unit October, 2011

ABSTRACT This investigation on the contribution of fiscal decentralization policy on poverty reduction in Rwmagana District was specifically aimed at three main objectives namely, assessing the contribution of fiscal decentralization policy on poverty reduction in District, the second objective was to identify the challenges faced and lastly to examine the strategies employed to ensure that fiscal decentralization contributes to poverty reduction. This study adopted both qualitative and quantitative methods since it was seeking in- depth understanding of the impact of fiscal decentralization on poverty reduction in Rwamagana District,in addition to the empirical analysis, the literatures relating to Rwamagana District, also illustrate the influences of fiscal decentralization to the local planning, infrastructure developments, resource mobilization, service delivery, public hearing, auditing and good governance. No doubt, these are the key variables for poverty reduction. This study brings together the current state of knowledge of how fiscal decentralization including the assignment of expenditure responsibilities to Rwamagana District and intergovernmental fiscal transfers have reduced poverty levels and specific suggestions and recommendations on how fiscal decentralization can better reduce poverty in Rwamagana District. The introduction of fiscal decentralization has increased income, service delivery, accountability, participatory planning, budgeting and decision making among others.However, there are still challenges of little taxes generated locally and more participatory planning and budgeting is needed so that people can decide on what they want and determine their priorities.

30

Surname: Other Names: Reg No: Gender: Programme: Title of Thesis:

Supervisor: Academic Unit: Submission Date:

Munya Theo Frank 09/A/KAB/MADS/018/PG Male Master of Arts in Development Studies THE IMPACT OF DECENTRALIZATION POLICY ON WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN RWANDA: BUGESERA DISTRICT. Akampa Frank Postgraduate Unit October, 2011

ABSTRACT
This study sought to establish the contribution of national decentralisation policy towards the empowerment of women. Just like in the rest of African, Rwandan women had traditionally been subject to all sorts of abuses perpetrated by the patriarchal society. This limited their access and control of resources and bearing in mind that women were the majority numerically compared to men, a big part of Rwandan population was not effectively participating in development. However, with the turn of the 20th century, women emancipation started to spread worldwide to empowerment so as to participate in development. With the introduction of decentralization in Rwanda in 2000 as the best means of bringing services closer to the people, there was need to find how women were benefiting at the back drop of how they had been segregated for a long time. This study was carried out in Bugesera district in the eastern province of Rwanda and covered period between 2000 and 2010. The research adopted both qualitative and quantitative designs. Responses were obtained from primary and secondary sources. A response rate of 145 was achieved instead of the anticipated 175 respondents. These included community members, opinion leaders, and representatives of NGOs working in the district and government officials from five randomly selected sectors at district, regional and national levels. It was found that decentralisation had registered a number of achievements because there had been gender mainstreaming in most of the activities aimed at developing the district. However, it was concluded that fewer women were benefiting generally since there were fewer women involved especially at local levels. The major recommendation was that there should be continued sensitization of gender issues and that men should always be involved since there was a tendency of seeing gender issues to be regarded as women issues

Surname: Other Names:

Niyonkuru Aline

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Reg No: 09/F/MPPM/080/PG Gender: Female Programme: Master of Arts in Project Planning and Management Title of Dissertation: MANAGEMENT OF POPULATION GROWTH IN KAMONYI DISTRICT RWANDA Supervisor: Academic Unit: Submission Date: Rev Fr. Paul Munyakigezi Postgraduate Unit October, 2011

ABSTRACT In 2010, world population reaches 6.9 billion, with 5.7 billion or 82 per cent living in developing countries. Verifying whether targets are met, tracking what is working or what needs to be changed, and evaluating the effects of the chosen approach are essential for any performance incentive program, and indeed, many of the potential pitfalls can be mitigated with careful monitoring and supervision. Monitoring requirements may motivate population growth managers to improve their information systems, but they may also encourage falsification. To ensure that information is accurate, programs can rely on a combination of independent evaluations and provider self assessments with random audits and penalties for discrepancies. The dependent population, or the proportion of the non-working population (ages 0-14 years and 65 and older) has important economic impacts on the ability of a nations economy to grow and develop. In most of sub-Saharan Africa, the concern is the younger dependent population as life expectancy in many countries is well below 65 years.Having a high dependent population requires significant social and economic investment in public services (i.e. schooling and health) and means that the working population has to support a higher number of dependents, thus draining the economy of resources. At the same time, should the young population survive to adulthood, this population eventually supports the dependent population.Rwandas population projections suggest a general slow decline of the dependent population over time. Based on the data on the dependency ratio in 2000, half of all Rwandans were below the age of 15 or above the age of 65. By 2005, there was a slight decline to 45%. If fertility did not change in Rwanda, the constant projection suggests a slight continued decline in the dependent population, and then a slow rise to stay around 46% of the population being dependent.The demand for M&E is a key to the creation of a successful country M&E in the management of population growth. Success is viewed here as having four dimensions: Reliable monitoring information and evaluation findings, a high level of utilization of M&E findings, sustainability into the future and country ownership.

Surname: Other Names:

Kaligirwa Ernestine 32

Reg No: Gender: Programme: Title of Dissertation:

Supervisor: Academic Unit: Submission Date:

KU/08/382/PG Female Master of Arts in Development Studies BUILDING ON TRADITIONAL INITIATIVES TO END POVERTY IN AFRICA: A CASE STUDY OF RWANDAN UBUDEHE PROGRAMME IN RUBAYA SECTOR Barigye Godfrey Postgraduate Unit September, 2011

ABSTRACT This study looks closely at home grown initiatives as tools used in poverty eradication with particular focus on poverty eradication in Rwanda. It first introduces poverty as the most prominent problem that governments of both developed and developing countries face. Then it explains various means used in poverty eradication among them home grown initiatives. The study subsequently assesses the use of Ubudehe as a traditional poverty eradication mechanism drawn from the Rwandan culture. It concludes that understanding community assets and align poverty eradication mechanisms to them makes efficient the fight against poverty and helps in reaching adequately the set poverty eradication targets.

Surname: Other Names:

Kamuyumbu Perpetue 33

Reg No: Gender: Programme: Title of Dissertation:

Supervisor: Academic Unit: Submission Date:

09/A/MA-PPM/064/PG Female Master of Arts in Pproject Planning and Management PROCUREMENT PROCESS IN THE PERFORMANCE OF GOVERNMENT FUNDED PROJECTS IN RULINDO DISTRICT LOCAL GOVERNMENTRWANDA Barigye Godfrey Postgraduate Unit September, 2011

ABSTRACT The study focused on the procurement process in the performance of government funded projects in Rulindo District local government. The major objective of this study was to assess possible challenges faced by local governments in acquiring goods, works and services; and its specific objectives were to identify factors that affect public procurement process of government funded projects in Rulindo district local government; to establish the gaps in the procurement process and their effect on the success of government funded projects in Rulindo local government; to establish the support provided by Rwanda Public Procurement Authority (RPPA) to Rulindo district local government; to establish the time it takes Rulindo District Local Government to complete government funded projects as well as identify possible causes of delays in public procurement process of government funded projects in Rulindo district local government. Using survey design, it was possible to get variety of views and opinions from procurement officers, who were sampled and selected by simple random sampling technique. The views, opinions, attitudes and experiences of respondents were got using questionnaire as the main instrument. The study revealed that there were delays in public procurement due to the procurement law itself, budget constraints, lack of qualified personnel in public procurement, lack of procurement plans, financial capacity of contractors, bureaucracy and lack of monitoring of awarded tenders. Local government were recommended to develop annual procurement plans based on the availability of funds, look for qualified personnel and define mechanisms for retaining them and develop a monitoring framework that would allow them to better monitor procurement execution, including awarded contracts. There is a need for further researches, especially on the relevance of the procurement law.

