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Cluster: Measurement

reasoning mathematically

contextualising mathematics

Geometry

Geometry is the study of spatial patterns. Geometry allows architects, surveyors and engineers to represent the world around us and to design structures and spaces. Your work in geometry needs to be very careful and precise, because small errors in a plan on paper can lead to disastrous effects when transferred to real life!

Polygons

There are many shapes dened in geometry. Two-dimensional shapes are made up of straight lines and smooth curves.

SkillBuilder SP 2.1

Polygons have three or more straight sides. Polygons are regular when all the sides are equal in length and the interior angles are all equal. The rst eight regular polygons are shown below.

3 sides

4 sides

5 sides

6 sides

Equilateral triangle

Square

Pentagon

Hexagon

7 sides

8 sides

9 sides

10 sides

Heptagon

Octagon

Nonagon

Decagon

Irregular polygons do not have sides of equal length and interior angles that are all equal. The following shapes are irregular polygons. There are many others.

Isosceles triangle

Parallelogram

Rhombus

Trapezium

Skillsheet 4.1

a b

Degrees in a circle The number of degrees in turning one complete circle is 360.

360 c a + b + c = 180 c

a + b + c = 180

154

Alternate angle formed by a straight line crossing a pair of parallel lines are equal.

Corresponding angles formed by a straight line crossing a pair of parallel lines are equal.

SkillBuilder SP 1.1

Angles in a quadrilateral Angles in an isosceles triangle The interior angles in any The angles opposite the equal four-sided polygon total 360. sides in an isosceles triangle are equal.

a b

a b d

a + b = 180

a + b + c + d = 360

Worked examples 1

1 Find the total of all the interior angles in any pentagon.

Solution

First, draw a pentagon (5 sides). Second, join one corner (vertex) to each opposite corner to form three triangles. (Draw in the diagonals.) Total of all interior angles of pentagon = 3 (interior angles of a triangle) = 3 180 = 540 2 Find the value of the pronumerals (letters) in each polygon.

x 82 b a

1

c

120 y

Solution

a The triangle has two equal sides. So it is isosceles, which gives x = y Angle sum of a triangle = 180 So x + y + 82 = 180 x + x + 82 = 180 2x + 82 = 180 2x = 98 x = 49 = y

b Angles in quadrilateral = 360 So a + b + c + 120 = 360 Shape is parallelogram. So a = 120 opposite angles b =c opposite angles The equation becomes 120 + b + b + 120= 360 2b = 120 b = 60 = c

GEOMETRY

155

CHAPTER 4

3x f x 2x y a 30 d c e b 120 g

Solution

a Angles in triangle = 180 So x + 3x + 2x = 180 6x = 180 x = 30 And 2x + y forms a straight line. So 2x + y = 180 60 + y = 180 y = 120

straight angle

Exercise 4.1

1 Find the total of all the interior angles in each named shape. a regular octagon b hexagon c decagon 2 Find the size of the equal interior angles in: a a regular octagon b a regular hexagon 3 Find the values of the pronumerals. a b

Worksheet 4.1

c a regular pentagon c

a b c a 54

92 63 a

70

g d f e

84

50 55 a

52 60

156

g

c 140 b a

h

60 a 50 c b d

Worksheet 4.6

94

65

43

86

120

40 36 a b c a a

Worksheet 4.7

27

100 a

h

32 a

3x

j

x

2x

x 2x

3x 4x

2x x 3x x

GEOMETRY

157

CHAPTER 4

2x + 30

Worksheet 4.4

c

x x 2x 60

2x + 30 x

d

x + 10 3x + 40 2x 20

2x + 50

10x 20

3x 20

6x

g

3x 60

3x + 10

3x 40

2x + 30

x + 30

3x 20

i

a

b d

e c e f c a 20 d b 150 f

158

6 Find the relationship between the number of sides and the sum of the degrees inside a polygon. a Sketch some polygons and draw in the diagonals to split them into triangles. b Copy and complete the following table.

Shape Triangle Quadrilateral Pentagon Hexagon Heptagon Octagon Nonagon Decagon No. of sides, S No. of triangles Sum of interior angles of polygon, D

Worksheet 4.2

c State the relationship: D = d Predict the number of degrees inside a polygon with: i 12 sides ii 20 sides iii 36 sides e How many sides has a polygon with the sum of its interior angles equal to: i 2160? ii 5760? 7 Find the value of the pronumerals in each diagram. a b g f

80 e d a 30 Rhombus b c a Isosceles triangle b

Worksheet 4.3

c

b

c

Regular hexagon

d

b a Regular pentagon c

e

b

Worksheet 4.5

a Regular octagon

a c

d c

Homework SP 3.1

GEOMETRY

159

CHAPTER 4

Geometric constructions

Careful use of a compass and knowledge of geometry have enabled artists and designers to create many interesting designs. This hands-on skill has been replaced to a certain degree by the use of technology such as Geometers Sketchpad and Cabri Geometry. Attempt both forms of geometric construction, using a hands-on and a technological approach.

