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A.P. Perdana a,b, *


Pusat Pemetaan Rupabumi dan Toponim, Badan Informasi Geospasial, Jl. Raya Jakarta-Bogor KM46, Cibinong 16911 b Alumnus S2 Geografi - Magister Perencanaan dan Pengelolaan Pesisir dan Daerah Aliran Sungai (MPPDAS) Fakultas Geografi UGM

KEY WORDS: Spatial Approach, V-I-S Model, Urban Land Cover, Watershed, DKI Jakarta

ABSTRACT: Spatial approach is one of the approaches in study of geography, this approach focusing on understanding geopheric phenomena with special attention to the space as variable. This research used the Vegetation-Impervious Surface-Soil (V-I-S) model as conceptual model. This model proposed by Ridd in 1995 to simplify the heterogeneous of urban environment into three basic ground components: vegetation, impervious surface, and soil. Estimating, mapping and monitoring V-I-S components are valuable task for providing spatial information to be used in spatial analysis to set up planning and management of watershed area. Watersheds across DKI Jakarta as one unit river region have been selected as study area due to dynamic change in urban environment of DKI Jakarta also spatial synergism between DKI Jakarta and its surrounding cities that emerge Jabodetabek. The aims of this research are: (1) to obtain three basic components of urban environments to characterize the urban area, (2) to analyze spatial-temporal urban land cover change at three periods, (3) to examine intra-urban variations in three cities in study area via comparative analyze of the V-I-S components. Spectral mixture analysis (SMA) used in this research to obtained V-I-S components from Multitemporal Landsat data. Post classification change detection carried out by comparing the result of V-I-S model periods 1975, 1990, 2000 and 2010. Map analysis in this study in scale 1:250,000 due to spatial resolution of Landsat MSS (57 meters) and 30 meters for Landsat TM and ETM+. The present study exhibits the rapid expansion of Jakarta can be analyzed through urban area change since 1975 until 2010 which caused by population growth and human activities. Spatial comparison of intra-urban variation of DKI Jakarta, Depok City and Bogor City described spatial expression of urban area which characterize urban environment based on V-I-S components. DKI Jakarta in lowland area dominated by impervious surface, Depok city is in middle stream should preserve the reservoirs, and vegetation cover in Bogor city play an important role.

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background In the last decades, there are three most rapid land cover changes: forest cover changes, changes in agricultural areas and changes in urbanization (Lambin et al., 2003; Lambin and Geist, 2006). The increasing population and human activities as a determinant factor in the dynamic nature of urban area in the course of time constantly increasing and expanding urban area and unstoppable process towards urban sprawl outside the city. More than 50% of world populations live in urban areas. Global change in urban areas known as global urbanization affects the occurrence of spatial integration between the cities and creates large cities called megapolitan (Yunus, 2006; Krass, 2010). In Indonesia, Jakarta is one of the megacities with population tripled from 2.7 million in 1960 to more than 9.5 million in 2008 (UNCJS, 2002 in Barklanov 2009; Krass 2010). In 1970s, the merger of cities around Jakarta such as Bogor, Tangerang and Bekasi into Jabotabek was introduced. Besides those cities, within the last decade population growth in Depok City and Cibinong sub-district increased approximately 10% each year. Urban development of Depok emerged new term of Greater Jakarta which is Jabodetabek. It can be seen as a process of spatial synergism in joint efforts to deal with symptoms of urban environment change. Therefore, * Corresponding author.

understanding the urban environment is a prerequisite for addressing sustainability and increasingly important issue in planning and management from various aspects of the spatial aspect, social and cultural (Ward et al., 2000; Wu and Murray, 2003; Yunus, 2006). Vegetation and impervious surface abundance and distribution are central to the understanding of urban ecosystem (Ridd, 1995; Rashed et al., 2001; Lu and Small, 2006). Impervious surface is found inversely related to vegetation cover in urban areas. In other words, as impervious cover increases within a watershed or administrative unit, vegetation cover would decrease (Weng, 2008). Detecting, monitoring, and analyzing through mapping the vegetation and impervious surface are valuable task for urban study. It needs an appropriate approach and accurate information at proper scale. Spatial approach, one of the approaches in Geography is suitable option for understanding geosphere phenomenon using space as a medium for analysis (Yunus, 2010). Goodall, 1987 in Yunus, 2010 define: spatial approach is an approach in the study of Geography focusing on the recording and description of geospheric phenomena (human and natural phenomena) around the earths surface, with special attention to the significance of space as variable. In line with Goodall, Yunus 2010 define spatial approach as a method to understand

certain phenomenon to have deeper knowledge by means of space in this case space as variable has main position in each analysis. Space from practical dimension can be described as certain part of earths surface which able to accommodate human activities in fulfilling their living requirements. Yunus 2010 defined at least 9 (nine) theme of analysis in spatial approach: spatial pattern analysis; spatial structure analysis; spatial process analysis; spatial interaction analysis; spatial organization/spatial system analysis; spatial association analysis; spatial comparison analysis; spatial tendency trend analysis; and spatial synergism analysis. Spatial information derived from remotely sensed data with spatial, temporal and spectral ability used as an input in spatial analysis. To figure out geosphere phenomenas, remotely sensed data are essentially suited to provide information on urban land cover characteristics related to ecological, demographic, socioeconomic, and dynamic aspects of developed regions at various spatial and temporal scales (Ridd, 1995; Yunus, 2006).