Surname:

Noheli 34

Other Names: Reg No: Gender: Programme: Title of Dissertation: Supervisor: Academic Unit: Submission Date:

Sam 09/A/KAB/MAPPM/039/PG Male Master of Arts in Project Planning and Management RISK MANAGEMENT IN ETK-RWANDA Barigye Godfrey Postgraduate Unit October, 2011

ABSTRACT Risk management is one of key strategies in managing businesses. Studies have revealed that a strong risk management process can decrease problems on a project/business by as much as 80 to 90 percent. There is a clear imperative for many companies to develop a strong, consistent, enterprise wide risk management programme, as most prevalent business risks will either remain at current levels or increase. The overall aim of this study was therefore to find out how risk management process is applied in private institutions in Rwanda with a case study of Etablissement Kazoza et Compagnie (ETK). Four related objectives were fixed notably; to identify the risk management plans used in ETK, to identify challenges in risk management, to find out the current trend of risk management in the above said enterprise and to assess the level of awareness of employees in relation with risk management. A triangulation of both quantitative and qualitative research methods was used for collecting and analyzing data to describe and interpret it into information. The study population comprised of two managers with whom interviews were carried out in order to obtain results related to the first three objectives and 50 ordinary employees who responded to a questionnaire which intended to respond to the fourth objective related to the employee awareness vis a vis risk management. For qualitative data, tape recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was done under the corresponding objectives. The findings from interviews revealed that there are no structured and written risk management plans but still employees have some knowledge about risk as confirmed by both interviewees, every employee gets some trainings on risks related to his/her domain of work but these are still insufficient compared to what should be done. Equally, the enterprise faces a number of challenges which range from financial to health related but as said above they are neither quantified nor communicated formally as it should be in the formal way of risk management. As far as the future of risk management within the enterprise is concerned, the management is planning to hire a consultant to carry out the feasibility study and make it more clear which is a green light to the installation of the system in the near future. On the issue of employee awareness vis a vis risk management, the socio-demographic data of respondents revealed that 78% were males, 70% were between 20 and 29 years of age, there is a good distribution in education while 66% were single, 80% were technicians while 46% had between one and five years experience.Respondents showed indirectly that they are aware of risks and ways of risk management whereby: 92% of respondents confirmed to have had trainings related to risk management, 84% and 80% expressed their concern about physical and technological risks they were likely to meet during their day to day jobs, 74% had been once at risk which could put their life in danger and rated the level of satisfaction on how that threatening risk was managed. Also, respondents demonstrated their need of protective equipment by 88% but this number dropped to nearly 57% with no convincing reasons as the management confirmed their existence. 68% appreciated PPE status as good while 32% rated them as not good. Respondents 35

admitted by 72% that they dont know whether there are risk management plans within the company but, nearly the same percentage confirmed the existence of rules and regulations that govern the company. This shows some lack of communication between the top management and on ground staff concerning administration issues or negligence on part of technicians. All respondents (100%) know that they are insured in Rwanda Social Security Fund and have health insurance which helps them to pay less when they are sick or their close relatives. The study demonstrates the need for the enterprise management to come up with strong operational risk management plans. In return it will bring about enormous benefits to the enterprise management/owners, employees as well as other beneficiaries

36

Surname: Other Names: Reg No: Gender: Programme: Title of Dissertation:

Supervisor: Academic Unit: Submission Date:

Usengumuremyi Jean Marie Vianney 09/A/KAB/MAPPM/027/PG Male Master of Arts in Project Planning and Management ASSESSING THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE PRIVATE SECTOR TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT, RUHANGO DISTRICTRWANDA Barigye Godfrey Postgraduate Unit October, 2011

ABSTRACT Public-Private Partnership has been employed in some local governments in Rwanda for some time in real estate development making local authorities a key player in the economic development of cities. However, little research exists on both the implementation of such projects and the evaluation of the governance procedures. This research seeks to fill this gap by examining the working arrangement between selected local authorities and developers in striking a win-win situation. Towards this end, the research examines the working arrangements between a local authority and private partners in Ruhango district, as well as the subsequent post project developments. The background to the study is related to the exploration of employment created by private sector companies and the contribution of private sector taxpayers in the budget of Ruhango District and the subsequent impact.The aim of this study was to assess private contribution to development in partnership with local government activities.

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Surname: Other Names: Reg No: Gender: Programme: Title of Dissertation:

Supervisor: Academic Unit: Submission Date:

Musoni Vincent Patrick A/KAB/MAPPM/084/PG Male Master of Arts in Project Planning and Management ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL HOUSEHOLDS IN KAYONZA DISTRICT, RWANDA Adalbert Aine-Omucunguzi Postgraduate Unit October, 2011

ABSTRACT Climate change is a global phenomenon which affects each and every individual irrespective of race, religious affiliation or nationality. It is a challenge which calls for attention of every nation, region and individual. Its impacts are more visible in countries that are already tormented by poverty. This implies that unless properly tackled, climate change impacts will frustrate development efforts of poor countries. This study set out to assess the impacts of climate change on the socio-economic development of rural households in Kayonza district, eastern Rwanda. Data was collected from 100 households using interviews, focused group discussions, observation and questionnaires. Findings of the study revealed that majority of the respondents were aware of the climate change phenomenon and had received information about it through the media, village meetings and friends. Deforestation, poor farming methods, bush burning and economic activities in developed countries were reported as the major causes of climate change. Decline in crop yields, water scarcity, increased incidence of crop disease and pests, impassable roads and death of livestock were reported as the most significant impacts of climate change and variability. The respondents had local adaptation strategies which included shifting to safe areas, storing food and afforestation. It was reported that there were factors limiting employment of better copping and adaptation strategies. These included lack of timely climate variability information, lack of government policies related to climate change adaptation and lack of economic diversification. Small-scale irrigation, afforestation, water harvesting and introduction of fast maturing food crops were reported as coping and adaptation strategies that would be developed to increase their resilience to climate change impacts.This study concludes that climate change impacts have negatively affected the socio-economic development of households in Kayonza district since economic activities such agriculture and transport which are the pillars of development have been severely affected. There is thus a need to sensitize people about the impacts of climate change and sustainable coping and adaption strategies as well as mitigation measure. Key wordsClimate change impacts, socio-economic development, rural households, Kayonza district

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Surname: Other Names: Reg No: Gender: Programme: Title of Dissertation:

Supervisor: Academic Unit: Submission Date:

Cyiza Consolee 09/F/MA.PPM/014/PG. Female Master of Arts in Project Planning and Management BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES AND STRATEGIES USED BY POOR WIDOWS IN SMALL SCALE BUSINESSES TO ADEQUATELY ENHANCE THEIR LIVING STANDARDS . A CASE STUDY OF KICUKIRO SECTOR, RWANDA Aryeija Warren Postgraduate Unit October, 2011

ABSTRACT The research entitled Business opportunities and strategies for Rwandan poor widows in small scale businesses to adequately enhance their living standards was aiming at finding out the feasible ways through which business opportunities and strategies for poor widows involved in small scale business can boost their living standards. The methods used to collect data were observation which helped with following the situation closely, interviews which helped in discussions with interviewees, questionnaire which helped to get the research questions answered, finally consultation of documents from different studies which all together served as the basis to the findings.The researcher managed to identify economic, social and political opportunities and strategies available for poor widows business growth. These opportunities include handling some social events at costs, government favorable policies to their business, financial and capacity building empowerment. The strategies include team work and forming associations, consultation and lobbying government for support. Challenges included lack of access to social, political and economic opportunities by poor widows. A big step towards solving the social issues causing poverty among widows of Kicukiro were identified and discussed during the research, leaders proved to be aware of poor widows struggle and expressed willingness to assist them whenever possible. Also two institutions declared ready to help Kicukiro widows by way of financial empowerment and capacity building through training.The researcher concluded that this research was worthwhile because it attained its objective through the collection of evidence based and appropriate information. The study recommends encouragement of all stakeholders (beneficiaries, leaders and institutions) to work together in joint effort in order to count poverty among widows of Kicukiro a history in the near future.