Skillsheet 4.2

Worked examples 2

1 Bisecting an angle (dividing an angle in two) Step 1: With O as centre and a suitable radius, draw an arc to mark A and B.

O B

A B

Step 2: With A as centre draw an arc. With B as centre draw an arc of the same radius that cuts the previous arc at C.

O

B

2

C C C

C

Symbol for 90

A B A B A E B

Step 1: With centre A (one end of the line segment), draw arcs of the same circle above and below the line. Step 2: With centre B (the other end of the line segment), draw arcs with the same radius as before to cut the previous two arcs at C and D. Step 3: Join CD, marking point E, the centre of AB. Then AE = BE and CD AB.

160

Working mathematically

Reasoning mathematically

Geometric constructions: bisectors

The perpendicular bisectors of the sides and angles of a triangle have some interesting properties. You can do these constructions using compass and straight edge, but it is more fun to use an interactive geometry program such as Geometers Sketchpad or Cabri Geometry.

Construction 1

Step 1: Draw a triangle and label it ABC. Step 2: Construct the perpendicular bisectors of sides AB and BC. (In Geometers Sketchpad you will need to nd the midpoint of the side rst.) Step 3: Construct the point of intersection of the perpendicular bisectors and label it O. Step 4: Construct a circle with centre O and radius OA. Step 5: Construct the perpendicular bisector of side AC. 1 What do you notice about the circle you have drawn? 2 Do all three bisectors meet at point O? 3 Do point O and the circles change in a signicant way when you drag a vertex or side of ABC? 4 The circle is called the ex-circle, out-circle or circumcircle, and point O is called the ex-centre, out-centre or circumcentre of the triangle. Explain. 5 Can you explain why this construction produces the ex-centre?

Investigation 4.2 4.1

Investigation 4.1

O A C

Investigation 4.1

Construction 2

Step 1: Draw another triangle and label it PQR. Step 2: Construct the bisectors of PQR and RPQ. Step 3: Construct the point of intersection of the two angle bisectors and label it O. Step 4: Use the drawing tool to draw a circle centre O that just touches the sides of the triangle. Step 5: Construct the bisector of QRP. 6 What do you notice about the circle you have drawn? 7 Do all three bisectors meet at point O? 8 Do point O and the circles change in a signicant way when you drag a vertex or side of PQR? 9 The circle is called the in-circle, and point O is called the in-centre of the triangle. Explain. 10 Can you explain why this construction produces the in-centre? Extension 11 Find the radius of the in-circle of the isosceles triangle with sides 10 cm, 10 cm and 4 cm.

Q

Investigation 4.2

O R P

GEOMETRY

161

CHAPTER 4

Exercise 4.2

Geometric constructions

1 a Draw any three angles of different sizes. b Use a pencil, ruler and compass to bisect each angle. c Check your accuracy by folding along the bisector line just constructed. You are accurate if the original arms of the angles you drew lie exactly on top of each other after folding. 2 a Draw a large triangle on a page. b Bisect each of the three angles. c Using the intersection point of the bisectors as the centre of the circle, use a compass to draw a circle that just touches the sides of the triangle. d Label the centre of the circle as the in-centre. Steps 24 3 Construct a regular hexagon. Step 1: Draw a circle of any size. Keep your compass equal to the radius for all the following steps. D Step 2: Start your compass point anywhere on the circle, say A. Draw an arc cutting the circle and call this point B. Step 3: Start your compass point at B, draw another arc and call it C. Step 5 Step 4: Keep going around the circle until you return to A. You should have six equally spaced points around the circle. Step 5: Use a ruler to draw the hexagon. D

C B

E C B

4 Construct an equilateral triangle in a circle. Start the same way as for drawing a hexagon, but use only three points around the circle. An equilateral triangle has sides of equal length. Measure them with a ruler to make sure. 5 a Construct any large triangle with sides longer than 6 cm. b Use a compass and ruler to draw the perpendicular bisector of each side. c Using the point of intersection of the bisectors as the centre, draw a circle that just touches the vertices of the triangle. (The circle is said to circumscribe the triangle.) d Label the centre of the circle as the circumcentre. 6 The centroid of a triangle is where the centre of mass is located. This is the point where the triangle is balanced. a Step 1: Draw a triangle of any size on a piece of cardboard. Step 2: Find the middle of each side of the triangle. Mark the points A, B and C. Step 3: Draw a line from each corner to the corresponding opposite point A, B or C. These lines are called the medians. They should all meet at one point called the centroid. Step 4: Cut the triangle out and balance it with your nger placed at the centroid, or use a thumbtack to pin your triangle to a noticeboard at the centroid.

