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The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

Introduction
This paper will consider the influence of Fiona Foleys oeuvre on the pursuit of a postcolonialist Australia; the contribution of her work to a mainstream mutually respectful lived daily experience.1

To do so, the paper will reference the work of Ian McLean in attempting to locate the dominant contemporary Australian culture within a continuum of colonialism & postcolonialism, and make comment on the extent to which neocolonialism is currently being applied.

Art has long held itself above and ahead of the evolution of high society; artists have been understood in euro-centered art history to have led or at least been in the forefront of social evolution. What has been the contribution of Fiona Foleys oeuvre to the pursuit of postcolonialism? Are Fiona Foley and her contemporaries moving in a postcolonialist direction? In the Australian art industry today is there evidence of an active pursuit of postcolonialism or do euro-centric art-historical priorities brand us neocolonialist? What of non-Aboriginal artists, theorists, curators and galleries? To what extent is the Australian art industry modeling a postcolonial space?

This paper will consider a background to colonialist activities, and make a contribution to consideration of the first two questions. The last questions will need attention at a future date.

1 A separate Appendices document contains my fuller review of each of the works referenced, and is provided for your interest and background to the works and my experience of them. karenVsandon.FINE.ART www.karenvsandon.com.au karen@karenvsandon.com.au page 1 of 23

The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

D e f i n it io n s Definitions are applied relevant to the current Australian context:2 Fuller description from the variety of sources is to be found in Appendix 1.
Colonialism:

Colonialism exists in an anglo-euro-centric superior mindset which gives effect to unequal and disrespectful relationships.
Postcolonialism:

is to recognise, understand and undo the continuing legacies of colonialism today: dispossession, displacement, racism, and intercultural violence. Postcolonialism entails understanding social and economic pressures and cultural prejudices faced by indigenous peoples and impoverished communities, engendering dialogue across the divides of continuing and often positive cultural difference.
Neocol oni al i s m

The use of economic, political, cultural, or other pressures to control or influence another country. Cultural colonialism involves the use of media, language, education and religion to control the others values and perceptions. The colonial mentality which drives these controls sees the colonizers ways as better than previous indigenous ways. Continuation of cultural mores from past colonial powers and times can be seen as a form of neocolonialism.

In the literature some agreement can be found on definitions of these terms, but their temporal separation is debated. As discussed by Djon Mundine 3, there seem to be alternate waves of post and neo colonialism, the colloquial swinging pendulum, or ebb and flow of the tide.

The definitions are an amalgam from the Oxford English, Macquarie, Collins English and Webster Dictionaries, with further input from Wikipedia the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Melbourne Institute for postcolonial studies. I have avoided simplistic reference to dates such as federation or from 16th to 20 th centuries in favour of a more organic continuum view.
3

see appendices for his actual words on this matter. www.karenvsandon.com.au karen@karenvsandon.com.au page 2 of 23

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The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

Main
Avrill Quaill, when writing on Foleys L a n d D e a l (1995), identifies Foleys strong commitment to challenging past and current assumptions and categorisation of Aboriginal Artists, challenging both the euro-centrism of the Australian art industry, and non-Aboriginal understandings of the implications of recent and past history for todays Aboriginal people.4 The work L a n d D e a l uses the materials offered by early colonialists as trade for land: Flour, Salt, tin cans and challenges the viewer to consider the ethics of such a trade.

Foley was one of the original Boomalli Artist Collective group, which battled the dominant ideas that Aboriginal Art was to be equated only with Traditional art. Foley and her colleagues have succeeded; Aboriginal Art now being that work made by Aboriginal artists, whatever their style, wherever they are located.5 This indicates a positive movement in a postcolonial direction. Chris Healy, when writing on Foleys W i t n e s s i n g t o S i l e n c e (2003)6 illustrates the postcolonial thinking implicit in the work of Aboriginal activists and educative artists:
'Aboriginal artists have in content and form endlessly n e g o t i a t e d t h e t r a n s a c t i o n a l s p a c e o f c o l o n i a l h i s t o r i e s . 7

Avril Quaill, "Laced Flour and Tin Boxes. The Art of Fiona Foley.," in World of Dreamings. Traditional and Modern Art of Australia(State Hermitage Museum, St Petersberg 2 Feb - 9 April,: National Gallery of Australia, 2000). p2 Throughout her career, Fiona Foley has battled categorisation and challenged the preconceived notions inherent in the label 'Aboriginal artist'. Foley works in many media yet her art is firmly grounded, in structure and meaning, in the traditions of her ancestral people, the Badtjala.
4

5 Avril Quaill, "Laced Flour and Tin Boxes. The Art of Fiona Foley," in World of Dreamings. Traditional and Modern Art of Australia(State Hermitage Museum, St Petersberg 2 Feb - 9 April,: National Gallery of Australia, 2000). P3 The definition of 'authentic Aboriginal art' was heavily debated in local art journals and texts. Boomalli challenged stereotypical definitions of Aboriginality. They encouraged the art world to acknowledge urban indigenous artists who use modern materials and forms, alongside artists who continue ancient traditions, using natural materials, in contemporary times. The group promoted Aboriginal art as that of artists from different areas, with different histories, but united by their Aboriginality - hence 'art by Aboriginal people.
6 7

My review of this work is to be found with details of all cited works in the attached Appendix 4.

Chris Healy, "Fiona Foley Silent Witness?," (2003). http://www.anu.edu.au/hrc/research/WtoS/Healy.pdf (accessed Fri 22 June 2012). p1 karenVsandon.FINE.ART www.karenvsandon.com.au karen@karenvsandon.com.au page 3 of 23

The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

Foley and her cohort demand that we see and learn from their works. (My own review of the work 'Witnessing to Silence 2004' can be found in Appendix 4 at the end of this paper.) Located outside the Brisbane Magistrates Court, the work offers contemporary Australians of all origins another opportunity to acknowledge and accept complicity in silenced histories. 'Set into the plinth are the names of places where the original inhabitants were massacred,' '..reminding viewers of the history over which they walk unknowingly'8 Foley gives voice to the witnesses whose voices can no longer be heard.9 '10
11

Lea Giles-Peters makes the acerbic point

when commenting on B l a c k O p i u m (2011) that the unspoken massacres and Government practices are Still not taught in schools or universities. 12 H o w d i d i t h appen . . Ocean and Anti p o d es

In his work White Aborigines13 Ian Maclean argues that the Colonialist in Australia was the incarnation of a universal psychoanalytic projection by Ancient Greco-Roman Europeans throughout the ages. McLean14 begins his analysis by introducing o c e a n as a construct which he believes has dominated the western unconscious since classical times. The period since colonisation has been a strongly eurocentric period. All Australians contain the traces of o c e a n as understood by the early aegean geographers.

