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Appraising the role of cloud computing in daily life and presenting new solutions for stabilization of this technology

International Branch of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad , Iran Department of Information and Communication Technology at University of Agder (UiA); Grimstad, Norway 3 Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST); Tehran, Iran (*corresponding author: Mehdi Darbandi)
paper we propose information filter for estimation and prediction about cloud computing resources.

Saeed Setayesh1, Pariya Shahbazi2, Mehdi Darbandi3*, Saeed Rasti1


Abstract Cloud computing is fast creating a revolution in the way information technology is used and procured by organizations and by individuals. Although the definition of Cloud is still cloudy but we can tell that perhaps the simplest working definition of cloud computing is being able to access files, data, programs and 3rd party services from a web browser via the internet that are hosted by a 3rd party provider and paying only for the computing resources and services used [2]. This technology presents lots of abilities and opportunities such as processing power, storage and accessing it from everywhere, supporting, working team group - with the latest versions of software and etc., by the means of internet. Cloud computing is reliable services that presenting by next generation data centers and from internet, they based on virtual technologies and computing methods [4]. In recent decades the internet has very deep influences in human lives and also in offer and demand markets; lots of people for trading, reading the news, seeing the movies or to play online games go through the internet. As our daily needs from the internet became more, so that the processing power and amount of storage data and files should increase significantly [8]. With remarkable developments of communication and information technology in recent days, we consider processing and processing power as the fifth vital component in human lives (after water, electricity, gas and telephone) [9]. These days lots of technologies migrate from traditional systems into cloud and similar technologies; also we should note that cloud can be used for military and civilian purposes [3]. On the other hand, in such a large scale networks we should consider the reliability and powerfulness of such networks in facing with events such as high amount of users that may login to their profiles simultaneously, or for example if we have the ability to predict about what times that we would have the most crowd in network, or even users prefer to use which part of the Cloud Computing more than other parts which software or hardware configuration. With knowing such information, we can avoid accidental crashing or hanging of the network that may be cause by logging of too much users. In this paper we propose Kalman Filter that can be used for estimating the amounts of users and softwares that run on cloud computing or other similar platforms at a certain time. After introducing this filter, at the end of paper, we talk about some potentials of this filter in cloud computing platform. In this paper we demonstrate about how we can use Kalman filter in estimating and predicting of our target, by the means of several examples on Kalman filter. Also at the end of

Keywords- Information Technology, Information filter

Cloud computing, Security, Kalman Filter.



The Internet has experienced huge growth in the last decade, and hundreds of millions of users now depend on it for daily news, entertainment and commerce. Thousands of large datacenters have sprung up to fuel the demand for compute power to drive these internet sites, fundamentally changing the economics of hosting in recent years. Cloud computing means that software infrastructure now runs on virtual machines, and usage is charged "by the second" resources are consumed. Simultaneously, we have seen mobile devices and social networking become popular with consumers as a way of operating on the move. Devices such as the iPhone boast fully-featured software stacks and gigabytes of solid-state storage. However, battery technology has not kept pace at the same rate, and so an efficient software stack is vital to having a device that works for reasonable periods of time. As the new computing service pattern of cloud computing develops rapidly, the security problem of cloud computing has become a hot research topic. Before the user passes important data or computing task to the cloud, the user of the cloud may want to verify the trusted status of the platform which actually carries out the computing task in the cloud. And the remote attestation mechanism in Trusted Computing is suited for the cloud user's verification need. With the advent internet in the 1990s to the present day facilities of ubiquitous computing, the internet has changed the computing world in a drastic way. It has traveled from the concept of parallel computing to distributed computing to grid computing and recently to cloud computing. Although the idea of cloud computing has been around for quite some time, it is an emerging field of computer science. Cloud computing can be defined as a computing environment where computing needs by one party can be outsourced to another party and when need be arise to

