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Date:

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BRIEF RECORD Author: Title: Publ.: Description: Series: FULL RECORD www.sub.uni-goettingen.de/ebene_1/fiindolo/gr_elib.htm Whitney, William Dwight The Roots, Verb Forms, and Primary Derivatives of the Sanskrit Language. A Supplement to His Sanskrit Grammar. Leipzig : Breitkopf und Hrtel 1885 xiii, 247 p. Bibliothek indogermanischer Grammatiken, 2

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THE

ROOTS, VERB-FORMS,
AND

PRIMARY DERIVATIVES
OF THE

SANSKRIT LANGUAGE.
A SUPPLEMENT TO HIS SANSKRIT GRAMMAR,
BY

WILLIAM DWIGHT WHITNEY,


PROFESSOR OF SANSKRIT AND COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY IN YALE COLLEGE.

THIS

WORK IS

COPYRIGHT.

LEIPZIG,
BREITKOPF AND HRTEL. L O N D O N , TRBNER & Co. 57 AND 59, LUDGATE HILL, E. C 8.
ENTD STA. HALL.

1885.

(The

Right

of Translation

and Reproduction

is

reserved.)

Printers: Breitkopf & Hrtel, Leipzig.

P R E F A C E .

This work is intended especially as a Supplement to my Sanskrit Grammar (Leipzig, 1879), giving, with a ful ness of detail that was not then practicable, nor admissible as part of the grammar itself, all the quotable roots of the language, with the tense and conjugationsystems made from them, and with the noun and adjective (infinitival and par ticipial) formations that attach themselves most closely to the verb; and further, with the other derivative noun and adjectivestems usually classed as primary: since these also are needed, if one would have a comprehensive view of the value of a given root in the language. And everything given is dated, with such accuracy as the information thus far in hand allows whether found in the language throughout its whole history, or limited to a certain period. My leading authority has necessarily been that magni ficent thesaurus of authentic information respecting the Sanskrit language of every period, the great St. Peters burg Lexicon of B htlingk and Roth. This I have gone carefully over, excerpting all the material needed for my purpose. So far, indeed, as concerns the epic and clas sical literature, the Lexicon has been almost my sole source, since my own collections, for verification or of additional material, though not wholly wanting, have yet been al together insignificant as compared with it. B ut in the older language, of Veda and Brhmaa and Upanishad and Stra, I have done much more independent work. I have, namely,
1

With its abbreviation and supplement, the minor lexicon of B rajaka; in the Additions and Corrections, to the end of I.

vi

PREFACE.

gone over all the texts of the earlier period accessible to me, including (by the kindness of Professor Weber) the as yet unpublished Kustaki-Brhmaa and Khaka, and (by the kindness of the late Dr. B urnell) the immense Jiminya or Talavakra Brhmaa, which has as yet hardly been accessible to any one e l s e ; and from them I have ex cerpted all the noteworthy verbal forms and (less completely) the primary derivatives; thus verifying and occasionally correcting the material of the Lexicon, supplying chance omissions, and especially filling in not a few details which it had not lain in the design of that work to present in their entirety. As a matter of course, no such work as the present can pretend to completeness, especially at its first appearance. The only important texts of which w e have exhaustive verbal indexes are the RigVeda and the AtharvaVeda, nor is it known that any other is in preparation; and only where such indexes exist can the inclusion of all that a text contains be assured. B ut I trust it will be found that the measure of completeness here attained is in general proportioned to the importance of the material: that it is the more indifferent forms and derivatives which, having been passed over by the Lexicon, have escaped my glean ing also. I expect to continue the work of verification and addition, and to make an eventual future edition perceptibly nearer to perfection in its details, and possessing such im provements in plan as my own experience and the criticisms of others may suggest. It is unnecessary to add that
1 2

The extant texts of which I have most painfully felt the lack are: The (Cashmere) Pippalda AtharvaVeda, which is in Professor Roth's hands alone; the latter half of the M itryaii-Sahit, as yet wanting in Schroder's edition, and the Kapihala-Sahit; and the unpublished Stras, as the pastamba (every new number of Garbe's edition of which brings valuable additional items of material) and the Ckhyana. A conspectus of the work, with specimens, and with invitation of criticisms and suggestions, was published in the Proceedings of the American Oriental Society for M ay, 1882 (Journ. Am. Or. Soc, vol. xi., pp. cxvii ff.); and a leaf of specimens, with certain improvements, was sent out somewhat later to many Sanskrit scholars; but nothing was received in return.
2