three periods, (3) to examine intra-urban variations in three cities in study area via comparative analyze of the V-I-S components. 1.3 Study Area Study area of this research is watersheds which originate from upper land in Mount Pangrango, Bogor and those watersheds across Jakarta with estuary in Jakarta Bay. Study area covers Ci Liwung, Angke Pesanggrahan, Krukut Grogol, Sunter, Cakung watersheds. Total of study area is 150,852.19 Ha and it is geographically located between longitude 106 38' 26.4" E 107 0' 30.3" E and latitude 6 5' 17.7" S - 6 46' 7.8" S. Watersheds across DKI Jakarta are extending from upstream to downstream and located in Jabodetabek region (Figure 2). Watersheds across DKI Jakarta are extending from upstream to downstream and located in Jabodetabek region. Administratively, those area as one unit river basin covers three provinces namely Banten, West Java and DKI Jakarta. Part of west region study area cover Banten Province, while from upstream to downstream (the eastern part) located in West Java province, and DKI Jakarta in the middle or lowland of study area. If based on the definition of urban according to the administrative, then in the study area includes five Cities in Province of Jakarta, and three in the city of West Java Province namely Bogor, Depok and Jakarta as well as a city in the Tangerang Banten Province.

Figure 1. Ridds Vegetation-Impervious Surface-Soil (V-I-S) model of urban cover composition (after Ridd, 1995) Ridd in 1995 proposed Vegetation-Impervious surface-Soil (VI-S) model for characterizing biophysical composition of urban environment. The VIS model assumes that urban land covers may be a linear combination of three components: vegetation, impervious surface, and soil. Urban land cover derived from medium or low resolution remotely sensed data and high resolution images used as compared image for detailed ground compositions of V-I-S model. Ridds V-I-S model provides an intuitive link to the spectral mixing problem, because the spectral contribution of its three main components can be resolved at the sub-pixel level using the SMA technique. Phinn et al. (2002), Rashed et al. (2001), Small (2002), Wu and Murray (2003), Sarapirome and Kulrat (2010) and many other researchers has examined the use of SMA for revealing urban environment as proposed by Ridd (1995).

Figure 2. Map of study area in Jabodetabek region

2. METHOD 2.1 Data and Preparation

1.2 Research Objectives The general objective of this study is to assess and understanding urban land cover change through V-I-S model in map scale 1:250,000 for watersheds across DKI Jakarta. The specific objectives of this study are: (1) to obtain three basic components of urban environments to characterize the urban area, (2) to analyze spatial-temporal urban land cover change at

In this preparation step, defining study area was done by combined watershed boundaries from BPDAS Ci Liwung-Ci Sadane and the result of watershed delineation from SRTM data to obtained suitable watersheds boundaries for study area in map scale 1:250,000. This research used four images with different spatial and temporal resolution (Landsat MSS 57 meters while Landsat TM and ETM+ with 30 meters) to extract urban land cover and detect urban change. Those images are

Landsat GeoCover and Global Land Survey have been orthorectified and terrain corrected.

2.2 The V-I-S Components Extraction The V-I-S model proposed by Ridd (1995) used spectra; mixture analysis to depict the heterogeneous of urban environments which simplified into three components. This research examines the feasibility of spectral mixture analysis in deriving comparable physical measures of urban land cover that describe the morphological characteristics of cities in watersheds area. The key to successful SMA application relies on the appropriate and accurate of endmember selection (Rashed et al., 2000; Pu et al., 2008). The selection of endmembers can be done in two ways (Adams et al., 1993): (1) by deriving them directly from the image (image endmembers), or (2) from field or laboratory spectra of known materials (reference endmembers). In this study relied on image endmembers extraction from Landsat data because examining the use V-I-S model and only utilized a single-date image for each year. Linking the result of V-I-S model to understand urban environments components can be seen in Figure 3.

Figure 4. The classification result of V-I-S components Landsat MSS 1975 data has coarse spatial resolution (57 meter) and different spectral characteristics compared to TM and ETM+ has shown different result. Urban area of DKI Jakarta cannot be observed clearly and in this DKI Jakarta dominated by residential area inside administrative boundary. Setiadi and Tambunan (2007) said that since 1970s, Jakarta has changing dramatically in terms of its population size. Then, the physical structure of Jakarta is undergoing great evolution from concentric to multiple nucleus models under an unplanned development with many fringe areas being invaded by urban activities. The result can be seen in Landsat TM 1990; DKI Jakarta has developed as a city due to the increasing population. This increasing population followed by the need of place to stay that force the decreasing of open space and vegetation cover. In year 1990 DKI Jakarta can be called as city from dimension of urban morphology defined by Yunus (2005) as a particular region with non-agricultural land use or can be said that mostly covered by buildings (residential and non-residential) larger than the vegetation coverage. City facilities have developed in this area and spatial expression of DKI Jakarta as city developed from north to south due to many factors such as DKI Jakarta is central for industrial, government activities and the population in the core started to decline steadily many people left from the inner-city. In the 1990s, fringe areas have raised the average population density in the southern suburbans.