2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617



use the computing power or resources like database or emails, they can access them via internet. Cloud computing is a recent trend in IT that moves computing and data away from desktop and portable PCs into large data centers. The main advantage of cloud computing is that customers do not have to pay for infrastructure, its installation, required man power to handle such infrastructure and maintenance. Cloud computing is emerging as a prominent computing model. It provides a low-cost, highly accessible alternative to other traditional highperformance computing platforms. It also has many other benefits such as high availability, scalability, elasticity, and free of maintenance. Given these attractive features, it is very desirable if automated planning can exploit the large, affordable computational power of cloud computing. However, the latency in inter-process communication in cloud computing makes most existing parallel planning algorithms unsuitable for cloud computing. A Cloud computing system provides infrastructure layer services to users by managing virtualized infrastructure resources. The infrastructure resources include CPU, hyper visor, storage, and networking. Each category of infrastructure resources is a subsystem in a cloud computing system. The cloud computing system coordinates infrastructure subsystems to provide services to users. Most current cloud computing systems lacks pluggability in their infrastructure subsystems and decision algorithms, which restricts the development of infrastructure subsystems and decision algorithms in cloud computing system. A cloud computing system should have the flexibility to switch from one infrastructure subsystem to another, and one decision algorithm to another with ease. Cloud computing, despite its hype, is being widely deployed, with its dynamic scalability and usage of virtualized resources, in many organizations for several applications. It is envisioned that, in the near future, cloud computing will have a significant impact on the educational and learning environment, enabling their own users (i.e., learners, instructors, and administrators) to perform their tasks effectively with less cost by utilizing the available cloud-based applications offered by the cloud service providers. Cloud computing is set of resources and services offered through the Internet. Cloud services are delivered from data centers located throughout the world. Cloud computing facilitates its consumers by providing virtual resources via internet. General example of cloud services is Google apps, provided by Google and Microsoft SharePoint. The rapid growth in field of cloud computing also increases severe security concerns. Security has remained a constant issue for Open Systems and internet, when we are

talking about security cloud really suffers. Lack of security is the only hurdle in wide adoption of cloud computing. Cloud computing is surrounded by many security issues like securing data, and examining the utilization of cloud by the cloud computing vendors. The wide acceptance www has raised security risks along with the uncountable benefits, so is the case with cloud computing. The boom in cloud computing has brought lots of security challenges for the consumers and service providers. How the end users of cloud computing know that their information is not having any availability and security issues? Every one poses, Is their information secure? Although the cloud computing model is considered to be a very promising internet-based computing platform, it results in a loss of security control over the cloud-hosted assets. This is due to the outsourcing of enterprise IT assets hosted on third-party cloud computing platforms. Moreover, the lack of security constraints in the Service Level Agreements between the cloud providers and consumers results in a loss of trust as well. Obtaining a security certificate such as ISO 27000 or NIST-FISMA would help cloud providers improve consumers trust in their cloud platforms' security. However, such standards are still far from covering the full complexity of the cloud computing model. We introduce a new cloud security management framework based on aligning the FISMA standard to fit with the cloud computing model, enabling cloud providers and consumers to be security certified. Our framework is based on improving collaboration between cloud providers, service providers and service consumers in managing the security of the cloud platform and the hosted services. It is built on top of a number of security standards that assist in automating the security management process. Although cloud computing is generally recognized as a technology which will has a significant impact on IT in the future. However, Cloud computing is still in its infancy, currently, there is not a standard available for it, portability and interoperability is also impossible between different Cloud Computing Service Providers, therefore, handicaps the widely deploy and quick development of cloud computing, there is still a long distance to the fine scenery which theoretically depicted by cloud computing. We analyze the problems in the current state of the art, put forward that Open Cloud Computing Federation is an inevitable approach for the widely use of cloud computing and to realize the greatest value of it. The cloud computing is a new computing model which comes from grid computing, distributed computing, parallel computing, virtualization technology, utility computing and other computer technologies and it has more advantage characters such as large scale computation and data storage, virtualization, high