Timothy Morrell, "In Black and White -Text in Indigenous Queensland Art," Artlink 27, no. #1 (2007).

9 Healy. The true witnesses, the complete witness, are those who did not bear witness and could not bear witness. They are those who touched bottom: the Muselmann, the drowned. The survivors speak in their stead, by proxy, as pseudowitnesses; they bear witness to a missing testimony. Franca Tamisari, "Quiet Waters That Abrade the Bridges: New Forms of Visibility in Fiona Foley's Art," in Fiona Foley : Forbidden(Sydney: Museum of Contemporary Art, University of Queensland Art Museum, 2009).
10

Alison Kubler, "Fiona Foley in Conversation Wtih Alison Kubler," in Fiona Foley : Forbidden(Sydney: Museum of Contemporary Art, University of Queensland Art Museum, 2009).
11

Lea Giles-Peters inFiona Foley, Black Opium, ed. State Library of Queensland (State Library of Queensland, 2012).
12 13 14

Ian McLean, White Aborigines : Identity Politics in Australian Art (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998). Ibid. p1-5 www.karenvsandon.com.au karen@karenvsandon.com.au page 4 of 23

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The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

James Romm describes ocean as 'a vivid symbol of the gateway or barrier between inner and outer worlds' where the inner is equated with the solid, everyday and the outer with 'primal airy chaos of the beyond.' In McLeans psychoanalytic framework, o c e a n s function was to provide a boundary for a secure identity of self and place. Place becomes 'an emblem of the self.' Plato wrote seriously of the lands beyond o c e a n , influenced by the Pythagoreans. Ptolemy used ocean in his maps to mark the edge of the known world, and named his imagined large land on the other side 'terra incognita'. Since Roman times, that land has also been called 'the Antipodes'.

O c e a n became seen as a threshold; 'the uncanny'. It leads to the imaginary origin of identity and its limit. Originally a fearful place, it remained a 'site of anxiety' long after Greek colonisers began wondering about the other side of ocean. After Hellenistic and Roman colonisation, 'O c e a n was made the site of "sublime" emotions.' In the 15th century the fabulous buccaneering ocean was revived by the Portuguese and Spanish. Ignoring the metaphysical and imaginary meanings of o c e a n the possibility of an actual 'terra incognita' across the Pacific drove and fed yearning and exploration. The terms 'Antipodes,' 'terra australis,' and 'Magallnica' were interchangeably used by the Europeans to refer to this hoped for land. 'Regardless of the imaginary nature of o c e a n , during the early colonial period o c e a n was objectified as a real ocean. Thus, in McLeans analysis, by the time that colonialists had discovered Terra Australis (Australia) for themselves, they were psychologically predisposed to both fear and love it.
'The non-Aboriginal Australian subject is launched upon a sea o f r e p r e s s i o n s . '15

The land they came to was one of dreams and projections. They would be unlikely to actually s e e the land for its own sake because of those

15

Ibid. p6 www.karenvsandon.com.au karen@karenvsandon.com.au page 5 of 23

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The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

unacknowledged psychologies. McLeans view is plausible to a point, underscoring the inevitability of them arriving to colonise Australia. However he fails to account for the inconsistency in relationships between other visitors to the continent prior to and during the earliest part of the British exile and invasion. Nor does he account for the demonstrated positive agency of the various Aboriginal Nations in their interactions with nationals from other countries.

The Macassan traders were recorded traveling to trade in Marege (Northern Australia) as early as 140016 for trade and exchange. The Aboriginal People of the northern nations appear to have gotten fair trade for their trepang (sea cucumber). The fossil record has included ming dynasty ceramics and iron blades for axes and knives. Both the Macassan and the various Aboriginal Nations were able to develop positive, mutually beneficial relationships and conduct honest genuine trade. This trade continued across central and northern Australia until the South Australian government made it illegal in 1906.

Other than an isolated incident resulting in a shooting of an Aboriginal man in 1623, I have found little evidence of hostile relationships between the various French and Spanish visitors and the local people. Even if the o c e a n psychopathology were a significant factor on the part of the English, this does not excuse nor justify the behaviour of the colonisers in their treatment of the local peoples. (Please see A p p e n d i x 2 for detailed timelines of events layering european art-histories with key Australian timelines.) McLean is silent on how Europeans seemed able to have more potentially positive relationships with Aboriginal Australia than the British. His analysis falls down further. Mass enactment of the individual psychopathological projections fed by O c e a n , and elegantly captured by Brook Andrew in his work S e x y a n d D a n g e r o u s is still a far cry from the repeated mass

16 Dutch administrators of the Dutch East India Company, karenVsandon.FINE.ART www.karenvsandon.com.au karen@karenvsandon.com.au page 6 of 23

The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

murders foist upon this land and its peoples. Nor is O c e a n sufficient to explain the enduring neocolonial structural racism.

If early relationships with the Australians17 had been conducted in an appropriate manner, there could have been an alternative relationship with the first peoples belonging to this land.

F r o m e x il e t o invader -t he moment of the s ettl er. McLean identifies the pivotal moment in early colonial relationships as 1792 when Captain Arthur Phillip gained approval from Britain to grant settler lands to military men. As the Military took up their personal ownership of parcels of land, the relationship with Aboriginal Australia changed from, men in exile with a possibility of repatriation home to England to men as invaders accruing land and its bounties for their personal wealth. But these were not just peaceful settlers. They were hardened military men trained in the use of firearms and conditioned to use them to solve conflict. They were tough men working as jailers commanded by even tougher men required to dispense harsh punitive discipline. They had been handed land and a way of life that could never have been possible, or even dreamed, in England. They stood ready to anticipate threats and to defend their land. Unsurprisingly these changes led to deteriorating relationships, self righteous mass murder and an almost complete reshaping of the physical landscape. Aboriginal people who had been open to trade, through mutual respect, learned incredulously of the invaders intention to steal the land, deny them and their families access to it and permanently destroy the natural, plentiful resources of food and shelter. It was no wonder that they fought back. Yet the gun spoke loudly.