PREFACE.

vii

corrections and additions of any kind will be welcomed by me, and duly acknowledged. Of the verbforms which, though not yet found and, for the most part, destined never to be found in recorded use, are prescribed or authorized by the Hindu grammarians, a liberal presentation is made under the different roots: such material being always distinguished from the other by being put in square brackets. It is in no part given at first hand, but only as reported by Western authorities: the Lexicon, Westergaard's Radices, and the various Euro pean grammars; all of these supplement rather than con tradict one another; and any occasional disagreement among them is passed over, as relating to a matter of too little consequence to be worth reporting. The periods in the life of the language which are acknowledged and distinguished by appropriate notation are six: the Veda (marked with v . ) , the B rhmaa (with B. ) , the earlier or more genuine Upanishads (with u.), the Stras (with s.), the epics, Mahbhrata and Rmyaa (with E.), and the classical or common. Sanskrit (with c ) . This classification, however, is by no means an absolute one, and calls for certain explanations and limitations, as follows. Under 'Veda (v.) are included only the indexed texts of the RigVeda, SmaVeda, and AtharvaVeda. In strict ness, certain passages of the AtharvaVeda should have been excluded, as being in prose and B rhmaalike; and, what is of much more importance, the older and better part of the mantramaterial in the various samhita's of the Yajur Veda, in the B rhmaas, and even in the Stras, is quite as good Veda as most of the Atharvan, some of it even as parts of the Rik. In the present condition of things, how ever, it did not seem to me practicable to draw the divis ionline otherwise than in the partly arbitrary way in which I have drawn it. When the mantramaterial is col lected from all places and compared (as it by all means ought soon to be), it will be possible to use the term Veda in a more exact sense, both inclusively and exclus ively though between what is genuinely old and what

viii

PREFACE.

is in an artificially antique style a definite separation will probably never admit of being made. It is further to be stated that in the following lists nothing is intended to be marked with simple v., as 'Vedic', that does not occur in the RigVeda; what is not Rig Vedic, though it may be found in both the other collections, is marked AV., or sv., or both, as the case may be. On the other hand, if anything occurring only in the Rik among the three Vedas is found also in later periods, the fact that it does not chance to be met with in the Atharvan or S man is too unimportant to notice, and (save perhaps in exceptional cases) it is marked V . B . or the like. Between B rhmaa, rayaka, and Upanishad, again, the line of division is an evanescent one, and perhaps hardly worth the attempt at drawing. B ut I have followed the method of distinguishing by a u. the small number of these treatises that have an existence separate from Brhmaa or rayaka, while not distinguishing the two latter from one another. The sign u. is the one of least importance and least frequency in the system adopted. The division of Stras (s.) is a plainer one, except so far as these treatises contain mantramaterial in their quoted verses (as already intimated) and brhmana- material also in their quoted formulas. The proper language of the Stras themselves is a true continuator of that of the Brhmaas. As epic (E.) are reckoned only the two great poems, the Mahbhrata and Rmyaa. And in these it has, of course, been impossible to distinguish between the older and the more recent parts: although, beyond a question, a con siderable part "of both is in no manner distinguishable from the general later literature, except by a degree of archaizing neglect of the strict requirements of the native grammar. Everything else that is Sanskrit falls under the head of classical ( a ) , or of the language as written under the domination of the native system of grammar. Here the only subdivision which one is tempted to make is to mark

PREFACE.