2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617



expansibility, high reliability and low price service. The security problem of cloud computing is very important and it can prevent the rapid development of cloud computing. Cloud computing is one of today's most exciting technologies due to its ability to reduce costs associated with computing while increasing flexibility and scalability for computer processes. During the past few years, cloud computing has grown from being a promising business idea to one of the fastest growing parts of the IT industry. IT organizations have expresses concern about critical issues (such as security) that exist with the widespread implementation of cloud computing. These types of concerns originate from the fact that data is stored remotely from the customer's location; in fact, it can be stored at any location. Security, in particular, is one of the most argued-about issues in the cloud computing field; several enterprises look at cloud computing warily due to projected security risks. The risks of compromised security and privacy may be lower overall, however, with cloud computing than they would be if the data were to be stored on individual machines instead of in a so - called "cloud" (the network of computers used for remote storage and maintenance). Comparison of the benefits and risks of cloud computing with those of the status quo are necessary for a full evaluation of the viability of cloud computing. Consequently, some issues arise that clients need to consider as they contemplate moving to cloud computing for their businesses. Cloud Computing is evolving as a key technology for sharing resources. Grid Computing, distributed computing, parallel computing and virtualization technologies define the shape of a new era. Traditional distance learning systems lack reusability, portability and interoperability. Cloud computing has changed the whole picture that distributed computing used to present e.g. Grid computing, server client computing. Cloud has given a new meaning to distributed, and off-premises computing. Although, Cloud offers great benefits, it also introduces a myriad of security threats to the information and data which is now being ported from on-premises to off-premises. Where cloud computing can help organizations accomplish more by paying less (in the longer run) and breaking the physical boundaries between IT infrastructure and its users, due to openness of accessible information and data relying on trust between cloud provider and customer, heightened security threats must be overcome in order to benefit fully from this new computing exemplar. Breach in the security of any component in the cloud can be both disaster for the organization (the customer) and defacing for the provider.

The greatest environmental challenge today is global warming, which is caused by carbon emissions. Energy crisis brings green computing, and green computing needs algorithms and mechanisms to be redesigned for energy efficiency. Green IT refers to the study and practice of using computing resources in an efficient, effective and economic way. The various approaches of the green IT are Virtualization, Power Management, Material Recycling and Telecommuting. The basic principles of cloud computing is to make the computing be assigned in a great number of distributed computers rather than local computer or remote server. In fact, cloud computing is an extend of Grid Computing, Distributed Computing and Parallel Computing. It's foreground is to provide secure, quick, convenient data storage and net computing service centered by internet. Currently, a large number of cloud computing systems waste a tremendous amount of energy and emit a considerable amount of carbon dioxide. Thus, it is necessary to significantly reduce pollution and substantially lower energy usage. The analysis of energy consumption in cloud computing consider both public and private clouds. Cloud computing with green algorithm can enable more energy-efficient use of computing power. As a kind of emerging business computational model, Cloud Computing distribute computation task on the resource pool which consists of massive computers, accordingly ,the application systems can gain the computation strength, the storage space and software service according to its demand. Cloud computing can be viewed from two different aspects. One is about the cloud infrastructure which is the building block for the up layer cloud application. The other is of course the cloud application. By means of three technical methods, cloud computing has achieved two important goals for the distributed computing: high scalability and high availability. Scalability means that the cloud infrastructure can be expanded to very large scale even to thousands of nodes. Availability means that the services are available even when quite a number of nodes fail. With the development of parallel computing, distributed computing, grid computing, a new computing model appeared. The concept of computing comes from grid, public computing and SaaS. It is a new method that shares basic framework. The basic principles of cloud computing is to make the computing be assigned in a great number of distributed computers, rather than local computer or remoter server. The running of the enterprise's data center is just like Internet. This makes the enterprise use the resource in the application that is needed, and access computer and storage system according to the requirement.

2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617



Cloud computing provides people the way to share distributed resources and services that belong to different organizations or sites. Since cloud computing share distributed resources via the network in the open environment, thus it makes security problems important for us to develop the cloud computing application. It is a great idea to make many normal computers together to get a super computer, and this computer can do a lot of things. This is the concept of cloud computing. Cloud computing is an emerging model of business computing. And it is becoming a development trend. Cloud Computing has emerged as a major information and communications technology trend and has been proved as a key technology for market development and analysis for the users of several field. The practice of computing across two or more data centers separated by the Internet is growing in popularity due to an explosion in scalable computing demands. However, one of the major challenges that faces the cloud computing is how to secure and protect the data and processes the data of the user. The security of the cloud computing environment is a new research area requiring further development by both the academic and industrial research associations. While cloudbursting is addressing this process of scaling up and down across data centers. To provide secure and reliable services in cloud computing environment is an important issue. One of the security issues is how to reduce the impact of denial-of-service (DoS) attack or distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) in this environment. The use of cloud computing has increased rapidly in many organizations. Cloud computing provides many benefits in terms of low cost and accessibility of data. Ensuring the security of cloud computing is a major factor in the cloud computing environment, as users often store sensitive information with cloud storage providers but these providers may be untrusted. Dealing with "single cloud" providers is predicted to become less popular with customers due to risks of service availability failure and the possibility of malicious insiders in the single cloud. A movement towards "multi-clouds", or in other words, "interclouds" or "cloud-of-clouds" has emerged recently. In recent years, State Grid Corporation of China has been vigorously promoting smart grid construction, and cloud computing is developing rapidly. Trend of the electric power enterprise informatization construction will be the private cloud computing, which will become the comprehensive platform of smart grid. Cloud computing is the development of parallel computing, distributed computing and grid computing. It has been one of the most hot research topics. Now

