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SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION
Communicating to the masses has evolved over time. What began as limited and basic exposure has developed into a complex stream of messages that surrounds people in every aspect of their daily lives. The mass communication people are constantly exposed to play an important part in shaping their attitudes, beliefs, perception and expectations of the world around them. Advertising becomes a popular source for study. Although its messages may be short, they are often powerful, persuasive and influential in shaping the attitudes and behavior of consumers. Youth is the prime target of advertisers. Advertisers manufacture ads considering the fact that what will allure young generation to buy their products. The tendency of watching TV among young generation is quite common. Every day an average TV viewer sees thousands of advertisements without realizing it; these ads affect this average persons daily life all without this average person processing what he or she is seeing. Advertisers exploit women as a tool of selling products through projecting women as sensuous or stereo typed in TV ads. Women are depicted as passive, physically attractive, feminine, and ideal. Women are not exploited as subjects but objects. Advertising attempts to put forth on image of ideals to be obtained by society. The images of women they portray do not necessarily reflect the society, but influence peoples (especially young generation) beliefs and perception about the world outside of their immediate environment. This concept is discussed in Cultivation theory. This theory states that what is repeatedly seen in the mass media shapes perception of social reality. Therefore, advertisements may shape the perception of young generations. This is significant to society because the advertisements lead its viewers to believe what is untrue. This research paper is going to focus on the projection of women in TV advertisements, the impact of TV advertisements contained with sensuous and stereo typed projection of women on young generation and nature of young generations demand. 1.1 Background: One the most watched, and perhaps an influential genre of television viewing is advertisement. Advertising sells products, but it also sells a great deal more than products. It sells values, it sells images, it sells concepts of love and sexuality, of romance, of success, and perhaps above all, women. To a very great extent it tells us who we are and who we should be. With pictures, images, and words being exposed all over the media, individuals see women in advertising making it seem that these images are what is expected of them. Now the researcher would focus on the history of projection of women in advertisements. Women have been exploited in advertising since the beginning of advertising, in the name of projection or portrayal. At the beginning, wood carvings and illustrations of attractive women (often unclothed from the waist up) adorned posters, signs, and ads for saloons, tonics, and tobacco. In several

2 notable cases, sex or sensuous projection of women in advertising has been claimed as the reason for increased consumer interest and sales. In 1885, W. Duke & Sons inserted trading cards into cigarette packs that featured sexually provocative starlets. Duke grew to become the leading cigarette brand by 1890 (Porter, 1971). Woodbury's Facial Soap, a woman's beauty bar, was almost discontinued in 1910. The soap's sales decline was reversed, however, with ads containing images of nudity (Account Histories, 1926). Jovan Musk Oil, introduced in 1971, was promoted with sexual entendre and descriptions of the fragrance's sexual attraction properties. As a result, Jovane, Inc.'s revenue grew from $1.5 million in 1971 to $77 million by 1978 (Sloan & Millman, 1979). The use of sex or sensuous projection of women in advertising can be highly overt or extremely subtle. It ranges from relatively explicit displays of sexual acts, to the use of basic cosmetics to enhance attractive features. Over the past two decades, the use of increasingly explicit sensuous images of women in consumer-oriented advertising has become almost commonplace. Sensuous and stereotyped projection of women is considered one of the most powerful tools of marketing and particularly advertising. Post-advertising sales response studies have shown it can be very effective for attracting immediate interest, holding that interest, and, in the context of that interest, introducing a product that somehow correlates with that interest. As advertising has made its way through history the social roles have change to some extent and women are still selling products with their sexuality. With the advertises popularity increasing over the decades, women in particular have had more exposure to advertisements that uses a womens body language in order for a product to sell. While using elements in advertising, many highlight a womens body, revealing such parts as her breasts or her naked body where only a limited amount of the product or clothing might be placed to cover her. The way a man is portrayed in society and in advertising is completely different than how a woman is viewed. A man is looked at as active, powerful, and is less objectified than women are. With men in advertising they tend to be shown as the subject, where the women are pleasing them and are looking up to them as if they were the most important person in the world. When men and women are shown in these types of images in an ad it shows that the man has power over the woman, thats all it is about is power. This is a major difference between men and women in advertisements. As advertisement plays a major role in society today, women are being objectified and idealized through the ways of the mass media. Advertisements have always been guilty of sexism. Sexism is the systematic oppression of women. Historically, advertising has used women in erotic roles and poses more often than men. Women continue to be depicted in sexualized roles disproportionately. The use of female models in such roles is believed to attract the attention of potential male customers.

3 Women have always exploited in advertising to draw interest to a particular product, for purpose of sale. A feature of projection of women in advertisement is that a pretty woman typically has no connection to the product being advertised. The purpose of the imagery is to attract the attention of the potential customer or user. Images of pretty women often appear in ads even without connection to the product being sold. Ads feature provocative images of welldefined women in revealing outfits and postures selling clothing, alcohol, beauty products, and fragrance. The advertisements of Bangladesh are not beyond this trend of projection of women. 1.2 Statement of the Problem Gender and portrayal of women in TV advertisements is a subject that is being discussed frequently. The portrayal of gender as a product and the accompanying body politics in the advertisement is well documented. Advertisements can act as both a perpetrator and as a protagonist-it can either be an accomplice to gender based discrimination by portraying stereotypical sensational images of women or it can provide balanced coverage that empowers women while exposing acts of gender bias. Young people are prime targets of advertisements. Advertisements have made possible a kind of national pressure that erodes private and individual values and standards. Nowhere else is the heady combination of physical beauty and personal success portrayed as pleadingly and persuasively as in commercial advertisements. Advertisers often emphasize sexuality as well as the importance of physical attractiveness is an attempt to sell products. In todays commercial advertisements, women are looked upon as a tool that can help to sell a product; women and sex are often a great combination when to get a product to come off the shelves. There are many different companies that stretch far and wide to include women and sex in their advertisements for sell purpose and many use very interesting ways of including women to sell their products. Women have been stereotyped in the TV commercials more than any other group. A stereotype against women creates a world where no one is ugly, overweight, poor, struggling and disabled. In advertisements women are often portrayed in similar roles and grouped together with the assumption that all women are the same or should be the same. Women in advertisements take on a fake look because they are made to look as close to perfect as possible. Women in advertisements are masked with make-up and almost always the pictures airbrushed to perfection. Women like a superwomen image where they are supposed to do it all. All with working with full time job she can still play the role of man and take care of kids, clean, cook and maintain a heavy relationship with husband. This is not true in the entire real world but because it is portrayed so much in the advertisements, people feel it necessary to have high expectations from women.

4 Women are still shown primarily in submissive positions as sex objects. Sexual women are used in advertisements for women to imply that the product will increase the users appeal to men. Advertisements continuously promote the message that womens ultimate goal is to attract men. However, it is important to note that advertisements depicts for us not necessarily how we actually behave as men and women, but how we think men and women behave. The stereotypical image of women in advertisements are found that women are still seen as objects and women are expected to look and act like those portrayed in ads. The women in advertisements represent what society, especially the men of society, holds as the ideal image for a woman. The images of women today are highly sexualized to appeal to those looking. Women in the twenty first century are under the power of gaze, the male gaze. What the media does not see and project is the image of a woman as a serious partner in decision-making, a serious contender as a professional: doctor, engineer, teacher or a computer specialist, a serious politician or leader. This is so in spite of the fact that we have today a large number of working women, and there is hardly any field that does not have women representatives. We have women administrators, entrepreneurs, doctors, police women, computer specialists, politicians and most surprising the entire media business is full of women practically performing all types of activities. It is indeed a very sad phenomenon. For example, when it comes to a TV advertisement regarding computers or motor bikes; we always find that it is the projection of a man behind the monitor or as the key rider and owner of the motor bike! The woman has to use Fair & Lovely and wear a pink dress to become a cricket commentator or to get the job she wants or to get married. The women model has to be rebuked by her husband and mother in law for not washing clothes properly, while the advertisers show viewers the solution of using Wheel or Chaka washing powder. Advertisers show the target group that mens appreciation is the only thing a woman desire for. If a woman does not get that, it would be the end of the world for her. So using Randhoni Masala or Bou Maa Masala or Raani Masala for cooking, only makes a woman able to get love and compliments from her husband or beloved one. Jui Hair Oil can only make the way to get love from your husband. Advertisers use sensuous women models & their bodies to promote products. This is the portrayal of the woman as a showpiece or an icon of glamour. We hardly come across an advertisement these days where we do not see a pretty model beaming at us, be it the advertisement of a mobile SIM (Banglalink or Robi) or that of a cold drink (Uro Cola or Upper Ten) or that of a refrigerator ( Walton Fridge) . Thus the woman model becomes the commodity.