Foleys understated work D i s p e r s e d (2008) speaks directly and elegantly to these times and the murderous outcomes for Aboriginal people. My
17

this is the term used by Arthur Phillip in his diaries describing interactions with Aboriginal people. www.karenvsandon.com.au karen@karenvsandon.com.au page 7 of 23

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The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

review of it is detailed at A p p e n d i x 4 . Interestingly the behaviour of the settlers did not go universally unchallenged. William Andrews Bygone Punishments 18 of 1899 issues a scathing condemnation of the British settlers. It was not until 1909 with British geologist J. W. Gregorys expedition to Lake Eyre, that the Australian bush and the original Australian people were spoken of with value and respect in their own right. According to McLean, Gregory ..for the first time made Aboriginal experience part of modern Australia.19

The works of Heysen during the 1930s, according to McLean, provide proof that the principle of terra nullius continued to be reinforced in the minds of non-Aboriginal Australians through the empty images of the interior.20 McLean later raises the problems of an Australian identity which saw as its uniqueness Aboriginal Culture. As the absence of people from Heysens landscapes demonstrate Aboriginal people did not exist in the Europeans eyes except as the basis of non-Aboriginal identity. This was not Aboriginal Culture as a respected and valued other, but as yet another resource of the land to be appropriated and used for the aggrandisement of the nonAboriginal Australian.

First emerging in the 1920s and 1930s between the world wars, when some non-Aboriginal Australians began to seek their own separate identity from the UK, this behaviour marks a cornerstone of assimilationist policies and is thus to be located squarely in colonialism. If there was to be a single moment of temporal division between colonial and post colonial Australia it had not arrived before the end of WW2.

18 It might be presumed that the native inhabitants of any land have any incontrovertible right to their own soil; a plain and sacred right, however, which seems not to have been understood. Europeans have entered upon their borders uninvited and, when there, have not only acted as if they were undoubted Lords of the soil but have punished the natives as aggressors if they have evinced a disposition to live in their own country. If they had been found upon their own property they have been treated as theives and robbers. They are driven back into the interior as if they were dogs or kangaroos." (William Andrews, Bygone Punishments, William Andrews, London, 1899, p210 cited in McLean, Ibid, p32.
19 20

Ibid. p84 Ibid. p 82 www.karenvsandon.com.au karen@karenvsandon.com.au page 8 of 23

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The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

As raised earlier, Foleys W i t n e s s i n g t o S i l e n c e directly raises the issues of the mass murders and the silence about them. Writing on the work, Paul Havemann notes:
Hence, unlike at Auschwitz, where there were a few survivors, denial in Australia is aided by missing testimony, as there was n o o n e l e f t t o b e a r w i t n e s s t o t h e m a s s a c r e s . 21

This work is elegant contemplative and enduring. It demands thoughtful reflection, inviting the viewer to uncover the deeper story beyond the beauty and presence.
'..Foley attempts to write a history within history, a history shadowed by history, a history of footprints in the sand, of m e m o r i e s , f r a g m e n t s , f e a t h e r s a n d o t h e r t r a i l s .22 '

W h e re a re w e t oday ? Contemporary Australian culture is diverse. In the capital cities many people experience rich and complex cultural understandings. This has fostered an openness to diversity which has also opened education about Australias relationships to Aboriginal Australia. However this multi-cultural awareness is not yet universal. There are many Australians informed about customs and cultures outside this country who know very little about the first Australians and their treatment in Colonialist hands. In regional and more isolated communities the news is less positive and racism abounds.23

21 Paul Havemann, "Denial, Modernity and Exclusion: Indigenous Placelessness in Australia," Macquarie Law Journal 2005, no. MqLJ4 (2005). Chris Healey and Fiona Foley, Silent Witness in Caroline Turner and Nancy Sever (eds), Witnessing To Silence, Art and Human Rights (2003). A point made by Healey and Foley, above in 42, 26-7 referencing Giorgio Agamben, Remnants of Auschwitz: the Witness and the Archive (1999).
22 23

Dr Benjamin Genocchio, "Lick My Black Art," in Fiona Foley: Invisible Voices (Bundaberg, Qld: 2000).

Just yesterday on Phillip Island in Victoria in June 2012, I was subjected to a social gathering at which the always complaining boat person was berated, whilst later I was confronted by a stereotypical derogatory native statue out side the butchers: I just put him there to get some attention for the shop was the reply. These are small examples that illustrate the total lack of education and sensitivity in everyday interactions in a relatively educated middle-class area of regional Australia today. karenVsandon.FINE.ART www.karenvsandon.com.au karen@karenvsandon.com.au page 9 of 23

The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

Like so many other areas of Australian art and social life there seems to be a multi track24 reality about our capacity for postcolonialism, or not. Within contemporary Australia there is a multiplicity of experiences and personal histories. There is diversity as well amongst Aboriginal Australians, as to their awareness about the facts of history, their own family connections and the steps being taken personally and collectively by very many non-Aboriginal Australians to step up to their responsibilities to redress colonial abuses.