ix

separately those forms and words which are found used only in the commentaries, and which are therefore open to a heightened suspicion of artificiality; but this I have not tried to do. - A plus-sign (+) indicates that the given formation is found to occur from the specified period onward, even to the latest or classical period. Instead of a period, an individual text is sometimes referred to yet not upon any very definite and consistent plan (except in the case of the Vedas, as explained above). A superior' figure (e. g. RV .) indicates the number of times a word or form has been met with yet this, again, only in exceptional instances, and not in the case of every unique or very rare occurrence. So far as the present-systepa is concerned, only so many specimen-forms are given as suffice to illustrate the mode of formation. It would have been space and time thrown away to instance in each case the various sub-formations modes, participles, imperfect that occur, since one form implies clearly enough the possible existence of the rest. The form taken as representative specimen is ordinarily the 3d singular, as being often more characteristic than the 1st; and that person is even occasionally given w h e n , in verbs of infrequent u s e , it is not itself actually quotable. Irregular or exceptional forms, whether of the earlier or of the later language, are then added in parenthesis. Everywhere, an appended etc. means that other forms of the same make occur: yet I find on review that I have not used this sign consistently, and its absence must not be taken always as indicating more than that the variety of forms quotable is comparatively small. The various modes of present-formation are intended to be given in the order of their relative regularity or frequency; to each is prefixed in brackets the number belonging to it in the order of the conjugation-classes as given by the Hindu grammarians since, however meaningless and unworthy of retention this may be, it is still widely used, not only in the grammars, but even by general writers on language.
1

PREFACE.

In the other tense-systems, while in the main the same method is followed, the intention nevertheless is to give, on account of their greater infrequency and irregularity, a conspectus of the various tense and mode-formations from the same stem (not, of course, the participles, except for the aorist). Thus, for example, no quotable precative, either active or middle, is designedly omitted under the aorist to which it belongs; nor any quotable conditional under the first future; nor any pluperfect under the perfect. Moreover, in view of the rarity of the 2d sing, perfect active, and the useless prolixity of the native rules as to its formation , every example of it is given that has been found to occur. The order in which the aorists are presented is the systematic one, without reference to their frequency of use. Among the verbal adjectives and nouns are included as belonging to the verbal conjugation only the passive participle , the infinitives, and the gerunds (along with that in -am, the distinction of which from an ordinary adverbially used accusative is not always easy to draw); the gerundives are quite too loosely attached to the conjugation-system to be worth treating as a part of it, and they are accordingly relegated to the list of derivatives. Of the secondary or derivative conjugations, only e x amples enough are given to show the form of the stem unless, indeed, some unusual or irregular forms are met with, in which case they are duly noted. To cite, for e x ample, the innumerable futures and verbals of the causative conjugation, or even its perfects, all of them made upon precisely the same pattern, would have been wholly useless. The causative aorists, however, since they are made directly from the root, are of course put along with the other aorists, save in the exceptional cases where they actually come from the causative stem (as atisthipat, blbhisas, etc.). All the tertiary conjugations, not omitting even the common causative passives (any others are quite rare), are noted so far as found. In the lists of derivatives are given not only those of genuinely primary character, but also those which have

PREFACE.

xi

come to assume a primary aspect in the language, even though of incontestably secondary origin: such as the g e rundives in -tavya and Vedic -tva (from -tu), and -anya (from -ana), the nomina agentis in -in, and the various for mations in ya (among which hardly any, if any, are really primary). These are in general placed next after the forms from which they are presumably derived. Apart from this, the order of arrangement intended to be pursued is in the main the alphabetic order of the suffixes, the radical stems or those without suffix standing at the head; but such an arrangement could not be very strictly carried out, nor does any particular importance belong to it, considering how easily the columns may be glanced over to verify the pre sence or absence of any given formation; and some incon sistencies will doubtless be found. Reduplicated stems are put after the others, and last of all the quasiprimitive for mations from (secondary, or rarely primary or tertiary) con jugationstems. Notation of the period of occurrence is made in the same way as for the verbforms. A hyphen put before a stem indicates that it has not been found quotable otherwise than as posterior member of a compound; one following a stem (much more rarely) shows it to occur only as prior member of a compound, or in derivative stems or in denominative conjugation. Throughout the whole work, accentsigns are applied only where the word is found actually so marked in accen tuated texts. It is, of course, impossible to draw the line everywhere between the derivatives of a root and words that do not belong to it; since etymology is from beginning to end a matter of balancing probabilities, and thickset with un certainties and chances of error. It has been my intention to err rather upon the side of liberality of inclusion than the opposite and certainly I have in not a few cases put under certain roots words as to whose connection with those roots I have great misgivings; but doubtless also there are words omitted, by oversight or by failure of judgment, which ought to have been included. All such errors, it is hoped,

PREFACE.