5 In other words, the projection of women in TV advertisements oscillates between these two extremes: the traditional Bengali girl image or the glamour girl image. Advertisements strongly affect youth culture. As clichd as it may sound, it has been rightly said all things have their good as well as bad effects. In the similar conduct, advertisements also have bad influence on youth. But the concern is whether such sensuous or stereotyped projection of women in TV advertisements is desired by the youth or the pervert demand is being created by the advertisers. Determining the extent of impact of these types of advertisements on youth is another concern. In this context, it has prompting to undertake a study aiming at gathering knowledge about the opinion of youth about the portrayal of women in commercial advertisements on TV. It would be interesting to know the likes and dislikes of youth about projection of women in TV advertisements as well as to see whether they have demands for it. It would be helpful in ascertaining the impact of TV advertisements on the perception of young generation. 1.3 Research Questions of the study The prime focus of this report is to find out that the demand of sensuous and stereotyped portrayal of women in TV advertisements is being created by the marketers or advertisers, or the demand exists among young people. This report will examine whether the perception of young generation is being influenced by such projection of women in TV ads. Before formulating the research questions the following observations must be made about the research: The definition of Advertisement is a promotional activity, which is done by marketers for introducing and promoting their products or services to the customers. The definition of Perception is a process by which organisms interpret and organize sensation to produce a meaningful experience of the world or a process of becoming aware of the world around you through your senses. The definition of Young Generation is young persons considered as a group. The research deals with the following three questions: Are women being presented appropriately in TV ads? Is the perception and ideology of young generation being influenced by projection of women in TV ads? Is the portrayal or presentation of women in TV ads the outcome of young viewers demand?

6 Under the above mentioned prime questions, there are some sub questions. Sub questions are given in the Appendix part. 1.4 Hypothesis The demand of sensuous and stereotyped projection of women in TV advertisements is being created among young people by the advertisers or marketers. These types of advertisements influence perception of young generation immensely. 1.5 Objectives of the study The worldwide trend towards consumerism has created a climate in which TV advertisements portray women inappropriately. In Bangladesh, the number of related research about impact of TV ads on young generation is less, but necessity of such research is undeniable. It is because in the name of portrayal of women, miss presentation of women has engulfed the nature of advertisements which undermines womens dignity and social values. Young generation is the prime target of such advertisements. Advertisers want to seek the attention of young viewers. Popularity of TV or advertisements is also common in youth. In this context, the perception of young generation is being influenced by sensuous and stereo typed portrayal of women in TV ads. The principal objective of the study is to identify whether such sensuous and stereo typed portrayal of women is the outcome of youths demand or the advertisers or marketers are creating the demand among young generation by such portrayal of women in TV ads. Unfair inclusion of women is a common feature on now-a-days TV ads. TV ads are served to the viewers in an alluring way, which effect the young generation. Considering this fact, the prime objective of research was set. The specific objectives set are as follows: To explore systematically the nature of presentation or portrayal of women in TV ads. To asses the impact of TV ads on perception, values and ideologies of young generation. To identify whether such sensuous and stereo typed portrayal of women is the outcome of the demand of young generation or the demand is being created by advertisers or marketers among young generation by such portrayal of women in TV ads. To shed light on the overall picture of demand-impact & portrayal issue and creating consciousness among viewers as well as advertisement makers regarding portrayal or projection of women appropriately.

SECTION 2: METHODOLOGY
This study was an exploratory type of study. Impact of TV ads on young generation and their demand regarding projection of women in TV advertisements have been analyzed in the study. Finally it is expected that this exploratory study will set the basis for further research on the impact of TV ads on young generation and their demand regarding projection of women in TV advertisements. Research Method:
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Survey method and Case Study method have been chosen for conducting this research. This is a social science research and Survey method is most widely used in social sciences research. It is probably the best method available to the social scientists interested in collecting original data for purposes of describing a population too large to observe directly. Survey research is more reliable than any other method as it is quantitative and mostly primary in nature. This method helps a researcher in getting more reliable data and well organized information on particular problem. Through Survey method, a researcher comes in direct contact with the people from whom he collects the information. In this process, the new facts of life can be gathered, on the basis of which new theories can be developed. That is why Survey method is the best choice for conducting this research. Case studies can enable a researcher to explore, unrevealed and understand problems, issues and relationships. The Case study approach provides the researcher a wide range and depth of experience. Absorption and probing into the cases gives a researcher new insight into the pattern, structure and peculiarities found in the data. That is why Case study method is the other best choice for conducting this research. Data Collection: Data has been collected in following ways: A sample of 160 young persons has been taken for purpose of data gathering. A mixed questionnaire consists of both close and open type of question has been used as the tool. Mixed questionnaire has been used because in social science research this type of questionnaire is most

8 commonly used. The questionnaire is consisted of three parts. 14 questions of Part-A is supposed to be answered by both males and females. Part-B consists of 4 questions which are supposed to be answered by only female respondents. Part-C consists of more 4 questions which are supposed to be answered by only male respondents. Population: The research population is the young generation, who are students of various universities or colleges. Sample Frame: A sample of 160 young people has been chosen from the research population. To make the sampling fair enough, equal number of males and female respondents have been chosen. Among 160 young respondents 80 are males and 80 are females. Besides, the researcher has categorized samples ranging from college level to MS level. In order to make the research representative, some respondents have been chosen from college level students. Some have been chosen from Hons 1st year students. The students of 2nd year, 3rd year, 4th year and MS as well as students of Madrasah have been selected as samples. Questionnaires have been distributed among students of University of Dhaka, two colleges under National University, one Madrasah and two colleges of Dhaka city. Required data has been collected through case studies. The events mentioned in the case studies have been collected from the reliable sources through tactful conversations. Besides, relevant literature review regarding this topic has been carried out for data collection.

SECTION 3: CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW


Womens portrayal in the advertisement has been a point of strong international debate, and is also a highly-sensitized topic in our country. It has been estimated by the numerous studies that advertisements have found guilty of sexism with reference to the manner in which they present women, distortion of the image and propagation of sex stereotypes. The reality conducted by the advertisements does not match the one encountered by women in their daily lines. There is a wide difference between the reality of day-to-day life and the socalled reality recreated by the propagated advertisements on TV. Disparity in the actual living condition of women and those portrayed over the medium of television is perplexing and disquieting at the very least. Commercial often depict women using product such as soap and shampoo to enhance their personal appeal so as to be rewarded with male approval for the sake of liberalism women are transacted in to the field of commercials. As a viewer of such advertisements, youth are constantly trained to identify with the male gaze and internalize the male view of women. In Bangladesh, the electronic media enjoys widespread a reach because a majority of the population is non-literate yet, they leave their impressions on both general viewers and policy makers. The advertisements also play a substantial role in the attitudes, behavior and physical aspects of youth today, in particularly that of young women. Youth are constantly being bombarded with advertising, which appear to be forcing us to conform to a specific image of how we are supposed to be, whether it be slim, more intelligent or prettier. TV Advertisements strongly affect youth culture. The advertisers or marketers are quick to defend their role regarding this issue while selling millions of dollars in ads focused on youth. They deny any impact of their propagated advertisements on the attitudes and actions of youth. Meanwhile they continue to spend millions to increase appeal to youth markets. Our research title is Projection of Women in TV advertisements: A study on the perceptions of young generation. Analyzing this research title focus on some concepts, which are described below: Advertisement: Advertising is a form of communication used to persuade an audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to take some action with respect to products, ideas, or services. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common. Advertising messages are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed via various media; including traditional media such as

10 newspapers, magazines, television, radio, outdoor or direct mail; or new media such as websites and text messages. Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through "branding," which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate certain qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Non-commercial advertisers who spend money to advertise items other than a consumer product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Nonprofit organizations may rely on free modes of persuasion, such as a public service announcement. Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In 2010, spending on advertising was estimated at more than $300 billion in the United States and $500 billion world wide. Now massive presence of advertisements is noticed in print and electronic media in our country. In fact, now media is dependent to a great extent on the money provided by the advertisers. Media earns a huge amount of profit through the source of advertisements. Therefore, advertisements are being propagated in media with such great dominance. There are two streams in this advertisement related discussion. One stream of thought is that advertisers take the help of the mass media to reach their target people. People often become aware of new things, new features of old things, remember different brands through advertisements. In a brief, advertisements create awareness about the commodity or service, create competitive economy, and help to increase the production of the product, make the communication between buyers and producers easier, helps to increase the quality of the product etc. On the other hand, another stream of thought is that necessity of advertisements can not be denied. Advertisements have various negative social impacts. Those impacts include: presenting false information, turning people into consumerist, giving birth to unnecessary demands, portraying womens submissive image, seducing children, increasing the price of products, creates greed among people, presenting women as sex object, making viewers fatalist etc. Television: The Idiot Box Turns into Magic Box Cable and satellite television have grown rapidly throughout the developing world. Of all the popular means of mass media, television has the greatest mass appeal and acceptance. With the advent of satellite television in 1991, the idiot box of 1980s turned into whole new magical world, comprising of innumerable and a wide variety of satellite channels. Advertisers too have recognized their specific target groups and begun crafting advertisements according to target viewers. TV is the best way for advertisers to promote the