162

b Pin your triangle to the noticeboard through a point anywhere inside the triangle and not at the centroid. Explain what happens. 7 Construct a square inside a circle. Step 1: Draw a circle with a radius bigger than 4 cm. Step 2: Start your compass point anywhere on the circle, say A. Draw three equally spaced arcs on the circle at B, C and D with the compass open to the radius of the circle. Step 3: Adjust your compass, with the point at A and the pencil tip at C, and draw a larger arc through C, outside the circle. Step 4: Repeat with the point at D and the pencil tip at B, and draw a larger arc through B, outside the circle. Call the point where the larger arcs cross, E. Step 5: Draw a line through O and E, and extend it to cut the other side of the circle. Step 6: Draw the square by joining points A and D to the two points where the line through OE cuts the circle. Check that each side has the same length. Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5

A B O C D D O C D A B O C D A B E O C A B E

8 Construct an octagon inside a circle. Step 1: Draw a circle of any size. Start the same way as for drawing a square to locate points A and B below, which are corners of the square next to each other.. Step 2: With radius AB, draw two large arcs, one centred at A and the other centred at B, so the arcs cross at C and D. Step 3: Draw a line through C and D. Label the point E where the line crosses the circle. Step 4: Adjust your compass to the length AE. This is the width of each side of the octagon. Step 5: Start from A and move around the circle, making eight arcs. Step 6: Draw the octagon and check that each side is the same length. Step 1

A

Steps 23

D A E B C

Steps 56

A E

GEOMETRY

163

CHAPTER 4

Appreciating mathematics

Contextualising mathematics

Islamic designs

Investigation 4.3

The Islamic rules on art were collected in the Hadith, a ninth-century text. Islamic art derives its unique style from combining the arts of the Byzantines, the Copts, the Romans and the Sassanids. Islam believes in the balance and harmony of all things in existence. One of the vital beliefs is that the totality of things, all good and evil, proceed from the Lord of all being.

Investigation 4.3

There are strict rules against depicting humans or animals, which might result in idol worship, so an art form developed that was based on geometric designs and calligraphy, which are often interwoven. Geometric patterns appear in architecture and interiors to organise space and to beautify the environment. All patterns reect the pure beauty of numbers, considered to be of divine origin. By their very nature, geometric patterns show variation and order as expressions of unity which is an attribute of God. Islamic geometric designs are constructed with skillful use of ruler and compass, skills that you now have. Interactive geometry enables you to be exact with your constructions. The design shown to the right is a decoration from the Idris Shah mosque, Malaysia. Source: http://libraries.mit.edu/rvc/aka/ agakhan/aka_fm_archcomp.html

Construction

This Islamic design starts with the drawing of a square. Step 1: Use axes and a grid to draw a 6 cm square. Step 2: Construct a point at the centre of each side and construct the diagonals of the square. Step 3: Construct a circle with centre at the intersection of the two diagonals and with the side midpoints on the circumference. Step 4: Continue to construct the gure shown to the right. 1 Are there other patterns you could have drawn using the construction lines? 2 Can you tessellate the pattern you have drawn?

164

Similar triangles

Similar gures have the same shape. Angles that occupy corresponding positions are equal. The ratio of corresponding sides is equal. The symbol is used to identify similarity.

Condition 1 (AAA) PQR CDE because the corresponding angles in the triangles are equal.

R P C

E D Q

Condition 2 (SSS) XYZ KMN because the ratios of corresponding sides are equal (all three pairs): XY YZ XZ 1 -------- = --------- = -------- = -KM MN KN 4 The ratio is the scale factor. Side lengths in the large triangle are four times those in the small triangle. Condition 3 (SAS) RST ~ DEW because the pairs of sides making the equal angles are in equal ratio: R = D = 42 RT 13.5 --------- = --------- = 2.5 5.4 DW RS 8 ------- = ------ = 2.5 DE 3.2 The scale factor is 2.5. What do AAA, SSS and SAS stand for?

X 4 3 Z 2.5 Y N R 42 13.5 8 12

16

10

D 5.4

42 3.2 E

W T S

Worked examples 3

1 Are PZY and DEF similar?

P 72 33 Z

D

33

Solution

75 F

Y = 75 and D = 72 Hence the triangles have corresponding angles equal. So PZY is similar to DEF (or PZY DEF).

GEOMETRY

3

E

165

CHAPTER 4

A 15.3 8.9

3.6

19.25

Solution

Ratios of corresponding sides are equal. AC AB ------- = ------So EK EN 8.9 15.3 ------ = --------3.6 x 8.9 x = 15.3 3.6 15.3 3.6 x = -----------------------8.9 = 6.188 Length of EN 6.2 correct to 1 decimal place

Exercise 4.3

Similar triangles

1 Solve the following equations for x (correct to 2 decimal places). x 40 x 14.4 x 1.2 a -- = ----b ------ = --------c ------ = -----6.2 3.8 2.8 0.7 5 12 20 x 4 5 33.6 0.8 d ----- = -e -- = ----f --------- = -----x 0.3 34 5 x 11 3.5 4.5 13.6 x 18.3 38.1 g ------ = -----h --------- = --------i --------- = --------1.5 x 18.8 10.2 x 26.5 2 The triangles in each pair are similar. Find the ratio of corresponding sides or scale factor in each case. a

A 12 B X 1.5

b

Y 1.7 11.2 10.7 58.24 55.64

13.6

4.5 23.4

d

4.05 14.8 11.4

15.2

26.1

23.68

166

3 Give the reason or condition and identify the similar triangles in each group of three. Diagrams are not drawn to scale.