Neocolonialism also exists today. Political parties like One Nation and its incarnations, and to varying extents the major political parties, still espouse a` droite de of euro-centric cultural ideals. In mainstream Australia ordinary people show this in a range of ways; from bumper stickers (f*** off were full), attitudes to welfare (we give them the dole and they waste it), education (its illegal now for Indigenous languages to be spoken in NT schools), health (you cant handle your grog, so just dont do it), employment (get a real job), and culture (its up to you to fit in to our culture, we are the majority). Today we have substituted some of the less sophisticated signifiers of colonialist suppression with contemporary tools; instead of opium, tobacco and sugar we use access to income, housing and education to close the shackle of addiction upon the wrist of the potentially errant black worker.25

Finally and perhaps the most insulting and ignorant of all, the following assumption; its Aboriginal peoples job to educate non-Aboriginal people about the truth of Australian history and teach non-Aboriginal people about the multi-generational damage non-Aboriginal people have and do

I have been struck by he predominance of the terms multi-track and dual track of late in the media. Most usually applied to financial measures and their effect on individuals and families retail spending, the terms have also appeared in discussions on education, retirement, health insurance and health generally.
24

25 ..as Raymond Evans argues, Handouts of opium, plug tobacco, sugar and tea.... tended to close the shackle of addiction upon the wrist of the potentially errant black worker. from Fiona Nicoll, "No Substitute: Political Art against the Opiate of the Colonising Euphemism," in Fiona Foley : Forbidden(Sydney: Museum of Contemporary Art, University of Queensland Art Museum, 2009).p62. karenVsandon.FINE.ART www.karenvsandon.com.au karen@karenvsandon.com.au page 10 of 23

The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

cause. This assumption is absolutely neocolonialist. It is arrogant to ignore the responsibility to teach the truth and correct the omissions that need to be taught in schools. It is also arrogant not to ensure we discuss the implication of those omissions and facts widely. We force Aboriginal Australians to be trapped into a life of educating others about facts that many Australians still dont want to hear. In being boxed into this role valuable human creativity and resources are sucked dry and the opportunity for growth and being nurtured by community and country is lost.

This seems equally true of the art industry. It seems the responsibility for naming colonial issues is left to Aboriginal artists; non-Aboriginal dont seem to be pulling the same weight. There is still a significant underrepresentation of Aboriginal people in courses, amongst graduates and in the academic life of universities in the Arts. Colonialism and its implications for contemporary Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal artists are not taught as a distinct history subject in undergraduate programs. Neither cultural awareness of Aboriginality nor broader cultural diversity are part of any core subject in the program. To adopt a eurocentric view is to be seen as knowledgable in art terms. European based art movements are very rarely contextualised to art practice in Aboriginal Australian history. It seems, having arrived across o c e a n we now project back into Euro space to find meaning in Art Historical terms. We re-assert terra nullius in doing so.

Increase in education and postcolonial awarenesses by more people in the art industry has another interconnection with the practice of Aboriginal artists. As non-Aboriginal artists become further educated and aware more subtleties can be read in the works by Aboriginal artists, who are thus enabled to take the works to the more subtle, complex levels. The loud demand for space, for Aboriginal Contemporary Art originally voiced by Foley et al with the Boomalli project, has become more of a dialogue. The work has become quieter and more complex. As Foley herself says;
karenVsandon.FINE.ART www.karenvsandon.com.au karen@karenvsandon.com.au page 11 of 23

The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley. 'It's not about positioning one's self in a dying European Centre which has relegated our indigenous cultures and intellect to the periphery as in past centuries. Engaging in alternative dialogues, strategies and working models has been a b r e a t h o f f r e s h a i r, c h a l l e n g i n g a n d i n s p i r a t i o n a l . 26

One of the mechanisms of contemporary racism is the aussie euphemism which has a colonialist history. Fiona Nicoll, writing for Foleys book F o r b i d d e n in 2009 makes us aware of this in Foleys works such as S t u d G i n s (2003), B l a c k V e l v e t (1998) and B l a c k V e l v e t I I (2002)27 28 . Foley is yet again the insightful educator for those willing to step up to the challenge. In her work S e a o f L o v e (2007) and S i g n p o s t s I I 2006 Foley speaks to the current devalued sexuality of Aboriginal women. Whilst the black domestic is no longer so readily accessible, Aboriginal women are still subjected to male dominations, rapes, physical and economic power and violence. In criminology much has been written of the neocolonialist activities still having disastrous implications for Aboriginal Australians.
This genocidal legacy now flourishes in the social, economic and political conditions in which Australias Indigenous people live. These conditions explain their suicide and self-harm rates a n d t r u n c a t e d l i f e e x p e c t a n c y . 29

Foley makes comment on the forked tongue of the white man in works such as L a n d D e a l (1995) and L i e o f t h e L a n d (1997). Timothy Morrell writing for Artlink magazine spoke about the distrust of the English

26 27

Fiona Foley, "The Natives Are Restless," in Fiona Foley: Invisible Voices(Bundaberg Qld: 2000). p20 Nicoll.

28 Ibid. P61 'Foley's political work of substitution powerfully draws attention to the cultural work performed by Euphemisms in Australian politics and everyday life. Euphemism are terms used as substitutes for those which might offend delicate or naive sensibilities, and are a vehicle through which popular acceptance of racist values, understandings and policies has been achieved. Examples in this exhibition include the use of 'stud gins' as a euphemism for Indigenous women kept in conditions of sexual slavery and enforced labour, 'black velvet' to designate the sexual proclivities of certain colonists, and the term 'dispersed,' which Foley's sculpture of this title (2008) literally and chillingly 'spells out' by incorporating .303 inch calibre bullets into the letter D. Colin Tatz, Aboriginal Suicide Is Different (Criminology Research Council Project 25/96-7, 1999). In Havemann. karenVsandon.FINE.ART www.karenvsandon.com.au karen@karenvsandon.com.au page 12 of 23
29

The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

word and its exposition by Aboriginal Artists, the '.connection between words and history is implicit... because history is written by the conquerors....'
30

Morrell notes that a number of Foleys works have demonstrated this

tendency for the capacity of words to hide the truth. 31 Foley does so directly in the written English word too. With echos of others like Gary Foley, Marcia Langton, Michael Anderson and Djon Mundine, Fiona Foelys words are direct, uncompromising and clear. In The Natives are Restless she says that
..dominant colonial attitudes and behaviour are still well entrenched in Australian society and permeate all strata's, r e l e a s i n g a p e r v a s i v e s t e n c h . '32

Like many other Aboriginal Australian Artists, Foley seeks to educate nonAboriginal Australians that the essential power bases that supported colonialist activities continue to dominate, albeit it with a new less direct series of neocolonialist methods. The gun and poison have been exchanged for the power of money, land and access to education. As Rowley puts it Australias Indigenous peoples exclusion is, today, de facto; they are outcasts in their own land.33