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Appolinaire Minani 09/F/MADS/037/PG Male Master of Arts in Development Studies FARMERS COOPERATIVES AND FOOD SECURITY IN A CASE STUDY OF INGABO FARMERS TRADE UNION RWANDA: Dr. Christopher Dabo S.P Postgraduate Unit October 2011

ABSTRACT Rwanda economy and the livelihoods of her people are mainly based on farming production. The cooperatives and other farmers organizations provide opportunities to achieve economic development and food security improvement. The study has been carried out on the total population of 14,462 living in 4 Districts of Southern Province, the most populated of the country. Farmers organizations such as INGABO try to increase farmers production by providing technical assistance and financial support. The general objective was to show the contribution of INGABO as a farmers Trade Union on food security improvement among cooperative members. All of the respondents confirmed that both technical and financial support provided by INGABO including seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, have considerably increased the food security among farmers themselves. However, many obstacles still remain for achieving the goal of food security among rural population as it has been confirmed by the respondents themselves.

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Surname: Other Names: Registration Number: Gender: Programme: Title of Dissertation:

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Ruterana Fernand Sauveur 08/M/KAB/MBA/176/W Male Master of Arts in Business Administration VISION 2020 UMURENGE PROGRAMME (VUP) AND IN RWANDA: A CASE STUDY OF GIKOMERO SECTOR POVERTY Dr. Christopher S.P. Dabo Postgraduate Unit September 2011

ABSTRACT Vision 2020 Unurenge is a new initiative by the Government of Rwanda (GOR) in collaboration with Development Partners and NGOs. It is led by the Ministry of Local Government, Governance, Community Development and Social Affairs (MINALOC) and supported by the Ministry of Finance and Economic planning (MINECOFIN). The Vision 2020 Unurenge Programme (VUP) uses the existing decentralization system and leverages technical and financial assistance to accelerate the rate of poverty reduction in Rwanda. The aim of this research was to show the contribution of this program in eradication of poverty in Gikomero Sector of Gasabo District in Kigali Town. The key objectives of the research were to assess the effectiveness and examine the effects of VUP contribution on poverty and income generation of poorest in Gikomero. The study was done by using various methodologies such as interviews, questionnaires, documentation, etc It was found out that VUP has a real contribution in fighting poverty and influence income generation of the poorest in the Sector. For example, in 2009, we had 34% of Destitute in category of UBUDEHE in the sample, but all of them have graduated to another category of Poorest in 2011; 100% have a bank account, 89% of them have paid their health insurance, 81% have increased their meals per day, 24% have built a new house, etc VUP has a considerable influence in poverty reduction and income generation which should be supported by all stakeholders and be given more resources to be extended in the whole country.

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Surname: Other Names: Registration Number: Gender: Title of Dissertation: IN Supervisor: Academic Unit: Programme: Submission Date:

Habimana Clement 09/A/KAB/MBA/109/PG Male PERFORMANCE OF RWANDA SOCIAL SECURITY FUND GASABO DISTRICT, RWANDA Fr. Paul Munyakigezi Postgraduate Unit Master of Arts in Business Administration October 2011

ABSTRACT This study was carried out to evaluate the Rwanda Social Security Fund performance to its beneficiaries in Kacyiru sector, Gasabo District. This is because there was lack of clientship in the SSFR and there was a decline in performance. In addition, a similar observation by Umuvugizi Rwanda Newspaper was that the SSFR does not treat well the pensioners which had a negative impact on their livelihoods. These factors prompted the researcher to undertake this study. The specific objectives of this study were to find out whether the beneficiaries were satisfied with the benefits they receive from SSFR, explore whether there is financial accountability in SSFR and to establish whether records keeping systems are in place in Social Security Fund in Rwanda. The above objectives were achieved by use of descriptive research design and involved the use of both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The tools used to collect the data included the questionnaires, interview guide and documentary analysis. Qualitative and quantitative research design was adopted in order to obtain data that were both numerical and non numerical. The target population was 252 staff of SSFR and 1,200 beneficiaries. Of these, 26 staff and 44 beneficiaries were selected as the study sample. This gave a sample size of 70 respondents. Stratified random sampling was used to select this sample because they were two different sample strata. The findings of the study revealed that the beneficiaries are satisfied with the benefits and the level of service delivery by SSFR. The reasons they gave for their satisfaction included: obtaining their pay in time and the interest paid on their savings. The SSFR was found to have an accountability system in which it accounts for the funds used /spent and this was found to be sound. This was established from the SSFR employees who reported that accountability is in the form of income statements, balance sheets and payment vouchers among others. SSFR was found to have a sound record keeping system in place and the records were found to be kept in the forms of petty cash (31%), inventory (23%), accounts receivables (15%), accounts payable (12%) and payroll records (19%) among others. The study revealed that the records kept enables the agency in accountability and ensuring efficient service delivery to the members.

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Surname: Other Names: Registration Number: Gender: Programme: Title of Dissertation:

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Nadine Uwitje 08/KU/232/PG. Female Master of Arts in Development Studies LEADERSHIP AND WOMENS EMPOWERMENT IN RWANDA: A CASE STUDY OF RWANDAS PARLIAMENT CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES Dr. Paulinus Uyigue Osarodion Postgraduate Unit September 2011

ABSTRACT The present study deals with leadership and womens empowerment in Rwanda: a case study of Rwandas parliament Chamber of deputies Gender balancing is a key to national development as cooperation is necessary for any meaningful impact, results revealed high women participation and occupation of executive positions in Rwanda. The performance of these women in positions of authority is excellent. The participation of many women in parliament that has implicated empowerment of women in general because we evaluate to be empowered in many cases like Quota system (the twenty four seats that are reserved for women are contested in women only elections, that is only females can stand for elections and only women can vote, thus women had 39 out of 80 seats or forty eight point eight percent. Gender policy (the principal guidelines on which sectoral policies and programmes will base to integrate gender issues in their respective social, cultural, economic and political planning and programming: inheritance/marriage policy (Rwandas laws provide opportunities for gender equity by granting equal inheritance rights to sons and daughters and protection of a surviving spouses and childrens rights to property. However, customary systems continue to govern over family and land matters and often discriminate against womens direct rights to property and inheritance: policy on gender violence (The law of prevention and punishment of GBV is now in the phase of promulgation after chambers of parliament passed it last year. Many activists have been pushing for its publication to reduce cases of gender based violence for the Rwandan girl child. The government has deployed considerable efforts to promote the access of girls to education. Mobilization campaigns were carried out in the whole country. The Development policy and the education policy in particular, insist on the intervention and on the role of a woman in socioeconomic development. It is for that reason that the girl is at the centre stage, especially as far as her education is concerned. It is the only way to empower girls and women of the country so that they are able to responsibly play their role in the development of the country; after these policies, 43

we have many institutions for empowerment of women such as (MIGEPROFE, GMO, WOMEN COUNCIL, FFRP etc) by so doing women empowerment will be guaranteed.

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Ngurunzira Emmanuel 09/A/KAB/MAED/016/PG Master of Arts in Educational Management Male STUDENTS ATTITUDE TO SCHOOL RULES AND REGULATIONS AND ITS EFFECT ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN RWANDA A CASE STUDY OF NYAMAGABE DISTRICT Frank Akampa POST GRADUATE SCHOOL October 2011

ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to establish the attitude of students towards school rules and regulations and how this affects their academic performance in Nyamagabe District in Rwanda. The first specific objective was to investigate the attitudes of students towards rules and regulations; followed by determining the relationship between students attitude towards rules and regulations and their performance and lastly to determine the factors that influence students performance in schools. The study was undertaken in 4 secondary schools in Nyamagabe district, Southern Province. These schools included Mbuga TTC, G.S Kigeme, E.S Maheresho and G.S ACEPER. The above objectives were achieved using a range of methods and tools. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to collect appropriate data. The research instruments employed were questionnaires, interview schedules and documentary analysis. Data analysis was accomplished using SPSS version 11 which was helpful in generating frequencies, tables, charts and graphs. The findings of the study showed that students in secondary schools in Rwanda had positive attitudes towards rules and regulations. The analysis showed that 23% of the students respondents had very positive attitude, 75% had positive attitude, 2% had negative attitude and none of the students had very negative attitude towards rules and regulations. On whether there was a relationship between students attitude towards rules and regulations and their performance, majority respondents (74%) agreed that there was a relationship, 19% strongly agreed while 7% disagreed that there was a relationship between students attitude towards rules and regulations and students performance. Competent teachers (18%), teachers and students commitment (15%), cooperation between students and school administration (13%), flexible rules and regulations (11%) and maximally utilizing time (10%) were among the major factors that influence students performance in secondary schools in Nyamagabe district, in southern province in Rwanda. The study recommended that students and parents should be 44

involved in the formulation of schools rules and regulations. This would help in designing students commitment (15%), cooperation between students and school administration (13%), appropriate rules that would make students to be obedient and thus reducing possibilities of unnecessary strikes. The study also recommended the non-selective enforcement of rules and regulations by school administration, encouraging parents to impart discipline among the students.