many corporations have involved in the cloud computing related techniques and many cloud computing platforms have been put forward. This is a favorable situation to study and application of cloud computing related techniques. Though interesting, there are also some problems for so many flatforms. For to a novice or user with little knowledge about cloud computing, it is still very hard to make a reasonable choice. What differences are there for different cloud computing platforms and what characteristics and advantages each has? To answer these problems, the characteristics, architectures and applications of several popular cloud computing platforms are analyzed and discussed in detail. From the comparison of these platforms, users can better understand the different cloud platforms and more reasonability choose what they want. Cloud computing is a new way of delivering computing resources and is not a new technology. It is an internet based service delivery model which provides internet based services, computing and storage for users in all markets including financial health care and government. This new economic model for computing has found fertile ground and is attracting massive global investment. Although the benefits of cloud computing are clear, so is the need to develop proper security for cloud implementations. Cloud security is becoming a key differentiator and competitive edge between cloud providers. Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) which combines mobile computing and cloud computing, has become one of the industry buzz words and a major discussion thread in the IT world since 2009. As MCC is still at the early stage of development, it is necessary to grasp a thorough understanding of the technology in order to point out the direction of future research. Cloud computing, a rapidly developing information technology, has aroused the concern of the whole world. Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared resources, software and information, are provided to computers and devices on-demand, like the electricity grid. Cloud computing is the product of the fusion of traditional computing technology and network technology like grid computing, distributed computing parallel computing and so on. It aims to construct a perfect system with powerful computing capability through a large number of relatively low-cost computing entity, and using the advanced business models like SaaS (Software as a Service), PaaS (Platform as a Service), IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) to distribute the powerful computing capacity to end users' hands. It is well-known that cloud computing has many potential advantages and many enterprise applications and data are migrating to public or hybrid cloud. But regarding some business-critical applications, the

2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617



organizations, especially large enterprises, still wouldn't move them to cloud. The market size the cloud computing shared is still far behind the one expected. From the consumers' perspective, cloud computing security concerns, especially data security and privacy protection issues, remain the primary inhibitor for adoption of cloud computing services. The cloud is a next generation platform that provides dynamic resource pools, virtualization, and high availability. Today, we have the ability to utilize scalable, distributed computing environments within the confines of the Internet, a practice known as cloud computing. Cloud computing is the Concept Implemented to decipher the Daily Computing Problems, likes of Hardware Software and Resource Availability unhurried by Computer users. The cloud Computing provides an undemanding and Non ineffectual Solution for Daily Computing. The prevalent Problem Associated with Cloud Computing is the Cloud security and the appropriate Implementation of Cloud over the Network. Cloud computing is evolving as a key computing platform for sharing resources that include infrastructures, software, applications, and business processes. Virtualization is a core technology for enabling cloud resource sharing. However, most existing cloud computing platforms have not formally adopted the service-oriented architecture (SOA) that would make them more flexible, extensible, and reusable. As an emerging technology and business paradigm, Cloud Computing has taken commercial computing by storm. Cloud computing platforms provide easy access to a company's high-performance computing and storage infrastructure through web services. With cloud computing, the aim is to hide the complexity of IT infrastructure management from its users. At the same time, cloud computing platforms provide massive scalability, 99.999% reliability, high performance, and specifiable configurability. These capabilities are provided at relatively low costs compared to dedicated infrastructures. Cloud computing has become one of the key considerations both in academia and industry. Cheap, seemingly unlimited computing resources that can be allocated almost instantaneously and pay-as-you-go pricing schemes are some of the reasons for the success of Cloud computing. The Cloud computing landscape, however, is plagued by many issues hindering adoption. One such issue is vendor lock-in, forcing the Cloud users to adhere to one service provider in terms of data and application logic. Semantic Web has been an important research area that has seen significant attention from both academic and industrial researchers. One key property of Semantic Web is the notion of interoperability and