In the other tense-systems, while in the main the same method is followed, the intention nevertheless is to give, on account of their greater infrequency and irregularity, a conspectus of the various tense and mode-formations from the same stem (not, of course, the participles, except for the aorist). Thus, for example, no quotable precative, either active or middle, is designedly omitted under the aorist to which it belongs; nor any quotable conditional under the first future; nor any pluperfect under the perfect. Moreover, in view of the rarity of the 2d sing, perfect active, and the useless prolixity of the native rules as to its formation, every example of it is given that has been found to occur. The order in which the aorists are presented is the systematic one, without reference to their frequency of use. Among the verbal adjectives and nouns are included as belonging to the verbal conjugation only the passive participle, the infinitives, and the gerunds (along with that in -am, the distinction of which from an ordinary adverbially used accusative is not always easy to draw); the gerundives are quite too loosely attached to the conjugation-system to be worth treating as a part of it, and they are accordingly relegated to the list of derivatives. Of the secondary or derivative conjugations, only e x amples enough are given to show the form of the stem unless, indeed, some unusual or irregular forms are met with, in which case they are duly noted. To cite, for e x ample, the innumerable futures and verbals of the causative conjugation, or even its perfects, all of them made upon precisely the same pattern, would have been wholly useless. The causative aorists. however, since they are made directly from the root, are of course put along with the other aorists, save in the exceptional cases where they actually come from the causative stem (as atisthipat, blbhisas, etc.). All the tertiary conjugations, not omitting even the common causative passives (any others are quite rare), are noted so far as found. In the lists of derivatives are given not only those of genuinely primary character, but also those which have

PREFACE.

Xi

come to assume a primary aspect in the language, even though of incontestably secondary origin: such as the g e rundives in -tavya and Vedic -tva (from -tu), and -anya (from -ana), the nomina agentis in -in, and the various for mations in ya (among which hardly any, if any, are really primary). These are in general placed next after the forms from which they are presumably derived. Apart from this, the order of arrangement intended to be pursued is in the main the alphabetic order of the suffixes, the radical stems or those without suffix standing at the head; but such an arrangement could not be very strictly carried out, nor does any particular importance belong to it, considering how easily the columns may be glanced over to verify the pre sence or absence of any given formation; and some incon sistencies will doubtless be found. Reduplicated stems are put after the others, and last of all the ouasiprimitive for mations from (secondary, or rarely primary or tertiary) con jugationstems. Notation of the period of occurrence is made in the same way as for the verbforms. A hyphen put before a stem indicates that it has not been found quotable otherwise than as posterior member of a compound; one following a stem (much more rarely) shows it to occur only as prior member of a compound, or in derivative stems or in denominative conjugation. Throughout the whole work, accentsigns are applied only where the word is found actually so marked in accen tuated texts. It is, of course, impossible to draw the line everywhere between the derivatives of a root and words that do not belong to it; since etymology is from beginning to end a matter of balancing probabilities, and thickset with un certainties and chances of error. It has been my intention to err rather upon the side of liberality of inclusion than the opposite and certainly I have in not a few cases put under certain roots words as to whose connection with those roots I have great misgivings; but doubtless also there are words omitted, by oversight or by failure of judgment, which ought to have been included. All such errors, it is hoped,

xii

PREFACE.

will be viewed with a reasonable degree of indulgence, considering the novelty and the extreme laboriousness of the undertaking. Its main intent is to furnish the means of examining in their chronologic entirety the groups of words and forms that cluster about the so-called roots in Sanskrit, that they may be studied, and have their relations determined, with more complete understanding: and that intent will be gained in spite of minor omissions and inaccuracies. Regarding it as primarily an assemblage of materials for study, I have not hastened to anticipate the results of comparison by penetrating behind the aspect of things as shown in the Sanskrit language itself, or to reduce the materials to an Indo-European basis and form of statement. A few intimations as to the more obviously probable connections of certain roots are given in brief notes at the end of exposition of forms and derivatives. The representative form of the roots is naturally that adopted in the grammar to which this work is a supplement. Although loath to differ from the Petersburg lexicon upon such a point, I cannot regret having adopted the r instead of the ar or ra-form (e. g. kr, krp, instead of ^ar, krap) of the many roots exhibiting both elements in their forms and derivatives. So long as w e speak of the Sanskrit root vid, and not ved, so long it seems to follow that we ought to speak of the root vrt, and not vart, whatever may be the Indo-European value of the root in the one case or in the other. The meanings added after the roots by no means claim to be exhaustive; they are in general intended only to identify the root. As a matter of course, not a few matters of doubtful classification present themselves in connection with the verbforms, of which the scope of the work does not allow a discussion. Such are here and there noted by a questionmark. The classes of forms that contain the most puzzling problems are the reduplicated o n e s , and the present stems ending in ya: upon these no new light has been thrown since the publication of the author's Grammar, in which the difficulty of their treatment was noticed.