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Sibomana Ernest 08/M/KAB/MBA/015 Male Master of Arts in Business Administration SKILLS ACQUISITION AND THE INTEGRATION OF RWANDAN ECONOMY IN THE EAST AFRICAN COMMON MARKET: ACASE STUDY OF INYANGE INDUSTRIES LTD Dr. Dabo Christopher Postgraduate Unit October 2011

ABSTRACT International marketing has intensified and is evident in nearly all aspects of daily life. Today, the East African Common Market has extended its boundaries by integrating other new countries like Rwanda, Burundi, even the recent new country South Sudan, has started to seek how to be integrated on the National boundaries no longer restrict competitive forces. To be successful in the internationals economy, companies must be simultaneously responsive to local and global market conditions. Hence, international marketing skills are an important ingredient for every company, whether or not it is currently involved in exporting activities. The purpose of this study was to (1) analyze the skills needed to be effective in international marketing; (2) explore the level of importance of each of these skills; (3) investigate the degree to which these skills are acquired by employees of exporting companies; and (4) examine the gap between the skills these employees have and the skills they need. Data was collected, regarding skill importance, through a Delphi participant sample of exporting and distributions practitioners of international marketing experts. Inyange Industries Ltd, one of Rwandan Company of exporting and distributions, were surveyed regarding the degree their employees possessed the identified skills. Possession ratings were compared across importance ratings, in away that allowed skill-based areas for training programs to be prioritized. A sample of twenty five (25) senior employees, categorized into five departments were selected through a purposive method techniqueAmong sixty skills identified, twenty-four of the skills were rated as being highly importance, thirty-six were rated as being of medium importance and none were rated as being of low importance. Possession ratings were compared across importance ratings, which identified twenty-four international marketing skills as training priorities. This study has produced a new assessment tool which would go a long way to assist small and big firms in identifying international 45

marketing training needs, where effectively the East African Common Market is expanding their activities. Rwandan companies will benefit from the new assessment tool and set effective engagement in order to be responsive in the East African Common Market conditions, which are basically competitive. Rwanda Private Sector Federation will need to provide significant trainings for the exporting and distributions companies.

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Turahimana Ferdinand KU/270/PG Male Master of Arts in Development Studies UBUDEHE PROJECT, RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND POVERTY ERADICATION IN NGORORERO DISTRICT: RWANDA 20062009 Adebayo Tajudeen Sanni Postgraduate Unit October 2011

ABSTRACT Ubudehe project a rural development and poverty eradication in Ngororero District Rwanda 2006 to 2009 was set out with the following objectives: to examine Ubudehe project in combating poverty in Ngororero District; how it was affecting development and analyze the impact of Ubudehe project in developmental projects. The research questions guiding the study were the following: Has the Ubudehe project been effective in combating poverty in Ngororero District? Does the Ubudehe project have enough potential to enhance concepts effort for development cause? Can the Ubudehe project now go on without government backing and monitoring effort? To collect data were used questionnaires; structured interviews; Focused group discussions and Observations field visits. The respondents confirmed that in Economic aspect of Ubudehe project has led to increased community welfare. First, access to funding allows poor people to take advantage of economic opportunities and reduce vulnerabilities. Second, Ubudehe project funding allows poor households to change from every- day survival to planning for the future. Around 80% interviewees have confidence to fight poverty and they all agreed that poverty is not hereditary. From the study, the recommendations include; to create a favorable environment for sustainable community collective action; develop private sector to promote individual initiatives in Rwanda; enhance social and economic activities for community initiatives and collaboration to develop and enhance belief in the local community control by, grassroots organization for sustainability. .

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Gato Gafurama Charles 09/F/MADS/061/PG Male Master of Arts in Development Studies PUBLIC PENSION FUND INVESTMENT IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF RWANDA: A CASE STUDY OF NSSF Dr. Christopher Dabo Postgraduate Unit October, 2011

ABSTRACT This study was carried out to analyze the role of pension fund investment in economic development of Rwanda with the following objectives: (1) To establish the reasons why pension fund was launched in Rwanda, (2). To investigate the contribution of public pension fund investment in economic development, (3). To explore the challenges NSST Rwanda faces while implementing this investment plan and how those challenges were overcome. employed where stratified random sampling was used to select categories of respondents according to their departments. Purposive sampling technique was employed to select 60 respondents among 118 workers of all the departments of social security fund in Rwanda and 32 beneficiaries totaling to 150 people. The results of the research revealed that, public pension fund investment contributes to economic development of Rwanda through the employment opportunities created mostly by the real estate department which deals with the construction of houses, a good example is 234 residential houses at Gacuriro for sell and renting, this solved the problem of accommodation, quality service delivery has been given to pensioners, all these improved the standards of living of the Rwandan population. In addition to that, the social security fund of Rwanda has invested in SONARWA insurance company where it has 50 percent of the shares, in BK it has 33.66 percent of shares, this assisted Rwandese to get credit to invest in other economic activities like trade, all that contribute to economic development. In recommendation, though the social security fund of Rwanda has stepped a head in investment promotion, there is a

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need to invest that public fund in agriculture sector, which is the backbone of he countrys economic development that employs almost 90% of the Rwandan population.

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Utazirubanda Abdul Karim 09/A/KAB/MADS/054/PG Male Master of Arts in Development Studies NGOS AND VICTIMS OF HIV/AIDS IN RWANDA: A CASE STUDY OF CHF INTERNATIONAL IN RULINDO DISTRICT Dr. Paulinus Uyigue Postgraduate Unit October, 2011

Abstract This research examined the contribution of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) to the socio-economic development of people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS, the case study of CHF (Cooperative Housing Foundation). The objectives of the study were to examine and evaluate the contribution of CHF International in the process of socio-economic development of people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS; to explore the state of discrimination, stigmatization and self-stigmatization of people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS, the effect on socioeconomic development of the people of Rulindo District, Rwanda. A sample size of 115 persons ( 60 persons infected with HIVE/AIDS, 40 orphans and 15CHF) staff were used to collect data. Questionnaire, observation, interviews, focus group discussion and document analysis were done by using computer SPSS software. The findings from this research revealed the contribution of NGOs to the socio-economic development of people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS. Firstly, the number of surveyed associations/cooperative members that did not have savings because of insufficient of income decreased, also ICF program contributed in increasing the quality and quantity of food, promoted modern farming and promoted modern livestock rearing. The CHF beneficiaries have been able to pay health insurance for the families of people living with HIV/AIDS (100%); paid school fees for their children even through CHF do so for orphans and vulnerable children. Also to overcome poverty, CHF created income generating activities among associations/cooperatives of PLWHA and these helped in improving their lives (100%). By 48

simple analysis of these data, it is clear to remark that CHF Initiative is alleviating poverty because it assisted beneficiaries to take care of their day-to-day basic needs such as food, clothes, protection, and shelter) without forgetting to have easy access to health care services. It is hereby recommended that through trainings and technical support of NGOs to local associations/ cooperatives of PLWHA, to the capacity of these local organizations can be strengthened and become independent of the work of international NGOs.