D

Z 44 46 Y

X 89 45 R

89

46 F

T D

b

P

Q 110 11 M N S M 41.5

12

110 16.5

S 6 F 110 U 8.25

c

A 64

9.2

T C 64 Y 26

4.6

4 Find the missing lengths, marked by pronumerals, in these pairs of similar triangles. R K a b E 15

15 R 3.5 5.6 P 3.2 y 32.5 N k B 529.2 A E a f Y 28.6 19.3 y 412.6 T 21.46 W M 5.8 A T 15 M E 550 A 112 H x D 273 Y t 15

d

Z

97.5

7.2 S x 3.3 T y M 6.4 N P 8.8 23 y x

A M

PA = 25

AC = 16

PC = 19

BC = 3

GEOMETRY

167

CHAPTER 4

T 6.1 H 11.6

7.8 C 4.3

d

T a N

K Y

KN TN KP TY

B x

NT AN AC AT

6 Mary places a mirror on the ground. She bobs down until she can see the top of a chimney in the mirror. Her eyes are 65 cm above ground level at this point. If Mary is 2 m from the mirror and the chimney is known to be 56 m high, how far is she from the base of the chimney?

56 m 0.65 m 2m

7 Jack can throw a cricket ball 87 m. Can he throw a cricket ball over the river? He has made the measurements shown in the diagram.

7.5 m 6.4 m

Fence post

Rock River 95 m

Scale factors

Enlargement and reduction

A scale factor is the value that describes the size of the change in length measurements when a shape is increased in size (enlarged) or made smaller (reduced). Scale factor of 3 means the original lengths have increased to three times their starting size. - Scale factor of 1 means the original lengths have decreased to a quarter of their starting size.

4

When a shape is enlarged or reduced in size, many of its properties remain constant. For instance, angles remain the same, lines remain parallel, and the ratios between sides of the shape remain in proportion. Properties that change are length, area and volume measurements.

168

Worked examples 4

1 Enlarge the shape ABCD by a factor of 2. Calculate the area of ABCD and of the enlarged shape ABCD.

A

Area of ABCD = 6 units2 Area of ABCD = 24 units2 Area has increased 4 or 22 times.

Solution

D -2 Reduce the shape ABCD by a factor of 1 , 3 and compare the areas of the two shapes.

4

B C D 7.2

Solution

Any one of the green shapes -shows ABCD reduced by a factor of 1 .

3

Notice that the angles are not changed and corresponding sides are parallel. Area of ABCD = 63 units2 Area of green shape = 7 units2

3 Two clay paving stones are shown. a Find the volume of each paver. b Find the enlargement factor from the 1.5 smaller to the larger paving stone. c How many times larger is the volume of the large paver than the volume of the small one?

2.5 A 1.8 6

10 B

Solution

a Volume of paver A = 1.5 2.5 1.8 = 6.75 units3 Volume of paver B = 6 10 7.2 = 432 units3 b Enlargement factor = ratio of corresponding side measures 6 7.2 10 = ------ = ------ = ------ = 4 1.5 1.8 2.5 432 c The volume of paver B is --------- or 64 times larger than the volume of paver A. 6.75

GEOMETRY

169

CHAPTER 4

4 a On isometric (triangular) dot paper, draw shapes that are exactly two times the size of the originals. b Compare surface areas and volumes for shape B. A B

Solution

a A B

b For shape B: Scale factor k Original volume Enlarged volume Original surface area Enlarged surface area =2 = 4 units3 = 32 units3, which is 8 times larger. = 18 units2 = 72 units2, which is 4 times (or k2) larger.

Exercise 4.4

Scale factors

1 For each shape below, using square grid paper: i enlarge the shape by the factor (k) given ii nd the area of the original shape iii nd the area of the enlarged shape enlarged shape area iv nd the value of the ratio ---------------------------------------------original shape area a b c

k=3

k=2

k = 1.5

170

2 Reduce each shape by the given scale factor. How many times smaller is the reduced area compared with the original area in each case? a k=

1 -4

b k=

1 -3

c k=

2 -3

3 Find the scale factor that was used to transform (change) the left-hand shape into the right-hand shape in each case. (Diagrams are not drawn to scale.) a

8 11 24 33 85 210 17 42

c

19 17 4.75 h 3.5 14

d

8.5 12.2 78.2 112.24 6.552

0.42

f

57.78 1926

g

35.28

10.8

69.66 11.5

x

4.3 9.89

x

12.6

GEOMETRY

171

CHAPTER 4

4 a Find the enlargement factor to change shape ABCD into shape ABCD. b Find the area of each shape. c How many times bigger is the area of ABCD compared to the area of ABCD?

y 10 D

5 A

C B

10

5 For each transformation in question 3, work out how many times the area of the shape on the right is bigger or smaller than the area of the shape on the left. 6 On isometric dot paper, redraw each of the following solids after it has been transformed by the scale factor shown. -a k=1 b k=2 c k= 1

2 y z z z y y

d k=3

y z

e k=

z

1 -2 y

x x

7 For each of the solids a, b and d shown in question 6, calculate its volume and surface area before and after the transformation. 8 a Copy and complete the following table for the sequence of cubes on the next page.