But Foley hasnt given up on non-Aboriginal Australians yet. Like so many resourceful and strong Aboriginal Australians, she sees the strength of the future of her brothers and sisters, and the possibility that non-Aboriginal Australians could yet join the postcolonial pursuit. In reference to contemporary Queensland she says 'Despite this state's institutional racism we manage to work around it's obstacles.34

30 31 32 33 34

Morrell. p34 Ibid. Foley, "The Natives Are Restless." p20 C D Rowley, Outcasts in White Australia (1972) in Havemann. Foley, "The Natives Are Restless." p22 karenVsandon.FINE.ART www.karenvsandon.com.au karen@karenvsandon.com.au page 13 of 23

The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

It seems that, right now, Australia is in a multi speed pathway. Some paths seem to be going very slowly. Some are so slow as to appear to be going backwards while others seem to be moving much more quickly in a postcolonial direction. This pathway though, must tackle and negotiate the neocolonialist aspects of our social systems if we are to reach the postcolonial goal. We are not there yet. A n d w h a t o f t omor r ow? How do we identify and negotiate around the neocolonialist remnants and forces still dominating our social structures and institutional systems? Paul Havemann is eloquent.
Until we overcome denial by acknowledging the truth we can never get to the place called reconciliation. Lederach offers a four-step path to reconciliation.This resonates with the recommendations of the Bringing Them Home report, notably t h e Va n B o v e n p r i n c i p l e s f o r a h u m a n r i g h t s - b a s e d reconciliation; and the final (2002) report of the Council on A b o r i g i n a l R e c o n c i l i a t i o n . 35

The four steps identified by Lederach 36 are simple enough: telling the truth, forgiving but not forgetting, doing justice and building peace. They are described in more detail in A p p e n d i x 3 , together with Cohens 4 types of Denial. It seems we need to find a balance of energies undoing the shackles of colonialism and at the same time seizing opportunities for imagining and forming new relationships between the first peoples of this land and the rest of us; the newcomers.

35 36

Havemann. John Paul Lederach, Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies (1997). karenVsandon.FINE.ART www.karenvsandon.com.au karen@karenvsandon.com.au page 14 of 23

The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

Conclusion
Fiona Foleys work has consistently demonstrated an educative vocation. Foley, like Gordon Bennett, Tracey Moffatt, Trevor Nikolls, Bindi Cole and many other Aboriginal artists has proudly and strongly continued to make work which offers non-Aboriginal Australians opportunities to engage with and learn the harsh facts and continuing implications of our colonial history. In doing so an opportunity is offered to non-Aboriginal Australians to step up and pursue a more equal postcolonial future.

It seems clear that some sections of contemporary Australia have moved some way down a postcolonial path. It seems equally true that there is much more to do across the board, and in particular much more to do within the structure of the Art Industry. Given the great personal and collective costs of colonisation, it is up to us to listen, to acknowledge the unpalatable past and current truths in our own artworks and families, take up our individual responsibilities to redress colonial remnants, and challenge neocolonialism wherever we find it.

'...the linchpin for Aboriginal people-as in 1988-is still the airing and addressing of Australia's full history,warts and all.'
37

Foley has indeed pursued postcolonialism as an artist, an advocate for her people, and an elder to non-Aboriginal Australians interested in a collaborative future. As her audience and colleagues have become more informed, so too her work continues to evolve becoming both more subtle and more direct. In recent years Foley has developed international networks and supporters; she has exhibited and formed collaborations with
37 Fiona Foley, Djon Mundine, and Museum of Contemporary Art (Sydney N.S.W.), Tyerabarrbowaryaou : I Shall Never Become a White Man (Sydney: Museum of Contemporary Art, 1992). P4 Transcript of recording by Ivan Neville karenVsandon.FINE.ART www.karenvsandon.com.au karen@karenvsandon.com.au page 15 of 23

The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

artists in a number of countries. Foley and her contemporaries show us in their artworks and in the lives they live that Aboriginal Australia can no longer be assumed or expected to be simply an other to the nonAboriginal neocolonialist agenda; Aboriginal leaders will establish a strong worldly contemporary future with their contemporaries and families.

It is to be hoped that non-Aboriginal Australians will collaborate to pursue the same.

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The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

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Ni col l , Fi ona. "Whi te Abori gi nes : Identi ty Pol i ti cs i n Aus tral i an Art." Postcolonial Studies 3, no. 1 (2000): 111-117. ________. "No Substitut e: Polit ical Art against the Opiate of the Colonising Art, Uni v ers i ty of Queens l and Art Mus eum, 2 0 0 9 .

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The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

Appendices
List of appendices Appendix 1! Appendix 2! Appendix 3! Appendix 4! Denitions Timelines Steps to arrive at reconciliation cited works

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Appendix 1
Definitions

Colonialism
Djon Mundine:
Colonisation , I t hink, rolls in a progression, so-called explorers and cursory meetings and exchanges, followed by violent interactions and power assertions. Then we have assimilation by moralizing Christian missionaries of dif fering denominations, acting as agents and intermediaries of the state, who set out their own colonial spheres of influence. Now we have wester n capitalist hegemony b l a n k e t i n g a l l w i t h t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n 38

Oxford Dictionary:

1 . re l a t i n g t o o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a c o l o n y o r c o l o n i e s : B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l r u l e c o l o n i a l expansion noun 1 a n a t i v e o r i n h a b i t a n t o f a c o l o n y : a re b e l l i o n b y D u t c h - s p e a k i n g c o l o n i a l s

Macquarie Dictionary:

adjective 1 . o f o r re l a t i n g t o a c o l o n y o r c o l o n i e s . 2 . o f o r re l a t i n g t o a c o l o n i s t : p a t e r n a l i s m i s s o m e t h i n g d e m a n d e d b y t h e c o l o n i a l outlook. 3. a . re l a t i n g t o t h e s i x B ri t i s h c ol on i e s i n Au s t ra l i a b e f ore t h e y f e d e ra t e d i n 1 9 0 1 , or t o t h e i r p e ri od . b . re l a t i n g t o t h e t h i rt e e n B ri t i s h c ol on i e s w h i c h b e c a m e t h e Un i t e d S t a t e s of Am e ri c a , or t o t h e i r p e ri od . 4.inferior; second-rate; uncultivated: colonial jam; colonial manners. 5. Ecology forming a colony. 6 . ( u p p e r c a s e ) Arc h i t e c t u re o f o r re l a t i n g t o t h e a rc h i t e c t u re o f a c o l o n i a l p e r i o d , i n Au s t ra l i a e s p e c i a l l y t h e e a rl i e r c ol on i a l p e ri od i n w h i c h t h e p ri n c i p a l i n f l u e n c e s w e re f rom E n g l i s h G e or g i a n a n d t h e w i d e - v e ra n d a h e d I n d i a n b u n g a l ow ; i n t h e US , a s i m p l i f i c a t i on of t e n of c on t e m p ora ry E n g l i s h s t y l e s , a s