portability through high level models. Significant work has been done in the areas of data modeling, matching, and transformations. The issues the Cloud computing community is facing now with respect to portability of data and application logic are exactly the same issue the Semantic Web community has been trying to address for some time. The evolutionary nature of the rise of cloud computing has led to some significance economic and environmental challenges. Virtualization encapsulates an entire operating system and emulates it in a virtual environment, introducing yet another layer to the already bloated modern software stack. Vinge has noted that a compatibility software layer is added every decade or so (operating systems, user processes, threading, high-level language runtimes, etc.), and that without some consolidation we are headed for a future of "software archaeology" where it will be necessary to dig down into software layers long forgotten by the programmers of the day. Now we want to talk briefly about revolutions of computer industry in different eras. Modern science research and business decisionmaking are more and more reliant on the processing of meta-data. As the scale of data roaring, traditional database suffers from an inevitable decrease of performance. Even worse, the decrement trend will never stop while the volume of data keeps on gaining, let alone the pain to put new data into the database which may require a change in schema. The cloud computing technologies come to rescue us here. By partitioning data into scattered host in the cloud and access those utilizing cloud computing methods, large workload beyond ability of single host is thus divided into simple tasks. It also provides guaranteed scalability avoiding a major change to data schema. The combination of cloud computing technologies and database derived the noun Cloud database, which evolved in recent years. However, the cloud database is not technically a database system but an infrastructure loaded with databases and interfaces. Actually, this is a name given by storage services providers which means that clients can rent storage resources in a pay-as-you-go service model. From the users perspective, the database is like in the cloud they can utilize it with no worry about where are the hard disks. Cloud is the out most layer of the whole business. In the core, distributed database systems run by the cloud database vendors actually manage the data. Cloud computing is a major feature of the Presidents initiative to modernize Information Technology (IT). Cloud computing has the capability to reduce the cost of IT infrastructure by utilizing commercially available technology that is based on virtualization of servers, databases and applications to allow for capital

2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617



cost savings. The General Services Administration (GSA) focuses on implementing projects that increase efficiencies by optimizing common services and solutions across enterprise and utilizing market innovations such as cloud computing services. For the purposes of this solicitation, GSA has adopted the definition of Cloud Computing found in National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Definition of Cloud Computing, available at Cloud computing is a model for enabling available, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services). The idea is that these resources can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction In the cloud computing environment the SMEs will not have to own the infrastructure so they can abstain from any

help the SMEs to uplift their business in an effective and cost efficient manner. World is changing very fast in terms of enterprise systems and industries need very specialized solutions. Industrial problems are very complex and need lot of money and efforts. Availability of expertise and skills causes another problem in the industry. These are just part of the great performance of new technology, known as Cloud computing that is named also as "the next big thing" [1-9].



Fig. 1: Simulation about different generation of computer industry.

capital expenditure and instead they can utilize the resources as a service and pay as per their usage of the resources provided by the cloud (Rittinghouse and Ransome , 2009). SaaS will provide an opportunity for the SMBs to automate their business by reducing their investment in IT infrastructure (Rao).Cloud based services helps the industries to reduce their cost that are involved in on-premise ERP solutions such as hardware, software, upgradation, training and licensing costs. Moreover long implementation cycles with regular maintenance costs adds to the total cost of traditional ERP (Aggarwal and Barnes, 2010). Cloud computing is providing huge opportunities for the Palembang IT company that is helping them to develop cost effective business models. Such models

In two past sections of the paper, we define some of the basic and fundamental principles of cloud and also we tell about some of its advantageous. Now we want imply into, the major applications of this technology. After that when we understand the importance of this technology, we introduce Kalman Filter; which can be used for prediction and estimation of different parameters in cloud platform. Cloud services are those services delivered via an ICT sourcing and delivery model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g. networks, servers, storage, applications and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. The Strategy states that agencies may choose to use cloud services if it provides value for money and adequate security. The Australian Government is looking to the benefits of cloud services as a way of reducing redundancy and duplication across agencies, and seeking to realise economic savings and improved business outcomes. Appropriate governance arrangements must be in place before agencies may transition any type of ICT arrangement. Community Clouds are no exception. Appropriate governance arrangements should provide agencies with the structure to establish; deliver; and consume cloud services as well as oversee their performance and alignment with strategic goals and policies. Australian Government agencies establishing a Community Cloud that uses private or public sector cloud services. Cloud services may be provided by ICT systems that support the operations and assets of agencies, including ICT systems provided or managed by other agencies, third party service providers, or other sources. Good governance ensures that the business of government is being conducted properly. Governance provides the structure, guidance and controls for operating a Community Cloud, ensuring the effective and equitable use of agency resources. Whether a Community Cloud is newly established or been operating for a number of years, the Governance