Cube Surface area Volume A B C D

172

z y x

z y

C

z

y

D

z y

b Calculate the value of surface area volume for each cube. c What can you conclude about the ratio of surface area to volume as the size of the cube increases? 9 a A cube has a side length of 4 cm. A second cube has a side length of 18 cm. How many times larger is the volume of the big cube than the volume of the small cube? b Give the dimensions of a box whose volume is 27 times smaller than the volume of a box measuring 12 cm 18 cm 27 cm. c The area of a circle is given by the formula A = r2. Two circles have areas of 49.5 cm2 and 153.7 cm2. Find the scale factor that enlarges the small circle to the larger one. 10 Copy and complete these tables. a

Enlargement factor 4 25 times original 2.5 343 times original 136.89 times original Area change Volume change

Reduction factor

Area change

Volume change

1 -- of original 8

Homework SP 3.7

GEOMETRY

173

CHAPTER 4

Working mathematically

Reasoning mathematically

Circle properties

In these tasks you will use an interactive geometry program to investigate the relationships between angles, arcs, chords, secants and tangents in circles.

Task A: Chords

Investigation 4.4

Investigation 4.4

C Step 1: Draw a circle and place any four points on the circumference. Step 2: Label the points C, D, E and F, and join them in order with line segments. The segments are called chords F and the shape is called a cyclic quadrilateral. Step 3: Measure the lengths of the chords and the angles between the chords. Step 4: Drag the points around the circle and observe your measurements.

1 What do you notice about the longest chord you can draw? 2 What do you notice about the opposite angles of the quadrilateral? Step 5: Construct the perpendicular bisectors of the chords. 3 What do you notice about the perpendicular bisectors?

Task B: Angles

Investigation 4.5

Investigation 4.5

Step 1: Draw a circle and place any three points C, D and E on the circumference. Step 2: Draw line segments to join C and D to the centre A, and then join E to both C and D. Step 3: Measure CAD and CED. Step 4: Drag the points C, D and E around the circle, observing what happens to the sizes of the angles. 1 What is the size of CED when CAD = 180? 2 What relationship is there between CAD and CED? 3 Can you prove that your relationship must be true? 4 Can CAD be greater than 180? Step 5: Place another point F on the arc between E and D. Step 6: Join CF and DF and measure CFD. 5 What relationship is there between CED and CFD? 6 Can you prove why your relationship is true?

A C D

E F

A C D

Investigation 4.6

Investigation 4.6

Step 1: Draw a circle with centre A and point B on the circumference. Step 2: Construct radius AB. Step 3: Place another point C on the circumference of the circle and draw a line through B and C. This line is called a secant. Step 4: Measure ABC.

B A

174

Step 5: Drag C around the circle towards B. 1 What happens to ABC as C gets closer to B? 2 What is the size of ABC when C almost coincides with B? 3 How can you use this to draw a tangent to a circle? (A tangent is a straight line that just touches the circle but does not enter it.) Step 6: Use the method from question 3 to construct two tangents to a circle that are perpendicular to A the radii AC and AB. Step 7: Mark their point of intersection D, and construct C B the segment AD. 4 What conjectures do you make about the gure ABDC? 5 Test your conjectures by changing the positions of points B and C. 6 Can you prove your conjectures?

D

Extension 7 Devise a method for constructing two or more circles with the same tangent. 8 Devise a method for constructing a tangent given a circle and a point external to the circle.

Circles

A circle is the simplest mathematical curve. A circle is the locus (path traced out) of a point that moves on a at surface so that its distance from a xed point is constant. This distance is called the radius. There are several terms that are used to describe properties of the circle: diameter: a line from one side of the circle to the Chord other side, passing through the centre; chord: a line inside the circle, starting and ending eter Diam on the circle but not passing through the centre; tangent: a straight line that touches the outside of the circle at one point only; arc: part of the circle.

Arc

SkillBuilder SP 1.13

Radius

n Tange

Tangents to a circle

The angle between the tangent and radius at the point of contact is always 90 (a right angle).

Ta n ge

Tan g

nt

ent

n Tange

Radius

GEOMETRY

175

CHAPTER 4

For any point P outside the circle, two tangents to the circle can be drawn. The distance from P to each point of contact is equal.

X

PX = PY PXO = PYO = 90

Worked examples 5

1 Find the values of a and b.

O 70

Solution

Since OA is a radius and AB a tangent, A a = OAB = 90 So b = 20 as angle sum of a triangle is 180 2 Show that tangents to a circle from a common point are equal in length.