Djon Mundine, "Same but Different: Things That Matter," in Australian Aboriginal Art: a reading group, ed. Institute of postcolonial studies (http://aboriginalartreadinggroup.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/djon-mundinelecture-same-but-different-things-that-matter/: the institute of postcolonial studies, 2012). karenVsandon.FINE.ART www.karenvsandon.com.au karen@karenvsandon.com.au page 25 of 23
38

Appendices

The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley. t h e Q u e e n An n e , a n d t h e i r t ra n s l a t i on i n t o n e w m a t e ri a l s ( b ri c k , w ood , etc.). noun 7.an inhabit ant of a colony, especially one who upholds the values for med i n t h e c ol on y ra t h e r t h a n t h e v a l u e s of t h e m ot h e r c ou n t ry . phrase 8.my colonial (oath), Obsolete an exclamation indicating emphatic a g re e m e n t or a s s e rt i on .

Oxford English Dictionary Online


2. The colonial system or principle. Now freq. used in the derogatory sense of an a l l e g e d p o l i c y o f e x p l o i t a t i o n o f b a c k w a rd o r w e a k p e o p l e s b y a l a r g e p o w e r.

Wiki: from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonialism (accessed 25 June 2012)


Colonialism is the establishment, maintenance, acquisition and expansion of c olonies in one territory by people from another territory. It is a process whereby the metropo le claims s o v e re i g n t y over the colony, and the s o c i a l s t r u c t u re, gover nment, and economics of the colony are changed by colonizers from the metropole. Colonialism is a set of unequal relationships between the metropole a n d t h e c o l o n y a n d b e t w e e n t h e c o l o n i s t s a n d t h e i n d i g e n o u s p o p u l a t i o n. [ 1 ] The 2006 Sta nf ord Encyclopedia of Philosophy "uses the ter m 'colonialism' to d e s c r i b e t h e p ro c e s s o f E u ro p e a n s e t t l e m e n t a n d p o l i t i c a l c o n t ro l o v e r t h e re s t o f the world, including Americas, Australia, and parts of Africa and Asia." It discusses the distinction between colonialism and imperialism and states that "given the difficulty of consistently distinguishing between the two terms, this entry will use c olonialism as a broad concept t hat refers to the project of European political d o m i n a t i o n f ro m t h e s i x t e e n t h t o t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s t h a t e n d e d w i t h t h e national liberation movements of the 1960s.

Colonialism is a relat ionship between an indigenous (or forcibly imported) majority a n d a m i n o r i t y o f f o re i g n i n v a d e r s . T h e f u n d a m e n t a l d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g t h e l i v e s of the colonized people are made and implemented by the colonial rulers in p u r s u i t o f i n t e re s t s t h a t a re o f t e n d e f i n e d i n a d i s t a n t m e t ro p o l i s . R e j e c t i n g c u l t u r a l c ompromises wit h the colonized population, the colonizers are convinced of their own superiority and their ordained mandate to rule.

Post colonialism

From Institute of Postcolonial Studies: http://ipcs.org.au/about-ipcs/postcolonialism-and-ipcs

The aim of the Institute of Postcolonial Studies is to understand and undo the c ontinuing legacies of colonialism today: dispossession, displacement, racism, and i n t e rc u l t u r a l v i o l e n c e . I n p a r t i c u l a r, t h i s e n t a i l s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c p re s s u re s a n d c u l t u r a l p re j u d i c e s f a c e d b y i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s a n d i m p o v e r i s h e d c ommunities, supporting t hose facing the consequences of political upheaval and
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Appendices

The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley. v i o l e n c e , a n d g e n e r a t i n g d i a l o g u e a c ro s s w o r l d s o f c o n t i n u i n g a n d o f t e n p o s i t i v e c ultural dif ference.

From Wiki:
A s i ngl e, defi ni ti v e defi ni ti on of pos tcol oni al theory i s controv ers i al ; wri ters [ w h o ? ] have strongly criticized it as a concept embedded in i d e n t i t y p o l i t i c s. Postcolonial theory as epistemology, ethics, and politics addresses matters of identity, gender, race, racism and ethnicity with the challenges of developing a postc olonial national ident ity, of how a colonized people's knowledge was used a g a i n s t t h e m i n s e r v i c e o f t h e c o l o n i z e r ' s i n t e re s t s , a n d o f h o w k n o w l e d g e a b o u t the world is generated under specific relations between the power ful and the p o w e r l e s s , c i rc u l a t e d re p e t i t i v e l y a n d f i n a l l y l e g i t i m a t e d i n s e r v i c e t o c e r t a i n i m p e r i a l i n t e re s t s . [ citat ion needed ] At the same time, postcolonial theory encourages thought about the colonist's creative resistance to the colonizer and how that resistance complicates and gives texture to European imperial colonial p ro j e c t s , w h i c h u t i l i z e d a r a n g e o f s t r a t e g i e s , i n c l u d i n g a n t i - c o n q u e s t n a r r a t i v e s, to legitimize their dominance. The critical nature of postcolonial theory entails destabilizing We s t e r n w a y s o f thinking , therefore creating space for the s u b a l t e r n, or mar ginalized groups, to s p e a k a n d p ro d u c e a l t e r n a t i v e s t o d o m i n a n t d i s c o u r s e . O f t e n , t h e t e r m postcolonialism is taken literally, to mean the period of time after colonialism. This, however, is problematic because the once-colonized world is full of contradictions, of half -finished processes, of confusions, of hybridity , and l i m i n a l i t i e s .[ 3 ] In other words, it is important to accept the plural nature of the w o rd p o s t c o l o n i a l i s m , a s i t d o e s n o t s i m p l y re f e r t o t h e p e r i o d a f t e r t h e c o l o n i a l era.