11 products. Now any drawing room can not be imagined without a television! Television has a magical power of attracting buyers attention through sound waves and scenes. The popularity of television through worldwide has prioritized it as the best way of advertisements. Advertisers are the patrons of television. Therefore, television plays the role of protecting the interest of its patrons and propagates TV commercials randomly. Commodification of women in TV commercials is nothing new. Projection/ Portrayal of Women in TV advertisement: Advertisements are the most prominent and integral part of television viewing. Vulgar and stereotyped projection of women is a common feature of ads. Advertisements are considered as Mens scriptures embracing women. The main purpose of TV commercials is attracting viewers through describing the good qualities of the product. Advertisement- scriptures provide the learning that in order to make a successful TV commercial; it is must to stir human primitive desire. Money, success and sex are humans topmost desires. Highest effort is made to stir these desires through advertisements. That is the reason behind abusing women body and face in todays world of advertisement for attracting male audience. As a result, in advertisements the position of females is much more submissive than that of existing society. Women have become the symbol of sex in these TV commercials. Why so much sexism in ads? The answer is very evident. In no other way response can be achieved so easily and quickly than stirring humans primitive sexual appetite. The ad makers say in the favor of advertisement that they are just projecting womens real position in society. If they were right, the picture of the society would be: 90% people were rich. They could buy what they want! All women were fair skinned & expert in performing arts(music or dance)! Men were color blind and only fair skinned women would be noticed. Invisible dark skinned women would be noticed only by men after applying magical soap or cream! The only activity of women would be wearing make-up and only tension would be the spots on clothes! The average lifetime of a woman would be thirty, because women above forty are rarely presented in TV commercials! It is clearly evident that the integral part of media, the advertisements, shows a picture of womens more submissive- weak- humiliating position than that of society. Capitalist and profit oriented advertisers want to sell their products by using women. Therefore, negative portrayal of women in advertisements has become substantial. Advertisements are prominent and integral part of television viewing. Due to its power and charisma, advertising is the best known and most widely discussed form of promotion. Advertising not only informs but persuades and

12 motivates the consumer about the advertised products, service or ideas. Advertising plays an important role in persuading the public to change their attitudes towards a product, service or idea. The constant flow of advertising images of gender, types of persons, social classes, and other groups influence our social learning process. Several media scholars have emphasized the role of advertisements as a major agent of social reinforcement because of its presumed power for molding opinions, attitudes and behavior. It is a tragedy that in spite of possessing such great power and charisma of influencing people; advertisements are playing negative roles through: Reinforcing patriarchy and Commodification of women

Reinforcing patriarchy Portrayal of gender relationships is common in advertisements. Since womens positions and roles are devalued in patriarchal cultures, advertising maintains the status and quo in gender relations by reinforcing the sexual division of labor while resisting and subverting any radical change on the part of women. Stereotypes abound in the advertisements as men are mostly shown advertising cars or motor bikes. Women are mostly shown advertising domestic products. Some common sights of women as seen in advertisements are as shown cooking in the kitchen, washing bucketful of clothes and providing service as a full time maid in the home. Advertising also depicts woman as superwomen who manage multiple roles of wife, mother, career women and so on, and be glamorous as well. In various advertisements one observes the perfect multi tasking done by the modern women who take care of the domestic responsibilities and aspire to fulfill their professional commitments with great perfection and ease. Such depictions exhibit these women excelling in their professional commitments, meeting deadlines and achieving success. Do such characters create any pressure on women who often have to juggle to attend to their domestic responsibilities besides fulfilling their professional commitments? Do such ads project that it is very convenient to meet the demands of the two worlds without any physical, mental or emotional burden? Do these advertisements that project women as working in and outside the house with contentment, raise expectations from a common women? One also observes of the media promoting an obsession for having fair, untanned, glowing skin among women. Seeing is believing claimed the Fair& Lovely soap. Should all women have a fair skin in order to be worthwhile? Are not the persons having other shades in their skin color unique in themselves? Do not many innocent girls get cheated with claims as these made by the advertisers? Millions of vulnerable girls and women as a result of these

13 advertisements often become obsessed with beauty and are seen spending hours on end to improve their appearances seeking every available cosmetic aid to catch the attention of men. Commodification of Women Advertising seems to be obsessed with gender and sexuality. Even the ads of male body perfume, underwear or shaving gel relate to men, women and the product. These ads are unrealistic and obscene that showcase women to sell a product used by men in a cheap way. Advertising thrives on commoditization of women and by reinforcing age-old stereotypes. The process of commoditization in advertising brings out the paradoxical nature of the womans role as a consumer; she is the subject of a transaction in which her own commodification is ultimately the object. Advertising frequently commodifies women by exploiting their sexuality or by fragmenting the female body into eroticized zones such as hair, face, legs, breasts etc. Thus, in the exchange between the commodity and women in advertisements, a woman becomes a commodity, too. Women are portrayed as sex objects who are probably casted to titillate the viewers by exposing their body parts. Women are shown wearing revealing clothes and take leaning and yearning postures- signs of incompetence or lack of security. Women and their body parts sell everything- food, clothing, cars, computers, mens shaving lotions and underwear. Even in commercials of the products consumed mostly by men- alcohol, tobacco, cigarettes, briefs; women are used as models exposing their bodies. Glamour dolls in front of cameras in front of cameras and photographers do the same behind the lenses, trapping thousands of young people believe in the miracle of the product. Sensuous and stereotyped projection of women is a common feature of TV advertisements. It is a hit to the dignity and self- respect of the woman-folk by presenting them as: Presenting women as narrow role model Advertisements create some specific boundary lines and establish women as a narrow role model. The images of the models of ads are exclusive and different to other girls in the society. The prime target of a woman is becoming beautiful, entertain men and her working place is home. Women: A man-dependant existence In TV advertisements, women seem to depend on men always. Even women seem to depend on men for choosing a product. This created dependency by ad makers is not only mental, but also physical in character. Advertisements present women as a physically and mentally crippled existence. Women: Posses negative characteristics such as jealousy In many advertisements women are presented as a negative character. It

14 strengthens humiliating mentality toward women. They are jealous and get pleasure to create another womens jealousy- this concept is active behind many advertises. A woman buys product not for the utility of the product, but jealousy becomes the reinforcing source of buying a product. Women: A commodity In advertisements, a woman is nothing but a commodity! She dances, wears make-ups, makes seductive moves, entertains the male audience, takes nude bathe in front of camera. She is only a sex object, not a human being. Women are object of enjoyment and men are consumers. In advertisements male model enjoys cup of tea, made by women, after returning office. Women: worker of odd jobs Women are fond of make-ups. They always decorate themselves. They cook, wash toilet and clothes. If they can not do these works properly, female model are seen to be rebuked. Women: subordinate to men In almost all ads women are seen to be dominated. They are seen as obedient to males orders. Men dominates and women love to be dominated- this is the abstract of these types of TV commercials. Product based solution in ads Advertisements do not provide any logical or positive solution of the problem; rather those provide product based solution. Such as, Radhooni mashla (spice powder) can only be the solution of females loads of works, not the proper distribution of work among family members. To boost up confidence, applying Fair& Lovely is the solution. Perception of young generation Young generation is the prime target of advertisers or marketers. The advertisement industry spends billions of dollars to attract youth to their products. Day by day sensuous and stereotyped projection of women in TV commercials is increasing, but why such projection? Is it the youth who desire for such sensuous and stereotyped portrayal and is it the outcome of their demand? Or is it the shrewd move of marketers? Are the advertisers creating demand of women commodity among young generation? Now it is the important element in this scenario. Advertisements strongly affect youth culture, perception, values, ideologies etc. The impact of visual media as a very powerful vehicle for communicating ideas and images is known to be tremendous. Advertises create a world which seem very real and viewers are unable to differentiate between the contrived world and the real one. Impact of ads is more on the youth, who sit in