Y

OY = OZ radii OYX = OZX = 90 tangents OX is common to both triangles. Z So OYX and OZX are congruent. XY = XZ So corresponding sides Tangents to a circle from a common point are equal in length. 3 Find the value of the pronumeral in each diagram. a

B N

Solution

5

b B X

b

P

18 cm

k

A 70

PZ = 10 cm

O

C Z

Solution

-= 1 BAC = 35 2

So

176

radius =

1 -2

diameter

18

P 5 k N

Exercise 4.5

a

O

Tangents to a circle

b

Worksheet 4.8

O a

25

O 64 c

e d

O 50 m

120

e

5 cm g

O O 3 cm

48

8.5 cm

GEOMETRY

177

CHAPTER 4

3 a Find the perimeter of the triangle, given that: AB = 10 cm EC = 23 cm BC = 5.5 cm b Find FED, given that FOB = 130 and BCD = 42. 4 Find the straight-line distance between the centres of the two circles correct to 1 decimal place.

F

A B

O C D E

8 cm

0.8 cm

2.5

cm

3.5 cm

5 a b c d e f

Describe the line XB . If TY = 3 cm, name all other line segments equal to TY . If BR = 12.5 cm, nd the length of BX . Find PXQ. X Q P Find POT. If AY = 8 cm, nd length AT .

40 A 60 O 40 T Y R B

g If the radius of the circle is 4.5 cm, nd the distance AB correct to 1 decimal place. 6 An ice-cream cone has a 20 mm radius ball of ice-cream sitting inside it as shown. a Find the distance from the bottom of the ice-cream to the tip of the cone ( PH ). b Find the diameter of the opening of the cone ( RM ). c How far down the slant side of the cone does the ice-cream rst touch the cone ( RA )? Answer to the nearest millimetre in each case.

R M

20 m

m O

120 mm

7 A circus clown does a balancing trick on a roller and plank. When the trick is over, the plank rests with one end on horizontal ground and the other on the roller. Find the length of the plank (to the nearest centimetre) if RK = 22 cm, the radius of the roller is 10 cm and the distance OF is 45.1 cm. F

K R

178

An arc is part of a circle. Arcs are named by considering the angle made (or subtended) at the centre of the circle. A chord joins the endpoints of an arc. If the angle is less than 180, the arc is called a minor arc. If the angle equals 180, the arc is called a semicircle.

Semicircle 80 Minor arc 180 O

SkillBuilder SP 1.16

If the angle is greater than 180, the arc is called a major arc.

Angles formed by the arc in a circle have special properties: Property 1 All angles subtended by an arc at the circumference in the one segment are equal. In the diagram, from minor arc AB, BPA = BQA = BRA

A B

R Property 2 The angle subtended by an arc at the centre of the circle is twice an angle subtended by the same arc at the circumference. This is shown in the following series of diagrams. a O 2a A B X x O 2x Y S k N O 2k T O 2n n P

Minor arc AB

Minor arc XY

Major arc ST

Major arc NP

GEOMETRY

179

CHAPTER 4

Worked examples 6

1 Find the values of x and y.

x

26

Solution

AEB = ACB = ADB as they are all subtended by the same minor arc AB in the same segment. So x = y = 26 2 Find the values of x and y.

B

6

C D B D

300 b

O 70

Solution

ABC and AOC are both subtended by minor arc AC. So 2 ABC = AOC So 2x = 70 x = 35 Similarly 2 ADC = AOC So y = 35 3 Find the values of the pronumerals. a

a A b O 70 Q 120 P y

Solution

a AQ is a diameter of the circle. So AOQ = 180 -APQ = 1 AOQ

2

a = 90 QAP = 180 (90 + 70) angle sum of a triangle So b = 20 b a = 60 half angle at centre c b = 150 half angle at centre So

180

Exercise 4.6

60 a O e b 45 O d O 54

d

j

e

g O h 32 32 O f 72

f

50

O k

12w

c

x

O 36

13v O 52

O 20y 65

e

116 e O

O 216

210 O g

50 O a

c

35 240 O b b a c O 45

GEOMETRY

181

CHAPTER 4

d

a

e

28 b O 74 y x O

130 O y x

b O 30 O a O b 50

e

40 a O O a

f

a

a

c

c O 50 a e b d

O c b a

d

b a O c 60

a O c 30

f

b a O c

35

64

g

b

a 30

h

d c O 30 40 a O

O a

182

6 a A quadrilateral with all of its vertices lying on a circle is called a cyclic quadrilateral. Complete the lines of working using the diagram for assistance. 2a + 2b = angles at a point + = dividing both sides by 2 So the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral . b Complete the statements. i x+y= ii w + z = iii y = iv x + y + w + z =

w a

2a 2b

x z

85 105 z x p O q 100 y c a O 30 b O

c 120

e

112

f

88 y m

O x

g

b a

150 x

i

100 v

O 70

O y y

GEOMETRY

183

CHAPTER 4

8 Determine the values of the pronumerals in each of the following diagrams, giving reasons for your answers. a b c

d 85

Worksheet 4.11

c a

100

d

45 55 b O c a

e

b O a 140

f

b a O c

138

a b 30 O

h

b 88 28 O a c

i

c d a 60 O 25

Homework SP 3.3

If you look through your junk mail or the Yellow Pages of a telephone book, you will see that many company emblems or logos use circles in their design.

