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AS/NZS 7000:2010 Worked Examples 11kV Single Circuit Concrete Poles

9.2m

1.8m

Single Circuit LV or 11 kV

Worked Example 1 11kV Single circuit pole line


Line INLINE POLE

Maximum change in line direction is 10 degrees

9.2m Ground Line

1.8m

Single Circuit

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Line Design Parameters


Component Location Terrain Exposure Design working life Design security level Design Wind RP Design Wind velocity VR Lee wind area Topographic multiplier M t Directional multiplier Md Terrain multiplier Mzcat Ice load Detail Coastal plain North Island Flat / undulating Terrain Cat 2 50yrs Level 1 50yrs 39.0 m/s No 1.0 1.0 1.0 Nil AS/NZS 1170.2 Table 6.1 AS/NZS 7000 Table 6.1 AS/NZS 7000 Table 6.1 AS/NZS 7000 Region A7 AS/NZS 1170.2 Table 3.1 Fig B2 AS/NZS7000 Cl. B3 AS/NZS7000 Cl. B3 AS/NZS7000 Table 4.1 AS/NZS1170.2 Appendix EE AS/NZS7000 Reference

Selection of design wind return period

Australian Panel B2 Overhead Lines Seminar AS/NZS Overhead Line Design Sydney 28 -29 March 2011

7/14/2011

Australian Panel B2 Overhead Lines Seminar AS/NZS Overhead Line Design Sydney 28 -29 March 2011

AS/NZS 1170.2

Australian Panel B2 Overhead Lines Seminar AS/NZS Overhead Line Design Sydney 28 -29 March 2011

7/14/2011

Line Design Parameters


Component Pole type Conductor Earthwire Wind span Weight span Deviation angle Detail 11.0m Prestressed concrete Dog ACSR Nil 70m 70m 10 degrees Reference

Pole details
Item Pole type Embedment Depth Conductor attachment Ht Transverse Base width @GL Longitudinal Base width @GL Transverse Tip width Longitudinal tip width Pole tip load longitudinal capacity Pole tip load transverse capacity Assumed Pole Details 11m PSC Rectangular I section 1.8m 9.2m 430mm 150 mm 160 mm 150 mm 8.0kN 22.0kN

Assume max bending moment 200mm below ground level

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Conductor details
DOG ACSR Everyday Temperature (EDT): Minimum Temperature: Maximum Design Temperature: Stringing Temperature: Stringing Tension, 10% UTS Stringing Tension, (EDT) Nominal Overall Diam: Cross Sectional Area: Initial Mod Of Elasticity: Ultimate Tensile Strength: VALUE 10 -5.76 50 15 3.00 3.29 14.2 118.8 56.54 x 109 3357 32.93 Self weight: 0.396 0.00388 UNIT DegC DegC DegC DegC kN kN mm m2 Pa kg kN kg/m kN/m

Wind Pressures
Unit Design Wind Pressures: Regional site design wind velocity Unit Design Wind Pressure

Vsit, qz

= VR Md Mz,cat Ms Mt =39m/s 2 = 0.6Vsit , 103 (kPa)


= 913 Pa

( Cl B3 AS/NZS 7000) ( Cl B5 AS/NZS 7000)

Element Design Wind Pressures: Conductors (Cd = 1.0): = 913 x 1.00 (Design Wind Pressure x Drag Force Coef) = 913 Pa = 913 x 1.6 (Design Wind Pressure x Drag Force Coef) = 1460 Pa = 913 x 1.2 (Design Wind Pressure x Drag Force Coef) = 1096 Pa = 913 x 1.2 (Design Wind Pressure x Drag Force Coef) = 1096 Pa

Pole (Cd = 1.6):

Crossarm End (Cd = 1.2):

Insulators (Cd = 1.2):

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Design Load Combinations

Australian Panel B2 Overhead Lines Seminar AS/NZS 7000 :2010 Overhead line Design Sydney 28-29 March 2011

Conductor Applied Loads


Load Condition
Everyday load condition, 10 DegC, no wind Sustained load condition, -5.76 DegC, no wind Sustained load condition, 00C, no wind Maximum wind load condition, 0 DegC, Wind = 913 Pa

Symbol
Fat Fat Fat Ftw

Design Load
3.27 kN 4.57 kN 3.99 kN

8.76 kN

Maximum wind load condition, minimum temperature -5.76 DegC, Wind = 913 Pa

Ftw

9.26 kN

Failure Containment, 10 DegC, max. wind x 0.25

Fb

3.97 kN

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Check Conductor Design Tensions


For ultimate loading conditions: Ultimate Tensile Strength of conductor Rn = 32.93 kN Conductor Capacity Rn = 23.05 kN (Material Factor = 0.7 Table 6.2 AS/NZS 7000) Under maximum wind condition: Conductor tension = 1.25 x Fat = 1.25 x 8.76 = 10.95 kN < Rn Under minimum temperature condition: Conductor tension = 1.25 x Fat = 1.25 x4.57 = 5.71 kN < Rn Therefore OK for DOG conductor