PREFACE .

xiii

In the indexes of stems given at the end of the volume, a classification is adopted which is intended to facilitate the historical comprehension of the language, by distinguishing what belongs respectively to its older and to its later periods from that which forms a part of it throughout its whole history. It may be added that the manuscript left the author's hands complete in July, 1884; the delay in its appearance is owing to his distance from (the place of printing and publication. I desire to express my obligation to Professor Lanman for kindly aiding the accuracy of the work by giving the proof-sheets an additional revision. New Haven, July, 1885. W . D. W.

ABBREVIATIONS.
AA. itareya-rayaka. AB. Aitareya-Brhmana. AS. valyana-ruta-Stra. AGS. valyana-GhyaStra. AV. AtharvaVeda. AVP. do. PippaldaText. B. B rhmaas. BAU. B hadrayaka Upaniad. B. B htlingk's minor Lexicon. BR. B thlingk and Roth (Lexicon). C. Classical Sanskrit. B. atapathaB rhmaa. S. khyanarutaStra. GS. Ckhyana GhyaStra. E. Epic Sanskrit. GB. GopathaB rhmana. GGS. GobhilyaGhyaStra. JB. JiminyaB rhmaa. JUB. JiminyaUpaniadB rhmaa. K. Khaka. KB. KutakiB rhmaa. KS. KtyyanarutaStra. LS. LyyanarutaStra. M. Mahbhrata. MS. M itrya-Sahit. MU. MitrUpaniad. PB. PacaviaB rhmaa. PU. PranaUpaniad. R. Rmyaa. RV. RigVeda. s. Stras. B. avia-Brhmaa. sv. Sma-Veda. SVB. Sma-Vidhna-Brhmaa. TA. Tittirya-rayaka. TB. Tittirya-Brhmaa. TS. Tittirya-Sahit. U. Upanishads. v. Vedas. vs. Vj asaneyi-Sahit.

For further explanations, see the Preface.

SANSKRIT ROOTS, VERB FORMS, AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.


ah, 'be narrow or distressing'. Such a root is inferable from the derivatives: hi v. + ghri? B . + ah V . B / ahat RV. ah RV. agh v. + ahyas B .S. has v. + The verbform anha RV . is of wholly doubtful meaning and connection.
1

1 ak, 'attain'.
1 1

Present. [1.] kat R V . , a k a s e E . Perfect, [naka,] k? RV . Aorist. [3. cikat. ] 5. kius R V . [Future, okiyati, o k y a t i ; akit, a.] [Verbal Adjectives and Nouns, a a ; akitv, av.] [Secondary Conjugations: Passive, akya. Intensive. Desiderative, cikia. Causative, akaya.] Derivatives: akiha JB . A secondary rootform from 1 a, a, and occurring in a few isolated forms. Indra and Agni are called akihu v a h i h u d e v n m at JB. i. 304.
1

2 ak,

'mutilate'.