15 front of television, and for hours, succession of pictures is watched by eyes that are only just opening onto the world and it becomes imprinted on minds that are still impressionable. The glamorous world of dazzling TV commercials exposes young generation to new information about the outside world; reinforces stereotypes and beliefs which may affect individual attitudes and behaviors. The role of advertises can not be undermined considering the amount of time the youth spend watching TV these days. Youth learn what sorts of behavior and personality are regarded in their cultural context as appropriate for males and females. Advertises reinforce traditional male dominance. Youth becomes attracted by the idea of sex object. Advertisements leave an impact on young generations values, beliefs, attitudes, perceptions, dos and donts. Now the culture of consumerism has been emerged and extended to a great extent in Bangladesh. So as the obvious outcome, advertisement has become a wide spread thing in our country in last few decades. Now advertisements talk about our personal life, teaches new thoughts, tells what are the roles of male and female, guides what should be our relationships with family and each other, defines what happiness is or success, what is our tradition, establishes the definition of smartness and so on. What we see in TV influences immensely on our subconscious minds. Ignoring the propagated ideology or images in TV commercials is not an easy task for our subconscious minds. The confused youth can not differentiate between the fantasy world of advertisements and our real world. Psychologists think that the information we get from TV commercials regarding what should be male-female relationships, is unreal. It creates strong lack of satisfaction or gratification among the viewers. This lack of satisfaction does not let us evaluate properly the real relationship between male and female in our real life. Advertisements create a feeling of incompleteness among us. Advertises keep us telling continuously that we are incomplete human being, we are not perfect, our teeth is not enough white, skin is not enough fair, hair is not enough thick etc. It leads us to think ourselves imperfect human being. Advertisements establish a definition of beauty at first. Then start propagating fair skin is the key of beauty, success and confidence. On the contrary, dark skin is the root cause of frustration and failure in life. This ideology influences young generation to a great extent. As a result, our young female are yearning to be fair skinned and our male young viewers desire to have a light skinned girl as their life partner or girlfriend. Advertisements give a romantic camouflage to torture on women. Propagating women as sex objects will help to boost tortures on women. Youth learns to think from TV commercials that rebuking wife because of not washing clothes properly or not cooking delicious food and ignoring dark skinned girls are natural attitudes. Thus advertisements not only encourage women oppression, but also give it a romantic camouflage. The perception of young generation regarding such projection of women in ads as well as the nature of youth demand have become important subjects of research now. In the camouflage of projection of women in advertisements, the mis presentation is going on. In this context, most young people of our society

16 are being influenced through these ads. It leaves impact on their attitudes, ideologies, values and beliefs.

SECTION 4 : EMPIRICAL FINDINGS


4.1 SURVEY DATA PART-A
a. Gender based percentage of watching TV: Majority of males (97.5%) and females (98.75%) agreed that they watched television. Table-1: Gender based percentage of watching TV Sl. No. Responses Male (n=80) % Yes No 97.5 2.5 Respondents Female (n=80) % 98.75 1.25 Total (n=160) % 98.13 1.88

1. 2.

It is clear from Table1 that majority of both genders (98.13%) watched TV.Very few males (2.5%) and females (1.25%) stated that they did not watch TV. Almost all respondents watch TV. It shows the popularity or craze of watching TV among young generation. b. Enjoyable TV programs: The figure 1 depicts that majority of respondents (74.38%) watch dramas or movies mostly. Sports programs are enjoyed by 71.88% respondents. Both males and females enjoy advertisements (68.13%). News is watched by 65.63% respondents. Magazine programs are watched by 65.63% respondents. 20.63% respondents enjoy educative programs. Only 17.5% enjoys religious programs. Other categories of programs are watched by 13.75% respondents. Majority of young viewers enjoy dramas or movies on TV. May be, it is because young people are generally emotional and love to connect the ups and downs of their lives with propagated dramas or movies. Sports and

17 advertisements are also enjoyed by them. Todays youth are concerned about what is happening around them. Therefore, 65.63% enjoys news on TV. It was a known fact that popularity of educative, religious and other programs will be less. Collected data showed it too.

17.5 23.75 20.63

13.75 65.63 News Dramas or movies Sports Advertisements Educative programs Magazine shows Religious programs Others

68.13

74.38

71.88

Fig 1: Enjoyable TV Programs (in percentage)

c. The rate of watching TV advertisements by young viewers: Table 2 reveals that majority of female respondents (73.75%) watch TV ads and 26.25% do not watch TV ads. 62.5% male respondents watch TV ads and 37.5% do not. Table-2: The rate of watching TV ads by young viewers Sl. No. Responses Male (n=80) % Yes No 62.5 37.5 Respondents Female (n=80) % 73.75 26.25 Total (n=160) % 68.13 31.87

1. 2.

Those, who do not watch TV ads, may be tired of watching same ads repetitively or they may think watching ads as wastage of time. It is clear from the

18 collected data that a good number of viewers watch TV ads, which is beneficial for marketers.

d. View-point about advertisements: Majority of the viewers (61.25%) felt good to watch TV ads. Whereas 31.87% respondents view-point was negative or bad about TV ads. A few respondents (6.88%) had moderate view-point about ads. They neither feel good nor bad during watching TV ads. Findings are shown in the following pie chart:

31.87
Good Bad Moderate

61.25 6.88

Fig 2: View-point of young viewers about TV ads (in percentage)

Those, who liked to watch TV ads, might get attracted by the flavor of small package entertainment of TV ads. Those who did not like so, might get irritated of the low quality or repetitive nature of ads. e. Ads replete with dance & music: Gender based percentage of liking A chi-square test has been carried out for this question. HO or Null Hypothesis: There is no difference between perception of male and female regarding this issue on average. H1 or Alternative Hypothesis: There is difference between perception of male and female regarding this issue. Table 3: Gender based percentage of liking ads replete with dance & music Respondents Male Yes 20 No 58 Do not know 2 Total 80

19 Female Total 30 50 45 103 5 7 80 160

Calculated value of chi-square is 4.926. On the basis of calculated value, level of significance is 10%. In 10% level of significance, the calculated value is more than the table value. We reject HO in favor of H1. Generally, it is thought that most people like ads replete with dance and music. Collected data has proved this generalized concept wrong. A good number of young viewers stated that they do not like TV ads replete with dance and music. Those respondents might be matured enough to be not fooled with just beautiful jingles or seductive dance moves of TV ads. The perception of male and female regarding this issue varied. f. Expectation regarding presentation of women in all types of TV ads: Table 4 reveals that 63% of male and 58% of female respondents felt that as a viewer they did not expect projection of women in all types of TV ads. A number of males (19%) and females (25%) expected such portrayal of women in all TV ads. Very few males (18%) and females (17%) stated that they do not know what they expect regarding this issue. Table 4: Expectation regarding presentation of women in all types of TV ads Sl. No. Responses Male (n=80) % Yes No Do not know 19 63 18 Respondents Female (n=80) % 25 58 17 Total (n=160) % 22 60 18

1. 2. 3.

19% male and 25% female felt that as a viewer they expected projection of women in all types of propagated TV ads. These male respondents showed some reasons behind their positive opinions regarding this issue; which include: A woman is definitely better as a model than a man. Almost all products are related with women. So it is quite normal to project in all types of TV ads. Any advertisement except beautiful female models will not get popularity to viewers.

20 As viewers they love to watch projection of women in all types of TV ads. Many stated that it is desired to them and they want more of it. The 25% female showed some reasons behind expecting projection of women in all types of TV ads; which include; It is a job opportunity for females. Advertises demand presence of women. Women have rights along side men to be presented in ads. It is hopeful. If any Islamic media propagates ads, it will be acceptable then, otherwise not.

Those who had a negative feedback toward presentation of women in all types of TV ads, might be matured enough to catch the tricks of advertisers. Those respondents were so conscious that they did not expect random and unnecessary projection of women in all types of TV ads. The viewers, who had a positive feedback regarding this issue mixed it with womens rights. Some male respondents supported it only for their own pleasure and some thought about market demand. g. Representation of household chores as womens prime role: Perception of male & female A chi-square test has been carried out for this question. HO or Null Hypothesis: There is no difference between perception of male and female regarding representation of household chores as womens prime role, on average. H1 or Alternative Hypothesis: There is difference between perception of male and female regarding this issue. Table 5: Representation of household chores as womens prime role Respondents Male Female Total Positive 46 26 72 Negative 34 54 88 Total 80 80 160

Calculated value of chi-square is 10.08. On the basis of calculated value, level of significance is 1%. In 1% level of significance, the calculated value is less than the table value. We reject H1 in favor of HO.