184

Chords, arcs, sectors and segments are all parts of the circle that can be used to construct designs. Remember: A chord is any line that joins two points on a circle. An arc is any part of the circumference of a circle. A sector is a slice of a circle formed by two radii and an arc. A cut along a chord of a circle will create a segment.

Segment

Chord Arc O

Sector

Exercise 4.7

You may like to use an interactive geometry package to complete this exercise. 1 What parts of the circle are shown in the following designs: that is, chords, arcs, sectors or segments? Construct each design and write a point form description of the steps you took. a b c

Geometers Sketchpad

Cabri Geometry

2 Construct your own design using: a only arcs b only chords c chords and arcs d chords and sectors Write a description in point form of the steps you took in each design. 3 a Often designs used for logos incorporate or are based on certain letters associated with the company. Which letters are these designs based on?

Worksheet 4.9

GEOMETRY

185

CHAPTER 4

b Create a circular logo using your initials: for example, Sonny Hoi.

4 Make an enlarged copy of the Hot Spring logo using a compass and ruler. Show the steps you took in a series of four or more slides with descriptions below them.

Step 1

Step 2

Drew a circle with radius 5 cm. Drew a diagonal 50 to the horizontal. Step 3 Step 4

Worksheet 4.9

Worksheet 4.10

Mathematicians use logical reasoning to develop a proof that a mathematical statement is true. A proof begins with a known or given fact and then follows a series of steps and/or If then statements before stating the nal conclusion. Each step or statement must be justied by a known mathematical property.

186

Solution

To prove: a + b + c = 180

a

7

B b

Proof Step 1: Draw DE through B parallel to the base of the triangle, and label the angles. Step 2: Since DE AC a =d and c =e Step 3: d + b + e = 180 Step 4: a + b + c = 180

A

D d

B b e

alternate angles between parallel lines alternate angles between parallel lines straight angle

7

C E C

Many properties can be shown to be true by rst being able to show that two particular triangles have sides of the same length and angles of the same size. When two triangles have this property they are called congruent triangles. The symbol used to show congruence is ; for example, ABC DEF. Triangles are known to be congruent when: Two angles and one side are equal (ASA).

In a right-angled triangle, the hypotenuse and one other side are equal (RHS).

GEOMETRY

187

CHAPTER 4

B a

Given that the angles on the circumference of a circle subtended by a chord are equal to half the angle formed at the centre, prove that the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral are supplementary. To prove: a + b = 180 Proof Mark O, the centre of the circle. Join A to O and C to O. Then obtuse AOC= 2 ADC = 2b angles on major arc and at centre from chord AC and reex AOC= 2 ABC = 2a angles on minor arc and at centre from chord AC So angle at O = 2a + 2b angles around a point = 360 So a + b = 180

Solution

2b A

O 2a

8

C b D C b D c C D F c C D F c C D

Exercise 4.8

Proofs in geometry

Worksheet 4.13

In each question, write the logical reason for each step being true. That is, give a justication, such as corresponding angles, angles opposite equal sides of triangle or some other, for each line labelled a, b and so on. 1 Prove that the exterior angle equals the sum of the two interior opposite angles. To prove: c = a + b

A a B a b B b

and So

B a b

188

2 Given that the angle sum of a triangle is 180, prove that the four angles of a quadrilateral total 360. b A a To prove: a + b + c + d = 360

d c C B

Proof: Join points A and C to form two triangles. Then e+f=a g+h=c

e f a

a b

D

c d h C B A f e b g

c d e f g

d h

g C

So the four angles in a quadrilateral total 360. 3 Prove that the exterior opposite angles of a parallelogram are equal. To prove: b = c A

B b

C c F

Proof: So

A a

B b

C c F

So So

b c

C F

A a

B b

GEOMETRY

189

CHAPTER 4

4 Given that the angle sum of a triangle is 180, prove that the angle at the centre of the circle is twice an angle at the circumference. A To prove: a = 2b

b O a

Proof: So

a b c d

A b c a b B C O

and So

Worksheet 4.12

5 Using congruent triangles, prove that the opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal. To prove: AB = DC and BC = AD B

D B C

a

A D B C

ABD = BDC

D B C

So So

190

6 Using congruent triangles, prove that any line through the midpoint of a diagonal of a parallelogram divides opposite sides equally. Y Given: XY is any line passing through the B A midpoint of diagonal AC. To prove: AY= XC