Pres. [5.] akoti etc. A v. B. Verb, aa V . B . S . Only used with prefix n i s ; does not appear to have anything to do with the preceding root. ag, 'move'. Pres. [I.] angatu c . [Perf. etc. naga etc. etc.] [Sec. Conj.: Caus. agayati.] A single occurrence, doubtless artificial, in the Nalodaya.
1

ac ac 'bend'. Pres. [1.] acati etc. AV.+, te B . ; cati etc. V.B ., te etc. AV.B .S. Perf. [naca,] a c i r e > B . [Aor. etc. ct; aciyat, acit.] Verb, akn B .S., acita E., ocita E.+ [akta]; cya V.B . ; c am B .

ao]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

Sec. Con),: Pass, acyte etc. v.+ [acyate. Desid. acicia.] Caus. acayati etc. c. ak v.+ Deriv.: ac v.+ cana v. + anku v.+ acin B. kas RV. acana s.+ ak B .S. cas RV. aj, 'drive'. Pres. [1.] jati te etc. v.+ Perf. ajus? RV . [jitha etc.] Aor. 5. jius LS . [Fut. ajiyati, ajit.] Verb, ajita? B .; ajya s.; je RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, ajyte etc. RV. [ Desid. Deriv.: gra? v.+ ajaka c. j v. jana v. + ja RV. ajir v. + aj v. + jma RV.
1 1

ajijia.] jman v. jya V.B . jra? RV. ajvin s.

aja B . + j v.+

The form ajus only by very doubtful conjecture to RV. V. 6. 10; jius variant to AV. v i u s ; ajita in prajita, possibly for prjita (or prajita,

aj, a n o i n t ' . Pres. [7.] ankti akt etc. v.+ [1.] ajet s . Perf. naja B . (anaj anajyt RV.), naj etc. RV. Aor. [I. ajyt; ji. 3. jijat. ] 5. js TA. [Put. akyati ajiyati, akt ajit.] Ver6. akt v. + ; a k t v s., aktv B . [ajitv]; jya B .S. Sec Conj.: Pass, ajyte etc. v.+ [ Desid. ajijia.] Caus. ajayati etc. s.+ jana v. + ajya c. Deriv. : aga c. akt RV. jas v. + ja E . + agya c. akti E . + aj V.B . jya v.+ ajaka c. a k t V.B . ajya c. a, Zander'. Pres. [1.] aati te etc. E . + [Perf. etc. a ; t.] Fut. 1. aiyati E. [ 2. ait.] Verb, aita c.; a i t v c. [Sec. Conj.: aya; a i i a ; aya.] Deriv.: aa c. aav? c. ay c. aana c.
1

PB .+

Apparently a modern form of the following root; a in PB . is a proper name.

AND PRIMARY

DERIVATIVES.

[ay

Y at, 'wander. Pres. [I.] atasi tant tamna RV . Verb, atita c.; atya s. tithi? v.+ Deriv.: atasi RV. atithin RV.C. ti? RV.
4

tya RV.B .

ad, eat'. Pres. [2.] tti etc. (dat dan) v.+, adn RV. [I.] adasva E. [Perf. da, ditha.] Aor. 1. adysam JUB . [ 3. didat.] Fut. 1. atsyati B .S. [ 2. att.] Verb, t t u m v.+, tave v., tos B . ; attv y a B . Sec. Conj.: Pass, adyte etc. B. + Caus. dayati B .+, adayate etc. s. advan v. attrn RV. atti B. Deriv.: d v. + t t r i ( t r i ) v.+ advara E. ada A V . + attavya c. adana RV. nna v. + att A V . + adaka E. + dn v. + dman V.B .S. ttra RV. adana B . + dy AV. + attr v. dya v. + adanya c. an, 'breathe'. Pres. [2.] niti etc. (annti any t nt) v.+ [1.] nati (anet ana nat nant) etc. AV.B., te JB . [6.] anti (3s.) AV. Perf. na v. Aor. 5. nius AV. Fut. 1. aniyati B . [ 2. anit.] Verb, anita B , ; anitum B . ; anya B . ; nam B .S. Sec. Conj.: [ Desid. aniniat. ] Caus. nayati etc. AV.+, te E. Deriv.: an B . U . an v.+ nana RV. nila B. + nana E. + antha vs. am, 'injure'. Pres. [2.] a m i amti amnti mt amte amva V.B . [I.] me etc. V . B . Perf. mire B. [emna] emu? RV. ( e m B.) Aor. 3. mamatetc.V.B . Verb, [nta, amita.] See. Conj.: Pass, amyate MS. Caus. myati etc. V.B. Deriv.: ma V.B . mayitnu v. mana CB . m? v.+ amti V.B . amin RV. mana? AV.MS. mati V.B . m v a v.+ maya v. + matra RV. amla ? E. + mis? RV. a y , see 1 i.