Check loads on pin insulators


Maximum transverse wind load from conductor on insulator Tiw = = = = Az x Conductor wind pressure (Diam x Span x SRF) x Conductor wind pressure 14.2/1000 x 70 x 1 x 913/1000 0.91 kN < (0.85 x 9.6) kN for 1130W,

Line deviation transverse conductor load under maximum wind load

Tid = 2 x Fat x

2 = 2 x 8.76 x sin(5) = 1.53 kN

sin

Sum of design ultimate loads at conductor level on top of insulator: kiTi = ki x Wind load + 1.25 x deviation load = 0.75x0.91+1.25x1.53 = 2.59 kN

< (72) or 3.5 kN for 1130W, < (0.85 x 9.6) kN for M20 high tensile pin,

Maximum vertical load from conductor (No ice or snow)

Vu = Span x weight per m = 70 x 0.00388 x 1.1 = 0.30 kN

(Load Factor 1.1 from Table 7.3 AS/NZS 7000) < (72) kN for 1130W, OK Use 1130W, Pin M20 High Tensile

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Check Conductor Separation at Midspan


Clause 3.7.3.2 of AS/NZS 7000:2010 provides
X 2 + (1.2Y )2 U + k D+l 150

Where; X = Projected horizontal distance (m) between conductors midspan Y = Projected vertical distance (m) between conductors midspan U = r.m.s. vector difference in potential (kV) k = Constant, normally equal to 0.4 D = Greater of two conductor sags centre equiv. span, 50 DegC, still air l = Length in metres of any free swing conductor In this structure case Y = 0 m;U = 11 kV; k = 0.4 ; D = 1.14 m ; and l = 0 m Therefore; X 11 / 150 + 0.4 x (1.142 + 0) 0.529 m and X = (X1 + X2)/2 = (300 + 950)/2 for 1400 x 100 x 75 HW crossarm, Ie X1 = 300, X2 = 950 Distance between conductors midspan X = 0.625 m Minimum required separation; 0.529 OK for 1400 x 100 x 75 HW crossarm and electrical separations are OK

HW Crossarm Design
Check conductors vertical loads Vertical Bending in crossarm: Vertical Load of conductors = unit weight x weight span x 9.806 = .00388x70 = .27kN For intermediate suspension structures the conductor vertical loads are very small and would only govern design where ice loads apply and for design spans > 250m. Here, span = 70m . Therefore OK Check conductors horizontal loads: (Assuming loads are transferred through to pole via a single bolts in shear and stabilized by standard flat plate braces) Ultimate horizontal load Wu = (ki x Wind load + 1.25 x deviation load) x 3 = ((0.75 x 0.91) + (1.25 x 1.53))x 3 i.e. N = 7.76 kN

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Timber Joint Design (Crossarm to Pole) Now for a M16 Grade 4.6 bolt Qskl = 23.4 kN for Joint Group J1 (ironbark) Table 4.9(B) AS 1720.1 where beff = 75 mm (parallel to grain) & single shear so design capacity; Nj N* Nj = k1 k16 k17 n Qskl (Clause 4.4.3.2 of AS1720.1 1997) where = 0.8; k1 = 0.57 (duration of load - say permanent for deviation); k16 = 1 ( bolt loads not transferred by side plates); k17 = 1 (from Table 4.11 AS 1720.1); n = 1 (No. of bolts = 1) therefore Nj = 10.67 kN 7.76 kN OK for M16 bolt to pole in 75mm wide crossarm, 1400 x 100 x 75 HW crossarm OK

Concrete pole design


Transverse design wind loads: 1. Wind on Pole: Wnpole = Pole Az x Pole wind pressure = 9.2x(0.24+0.15)/2 x 1460/1000 = 2.62 kN This force acts at height =((0.240.15)x9.2/2x9.2/3+(0.15x9.2x9.2/2)/(9.2x(0.24+0.15)/2 = 4.25 m 2. Wind on Crossarm: Wncrossarm = Crossarm Az x Crossarm wind pressure (assume 100 x 75mm) = (0.1 x 0.075) x 1096/1000 = 0.01 kN This force acts at height of: 9.20 m

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Concrete pole design


3. Wind on Conductors: Wncond = Conductor Az x Conductor wind pressure (3 conductors) = 3 x (Diam x Span x SRF ) x Conductor wind pressure = 3 x (14.2/1000 x 70 x 1) x913/1000 = 2.72 kN This force acts at height of 9.20 m (Ref Fig B5 and B6 of AS/NZS 7000 for SRF ) 4. Wind on Insulators: (assume 150 x 129mm projected area) Wninsul = Insulator Az x Insulator wind pressure = 3 x (0.150 x 0.129) x 1367/1000 = 0.08 kN This force acts at height of 9.20 m