Figure 3. Linking impervious surface and vegetation fractions to land use types

3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION 3.1 V-I-S Components of Urban Land Cover The V-I-S components in this research consist of three main endmembers (vegetation, impervious surface, soil) and shade endmembers. They are selected to model heterogeneous urban environments in watersheds across DKI Jakarta.

Spatial pattern that can be seen in Figure 4 is pattern of urban area in DKI Jakarta, Depok City, Cibinong and Bogor City. DKI Jakarta has pattern distribution clustered area in the inner city and north of Jakarta by the increasing of commercial area, industrial area and settlement or residential area. Firman and Darmapadni (1994) analyzed that development in DKI Jakarta and its surroundings or known as Jabotabek region from economic aspect at least there are three factors: foreign and domestic investment; urban settlements, commercial area and infrastructure development; and urban population growth.

3.2 Spatial-Temporal Change of Urban Land Cover Urban area as explained in previous discussion change dynamically caused by the increasing population and human activities. Population growth rates in developing countries such as Indonesia, the growth in urban growth levels higher than the national level. It is considered reasonable by Yunus (2005) which states that: A determinant of urban population growth is not only natural growth alone, but also migration from other parts of the territory into the city (inmigration). Meanwhile, national population growth is natural growth (Yunus, 2005:55-56). Population growth in study area is highly increased from 1960s until now as can be seen in Figure 5. Its cause a serious spatial consequences to urban environment which is inevitable space demand as place to stay. Population growth in DKI Jakarta in year 2000 slowing down but population growth in Bogor and Depok increase and it has relationship with the increasing of impervious surface in Depok and Bogor. People start to move from inner city and stay in fringe area it can be seen in spatial expression of cities. Figure 6. V-I-S compositions in study area Urban land cover change can be seen more simple in Figure 7, built-up areas in DKI Jakarta has become under bounded city. While, Depok city and Bogor city still over bounded city because most of the urban physical boundaries within the limits of the city administration. Yellow is urban development area in year 1975, green for year 1990, cyan for year 2000 and red for 2010. Spatial expression of DKI Jakarta is fan shaped city cause by natural constrains Jakarta Bay thats why urban development from north to the south, and east-west direction. The most dynamic changes beside to the south, east or west, in the north area or coastal area can be seen urban area expansion from center to west and east area of North Jakarta.

Data Source: BPS DKI Jakarta in Bappeda DKI Jakarta (2001) and

Figure 5. Population Growth Jabodetabek 1961-2010 (x1000) Spatial temporal change of urban land cover in study area derived from classification V-I-S compositions and impervious surface area is described as urban area. As can be seen in Figure 6, red line is impervious surface area as urban area increased significant in period 1975-1990 and 2000-2010 and has the opposite with green vegetation decreased. In line with statement from Weng (2008), as impervious cover increases within a watershed or administrative unit, vegetation cover would decrease.

Figure 7. Urban development of study area

3.3 Intra-Urban Variation of Land Cover Intra-urban variation of land cover from cities in study area are described to understand urban development of DKI Jakarta as urban area and compare with others cities, Depok as urban fringe and Bogor city as develop city in upper part of Ci Liwung watershed. Ridd (1995) proposed V-I-S model to support the measures on biological and physical structures of urban landscapes because these measures do not depend on human interpretation, nor are they influenced by such criteria as the economic development of the city. By increasing of

impervious surface and decreasing of vegetation, each city has variation of urban land cover and resulted in massive building activities provide a negative impact on environment quality. Comparing intra-urban variation of each city covered by watersheds area across DKI Jakarta is needed. Spatial comparison enhances people understanding of city development impacts on environment and the role of each city in urban watershed management. Figure 8 until figure 10 shown the deelopment of urban area in three cities.

Figure 10. Intra-urban variation in DKI Jakarta

4. CONCLUSION Urban land cover can be derived through V-I-S model developed by Ridd (1995) which simplified urban environment into three main components: vegetation, impervious surface and soil. Spatial-temporal change of urban land cover at three periods from study area revealed population growth and human activities in DKI Jakarta increased demand on space illustrated with increasing of impervious surface from north-south and west-east. In the last decade can be observed that Depok and Cibinong as a place near Jakarta became residential area as can be seen by increasing of impervious surface which is mediumhigh density residential. The expansion of Jakarta has reach Depok city and Bogor city can be shown with impervious surface area in both cities. Urban landscape structure changes in these areas are come from green landscape converted into impervious surface area. Urban environment change from upstream, midstream, downstream until coastal area bring environment problems such as land subsidence and flooding.

Figure 8. Intra-urban variation in Bogor City

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