21 Our Null Hypothesis is correct. Todays male and female young viewers are conscious enough to not like representation of household chores as womens prime roles in TV ads. h. Favorite TV ads of young viewers: It is evident from the figure 3 that majority of the respondents (56.25%) favorite TV ads are ads of Grameen Phone. 48.75% likes TV ads of Banglalink Mobile Operator. 17.5% respondents favorite ads are TV ads of Robi Mobile Operator. LUX ads are liked by 6.87% young respondents. Ads of Pepsi, Frutica juice and Johnson baby products are favorite ads of respectively 6.25%, 5% and5.63% respondents. In order to promote tourism in Bangladesh, an advertisement was propagated on TV during ICC World Cup, 2011. The theme of the ad was Beautiful Bangladesh. This TV ad is liked by 5% respondents. 4.37% respondents has mentioned ads of Prothom Alo newspaper. When this question was asked, respondents had mentioned of various TV ads. GP 5 6.25 6.87 10.63 17.5 5 5.63 4.37 56.25 Banglalink Robi Airtel Lux Pepsi Beautiful Bangldesh Frutica 48.75 Jhonson Prothom Alo

Fig 3: Young viewers favorite TV ads (in percentage)

On average, TV ads of Grameen Phone have got highest votes by viewers. Banglalink was 2nd choice by both males and females. It seems that ads of mobile operators leave great impact on young viewers. Young generations are fond of propagated TV ads of GP, Banglalink, Robi and Airtel. In questionnaire, some respondents even mentioned of the titile of theme songs of those ads.

22 Such as, Grameen phone ( Alo Ashbei ) or Robi ( Shunte ki pao ). It shows young viewers greatest fascination about propagated TV ads of various mobile operators. There is not much difference between choices of favorite ads of male and female viewers. Both like ads of mobile operators. Only a distinct feature is noticed from the collected data. That is, some females (5.63%) mentioned TV ads of baby products as their favorite ads. These types of ads always contain a baby model and its mischievous activities. Male viewers did not mention those ads of baby products as their favorites. It seems that some women are so fond of children that they love to ads which contain baby models and their activities. Overall, collected data shows a good taste of TV ads is possessed by todays youths.

Fig 4: Shares of TV ad spending by mobile operators in March (in percentage)

The above pie-chart depicts that Robi spent highest amount (35%) for TV ads in March. GP spent 29% for TV ads. Banglalink, Citycell, Teletalk and Airtel spent respectively 25%, 6%,4% and 1% for TV ads in March. Though Robi spent highest amount for TV ads, the TV ads of Robi mobile operator did not leave much impact on young viewers. Collected data shows that TV commercials of GP and Banglalink are liked by 56.25% and 48.75% respondents. TV ads of Robi, which mobile operator spent the highest amount on the purpose of TV ads were liked by 17.5% respondents. Therefore, it is clearly evident that the taste of TV ads of todays youth is not decided by the

23 advertisers or the amount of money they spent for TV ads. The viewers decide their own taste on the basis of the quality of TV ads.

i. Attractive subject-matter of preferable TV ads: When this question was asked to respondents, they showed multiple responses. They mentioned 2 or 3 things as attractive subject matter of their desirable TV ads. Table 6 shows that majority of viewers (77.63%) stated that dialogue is the attractive subject matter of a TV ad. 68.5% mentioned that picture of an ad attracted them. 71.05% emphasized on music as attractive subject matter. According to 73.02% viewers, models screened on ads are attractive subject-matter of preferable TV ads. Table 6: Attractive subject matter of desirable TV ads Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Responses Dialogue Picture Music Models Others Did not response N 118 95 108 111 5 8 Respondents % 77.63 62.5 71.05 73.02 3.28 5.26

This answer was given by total 152 respondents. Therefore, it is evident from the collected data that most of the viewers are attracted by dialogues and models of TV ads. Though tendency of using music or jingles in advertisements is popular now-a-days, jingle or music is thought as attractive subject matter of a TV ad by 71.05% viewers. j. Non-preferable TV ads: Perception of viewers Figure 5 depicts that 58.75% young viewers disliked the TV commercials of AXE- Mens body spray. A prominent number of viewers (55.67%) did not prefer the TV ads of Mango Slice. 47.5% male and female viewers mentioned Radhuni Gura Masala (Spice Powder) as non-preferable TV ads. Ads of Croma Furniture, Rexona Deodorant, Harpic and Fair and Lovely were mentioned as non-preferable by respectively 33.75%, 28.13%,24.37% and 18.13% young viewers. The TV commercials of AXE Mens body spray are propagated in satellite TV channels. Ads of AXE body spray are controversial and erotic. Women are projected in very erotic or vulgar ways in these ads. It is very hopeful that our young generation is rejecting these types of vulgar ads and favoring ads of good taste. 55.67% of the respondents have aversion about the ad of Mango

24 Slice. This ad is propagated in satellite channels too. TV commercials of Mango Slice depict sensuous models, those make vulgar moves. This ad was rejected by our young viewers too. TV commercials of Radhuni Gura Masla (Spice Powder), Rexona Deodorant, Harpic and Fair and Lovely were non-preferable to respondents.
18.13 24.37 58.75
AXE body spray Radhuni spice powder Mango Slice

28.13 47.5

Chroma furniture Rexona deodorant Harpic Fair & Lovely

33.75 55.37

Fig 5: Viewers non-preferable TV ads (in percentage)

It indicates that our young generation does not welcome stereo typing of women in TV ads. TV ads of Radhuni Gura Masala (spicy powder) only focus household chores as womens prime role. TV ads of Harpic depict the same. Ads of Fair & Lovely encourage racism, where it is shown that fairskinned girls get what they want while dark complexion is the root of all frustrations and failures. The ads of Rexona Deodorant depict that the aim of womens life is to woo men. These ads were not welcomed by our young respondents. This finding exhibits the good taste of todays young generation. k. Non-preferable subject-matter of non-desirable TV ads: When this question was asked to respondents, they showed multiple responses. They mentioned 2 or 3 things as non-preferable subject matter of their non-preferable TV ads. Table 7 shows that majority of viewers (61.87%) mentioned dialogue as non-preferable subject matter of their non-preferable TV ads. 32.5% respondents mentioned of picture as non-preferable subject matter of their non-preferable TV ads. Jingles or music, model and other subject matter were disliked by respectively 55.63%, 58.13% and 4.37% respondents. Table 7: Non-preferable subject-matter of non-desirable TV ads

25

Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Responses Dialogue Picture Music Models Others N 99 52 89 93 7

Respondents % 61.87 32.50 55.63 58.13 4.37

Most of the young viewers labeled non-desirable or non-preferable TV ads on the basis of models, dialogues and jingles. l. Basis of buying products: Finding is shown in the following pie-chart:

Models Quality of products Standard of art of the ad Others

86

Fig 6: Basis of buying products (in percentage)

Figure 6 depicts that majority of young people (86%) buy products on the basis of standard of quality of products. Only 7% respondents considered the standard of the art of that products advertisements in case of buying those. Other factors are considered by 6% young people. A very few people (1%) buy product on the basis of models screened in advertisements. The respondents, who buy products on the basis of standard of quality of products, are sensible enough to distinguish between right and wrong. Majority of the respondents are not easily fooled by advertisement or sensuous female models. Todays youth consider the quality as the only condition in case of buying products. m. The impact of ads of beauty enhancing products in case of buying

26 those: Table 8 reveals that 44% male respondents are influenced by TV ads of beauty enhancing products in case of buying those. 56% male respondents are not influenced by TV ads of beauty enhancing products.46% female respondents are influenced and 50% is not.

Table 8: The impact of ads of beauty enhancing products in case of buying those Sl. No. 1 2 Responses Yes No Male(n=80) % 44 56 Respondents Female(n=80) % 46 54 Total(n=160) % 45 55

Though it is a general concept in our society that beautification is not needed for men, collected data shows something different. Compared to our social context, where men are not encouraged to apply beauty enhancing products, a good number of male viewers are influenced by ads of beauty enhancing products in case of buying those. In our society, it is thought that only women apply beauty enhancing products or make-ups. Females are even encouraged by the family and society to beautify themselves. Comparing to such societal context, the number of influenced female viewers by beauty enhancing products is quite less. 46% female felt that ads of beauty enhancing products left an impact in case of buying those. 54% did not feel so. Collected data indicates that now-a-days in case of beautification men are also stepping ahead and there is not much difference between todays males & females regarding this issue. n. The level of being influenced by the ads of beauty enhancing products in case of buying those: The figure 7 depicts that 50% male and 51% female consumers are at the mid level of being influenced by the ads of beauty enhancing products in case of buying those. 20% male and 33% female respondents are at the lowest level of being influenced. A few number of male consumers (18%) are at the low level of being influenced. 16% female felt that the level of being influenced by the ads of beauty enhancing products is low for them. The percentage of level of high and highest biasness among male respondents is respectively 8% and 4%. On the contrary, the percentage is zero among female respondents. No female felt that they are highly influenced by TV ads of beauty enhancing products in case of buying those. We expected that there would be great difference between male and female regarding this issue. In the context of our society, women are to be

27 influenced by such TV ads in case of buying beauty enhancing products. Females are encouraged by the family and society to apply beauty enhancing products in order to beautify them. Surprisingly, our data shows that there is not much difference between male and female respondents regarding this issue. The most surprising thing is that 8% and 4% male admitted that they are highly influenced by beauty enhancing products. No girl felt that they are highly influenced by beauty enhancing products in case of buying those. This finding reveals the fact that todays young males are equally beauty conscious as females and even sometimes more than females.