Concrete pole design


Line deviation loads: Line deviation angle =10 degrees Tid=2 x Fat x sin 10/2 =2 x 8.76 x sin(5) =1.53kN Determine pole design overturning moments: Taking moments about ground line for the maximum wind and weight loading condition (BM) = 1.0 Wn +1.1 Gs +1.25 Gc + 1.25 Ftw = 1.0 ((2.62 x 4.25) + (0.01 x 9.2) + (2.72 x 9.2) + (0.08 x 9.2)) + 1.1 ( 3x .27 x .75) + 1.25 (3 x 1.53 x 9.2 ) = 90.435 kN-m Assume 9.28 m effective cantilever ( ie 9.20 O/A above ground +200 - 120 to king bolt) Pole design transverse tip load = 90.43 / 9.28 = 9.74 kN Pole Capacity

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Concrete pole design


AS/NZS 7000 :2010 Appendix I Clause I3 provides for strength capacity factor () should not be taken as greater than 1.0 when designs are load tested. 0.9 when designed by calculation Assuming a proprietary design PSC pole based on calculation supported by testing Then required Rn must be > 9.74kN ie Rn transverse = or > 9.74/0.9 = 10.82kN tip load. Longitudinal strength capacity (tip load ) as general rule should be not < 0.25 x transverse capacity ieRn longitudinal = or > 10.82 x .25 = 2.70 kN tip load. Pole selection : From Busck manufacturers catalogue Suggest selection of 11.0 Busck PSC pole TLC transverse = 22.0kN TLC longitudinal = 8kN ie >> required Rn

Pole foundation
. Assumed pole butt details: Average pole width: = (150 + 240)/2 = 195 mm Embedment depth: = 1.8 - 0.20 = 1.60m Load height: = 9.280 m (from crossarm attachment to 200 below GL.) Assume no blocking Assumed soil type : Firm sandy clay Assumed soil properties: bearing strength fbu = 200 kPa (above water table) Pole Loads: Pole tip load = 10.82kN

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Pole foundation
Embedment depth (D) may be determined from the following equation based on ASCE Method:
D= 3.6 H R + 12.96 H 2 + 16.2 CM R 2C

Where C = fbu.b for ultimate limit state, Fbu = the maximum bearing strength of the foundation material (kPa) b = the effective width of the footing, projected on a plane perpendicular to the direction of the resultant horizontal force acting on the pole (m) M = the overturning moment acting on the pole at ground level (kNm) = HR.hr HR= the resultant of the horizontal forces acting on the pole tip (kN) Hr = the height above ground level at which HR acts (m)

ING STRENGTH OF SOILS AT THE SERVICEABILITY LIMIT S


TYPICAL BEARING STRENGTH ( fbu )OF SOILS
Class Very soft Soft Firm Very firm Hard

Soil description

Silty clays and Wet clays; silty Damp clays; sandy sands; loose dry loams; wet or clays; damp sands sands loose sands

Dry clays; clayey sands; coarse san Gravels; dry ds; compact clays sands

Strength (fbu) kPa

fbu 100

100 < fbu 150

150 < fbu 250

250 < fbu 350

350 < fbu

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Compacted Soil Footing: Assume standard heel block (490 x 225) b = 490 mm h = 225 mm Average pole width b = ((240 -(240-150)/3) + 240)/2 = 225 mm Applying values to formula D = 3.44m > 1.60 available Stabilized backfill footing : Assume use compacted stabilised backfill or compacted road base backfill in 600 dia bored hole with standard heel block. ie b=600 Applying assumed soil values D= 2.00m > 1.60 available Note: Neither of these two alternatives are acceptable. This is due to the high O/T moment being applied by the deviation loads (52.78kNm out of 90.43kNm )

Alternative stabilized backfill footing : Assume use compacted stabilised backfill or compacted road base backfill in 900 mm dia. bored hole with standard heel block. ie b=.900m Applying assumed soil values D= 1.6m c/w 1.6 available and would be OK

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Breast Block Alternative: Once breast logs are utilised the overturning moments are resisted by reaction mobilised by the bearing blocks and base block Assume 1200wide x 360 deep block 200 below GL Resolving BMs around pinned base Rbreast = 10.82 x (9.280 +1.60) / (1.60 - 0.180) = 82.49 kN Rbase = 82.49 10.82 = 72.08 kN Bearing block area = 1.2 x .360 = .432 m2 Bearing pressure = 82.49/.432=195kPa < 200 kPa assumed

Back stay alternative : Due to the high O/T moment being applied by the deviation loads (52.78kNm out of 90.43kNm ) this option may be more suitable in soft soil sites OTM on pole = 90.43 kNm Assume stay attachment point is at crossarm brace bolt at 330 mm below crossarm attachment point Stay attachment height = 9.28- 0.33 = 8.95m Therefore Rh = 90.43/8.95 = 10.10 kN Stay Tension Ts = Rh / Cos45 = 14.28kN 9.5mm dia stay wire has rated capacity of 45kN Use 9.5mm stay wire and standard dead man anchor Vertical load component of stay load = Rh x tan45 =14.28kN This is a relative small vertical load on the pole and is OK

Rh Ts RV
Stay

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Questions?

Australian Panel B2 Overhead Lines Seminar AS/NZS Overhead Line Design Sydney 28 -29 March 2011

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