2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617



Model should clearly outline the roles and responsibilities of all participants, an agreed funding model; and an agreed process for dispute resolution. It should also outline how agencies would join and leave the Community Cloud. The Lead Agency is responsible for establishing and managing a Governance Committee and a Governance framework that will manage the operation of the Community Cloud. In some instances, there may be an existing formal arrangement in place between agencies, for example, a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU). In these cases, the MoU should be examined for its suitability for the management of Community Cloud and modified as required. Agencies, having varying sizes, complexities, structures and legislative backgrounds, operate within a complex environment. It is important therefore, that in establishing a Community Cloud governance framework the elements of good public sector governance be applied. The Federal Cloud Computing initiative is a services oriented approach, whereby common infrastructure, information, and solutions can be shared/reused across the Government. The overall objective is to create a more agile Federal enterprise where services can be reused and provisioned on demand to meet business needs. A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time and network storage, as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with each services provider. Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, laptops, and PDAs). The providers computing resources are pooled to serve all consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand. The customer generally has no control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided resources but may be able to specify location at a higher level of abstraction (e.g., country, state, or datacenter). Examples of resources include storage, processing, memory, network bandwidth, and virtual machines. Capabilities can be rapidly and elastically provisioned to quickly scale up and rapidly released to quickly scale down. To the consumer, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be infinite and can be purchased in any quantity at any time. Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.g., storage, processing, bandwidth, and active user accounts). Resource usage can be monitored, controlled, and reported providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service.

Also, many market analysts believe that cloud computing is an irreversible IT trend. According to Gartner, 80% of Fortune 1000 companies used some type of cloud computing services in 2010. The remaining 20% do not even have ownership of their IT assets. IDC also predicts that the demand for cloud computing services business applications will surge and the current USD17 billion markets is expected to grow by 26 percent annually. Daily we deal with all types of Hong Kong corporate customers that have different reasons when and why they will transit over to cloud computing services. In all cases they appreciate the value of cloud computing to help reduce operating costs, increase flexibility and improve productivity advantages. Cloud computing services adopt the pay-as-you-go method and are charged in a monthly subscription format, eliminating the need for enterprises to make a heavy capital investment. Therefore, overall IT spending is relatively low and fixed, and the nature of the expenditure also changes from capital expense into operating expense. This can help enterprises accelerate the deployment of the latest productivity solutions that will add value to their business. Expenses for IT staff can be reduced since the need for patching and maintenance of software on a regular basis has been eliminated, and the cloud computing data center service also features professional security that can ensure proper storage and backup of the users information. For example, Microsoft's data center offers multi-protection and has a systematic disaster recovery architecture that is SAS and ISO international standards certified, with up to 99.9% uptime and high reliability, enabling IT resources to be allocated to business innovation. Cloud productivity solutions can provide greater efficiency and a better business outcome for the enterprise as their software via cloud is always up to date. Businesses can access email anytime and anywhere, connect to corporate systems, share information and collaborate with others through various devices including PCs, browsers and different types of smart phones. The monthly plan for productivity programs can be immediately selfconfigured, easily and conveniently. Gammon Construction Limited has deployed Exchange Online for its 120 employees involved in a joint construction project. Horace Chu, Gammons director of information management services, says with normal up time reaching to 100%, large mailbox capacity, fast setup and flexibility, the cloud service meets their requirements of getting the best IT service with the least capital investment, even reducing the IT cost of their three-year construction project by 30%. IBM launched the IBM Cloud Academy, a global forum for educators, researchers and information