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Lowest Mid level Highest 20 33 18 16 8 0 4 0 50 51


Male Female

Fig 7: The level of being influenced by the ads of beauty enhancing products in case of buying those (in percentage) .

28

PART-B
In the questionnaire, the questions of Part A were asked to both males and females. The Part B of the questionnaire was consisted of 4 questions, which questions were asked only to female respondents. Now I would like to focus on the findings of the questions of Part B. o. Opinion as a female viewer about propagated TV ads: It was an open ended question and asked female respondents. The abstract of those opinions about propagated TV ads are given below: As a viewer, all female respondents stated that womens self respect and dignity is offended by many ads. Some respondents mentioned propagated TV ads of AXE Mens Body Spray, Fair & Lovely, Radhuni Gura Mashla(Spice Powder) and Mango Slice as offensive TV ads. Female respondents had objection about stereotyping of women in TV ads. Young girls were against some ads, which depict that beauty is the only quality needed for a female. Womens merit has no important to the world. Cooking or cleaning toilet or washing clothes is the prime role of women such projection is available in TV ads. Female respondents are against it. They think that such portrayal of women is humiliating. Respondents felt that todays women are accomplishing many challenging tasks, which should be focused. Female respondents are dead against sensuous or vulgar projection of women in TV ads. They think that these ads are offensive to womens dignity. If you are fair-skinned, you will conquer the world. If you are darkskinned, you will drown into frustration and your life will be series of failures. So, apply fairness cream and be light-skinned such propagation should be banned. This opinion was given by many female respondents.

29 Our young female viewers are conscious and ads do not leave any impact on them. They all have great sense of self esteem, which results such opinions. p. The rate of encouraging women to use beauty enhancing products: Our data shows that 40% female respondents stated that their beloved ones encourage them to use beauty enhancing products and they suggested it as a consequence of watching ads. A good number of females (60%) stated that their beloved ones do not give them suggestions of using beauty enhancing products as a consequence of watching TV ads. Table 9: The rate of encouraging women to use beauty enhancing products Sl. No Responses College % 60 40 1 year % 38 62
st

1 2

Yes No

Female Respondents 2 3rd 4th MS year year year % % % % 8 40 44 33 92 60 56 67


nd

Madrasah

Total % 40 60

% 100 0

Advertisements indirectly create pressure on women. Their beloved ones watch lucrative and sensuous ads of various products and as a consequence, they encourage females to use beauty enhancing products. 60% female is beyond such indirect pressure of ads. Such encouragement for using beauty enhancing products may not be wanted by many women. There beloved ones such encouragement or suggestion to use beauty enhancing product may create low self-esteem or inferior complex among females. Females may think that their beloved ones are thinking them incomplete. q. Tendency of beloved ones: Expectation to female to be sensuous and attractive like models Our finding shows that 20% of female respondents stated that their beloved ones expected them to be sensuous and attractive like models. 80% female respondents beloved ones did not expect them to be sensuous and attractive like models. Table 10- Tendency of beloved ones: Expectation to female to be sensuous and attractive like models Sl. No. Responses College % 20 80 1 year % 0 100
st

1 2

Yes No

Female Respondents 2 3rd 4th MS year year year % % % % 15 13 28 17 85 87 72 83


nd

Madrasah

Total % 20 80

% 80 20

30 Though majority of females stated that their beloved ones do not expect them to be sensuous and attractive like models, it does not indicate that sensuous female models screened in ads do not leave any impact. A few number of female respondents admitted that they faced such expectation from their beloved ones. Therefore, it is evident that such sensuous and vulgar projection of female models on TV ads creates unexpected & illogical pressure on some females. r. Feeling indirect expectation of beloved ones to be sensuous and attractive like models: Collected data shows that 29% female respondents stated that their beloved ones did not directly express the expectation to be sensuous and attractive like models to the females. Though such expectation was untold by their beloved ones, still female respondents felt it. A good number of female respondents (71%) stated that they did not feel any indirect expectation from their beloved ones to be sensuous and attractive like models. Table 11: Feeling indirect expectation of beloved ones to be sensuous and attractive like models Sl. No. Responses College % 40 60 1 year % 8 92
st

1 2

Yes No

Female Respondents 2 3rd 4th MS year year year % % % % 15 27 33 33 85 73 67 67


nd

Madrasah

Total % 29 71

% 80 20

It is evident from finding that many beloved do not express such expectation to the female respondents directly. But their attitudes may realize females about the untold expectations from beloved ones, to be sensuous and attractive like models.

31

PART-C
The Part C of the questionnaire was consisted of 4 questions, which questions were asked only to male respondents. Now I would like to focus on the findings of the questions of Part C. s. Projection of women as sensuous in TV ads: Perception of males Collected data shows that 81% male respondents stated that in some TV ads women are being projected as sensuous. A few number of male respondents (19%) had different views regarding this issue. They did not feel that women are being projected as sensuous. Table 12: Projection of women as sensuous in TV ads: Perception of males Sl. No. Responses College % 50 50 1 year % 85 15
st

1 2

Yes No

Female Respondents 2 3rd 4th MS year year year % % % % 77 87 94 100 23 13 6 0


nd

Madrasah

Total % 81 19

% 60 40

Majority of male respondents are aware of the fact that in some TV ads women are being projected as sensuous. t. Impact of ads on males: Fantasy about women This question was asked to male respondents to know the fact that whether they had any fantasy about women as an impact of watching TV ads contain with sensuous projection of women. A good number of male respondents (64%) stated that they had fantasy about women as an impact of watching TV ads, which contain with sensuous projection of women. 36% of male respondents stated that they had not fantasy about women as an impact of watching TV ads, which contain with sensuous projection of women. It was expected that majority of the respondents would say Yes to this question. Having fantasy about women after watching such sensuous projection in TV ads might be quite common, because our respondents were young. 64% told Yes and 36% told No to this question. The ratio of males, who

32 had fantasy is higher though, still it was not the expected higher percentage. Many male respondents might not admit the fact out of shame.

Table 13- Impact of ads on males: Fantasy about women Sl. No. Responses College % 40 60 1 year % 77 23
st

1 2

Yes No

Female Respondents 2 3rd 4th MS year year year % % % % 85 67 55 66 15 33 45 34


nd

Madrasah

Total % 64 36

% 40 60

The data shows that the percentage of having fantasy about women is quite high among the male students of Hons 1st year and 2nd year. Sensuous projection of women in TV ads might leave great impact on them because of their immature age. u. Encouraging beloved ones to apply beauty enhancing products : Perception of males A good number of males (65%) stated that they do not encourage their beloved ones to apply beauty enhancing products after watching TV ads. 35% of male respondents encouraged their beloved ones to apply beauty enhancing products after watching TV ads. Table 14- Encouraging beloved ones to apply beauty enhancing products : Perception of males Sl. No. Responses College % 80 20 1 year % 24 76
st

1 2

Yes No

Female Respondents 2 3rd 4th MS year year year % % % % 23 46 33 17 77 54 67 83


nd

Madrasah

Total % 35 65

% 0 100

v. Tendency of males: Expectations to their beloved ones to be sensuous and attractive like models A good number of males (64%) stated that they had no desire to their beloved ones to be sensuous and attractive like models. 36% of male

33 respondents had desire or expectation to their beloved ones to be sensuous and attractive like models.

Table 15- Tendency of males: Expectations to their beloved ones to be sensuous and attractive like models Sl. No. Responses College % 40 60 1 year % 54 46
st

1 2

Yes No

Female Respondents 2 3rd 4th MS year year year % % % % 38 33 39 17 62 67 61 83


nd

Madrasah

Total % 36 64

% 0 100

It is evident that sensuous projection of women in TV ads left impact on few young males. That is why the percentage of yes is 36%. The ratio of expectations to beloved ones to be sensuous and attractive like models is quite high among the students of Hons 1st year. Because of their immature age, the ads might create such expectation among them and leave an impact.