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Chizelema Dunford Chibolyani 09/A/KAB/MADS/058/PG. Male Master of Arts in Development Studies THE CONTRIBUTION OF RESOURCES FROM NYUNGWE FOREST NATIONAL PARK, RWANDA, TO THE ECONOMIC WELL-BEING OF FRINGE COMMUNITIES Adalbert Aine-Omucunguzi Postgraduate Unit September, 2011

ABSTRACT The Nyungwe forest, which covers part of the south and west provinces, is surrounded by communities from four districts; ie Nyamagabe district in the east, Nyamaseke district in the north and north-west, Rusizi district in west and south west and Nyaruguru district in the south. Households in communities adjacent to Nyungwe forest national park utilize a variety of resources from the forest. This study assessed the contribution of resources from Nyungwe Forest national park to the socio-economic well-being of fringe communities. Data was collected from 120 households that neighbor the park. Household surveys, interviews and focused group discussions were among the methods used to collect the data. Findings of this study indicate that households adjacent to Nyungwe forest national park utilized a variety of resources from the park. These included medicines, fuel wood, building materials and handcraft materials. The frequency of harvest of these resources was influenced by household socio-economic endowments such as landholding and livestock holding. There were services that local people benefited from because of their proximity to the forest. These included tourism, enterprise development, co-operatives and employment. These were found to contribute significantly to the social-well-being of the people. Resources from Nyungwe forest national park have greatly contributed to the socio-economic well-being of fringe communities and therefore these communities should be involved in the management of the park so that they feel its ownership.

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Ngarukiyintwali Jean Pierre 09/F/MBA/089/PG Male Master of Arts in Business Studies A FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS AND PERFORMANCE OF COMPANIES IN RWANDA: A CASE STUDY OF UTEXTWA, KIGALI Fr. Paul Munyakigezi. Postgraduate Unit October, 2011

ABSTRACT This study was The Financial statement analysis and performance of companies in Rwanda, a case study was UTEXTWA as the representative of the entire manufacturing companies. This study was to assess and analyze the financial statements of UTEXTWA of four years from 2007 to 2010. This research was carried out because many companies have registered poor performance due to lack of effective financial statement analysis. The study was to analyze the significance of financial performance of UTEXTWA and how this study could bring improvement in overall performance of UTEXTWA for a period of four years 2007 to 2010. Financial analysis provides insights into the companys financial decisions through its performance. A study of financial performance of UTEXTWA was based on the last four years and a comparison between them was made to measure its liquidity, profitability positions and solvency, as well as the trends of its overall financial performance. From the findings, it has been realized that UTEXTWA had a persistent decrease in profitability by increasing operating expenses by payment interest charges to the lender of funds. Basing on the findings, a number of recommendations have been formulated in order to improve the companys financial performance. Its also advisable to always watch over their ratios with a view of keeping its profitability, liquidity and solvency position on improvement. This will lead the company to profitability on long-term basis. Otherwise if the profit continues to decline the shareholders may 50

decide to remove their shares because their aim is to generate high return. The management should control, coordinate and allocate resources where it is a requisite. UTEXTWA as a monopolistic company that produces modern style of clothing in Rwanda, may establish branches in the whole country to facilitate customers instead of coming to the main headquarters for buying its products.

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Ziine Narcisius 09/A/KAB/MAED.MT/100/PG. Male Master of Arts in Educational Management CAUSES OF STUDENTS DROPOUT IN UNIVERSAL SECONDARY EDUCATION SCHOOLS: A CASESTUDY OF RUBABO COUNTY IN RUKUNGIRI DISTRICT Karungi Monica Postgraduate Unit October, 2011

ABSTRACT The problem on which the study focused is Dropout of students in Universal Secondary Education (USE) schools in Rubabo County, Rukungiri District The study intended to find out the influence of family and school environments on dropouts in USE schools. It further aimed at the ratio of girls to boys dropouts, and generate possible solutions to this problem. Questionnaires, interview guides and document analysis were the instruments used in collecting data. A survey research design was used to collect data using a sample of 94 respondents, of which 33 were students, 22 teachers, 11 head teachers, 16 parents, 4 local leaders and 4 dropout students. Findings revealed that both home and school environments have significant influence on dropping out of students, with the former, environment ,contributing to a higher percentage. The aspects of poverty, forced early marriages, unstable families and ignorance of parents featured as common causes related to family environment of students. On the other hand, poor academic performance, poor structures and facilities and poor/student relationship were featured as the major school related causes of dropouts from schools. Findings further revealed that more girls drop out than boys but the difference is not so alarming it could be a result of higher enrollment of girls than that of boys in almost all the sampled schools. In view of the above findings, the researcher made several recommendations. Most of these recommendations suggest economic empowering of local parents, provision of scholastic materials, accommodation and 51

lunch to students and enhancement of guidance and counseling by both parents and teachers. He further recommends stepping up of guidance and counseling by in schools and sensitization of parents on their cardinal role of taking and keeping their children in schools.

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Ndungutse Bikolimana 09/A/KAB/MADS/015/PG Male Master of Arts in Development Studies ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF CONSERVATION-INDUCED PEOPLES DISPLACEMENT FROM PROTECTED AREAS: A CASE STUDY OF GISHWATI FOREST RESERVE, NYABIHU DISTRICT, RWANDA Adalbert Aine-Omucunguzi Postgraduate Unit October, 2011

ABSTRACT The results of forced displacement are many and in most cases negative and stressful to humanity. If a displacement exercise is not well planned, it may disrupt the social and economic development of human societies. This study assessed the socio-economic impacts of conservation-induced displacement of the people from protected areas with a focus on Gishwati forest reserve in Rwanda. Data were collected from 200 households in two villages that were relocated from Gishwati forest and 3 local council leaders from each of the villages. Interview, focused group discussion and observation were the methods employed in data collection. Findings of this study indicate that the average household size was 6.22 which was higher than the national average. Before relocation households were engaged in different economic activities. All the households(100%) reported that they were harvesting resources from Gishwati forest before they were displaced. Households land-holding was between 4 and 12 hectares. Although all respondents agreed that they got better shelter after relocation, 82% reported that poverty had increased in their households because of land scarcity. The study found that 20% of 52

the people who were employed lost their jobs while 50% of the respondents reported that they were marginalized by the relocation. Despite the displacement, majority of the households still attached importance to the conservation of Gishwati forest reserve, respondents were asked to state with reasons whether they supported the conservation of the forests. Or not. The attitude was regarded as positive if the respondent supported the conservation of the forest and negative if the respondent was opposed to the conservation of the forest. The study also found that 85% of the respondents had a positive attitude towards the conservation of Gishwati forest reserve. Only 15% of the respondents were opposed to the conservation of forest. Of those opposed to the conservation of the forest, 77% cited inability to collect firewood while 57% pointed out lack of grazing land.

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Barakagwira Patricia 08/KU/373/PG Female Master of Arts in Business Administration STRATEGIC RELATIONSHIP MARKETING TECHNIQUE IN COMMERCIAL BANKS OF RWANDA: A CASE STUDY OF THE COMMERCIAL BANK OF RWANDA (BCR) Dr. Christopher. S.P. Dabo Postgraduate Unit August, 2011

ABSTRACT The Relationship Marketing(RM) is conceived as an accepted model towards the execution of business dealings and building long term relationships between suppliers and customers. Marketing is no longer viewed as developing, selling and delivering products(Buttle 1999) but rather a foundation for strategic insight, as a conduit for accessing superior performance. The RM approach continues to receive prominence in the fierce competitive landscape business environment in the service sector. In the search for the validation of the inferences of the RM approach professed as a necessary ingredient for business strategic and competitive advantage, this research explores the critical evaluation of the RM approach to competitive advantage in the commercial baking industry in Rwanda . The competitive advantage orientation augmenting this research is based on competitive positioning approach of Porter (1980)generic strategy framework and value chain analysis. In scope wise, the research takes an assessment of the RM approach practices in the Commercial Bank of Rwanda and whether it leads to competitive advantage. The findings concluded that the Commercial Bank of Rwanda exhibited full implementation of the RM 53

approach best practices and the concept is well entrenched in the banks processes, systems and procedures. The research applied illustrative examples based on multiple data sources with semi-structured interview and self-administered questionnaire as the credible techniques for data collection. It was concluded that the Commercial Bank of Rwanda structure, systems, procedure and culture encouraged the RM approach that enable the Commercial Bank of Rwanda to access cost advantages resulting from the optimization and co-ordination of linkages in the value chain. The competitive advantage position that the commercial Bank of Rwanda holds and drives from the RM approach implementation is temporarily at its best.