2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617



technology (IT) personnel from the education industry to pursue cloud computing initiatives, develop skills and share best practices for reducing operating costs while improving quality and access to education. IBM announced at the EDUCAUSE Annual Conference that 17 educational institutions worldwide are the first to participate in the Cloud Academy. United Statesbased institutions include George Mason University; Georgia State University; Gwinnett County Public Schools; Marist College; New York University; North Carolina State University; Pike County Schools; The Executive Leadership Foundations Technology Transfer Project a collaborative effort for Historically Black Colleges and Universities; and the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. International institutions include Beijing University of Technology in China; Carnegie Mellon University in Qatar (CMU-Q), Qatar University (QU) and Texas A&M University at Qatar (TAMUQ) in Qatar; Ecole normale suprieure de Lyon in France; Ozyegin University in Turkey; Nanyang Technical University in Singapore; and Victoria University in Australia. The IBM Cloud Academy will enable these institutions and other participants to collaborate using an IBMmanaged cloud, available via the Internet, lowering barriers to entry for the development and contribution of subject matter expertise. Through the Academy, members can create working groups on areas of interest to the education industry, jam on new innovations for clouds in education-related areas with IBM developers, work jointly on technical projects across institutions, share research findings, and exchange new ideas for research. Participants are also encouraged to innovate to further advance cloud computing by preparing education-focused open source software for clouds, integrating cloud provisioning and de-provisioning services, validating content for compliance with accessibility standard, and leveraging IBM cloud offerings for teaching, learning, research and administration. A vital aspect of the IBM Cloud Academy will be the development of new technologies and research methods. The IBM Cloud Academy gives participants the ability to work with elite researchers in IBM labs throughout the world, many of whom are working on cloud initiatives in education, to extend the boundaries of cloud computing in education. IBM will also collaborate with participants of the IBM Cloud Academy on integrating cloud technologies into their campus and district infrastructures, including IBMs virtualized server and storage hardware, Tivoli Provisioning and Automation software for management of cloud environments, campus and student computer lab management with the Virtual Computing Laboratory project, and cloud integration services from IBMs global services organizations. IBMs Cloud Academy

leverages IBMs Academy of Technology, whose membership consists of IBM top technical leaders from around the world who are working in research, hardware and software development, manufacturing, and services. Participants will have access to IBMs public cloud services, including LotusLive for administration collaboration, IBM Desktop Cloud Services, delivery services for Virtual Computing Labs, and Corporate Citizenship Education Projects, such as PowerUp, Forbidden City and TryScience. One of the tools hosted by LotusLive is the online version of Innov8 2.0, IBM's flagship 'serious game,' which is integrated with BPM BlueWorks. Shown at EDUCAUSE, Innov8 2.0 is being used by more than 100 universities worldwide and features real-world business scenarios where the goals are to maximize profitability and customer satisfaction while minimizing carbon emissions. Challenges in the game include managing a supply chain, reducing congestion in a city, and optimizing call center queues. The IBM Cloud Academy represents a continuation of the cloud computing projects that IBM has initiated over the past two years. These programs provide a forum for collaboration, research and innovation, as well as a showcase for the work and projects IBM has completed with the education industry. Some highlights include: In October of 2007, IBM and Google teamed up to help university students gain the skills needed to program cloud applications. The two companies have since joined forces with the National Science Foundation (NSF) to enable more students to participate in the IBM/Google Cloud Computing University Initiative through grants provided from NSF through its Cluster Exploratory (CLuE) program. IBM continues to work with universities and educational institutions worldwide, giving students access to cloud computing technologies to help them complete research projects that aid in the development of remote regions and socio-economic conditions all over the globe. The charter members of the IBM Cloud Academy will work with IBM to define the final structure of the academy, which will open for general membership early in 2010.


The Kalman filter, also known as linear quadratic estimation (LQE), is an algorithm which uses a series of measurements observed over time, containing noise (random variations) and other inaccuracies, and produces estimates of unknown variables that tend to be more precise than those that would be based on a single measurement alone. More formally, the Kalman filter operates recursively on streams of noisy input

2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617



data to produce a statistically optimal estimate of the underlying system state. The algorithm works in a two-step process: in the prediction step, the Kalman filter produces estimates of the current state variables, along with their uncertainties. Once the outcome of the next measurement (necessarily corrupted with some amount of error, including random noise) is observed, these estimates are updated using a weighted average, with more weight being given to estimates with higher certainty. Because of the algorithm's recursive nature, it can run in real time using only the present input measurements and the previously calculated state; no additional past information is required. The Kalman filter uses a system's dynamics model (e.g., performances of Cloud users in this model), known as control inputs to that system - Cloud, and multiple sequential measurements (such as from controlling and monitoring the movements of users between different pages and databases) to form an estimate of the system's varying quantities (its state) that is better than the estimate obtained by using any one measurement alone. As such, it is a common controlling and monitoring fusion and data fusion algorithm. Basic equations in kalman filter are as follows:

To this point we obtained general information about Kalman filtering and cloud computing, from now on we want to purpose: Information Filter for using in predicting and updating information about presence of hacker in such networks.