34

4.2 CASE STUDIES


Case study method has also been followed to accomplish the research. Three case studies were taken, which provide the researcher a wide range and depth of experience. Absorbing and probing into the cases give the researcher new insights into the pattern, structure and peculiarities found in the data. Now, I would prefer to focus on those case studies and their findings. CASE STUDY: i Reena Rahman (Pseudonym). Age 23. Unmarried. A brilliant student studying in a reputed public university. Reena and her sister are two in number. Reena is younger one among two sisters. Reena has a dark complexion and her elder sister is fair-skinned. She is used to listening different types of comments regarding this issue from neighbors and relatives. Once, one of the neighbors visited her house. That neighbor expressed lot of sympathies to Reena because of having dark-skinned tone. She was comparing Reenas dark skin to her elder sisters light skin. Then she suggested Reenas mother to tell Reena to apply Lata Herbal (A beauty enhancing product) to be light-skinned. She also told that Reenas mother had definitely watched the TV advertisements of Lata Herbal. Thus Reenas well-wishers (?) often give her unsolicited advises to apply Lata Herbal, Botanic Aroma, Fair & Lovely, Ponds White Beauty etc so that she can have fair complexion. In most cases, these well-wishers mention the lucrative advertisements of beauty enhancing programs and show examples of how the models of those products have become light-skinned within a week or 5 days. Though Reena has always achieved a good result in her entire educational life, those fair-skin-lovers do not complement her for intelligence. Rather they prioritize Reenas skin tone and those advertisements, which provide the solution of being light-skinned in 5 or 7 days. Findings of case study i: This case study shows the impact of TV ads of beauty enhancing products on a young female. Advertisements are reinforcing the stereo typing of women. Instead of making the society conscious and updated, TV ads of beauty enhancing products are strengthening the misconception of people that light skin is the symbol of beauty and way to get success in life. Such advertisements create pressure on a young female to be fair-skinned in case study 1. Reena is

35 the passive victim of TV ads. The TV ads are influencing the beauty concept of people. Then those people are coming to Reena and giving unsolicited suggestions of using beauty enhancing products. It creates inferior complex and frustration in Reena. In long term, this is quite detrimental to her mental health.

CASE STUDY: ii Soheli Khanom (Pseudonym). Age 22. Married for 3 years. Having no child. Her husbands name is Mahmud Khan (Pseudonym). Age 27 years. Working in a private bank. Their conjugal life is happy, but one thing often hurts Soheli. Mahmud Khan is a television viewer. He has got severe addiction toward watching satellite channels. Most often both of them enjoy the propagated TV ads and other programs altogether. Then sometimes Mahmud compares Soheli to those models and tell Soheli to be sex appealing and attractive like those female models. Such comparison hurts Soheli. Especially, one attitude of Mahmud seems perversion to Soheli. An advertisement of Mango Slice (Soft drink) is propagated in satellite TV channels. In this ad, the female model makes many seductive moves as well as invites viewers in various sensuous ways to have a sip of that juice. This erotic ad excites Mahmud Khan. Even sometimes his excitement goes to such extent that he feels strong desire for intercourse with his wife. Whenever this advertisement is propagated, he complains that Soheli is not enough attractive or sex appealing and tells her to be attractive like the female model screened on that ad. Findings of case study ii: This case study shows the impact of TV ads on a young female and a male. The sensuous projection of women in TV advertisements is stirring mens primitive sexual desire. It is observed in case study 2 that an erotic ad is making Mahmud Khan excited. At the same time, that erotic ad is creating a kind of dissatisfaction within a male about his life-partner. Ads are creating an unreal definition of attractive or sex-appealing female, projecting those unreal concepts on screen and at the end of the day; young male viewers are being influenced by such ads. Thus demand of such ads is being created among young generation in a very shrewd way by advertisement makers. On the other hand, impact of the ads contain with sensuous projection of women is quite tragic on a young female. No female can be happy after being compared with the beauty and the sex appeal of models by her husband. It also creates an illogical pressure on a young female to be a mere sex object. Frustration and inferior complex will be created in the victim as a result. Besides, the female character of our case study gets a bad impression about her husband because of such comments and pervert attitude made by him. In long term, it will be harmful to their conjugal life.

36

CASE STUDY: iii Afroza Akhtar (Pseudonym). Age 21. Unmarried. Having an affair with Sadman Hoque (Pseudonym). Once, they were dating in a park. Then suddenly a billboard of Jui hair oil was noticed by Afroza. That billboard reminded Afroza of the whole TV commercial. That TV commercial showed the story of a husband and a wife. Husband did not care for his wife at all. He was always busy with his office work, no matter how hard the poor wife tried to seek his attention! But that hair oil solved all frustration of the wife. She had got beautiful long hair through applying that hair oil. As a result, finally the husband got impressed with wifes long and silky hair. Thus the wife got her husbands attention. Afroza told her boyfriend about that TV commercial. She told that the TV commercial was not of good taste at all. It seemed unreal and awful to Afroza that a husband was loving his wife and giving attention to her, only when she had long& beautiful hair. Afrozas beloved ones answer regarding the opinion of that TV commercial was quite surprising and shocking to her. Sadman Hoque told to Afroza not to think in that way. He expressed his opinion that all men loved beautiful-siky-long hair. You do have such nice hair and I love to touch your lock too. If these products are effective enough, you can also apply them, Sadman added. The other day Sadman has also given suggestions to apply Olay natural white cream to Afroza. He told that recently Afroza had some dark spots on her face, which does not look good at all. According to Sadman, it reduced her beauty. Sadman might have just told it without thinking anything or in order to enhance his girlfriends beauty, but it hurt Afroza. She was shocked that finally it came out that love is beauty centered. Findings of case study iii: This case study shows the impact of TV ads on a young female and a male. It is observed in case study 3 that the young male is influenced by TV ads of beauty enhancing products. That is why; he is giving suggestion to his beloved one to apply a beauty enhancing product to be more beautiful. The TV ads have created a definition of a beautiful girl in his mind. Our male character of case study 3 has set a standard of beauty of long silky hair and spotless fair-skinned in his subconscious mind after watching TV ads. As a result he is expecting her girlfriend to be flawless and beautiful like female models screened on those advertisements of beauty enhancing products. Demand of such ads has been created within young generation by the advertisement makers to a great extent. That is the reason Sadman Hoque is not finding the content of the ad of Jui hair oil unreal or illogical. He is matching the concept of that ad with his own life. It shows that TV ads are really influencing young generations lives, ideas, values, beliefs and expectations.

37 On the other hand, the young female of case study 3 is facing the impact of TV ads. She is facing unexpected demand to be beautiful from her boyfriend and losing faith on love. It is changing her mental shape. In the long run, it will not bring good result for both of them.

SECTION 5: OBSERVATION & CONCLUSIONS


5.1 Observations Recent trend of consumerism has introduced a new morality to the advertisement makers or marketers, where the God is the dollar and a failure to maximize profit is a moral sin. The process tries to keep the majority of the audience obsessed by serving ads in alluring way while allowing sensuous and stereo typed presentation in TV ads. Existing social structure is male dominant. Overall, centre of power of the society is possessed by men. Young generation is the prime target of TV ads. Therefore, ads are portraying women in sensuous ways. Empirical findings have helped the researcher to draw an observation about the research topic. The young generation loves to watch TV. A good number of them are fond of TV ads. This is definitely good news for marketers. At the same time, it reminds of the ability of advertisements to influence young generation. As TV ads are watched by a good number of youth, those ads will be able to drag the young generation in the created unreal world of advertisements. Most of the viewers felt good to watch TV ads. Some felt moderate and a very few felt bad. Therefore, TV ads have become able to captivate the young generation. Now-a-days most TV ads are replete with dance and music or jingle, as ad makers think that the ads contained with dance and music can be a good way to connect with the young audience. The fact is that ad makers are trying to create such demands of TV ads replete with dance or music or jingle among young generation because a good number of young respondents stated that they do not like ads replete with dance or jingles. Some respondents stated that they love to watch those ads. It is because their pattern of demand of TV ads has been shaped by advertisers. Todays youth are conscious enough to identify unfair inclusion of women in all types of TV ads. This is the reason, as viewers most of the male and female respondents did not expect such presentation of women in all types of TV ads. The choices of those, who stated that they expected presentation of women in all types of TV ads, are influenced by tricks of TV ads and some might have mixed the issue of women right with it. As well as some respondents stated that modeling is a good carrier and inclusion of women in all types of TV ads would maximize the opportunity for women in this carrier. Perception of males and females regarding representation of household chores