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Sibomana Vincent 09/F/MADS/038/PG Male Master of Arts in Development Studies RWANDAS LAND USE CONSOLIDATION AND AGRARIAN DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF NYANZA Karungi Monica Postgraduate Unit October, 2011

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of Land Use Consolidation in agrarian Rwanda to find out its impact on Rwandan economic development. The study was carried out between June and August 2011 among 120 farmers in agricultural cooperatives in Land Use Consolidation Programme in Nyanza District. The research used comparative method. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from respondents. The data was tabulated to clearly show a comparison of production before and after the implementation of Land Use Consolidation. Documentation (especially reports) was used to assess how production had increased after implementation of the Land Use Consolidation Programme. Findings of this study indicate that the land consolidation program increased land under cultivation of majority of respondent. Household income of majority of the respondents was reported to have increased after the implementation of the programme and this reduced the number of households that were living below poverty line. Also, majority of the respondents reported that they had constructed better shelter, were having more meals as a result of agricultural surplus. The study also revealed that prices of crops had reduced. For example, the 54

price of cassava reduced by 40% in 2009 and 33.3% in 2010. This showed that the land use consolidation programme was more productive than the disjointed land system. This study recommends that other parts of Rwanda which have not yet embraced the land consolidation programme should do so to improve peoples welfare.

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Balisheshe Boniface 08/KU/344/PG Male Master of Arts in Development Studies CORRUPTION IN RWANDAS PUBLIC SERVICE: A CASE OF NGORORERO DISTRICT, 2000-2010 Dr. Christopher Zigira Postgraduate Unit October, 2011

ABSTRACT This study examined the causes, the extent and effect of corruption in the public service in Rwanda with a focus on Ngororero district. The study found that 97% of informants/respondents had witnessed cases of corruption. The top five organs accused of asking for bribes were the local defense forces, villages chairpersons, local mediators, cell executive secretaries, and gacaca judges. The reasons for corruption include, among others, an unpaid service, low salaries, lack of morality and integrity especially for leaders, lengthy administrative procedures, lack of transparency and peoples ignorance. Besides, the study found out that some Rwandan cultural aspects especially sayings, citizens mindset and low morals, proverbs, also fostered greed, or encouraged, at a certain level the corrupt behavior like extortion, exploitation, embezzlement, favoritism, and nepotism. In terms of correspondences, corruption occasions impoverishment of the payer and interpersonal conflict; corruption undermines minds of both the taker and the payer as they see that nothing can be done without functioning of administration and the whole system, and strongly erodes trust in institutions and office bearers, and in democracy. This study came up with the conclusion that, among others, the socio-cultural context in which civil servants worked, 55

and low salary had an impact on their attitude to asking for bribes. Particularly, the denial of salary to some grassroots leaders levels (villages, cells, sectors) seemed to worsen that situation, corruption being thereby more and more rampant and systematic. On psychological level, however, the study ended up by also confirming that some leaders at grassroots would never be satisfied even if they were given a satisfactory salary and wages given that corruption had strongly penetrated their morals. Therefore, this study recommended that fighters against corruption had to put into consideration all aspects discussed within this work. Focus was to be on education of both takers and payers, and on social and cultural context, through, for example, revitalizing traditional values taught through the itoreroryigihugu (the national informal educational institution).

Surname: Other Names: Reg No: Gender: Programme: Title of Dissertation: Supervisor: Academic Unit: Submission Date:

Rindabo Zerida 07/KU/PG/07 Female Master of Arts in Educational Management AN EVALUATION OF UNIVERSAL PROGRAMME, KABALE DISTRICT Prof. Allen Babugura Postgraduate Unit October, 2011

SECONDARY

ABSTRACT This study evaluated the Universal Secondary Education programme, in Ndorwa County Kabale District. The aim of the study was to establish the challenges of Universal Secondary Education programme in Ndorwa County and the strategies which should be put in place to make the programme a success. A qualitative research approach was used to arrive at the findings which were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A questionnaire was administered to total of one hundred twenty respondents who comprised of teachers, parents, students and the head teacher. Finding of the study indicate that the implementation of USE programme has registered some successes especially by providing opportunity to children from poor background to access secondary education. In the view of the above the researcher therefore recommended that the government should strength the policy of provision of physical facilities like libraries, laboratories classroom and sanitation facilities to match with the increasing number of students. The government should strengthen the inspection of schools and monitoring of USE programme to ensure that it is well implemented and sensitize all stakeholders on their roles. The 56

government / district officials should always carry out publicity and sensitization on USE programme especially on its objectives, expected outcomes and roles of different stakeholders in the implementation of USE.

Surname: Other Names: Reg No: Gender: Programme: Title of Dissertation:

Supervisor: Academic Unit: Submission Date:

Niyonzima Theoneste 08/M/MADS/182/W Female Master of Arts in Development Studies INTEGRATED EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT SERVICES AND POVERTY REDUCTION IN RWANDA: A CASE STUDY OF NKUNDABANA PROGRAM OF CARE INTERNATIONAL KAMONYI DISTRICT, SOUTHERN PROVINCE Prof. George Alibaruho Postgraduate Unit October, 2011

ABSTRACT This study investigated the performance of the integrated early childhood development services in poor households in Rwanda with respect to its potential impact on poverty reduction. To achieve this it focused on the Nkundabana Program of Care International, in Kamonyi District, Southern Province. The period covered was 2005-2010. The analytical framework considered poverty indicators as dependent variables (with the following components: the drop outs, completion, timely enrolment rates for education component, the incidence of diseases, maternal child mortality rates for health and low daily income, lack of decent shelter and assets for income). Provision of productive assets and services through the program to address the poverty indicators were considered as independent variables. The study population was 180 families and the study selected a sample of 60 respondents. Questionnaires and in-depth interviews were used 57

to collect primary data while document review generated secondary data. Findings of the study revealed that families economic status had improved as a result of the program. Based on the findings the study recommended that the approach used by Care International could be replicated in other parts of Rwanda.

Surname: Other Names: Reg.No. Gender: Title of dissertation:

supervisor: programme: submission date

Namahoro Vianny 09/MAPPA/031/PG male The impact of Advertisement on Customer awareness of Microfinance institutions in Rwanda: A case Study of Urwego Opportunity Microfinance Bank (2005 2010) Helen Chinedum Onuoha Master of Project Planning and Management 10th october 2011

ABSTRACT This study provides relevant information on how advertisement creates or increases customer awareness of a companys products. Advertisement can also create a good image of a company and increase its sales volume. The main purpose of this study was to know whether advertising has an impact on customer awareness for Urwego opportunity Microfinance bank. The objectives of this study were: to find out the different media of advertising used by UOMB; to identify how advertising can be used to create and sustain competitive advantage; to know the contribution of advertising on customer awareness and to make recommendations and suggestions to the concerned company. The study was conducted in Urwego Opportunity Microfinance Bank. Various methods were employed to gather primary data including questionnaires and interviews. Several books and report articles from the internet were analysed to collect secondary data. After data analysis using tables and text, the following were identified: 58

Urwego Opportunity Microfinance Bank should develop advertising strategy which will contribute to the awareness of the products instead of doing it when there is a special event or when there is new product which is launched. Urwego Opportunity Microfinance should advertise its products using the various media to reach as many people as possible who are its target market. However, as most of UOMB customers are scattered in rural areas, radio Rwanda and news papers, especially Imvaho would contribute in increasing its market share. Recommendations on how advertisement in UOMB should be done properly were made. These include, creating advertising strategy, creating advertisement department in charge of advertising and adopting mass media advertisement.