In the information filter Kalman Information filter, or inverse covariance filter, the estimated covariance and estimated state are replaced by the information matrix and information vector respectively. These are defined as:

Similarly the predicted covariance and state have equivalent information forms, defined as:

As have the measurement covariance measurement vector, which are defined as:


The information update now becomes a trivial sum.

The main advantage of the information filter is that N measurements can be filtered at each time step simply by summing their information matrices and vectors.

All measurements and calculations based on models are estimates to some degree. Noisy monitoring data data that are obtained from motions of users, approximations in the equations that describe how a system changes, and external factors that are not accounted for introduce some uncertainty about the inferred values for a Cloud state. The Kalman filter averages a prediction of a Cloud state with a new measurement using a weighted average. The purpose of the weights is that values with better (i.e., smaller) estimated uncertainty is "trusted" more. The weights are calculated from the covariance, a measure of the estimated uncertainty of the prediction of the Cloud state. The result of the weighted average is a new state estimate that lies in between the predicted and measured state, and has a better estimated uncertainty than either alone. This process is repeated every time step every preferred time to can avoid surveillance actions and/or avoid permeating hackers into Cloud databases, with the new estimate and its covariance informing the prediction used in the following iteration.

To predict the information filter the information matrix and vector can be converted back to their state space equivalents, or alternatively the information space prediction can be used.

Note that if F and Q are time invariant these values can be cached. Note also that F and Q need to be invertible.

2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617






The fundamental purpose of this paper is to telling about different aspects of cloud computing and show the bright and brilliant way of passing from old and boring databases into new innovative datacenters. In this article, we tell about basic definitions and concepts of cloud computing. Also we tell about uses of this technology in different societies and industries and also about how they use it and about their future plans. Network-based cloud computing is rapidly expanding as an alternative to conventional officebased computing. As cloud computing becomes more widespread, the energy consumption of the network and computing resources that underpin the cloud will grow. This is happening at a time when there is increasing attention being paid to the need to manage energy consumption across the entire information and communications technology (ICT) sector. While data center energy use has received much attention recently, there has been less attention paid to the energy consumption of the transmission and switching networks that are key to connecting users to the cloud. An important factor in using cloud computing and migrating into this network is its security and durability. In this paper the authors propose Kalman filtering for increasing security and durability of such networks for the first time. If we implement this algorithm on such networks for example on the edge of such networks, we can estimate and predict the amount of users that use the resources software and hardware resources at any time. Also we can estimate and predict the amount of users that logging onto a certain account, and by the means of that we can avoid surveillance entering of bad users we estimate the location of user by the previous location and its background data. Also we can use it for estimating the amount of user that use a certain application on such networks, and by knowing that amount we can improve power of our network to be able to support our users. Furthermore by using this algorithm we can increase the security of this technology, by estimating and predicting the point of presence of bad users. In this paper we demonstrate about how we can use Kalman filter in estimating and predicting of our target, by the means of several examples on Kalman filter. Also at the end of our paper we purpose and discuss about information filter that can be used for estimation and prediction in our network.



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Setayesh: M.Sc. Student at International Branch of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Saeed Pariya Shahbazi: received the M.Sc.

degree in Information and Communication Technology from University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway.

Mehdi Darbandi: M.Sc. Student at

Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST); Tehran, Iran.

[1] David C. Wyld; the cloudy future of government IT: cloud computing and the public sector around the world, IJWesT, Vol. 1, Num. 1, Jan. 2010. Jean-Daniel Cryans, Alain April, Alain Abran; criteria to compare cloud computing with current database technology, R. Dumke et al. (Eds.): IWSM / MetriKon / Mensura 2008, LNCS 5338, pp. 114-126, 2008.

Saeed Rasti: M.Sc. Student at

International Branch of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.

2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617