38 as womens prime role did not vary. The overall picture of taste of TV ads of young viewers is quite good. They did not mention ads contain with sensuous and stereo typed projection of women as their favorites. Our young generation is greatly influenced by the TV ads of mobile operators. If we observe the ads of mobile operators, those do not portray women as sex symbol or stereo typed image. The ads of mobile operators are versatile in nature. Generally the ads are based on youths new trend, jingles or dance moves, patriotism etc. in this age of aggression of satellite channels, where sensuous projection of women is quite common in propagated TV ads of satellite channels, it is really hopeful to have such young generation. The shares of TV ads spending by companies do not decide the taste of youth. Youth decide own taste. Dialogue, music and models these subject-matters of TV ads seem very important to young viewers. This is because most of the young people mentioned these three subject-matters of TV ads as the reason for their choice of preferable or non-preferable TV ads. Young respondents rejected ads contained with sensuous and stereo typed portrayal of women. Young viewers are concerned about the quality of the products to buy products. Models or art of the ad cannot allure them to buy a specific product. The rate of being influenced by TV ads of beauty enhancing products of our young males is higher than the expectation. A good number of young males are concerned about enhancing their beauty. In this case, the level of being influenced by TV ads of beauty enhancing products does not vary much between males and females. Female viewers think that now-a-days propagated TV ads are undermining womens self-respect and dignity. 40% females stated that their beloved ones encourage them to use beauty enhancing products after watching TV ads. It indicates the indirect pressure of TV ads on those young females. Some of the female respondents have admitted that their beloved ones expect them to be appealing and attractive like models. Those girls are victims of sensuous and stereo typed projection of women in TV ads. Many beloved ones do not express such expectations to the females directly, still the respondents felt the untold expectation by their beloved ones attitude. Majority of young males are aware of the fact that in some TV ads women are being portrayed as sensuous or appealing. Majority of young male respondents have fantasy about women after watching ads contained with sensuous or appealing models. It indicates the great impact on young males of TV ads contained with sensuous projection of women. Besides, 35% male respondents stated that they encourage their beloved ones to use beauty enhancing products after watching TV ads. 36% admitted that they expect to their beloved ones to be appealing like models. It indicates that though a good number of young males are not influenced, still the impact of TV ads on many young males cannot be denied. Case studies have shed lights on the impacts of TV ads on young males and females as well as their demand of TV ads. Young females are active or passive victims of sensuous and stereo typed portrayal of women in TV ads. Advertisements put a great impact on young males too. Though they are not victims of TV ads, rather TV ads are creating unreal expectations among them. As well as their values, concepts and perceptions are being influenced by sensuous and stereo typed of projection of women in TV ads.

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5.2 Conclusion Advertisement is a powerful medium designed to sell products, aspirations and communicate concept of acceptable behaviors and gender roles. The repetition of television commercials day after day leaves an indelible mark on impressionable young mind. The question of womens projection in TV ads has been a matter of debate for considerable time now. Hence the present study entitled Projection of women in TV advertisements: A study on the perception of young generation was conducted with the objectives, to explore the nature of presentation or portrayal of women in TV ads, to asses the impact of TV ads on perception, values and ideologies of young generation, to identify whether such sensuous and stereo typed portrayal of women is the outcome of the demand of young generation or the demand is being created by advertisers or marketers among young by such portrayal of women in TV ads. Research questions of the research were related to the research objectives. The hypothesis of the research was that the demand of sensuous and stereotyped projection of women in TV advertisements is being created among young people by the advertisers or marketers as well as these types of advertisements influence perception of young generation immensely. The results of the study revealed the fact that women are not being projected or portrayed in TV advertisements appropriately. Advertisements are presenting women as sensuous and stereo typed images. Often, the advertisements are in bad taste, have misleading information and even give negative messages to the public about women. Sometimes advertisements even humiliate women. It is understood that marketers or the advertise makers have to consider the profit factor to run their business smoothly in the competitive market, but that does not mean that advertisers will do only business and will not care about its probable negative impact on people. Collected data has proved the hypothesis of the research right. TV advertisements contained sensuous and stereotyped projection of women left an impact on perception and ideologies of young generation. Though a number of young males and females are beyond the influence of TV ads on their perception, it does not undermine the effect. It is evident from the collected data that ad makers or marketers are creating demand of such advertisements among young generation. Though number of young people did not want or expect or like such ads, still they had to watch those ads and as a consequence, they are being influenced by the concept of those ads. Therefore, first the advertisers are creating demand and then young generation are watching and being influenced. The research objectives have been accomplished and research questions have been answered. As a concluding remark it can be said that to form gender discrimination less society the positive change in our value is needed. If women are being projected in such images in TV advertisements, it would never be possible to achieve an enlightened young generation. If advertisers continue their practice of creating demand of such projection among young generation, it will influence the

40 perception and ideologies of our young generation. Though recently women are being presented appropriately in some TV ads, it is not sufficient. This tendency should be encouraged more. Therefore, a united endeavor of civil society representatives, women organization, the ad makers, models and the government agencies should be made in order to protect the dignity of women folk as well as our youth.

5.3 Policy inference Advertisements play an important role in influencing and shaping values and attitudes, particularly of young generation. It is high time to realize impact of TV ads on perception of youth and form a gender sensitive policy as soon as possible. The advertisers are creating demand of mis- presentation of women in TV ads among young generation. This practice should be stopped before it is too late to engulf the whole society in the name of open market economy. In 2006, Dr. Sourav Shikdar conducted a research on TV ads. He analyzed 131 TV ads propagated in BTV, ATN Bangla and Bangla Vision. The finding of the research was quite disappointing. The lack of gender sensitivity was noticed in all those propagated TV ads. The findings showed that 70. 2% TV ads were gender insensitive. The percentage of neutral ads was 26.7% and a few numbers of ads (3.1%) were gender sensitive. When this is the overall picture of TV ads in our country, concrete policies are needed to be taken and must be implemented. The very first policy regarding advertisement was formulated back in 1976, which mostly concentrated on the rules and regulations for advertising in newspapers. And the second one was formulated in 1982, which also can not be called a complete one. The interpretations and clarifications for advertising in media were vague on the policy. None of the policies was consisted of provision of gender issues or regarding projection of women in TV ads. At that time mass media was highly dependent on government advertisements. The advertisement regulation had a provision that gave the government the authority to select a particular media to advertise with. Such provision of selecting media in terms of assessing competence gave enough scope for vested interest groups to take advantage. But the media scenario is completely different now. As todays media has a huge number of private advertisers and the number of private TV channels has multiplied since 1997. But we do not have the competency advertisement policy in the country yet which can meet the contemporary issue of gender sensitivity and demand of positive projection of women in TV ads. Thus, the lack of formalized structure allows the marketers or advertisers to project women inappropriately in TV ads and create a pervert demand of mis presentation of women in ads among young generation. Policies which should be adopted:

41 In Beijing in the 4th World Conference on Women, to implement Platform for Action some policies were adopted. Two strategic objectives were set for the actions to be taken regarding women and media. Those strategic objectives were1. Increase the participation and excess of women to expression and decision making in and through the media and new technologies of communication. 2. Promote a balanced and non stereo type portrayal of women in the media. On the basis of the recommendations about women and media in 4th World Conference on women, a comprehensive advertising policy should be adopted consists of: To organize a Watch Group or a Censor Board of TV ads which will consist of 50% female members. The function of this Watch Group will be to put pressure on misuse and abuse of women for commercial purposes through utilizing them as consumers commodity. Taxes should be levied on the advertisement of Multinational companies. Workshop should be arranged to make the advertise makers aware of the issue of gender sensitivity. Workshops should be consisted of participation of representative of the government, noted women activists private organizations working on this issue, media workers, advertisement manufacturers, models and ad firm representatives. Existing censorship laws should be thoroughly recast to stop expansion of advertisements of bad taste contain with sensuous projection of women for mere commercial gains. Enunciation of A Code of Conduct and its strict implementation to halt unethical design of advertisement organizations and protect social values and good taste of the society. Determining the ratio of presentation of males and females in TV ads. Intentional abusing of male and female as sex object should be prohibited strictly; provision of punishment for such pervert ad makers should be added in adopted policies. Policy should be taken, which prohibits using distorted language or sensuous projection of women in TV ads. In TV ads females activities in home and outside the home should be equally presented. Women and men both should be presented as individual decision makers. Even in scenes of taking decision jointly, whether it is in home or working place, both women and men will be portrayed equally as participator in decision making process. Award should be given for making gender sensitive ads. Unfair inclusion of women in advertisements must have to be stopped. The advertisements, which are detrimental to social taste and mis present women, must be banned forthwith.

42 A monitoring group of TV ads should be formed, who will monitor the content of ads and make higher authority informed of ads contained with mis projection of women. Formulation and implementation of a regulatory framework of advertisements. Creating public opinion against mis projection of women in TV ads to ensure the making of ads which contain equal dignity of male and female. Encouraging gender sensitive training for advertisement professionals, including ad firm owners and managers, to encourage the creation and use of non stereo typed balanced and diverse images of women in the advertisements. Taking effective measures including appropriate legislation against projection of violence against women in advertisements.

Overall, the implementation of above mentioned policies should be ensured through governmental mechanisms.

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