Surname: Sendegeya Other Names: Robert Reg.No. 08/M/KAB/MADS/195/W Gender: Male Title Of Dissertation: NGOS AND BATWA SETTLEMENTS IN KABALE DISTRICT: A CASE STUDY OF BUFUNDI, BUTANDA AND MUKO SUB COUNTIES. Supervisor: Dr. Christopher Zigira Programme: Master Of Development Studies Submission Date 22nd October 2010 ABSTRACT In Uganda, the Batwa were traditionally forest dwellers who survived by hunting and gathering in forests. However, due to increased economic activity in the region, there has been increased demand for forest products. This has led to increased destruction of the forest biodiversity which in turn, has led to the call for conservation of the forests. As a result of the implementation of the conservation of the forest biodiversity policy, all Batwa were evicted from the forests by1992. They were however, not compensated. Neither were they resettled, and this situation worsened their livelihood for it meant that Batwa were at the mercy of well wishers; hence the emergence of NGOs. Many of these NGOs have since carried out different activities aimed at improving the livelihood of the Batwa. This research therefore, was aimed at evaluating the role of four NGOs in uplifting the livelihood of the Batwa in Southwestern Uganda. The study was specifically carried out in Bufundi, Butanda and Muko Sub counties in Kabale Districts. These sub 59

counties border Enchuya forest from where some Batwa were evicted. The study was carried out with the hope that it would benefit different stakeholders involved with the Batwa and scholars interested in future studies. The research findings are based on information gathered from key respondents, by use of interview guides and questionnaires. Responses from the Batwa were acquired through focus group discussions. The study did not however, concentrate on the socio demographic characteristics of the population because it is very small. Data was categorized into themes which were presented in tables and percentages were used interpreting the data. The findings of the research identify the activities of the four organizations, their approaches, the challenges which they encounter and chart a way forward. The major conclusions were that the Batwa are still backward and there was lack of collaboration both within the NGOs and with government leadership. The major recommendation of this research is that these organizations should start working together and in cooperation with government to uplift the livelihood of the Batwa.

Surname: Other Names: REG.NO. Gender:

Rwagitare Claude. 08/M/KAB/MADS/106/W Male

Title Of Dissertation: THE IMPACT OF DECENTRALIZATION POLICY ON THE EFFECTIVE DELIVERY OF HEALTH CARE SERVICES IN RWANDA; A CASE STUDY OF RULINDO DISTRICT. Supervisor: Programme: Submission Date: Mr. Edwin Babimpa Master Of Development Studies October 2010 ABSTRACT The study intended to assess the impact of decentralization on the effective delivery of health care services in Rwanda. The specific objectives of the study were to establish the impact of the health sector policy on the provision of quality health care services to the population. Challenges encountered were also documented while providing recommendations for effective utilization of health care services under decentralized entities. To meet the stated objectives, the study purposely sampled 30 respondents at health centres who included health centre staff, district 60

leadership including regulatory body and a number of patients that were found in health centres to represent the entire beneficiary population in the district. The findings of the study show that decentralization of health services has proved to be an effective and efficient system of delivering services to the population at grassroots levels. The population has benefited through the insurance scheme popularly known as Mutuelle de sante at the rate of 85% which has enabled equal access to health care by all categories of people in the country without discrimination. Accountability has also been a key feature under decentralization in Rwanda. Despite the progress, a number of problems were identified; and these include limited availability of health workers at health centres and yet there are many patients who are in dire need of the services. The insurance scheme mutuelle de sante is not accepted across all the major hospitals in the country apart from the health centres at lower levels yet most crucial health services are at the higher levels like the King Faisal International hospital. Some people still find it difficult to pay for their health insurance yet they need health services. Rulindo Districts also needs to do more on coordination as major weaknesses in this regard were observed during this study. It is highly recommended that the vulnerable citizens like the elderly be allowed free access to health care. The insurance scheme should be devised in such a way that it is widely accepted across all the hospitals. The donor community needs to keep strengthening the decentralization system in Rwanda paying attention to capacity building through training more health workers to meet the ever increasing number of patients.

Surname: Other Names: Reg.No. Gender: Title of Dissertation:

Bisongimana Joseph 08/M/KAB/MADS/057/W Male AGRICULTURE AND DEVELOPMENT IN RWANDA: A CASE STUDY OF MAIZE PRODUCTION IN MUSANZE DISTRICT.

Supervisor: Programme: Submission Date:

Dr. Dabo S. P. Christopher Master Of Development Studies 10th December 2010 ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to determine the impact of agricultural outputs on economic growth, by looking at the growing of maize in Musanze District. A survey was conducted in selected sectors of Musanze. The specific objectives were: to identify problems affecting agricultural outputs; to identify possible causes to agricultural outputs problems; to demonstrate the impact of the identified problems on household income and economic growth; to provide solutions for 61

addressing those problems in order to enhance economic growth. A structured questionnaire used to collect the required information and the data gathered was analyzed using SPSS program to determine frequencies and percentage means. In this study both qualitative and quantitative data were used. The study established that lack of access to agricultural inputs is hindrance to maize production. Regarding the effect of the cost of agricultural inputs, it was established that these were not affordable. The results also revealed that the priority constraints to maize production are: declining soil fertility, limited use of inputs, poor agricultural practices and lack of appropriate varieties. With regard to maize post harvest and processing, the priority constraints were; lack of processing facilities, lack of knowledge, lack of storage facilities and lack of institutional support. Furthermore, the constraints to maize utilization options were ranked as follows: lack of processing technologies, limited knowledge on development and limited value addition. The study further revealed that price fluctuations, lack of market information, poor infrastructure, low demand, and low quality are priority constraints to maize marketing. It is important also to note that lack of credit facilities was a hindrance to maize production. This needs much attention as the income derived from agricultural outputs, when combined with credit, can offer real prospect of sustainable farmer investments need for productive agriculture. A large number of farmers have never been visited by agricultural extension agents. There is a great need in agricultural practices focusing on maize production in order to boost productivity. Emphasis should be placed on training of farmers in maize production (use of fertilizer, use of improved varieties, pest and disease management, soil management).

Surname. Other Names: Reg.No. Gender:

Gasirwa Faustin 08/M/KAB/MADS/138/W. Male

Title Of Dissertation: THE ROLE OF COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS: A CASE STUDY OF CTB PADL GAKENKE DISTRICT IN NORTHERN PROVINCE, RWANDA. Supervisor: Programme: Submission Date: Mr. Babimpa Edwin Nuwagaba Master Of Development Studies. September 2010. ABSTRACT Development projects as part of the national plan aim at reducing poverty and raising the standard of living of low-income rural groups. Now the Rwandan economic context is characterized by a relatively high economic growth rate, a forward looking environment of 62

participation and cooperation on the part of the private sector and citizens down to Imidugudu or village level, and development policies focusing on poverty reduction, food security, diversification of the economy and decentralization. The researcher has assessed the roles of the population in project development based on CTB- PADL Gakenke as a case study. The results show that community participation has helped ensure that more equitable distribution of benefits and ensured that economically weak groups have access to the project services and benefits. The findings of the study reveal that there has been substantial improvement in the social and economic well being with tangible indicators such as better access to education, infrastructures, improvement in capacity building, in household incomes, and increase of community team spiritThe management committees (CDC) elected by communities on the basis of their integrity play a meaningful role ranked positively at 85% in the management of the sub projects, the executive secretary at sector level (70%), district staff (75%) and the project staff(65%).Further more, 95% of respondents have confirmed that the CTB PADL Gakenke brings responses to the problems and constraints faced by peasants to ensure various needs satisfaction in accruing mass consumption and attainment of hierarchy basic needs. That means that UBUDEHE as a rural participatory approach adopted by CTB PADL Gakenke substantially contributes to social and economic development of 6170 families among them 5553 families who are funded by that development project. The current community benefits must be sustained in order to continue on the road of development. The population cannot effectively participate if their roles and responsibilities are not clearly defined and understood. In the absence of a clearly defined community approach like UBUDEHE, any other effort will result in ineffective performance in managing a development project due to limited motivation and participation.