Macquarie Dictionary Online:

a d j e c t i v e o f o r re l a t i n g t o a p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g c o l o n i a l i s m : p o s t c o l o n i a l l i t e r a t u re . postcoloniality, noun

Oxford English Dictionary Online

The fact or state of having for merly been a colony; the cultural condition of (a) post-colonial society.

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Appendices

The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

Neo colonialism
Oxford English Dictionary Online
The use of economic, political, cultural, or other pressures to control or influence a n o t h e r c o u n t r y ; e s p . t h e re t e n t i o n o f s u c h i n f l u e n c e o v e r a d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y b y a f o r m e r c o l o n i a l p o w e r.

Wiki:
Neocol oni al i s m i s the practi ce of us i ng capi tal i s m, gl obal i zati on, and cul tural forces to control a count ry (usually for mer European colonies in Africa or Asia) in l i e u o f d i re c t m i l i t a r y o r p o l i t i c a l c o n t ro l . S u c h c o n t ro l c a n b e e c o n o m i c , c u l t u r a l , or linguistic; by promoting one's own culture, language or media in the colony, c orporations embedded in that culture can then make greater headway in opening the markets in those countries.

Macquarie Online
n e o- c ol on i a l i s m noun. the control, especially political, by a power ful nation of a smaller one which is technically independent.

Cultural theory f rom: The Institute of Business Management via their online p re s e n c e a t http://www.scribd.com/doc/54533635/20/Other-approaches-to-the-conceptof-neocolonialism

One variant of neocolonialism theory critiques the existence ofcultural c olonialism, t he desire of wealthy nations to control other nations' values and p e rc e p t i o n s t h ro u g h c u l t u r a l m e a n s , s u c h a s m e d i a , l a n g u a g e , e d u c a t i o n a n d religion, ultimately for economic reasons. One element of this is a critique of "Colonial Mentality" which writers have traced w e l l b e y o n d t h e l e g a c y o f 1 9 t h c e n t u r y c o l o n i a l e m p i re s . T h e s e c r i t i c s a r g u e t h a t people, once subject to colonial or imperial rule, latch onto physical and cultural d i f f e re n c e s b e t w e e n t h e f o re i g n e r s a n d t h e m s e l v e s , l e a d i n g s o m e t o a s s o c i a t e p o w e r a n d s u c c e s s w i t h t h e f o re i g n e r s ' w a y s . T h i s e v e n t u a l l y l e a d s t o t h e foreigners' ways being regarded as the better way and being held in a higher esteem than previous indigenous ways. In much the same fashion, and with the s a m e re a s o n i n g o f b e t t e r - n e s s , t h e c o l o n i z e d m a y o v e r t i m e e q u a t e t h e c o l o n i z e r s race or ethnicity itself as being responsible for theirsuperiority. Cultural rejections of colonialism, such as the Negritude movement, or simply the embracing of s e e m i n g l y a u t h e n t i c l o c a l c u l t u re a re t h e n s e e n i n a p o s t c o l o n i a l w o r l d a s a necessary part of the struggle against domination. By the same reasoning, i m p o r t a t i o n o r c o n t i n u a t i o n o f c u l t u r a l m o re s o r e l e m e n t s f ro m f o r m e r c o l o n i a l p o w e r s m a y b e re g a rd e d a s a f o r m o f N e o c o l o n i a l i s m

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Appendices

The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

Appendix 2
Timelines

I have put these timelines together from a range of source. It has been an ongoing project over the past few years, fulfilling a need to see the Eurocentered art historical literature in a fuller Australian context visually. They are a work in progress, and feedback is welcomed.

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Appendices

The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

Appendix 3
4 Steps to Arrive at Reconciliation

Cohens 4 states of Denial Cohen describes four states of blindsight or denial: Blindsight, for instance as denial of the genocide of Indigenous peoples, comes in each of the forms Cohen identifies: literal and conscious denial no Indigenous massacres occurred; interpretive denial these were not massacres: they were the dispersal or transfer of the Indigenous population for their protection; or it was not official: it was private genocide, by settlers and rogue police; implicatory denial its not genocide: the forcible removal of children was aimed to give them the benefits of white civilization.39
Acknowledgment, the first step toward the remediation of atrocities,[2] involves cognition, emotion, morality and action. A c t i o n r e q u i r e s t h a t w e k n o w , r e m e m b e r, r e s c u e a n d d o j u s t i c e . 40

39 40

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The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

Appendix 4

Foleys cited works

4.1 list of cited works 4.2 kVs Reviewed Works Dispersed (2008) Witnessing to Silence (2004) Black Opium (2011) 4.3 Images of non-reviewed works

4.1 List of cited works (in the order cited in the paper)

Witnessing to Silence (2004) Black Opium (2011) Dispersed (2008) Forbidden (2009) Stud Gins (2003) Black Velvet I (1998) Black Velvet II (2002) Sea of Love (2007) Signposts (2006) Land Deal (1995) Lie of the Land (1997)

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Appendices

The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

4.2 kvs reviewed works

Witnessing to Silence (2004)

This installation is quietly engaging, from the massive house scale of the burnt ash plinths encased in stainless steel to the human scale of the reflective poppy water feature and the granite plinth inserts underfoot.

On first encounter the stately columns command attention. Like ancient monoliths of stone they engender memory and an unknown past: perhaps elders of time measured in eons. On closer inspection the tortured ash contrasts sharply with the clean industrial feel of the steel. The ash speaks to a more recent time; of tumult, fire and death.

The water feature tinkles slowly on the edge of hearing. Walking over for a closer look I notice the spaces between the striking verticals and the arching shape formed by the multi-height flower heads. Whilst the columns of the first sculpture invited exploration within the circle, here there is an
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The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

intimate boundary. I feel a strong resistance. This is a private circle; am I permitted entry? Respect demands not so I wander the outside, looking in. The past has left deep hurt and sorrow and grief; it is a private grief for a public violence. An historic cost still being weighed. Poppies, for remembrance, arching across time and experience; shared sorrow. The granite markers in the pavement speak of the unspeakable; the places of Queensland massacres, like headstones in an unnamed graveyard.