O D

X A O Y

C B

Proof:

So So

a b c

D

7 Using congruent triangles, prove that a line through the circle centre perpendicular to a chord bisects the chord. To prove: AM = MB

A O

Proof:

So So

a b c d

A O

M B

8 Using congruent triangles, prove that a line from a vertex of a parallelogram bisecting an opposite side and meeting the extension of the other opposite side produces equal lengths. C B

GEOMETRY

191

CHAPTER 4

a b c

9 Prove that the exterior angle of a cyclic quadrilateral equals the interior opposite angle. To prove: a = b Proof: a + c = 180 a a c b + c = 180 b So a=b

10 Given that the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral are supplementary, and using congruent triangles, prove that all inscribed parallelograms are rectangles. To prove: DAB = 90.

A B

Proof: Draw the line BD. Then BD is a common side. ABD = BDC ADB = DBC So ABD CDB

a b c

192

d

A B

11 Given that angles on the circumference are equal and half the angle at the centre, prove that angles subtended by semicircles are right angles. To prove: ACB = 90

A C

O B

Proof: So

a b

O B

12 The alternate angle theorem states that if a tangent is drawn at one end of a chord, then the subtended angle in the alternate segment is equal to the angle between the chord and the tangent.

Given that the alternate angle theorem is true, and given that angles subtended by semicircles are right angles, prove that the angle between a diameter and a tangent to a circle is 90. A To prove: ABC = 90

O C B D

GEOMETRY

193

CHAPTER 4

Proof: Draw AEB, where E is any point in the segment alternate to ABC. Then AEB = 90 a So ABC = 90 b

O C B

13 Given that the angle between a diameter and a tangent to the circle is 90, and using congruent triangles, prove that common tangents are equal in length. C To prove: = BC.

O B

Proof: Join A, B and C to O, the centre of the circle. Then OA = OC OAB = OCB = 90 OB is a common hypotenuse. So OAB OCB So BA = BC

a b c

14 Given that the alternate angle theorem is true, prove that the tangent to a cyclic isosceles triangle is parallel to the base. A To prove: D.

B

D C E

Proof:

a b

D C E

194

So So

DCA = CAB AB DE

c d

D C E

15 Given that the alternate angle theorem is true, and given that the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral are supplementary, prove that the angle between chord and tangent and the angle in the same segment formed by the chord are supplementary. B To prove: a + b = 180 b

C

a A E

Proof: Draw AFC, where F is any point in the segment alternate to DAC. Then DAC = AFC = a a AFC + ABC = 180 b But AFC = a and ABC = b So a + b = 180

B b C

a A

a F E

C X

17 a If O is the centre of the circle, prove that triangles OAB and OXY are congruent. b Prove that the chords AB and XY are parallel.

O A

Homework SP 3.8

GEOMETRY

195

CHAPTER 4

Chapter 4

Ex 4.1

Review

b c

a a 22 2a 30 b c 4x + 32 2x 10 k 118

35 a b

3x 2x 5x

3x + 5

g

2x + 70 3x 40

h

w e 125 n r a 25

Ex 4.3

2 These pairs of triangles are similar. In each case nd: i the scale factor (ratio of corresponding sides) ii the side lengths marked by pronumerals a

16 20 11.4 25 t 10 x x y

14.6

18.98

Ex 4.4

3 a How many times does the volume of a cube increase if its side length is made four times larger? b What is the effect on the area of a circle if its radius is halved? c What is the effect on the area of a triangle if it is scaled up (enlarged) by a factor of 5? 4 Find the value of the pronumeral in each case. a

5 O a

Ex 4.5

b

7.5

32 x O 160 h

196

x 120 y a

d

k

P X O Y

52 C D B

Ex 4.6

O

c O

c

40 O 4e

46

116

d

O 120

e

24

f

O O 6x 240

6 a Find the pronumerals in this diamond. b Are opposite angles in this diamond complementary or supplementary?

110 a 75 O

m O 128 71 n 102

Ex 4.6

b

w O t v

c

s 38 r O 95 p

GEOMETRY

197

CHAPTER 4

d

O c a

Ice-cream

Paint brush

Paint roller 69 O 8 cm

20 c m

21

9 cm

Ex 4.8

8 Given that equal chords subtend equal angles, use congruent triangles to prove that DP = BP in the diagram, where chords AB and CD are equal and intersect at P. To prove: DP = BP B D Proof: Draw in lines AD, DB, BC and CA. Then AB = CD a DAB = BCD b P ADB = CBD c So ADB CBD d

A C B

bc m

m cm

So

So So

e f g h i

A

Ex 4.8

9 Given that the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other, use congruent triangles to prove that the quadrilateral is a parallelogram. B C To prove: AB DC and BC AD Proof: BOA = DOC a O BO = OD b AO = OC c So BOA DOC d So ABO = CDO e A D So AB DC f

B C

So So So

NELSON MATHS FOR WESTERN AUSTRALIA, BOOK 3

g

O

h i j

198

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