Surname: Other Names: Reg.No. Gender: Title Of Dissertation:

Tukundane Cuthbert 06/KU/PG21. Male INVESTIGATING POVERTY LEVELS AMONG HOUSEHOLD IN RUKIGA COUNTY, KABALE DISTRICT.

Supervisor: Programme: Submission Date:

Prof:Allen Babugura. Master Of Development Studies. 12th October 2011. ABSTRACT

The study investigated poverty levels among rural households in Rukiga county of Kabale District located in South Western Uganda. The findings are based on qualitative and quantitative data collected. Questionnaires were given to one hundred individual respondents, from randomly selected households; stratified according to Sub County, in representative proportions according to population. The primary data was supplemented by secondary information in form of relevant 63

literature. The data collected was summarized into tables and where necessary, entered into an MS Excel worksheet for graphical presentation. Data variables were cross tabulated and relationships made between the data and the previous related research findings to deduce the specific findings for this research. The study revealed that 15% of the respondents could be categorized as poorest of the poor and 25% could be categorized as poor according to household income levels. All the households, among all categories according to their reported income levels, had access to public services health services, school and protected water. All the households, however, decried high expenses on medical care implying that although they accessed health facilities, many could barely afford the health services offered. The poverty situation stems mainly from limited land holding per household and existence of no alternative household sustenance sources. Investment in agriculture and introduction of non farm income generating activities will reduce the numbers of households characterized by the different poverty levels. The poor or poorest of the poor should be targeted through groups where advocacy is stressed as one of the most important messages so that their voices and priorities are raised high enough for policy consideration in order for development to be balanced.

Surname: Other names: Reg.No. Gender: Title of dissertation:

Nyirimana Abdelaziz 08/KAB/MBA/093/W Male PERFORMANCE OF SOCIAL SECURITY FUND OF RWANDA IN CAPITAL MARKET.

Supervisor: Programme: Submission date:

Dr. Christopher S.P..Dabo Master of Musiness Administration 31st october 2010

ABSTRACT The Rwandan capital market is growing and its structure is changing to an extent that non banking institutions are the principle holders. A lack of alternative instrument for investment could constrain investors from exercising diversification strategies in capital market instrument. 64

The social Security of Rwanda is one of the institutional investors which has a large amount of liquid fund in bank deposits and treasury bills due to the existing opportunities of diversification alternatives, particularly in capital market instruments SSFR has a stable source of long term domestic investment. It provides possibilities for domestic firms to have access to long term capital. The money invested by the social security fund of Rwanda is designed to generate revenue for an employee after retirement. Pension fund and life insurance companies have particular long term structure of their liability. The social Security Fund of Rwanda has invested in Government bonds (Government securities), and in real estate in a significant manner, but equities or shares offer better returns and hedging mechanism. However diversification is more important because its leads to profitability and capital presentation.

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Birara Jean Pierre 08/KAB/MHRM/217/W Male MOTIVATION OF EMPLOYEES AS AFACTOR IN THE PRODUCTIVITY OF AN ORGANISATION

Supervisor: Programme: Submission Date:

Prof: Goerge Alubaruho Master Of Human Resource Management September 2011. ABSTRACT

This study was about motivation of employees as a factor in the productivity of an organization, adopting a case study approach focusing on Rwandas Higher Institute of agriculture and animal husbandry (I.S.A.E) BUSIGO. The problem behind this research is that many people drop out or change jobs for different reasons usually summarized as the lack of satisfaction. The first 65

objective of this study was to explore strategies used to motivate employees in ISAE and challenges encountered in that process; to examine cases of unmotivated employees consequences in ISAE BUSOGO and to analyze current relations between employees and employers in ISAE BUSOGO. Commitment to the organization, employees loyalty feeling, better industrial relations, organizations reputation in labour market, whole hearted labour, higher efficiency, high and improved performance, high productivity, reduced causes of employees turn- over and behavioral modification depend on money, training, job design, recognition, quality of working life and decision making desire affiliation. The findings of this study generally revealed that the employees of ISAE BUSOGO do not menace their employers because of the poor motivation. Nevertheless the study recommends that it would be ideal to increase motivational instruments and to strengthen existing ones so as to maintain and strengthen the existing good relation between employee and employers; for better performance. The study further recommends that employers of ISAE BUSOGO should utilize the assets in ISAE BUSOGO, as a remote place. For the future, the study suggests that further research should investigate and analyze the impact of individual needs on the quality of motivation provided by the employers.

Surname: Other Names: Reg.No. Gender: Title Of Dissertation:

Harelimana Pascal 08/KAB/MADS/147/W. Male COOPERATIVE AS A TOOL FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND POVERTY REDUCTION IN RWANDA. A CASE STUDY OF COOPERATIVE ABAHUZAMUGAMBI BA KAWA OF MARABA IN HUYE DISTRICT

Supervisor: Programme: Submission Date:

Mr.Adebayo Tajudeen Master Of Development Studies 15th February 2010. ABSTRACT 66

The study examined cooperative as a tool for rural development and poverty Reduction in Rwanda. The case of Cooperative Abahuzamugambi ba Kawa based in Maraba sector, Huye district in Southern province. The sample consisted of the members, management and Board of Directors of the Abahuzamugambi ba kawa. The sample size was 75 respondents. A research questionnaire was used to gather data from respondents. The research questions focused on the principles of cooperatives; the effectiveness of cooperative and the impact of Abahuzamugambis Cooperative in term of Rural Development and Poverty Reduction. The findings of the study were on the rural cooperative and the need for education in the areas of cooperative member ownership and ways in which to increase participation in decision making. Some of findings were as follows: The cooperatives have proved to be the best tool to realize developmental goals and poverty reduction working at grass root levels. Cooperatives can participate directly in agriculture and industry thus creating employment and increasing productivity which are the major indicators for rural Development and Poverty reduction in general. It was also deduced that, cooperatives help farmers to market firm products. The cooperative Abahuzamugambi ba kawa was set up in Maraba Sector to collect coffee from farmers on behalf of members. This has contributed to the economic well being of members as well as people within that area. Regarding the finding from this study, the researcher recommended to the Cooperative Abahuzamugambi ba kawa to organize and conduct regular trainings and sensitization of members to the value of good quality of coffee as requested the neoclassical theory. In addition, the cooperative Abahuzamugambi ba kawa should organize study visits for the management, Board of Directors and membership so that their performance could serve as model to other members and the community.

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Surname: Other Names: Reg.No. Gender: Title of Dissertation:

Ahairwe Evah 07/KU/PG3. Female EVALUATING SUSTAINABLE FOOD SECURITY IN IHUNGA SUB COUNTY, NTUNGAMO DISTRICT

Supervisor: Programme: Submission Date

Prof: Allen Babugura Master Of Development Studies. : July 2010. ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to evaluate sustainable food security in Ihunga Sub-county, Ntungamo District in order to suggest ways to promote food security. During the study, the researcher used a sample size of 110 respondents and this was 25% of the total farmers in Ihunga Sub County. The study was carried out in Ihunga sub county, Ngungamo district in south western part of Uganda. The researcher used questionnaires, interviews and observation to obtain data from respondents. The information obtained from respondents was recorded, organized and analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The research findings reveal a number of factors that lead to food insecurity in Ihunga Sub County, including; shortages of labour, large families, sale of food, prolonged droughts, poor health conditions, expensive agricultural inputs, lack of agricultural extension staff, poor infrastructure, lack of community food resources, poor technologies, mismanagement of soils, uncommitted leadership and lack of food legal intuitions. Further more, research findings reveal the following as problems due to food inadequacy. These are stunting, malnutrition, nutritional deficiency diseases and inability to learn in children. Through the study findings, the following were some of the recommendations made. There is a need to strengthen research in new technologies that increase agricultural productivity. The government should strengthen mechanism for monitoring food security situation and its capacity for quick responses to ensure efficient management of resources and popularization of food security principles among households and all stakeholders, right from national to the lowest local levels.

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