To make this work Foley had to use silence and deceit by omission. Commissioned to make a work reflective of pain and suffering caused by floods and fires, the Queensland Government wasnt told of the deeper meanings of colonialist murder and land theft until several months after the work had been installed. Foley feared that had she disclosed earlier, the commission would have been shelved.

The location of Witnessing to Silence outside the Brisbane Magistrates

court speaks also to the inability of Government law to protect Aboriginal Australians in the past or the present.

The work is elegant, provocative, and beautiful. As is usual with Foleys work, for those engaged enough to sit with it, the work is deeply educational and reflective. Hopefully those passing it everyday on their way to work, and those waiting outside for justice will join that growing group of those who are more informed and more engaged.

'One of the best examples of the use of silence as a weapon against silencing-so that Indigenous knowledge and experience can be reproduced and history re-told-is no doubt the story behind Fiona's public sculpture 'Witnessing to S i l e n c e ' . . . . ' 41

41

Tamisari. karenVsandon.FINE.ART

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Black Opium (2011)


Much of Foleys work lends itself to multiple readings. This work is no exception. This work is, however, offers more than most in its sheer size and scope, aside from the gravitas of individual pieces. The work consists of a suite of 7 separate small rooms offering reflection on specific aspects of the B l a c k O p i u m material, plus the major sculpture in the entrance foyer.

The main sculpture in B l a c k O p i u m (2011) is an infinity of seven hundred and seventy seven poppy seed pods hanging down from the ceiling of the Queensland State Library. A first encounter from the ground level yields a clear view of a simple infinity; a statement of strength, endurance and time-less-ness. Given the placement in the State Library con cannot
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The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

escape a reference to the endurance of knowledge and perhaps of the establishment as its represented by the State Library, as well.

The longer gaze begins to reveal detail in the individual elements working together to form the symbol. Eventually, after reading or perhaps moving closer, the separate poppy seed head formations are revealed: enjoyment at the fine detail in each poppy. Delight at the whimsy (as it seems on first encounter) and curiosity about the bigger message; the infinite poppy? Perpetual substance dependency? An infinity repetition of the seed pod / seed / plant / flower / death / seed pod cycle?

Once the artist is known the extra layers of politics become evident. Without any knowledge of the Restriction of the Sale of Opium act, the message about drugs and dependency and the state is clear. Even within the known area, Foleys work is ambiguous. She offers an opportunity for

viewers to work harder - to find other meanings. B l a c k O p i u m has been written about as an encounter with control by the state in the lives of

Aboriginal and Chinese peoples. This act was the first law in Australia that

was drafted to treat one specific group differently; it was the beginning of legalised racism in Australia. This discussion is current in the contemporary legal context as one of the major issues underpinning the push for constitutional change.

Looking still further, the opium infinity can be read to offer contemporary

Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians an opportunity to reflect more

broadly on dependency, drugs, the state and the future; because infinity IS future-focussed. B l a c k O p i u m s infinity asks us so thats the past, what future are we seeking. Foley is both challenging us and offering clues as to how to find a postcolonial future - d i f f e r e n t from our past.

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Appendices

The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

Dispersed (2008)

As I enter the Australian Aboriginal section of the National Gallery of Australia I am confronted by a quiet but deadly work. Foleys D i s p e r s e d (2008) is strong, and clear. The text based work makes a monument of the English word Dispersed, underscoring this by use of bullets.

capital letters, and the first letter being covered in pointed out .303 calibre

Without shouting or berating the viewer with the consequences of direct violence, the threat implicit in the placement of the bullets is sufficient; bullets. At first the bullets were wielded by anglo-european soldiers to control the exiled. As they were granted land by the Arthur Phillip they children who had lived on the land and belonged to it for millenia.

Aboriginal people were dispersed from their lands at the hands of many

turned their bullets on the Aboriginal owners who resisted; men women and

The viewer cannot be untouched as they walk past this sculpture and its indictable fact.
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Appendices

The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley. Forbidden Stud Gins Black Velvet I Black Velvet II Sea of Love Signposts

Forbidden 2009

Stud Gins (2003)

Black Velvet I (1998)

Black Velvet II (2002)

Sea of Love (2007)

Signposts (2006)

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Appendices

The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley. Lie of the Land

4.3 Images of Non Reviewed works Lie of the Land (1997)

Land Deal (1995)


Land Deal
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Fiona FOLEY

Badtjala people Maryborough, Queensland, Australia born 1964

Land deal [Land deal] 1995

flour, mixed media, found objects, text diameter 442.0 h cm Purchased 1995 Accession No: NGA 95.1012.1-9

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The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

Notes from Appendicies


Foley, Fiona. Black Opium, Edited by State Library of Queensland: State Library of Queensland, 2012. Havemann, Paul. "Denial, Modernity and Exclusion: Indigenous Placelessness in Australia." Macquarie Law Journal 2005, no. MqLJ4 (2005). Healy, Chris. "Fiona Foley Silent Witness?" (2003). http://www.anu.edu.au/hrc/research/ WtoS/Healy.pdf [accessed Fri 22 June 2012].

Tamisari, Franca. "Quiet Waters That Abrade the Bridges: New Forms of Visibility in Fiona Foley's Art." In Fiona Foley : Forbidden. Sydney: Museum of Contemporary Art, University of Queensland Art Museum, 2009.

3500 +/- 350 = between 3150 - 3850 3845

Criteria for Marking:

Evidence of thoughtful consideration of the topic/ originality of response; Critical consideration of what has been written (and perhaps said) about the topic; critical use of research material Depth of research; documentation of sources Flow of argument/convincingness of case Use of examples to support argument C l a r i t y o f e x p r e s s i o n , s p e l l i n g a n d g r a m m a r
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Appendices

Mundine, Djon. "Same but Different: Things That Matter." In Australian Aboriginal Art: a reading group, edited by Institute of postcolonial studies, June 2012, Lecture. http:// aboriginalartreadinggroup.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/djon-mundine-lecture-samebut-different-things-that-matter/: the institute of postcolonial studies, 2012.

The pursuit of postcolonialism in Australia and the contribution to that in the works of Fiona Foley.

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