arc]

ROOTS,

VERB FORMS,

are, c, 'shine, praise'. Pres. [I.] rcati etc. v.+, arce RV . arcase (Is.) RV . Perf. narca E.+, ncs v., narcus E.+, nce R V . [Aor. rcicat, rct.] Fut. arciyati c. (rkynt? CB .) Verb, arcita E. ; arcitum E. ; arcitv E. ; arcya E. +; cse RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, cyte v. [ Desid. arcicia.] Caus. arcayati te etc. v.+ (arcyate E.) Deriv. : arc RV. arcatra RV. arci v. + ca A V . + ark v. + arctri RV. arcin RV. cas RV. arcana E. + area B . + arcit E. kti? RV. (suv) arcanya E. + arcaka c. arcis v.+ kv RV. arcananas v. arcya E . + c v.+ kvan v.
1 1 1

arj, see 1 j, j. art, see t.


arh, 'deserve' etc. Pres. [I.] rhati etc. v. +, te etc. E. + Perf. nhs TS ., arhire RV . [Aor. etc. arhysam, rhi, rjihat, rht; arhiyati, arhit.] Verb, arhse RV . Sec. Conj.: [ Desid. arjihia. ] Caus. arhayati etc. s. + Deriv.: argh v. + rha B . + arh v. + arhaya c. arghya c, arhaa c.
1 1 1

av, 'favor'. Pres. [I.] vati etc. v.+ Perf. va vitha etc. v. + A or. I. avys t V.B .S. 5. vt etc. (avihi etc. aviat Fut. I. a v i y t i V.B . 2. avit c. Verb. ta RV. ; v i t a v e v.B .; vya RV. Sec. Conj.: Caus. vayas at v.B .u. vi? v.+ Deriv. : va Rv. avit V.B .S. av? v. avana c avitra B .S. t v. + v a s V.B . viha RV. ma V.B .S. avis? RV. Common in v.; quite rare in later language.

etc.)

V.B .S.

oma RV. Oman V.B . omn v. +

1 a , a, 'attain'. Pres. [5,] a n t i a n u t etc. v.+ [9?] aniyt, ans M. Perf. na nas etc. v.+, na etc. v.+ (na nama n a y m anmahi RV,, naadhve s.) atus etc. the etc. RV.

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES .

[2 as

Aor. I. a ata aa V.B ., ay t atetc. V.B ., auB . [i.] 2. ae m a RV., aemahi sv. [ 3. iat.] 4. k i B ., kat RV. (cf. ak). [ 5. ia.] Fut. 1. [aiyate] anuviymahe CB . [ 2. ait, a.] Verb, a u m K. ; ave V.B ., aavi JB .S.; a i t u m E.; aa V.B . [Sec. Conj.: a y a ; a i i a ; aya.] Deriv. : a v. + a n u v a AGS. a s. aana B . + i v. + a n u v n vs. v. + a vs .
1 1

Compare 1 ak and 2 n a (to which latter the forms na etc. are here referred). Derivatives more doubtfully referable to this root are: man v. + o n RV. v a v. + v. + ri v. + ani v. + r v. + yas B . ru v. + n a RV. i n RV. iha V. .U. B 2 a, 'eat'. Pres. [9.] an t i (ana) ante etc. v.+ [1.] a a R . Perf. a v. + (vs B.) Aor. [1. ayt. 3. iat. ] 5. t etc. v.+ Fut. 1. a i y t i etc. B. + [ 2. ait.] Verb, ait v. + ; a i t u m u.; aitv B . + ; ya B . Sec. Conj.: Pass, ayte AV. + [ Int. aya.] Desid. i i a t i etc. B . + Caus. ayati B .+ ( ita RV.); apaya MGS. i s. Deriv.: AV. na v. aitavy B . + ani TA. ait AV. + y AV.? + ana v. + a E. + aitra B . + iha B . aan B .U. aka B . a i i u s. aanya s. + a a RV. in B . + ayitavya B . Doubtless ultimately the same with 1 a . 1 as, 'be'.
1 1

Pres. [2.] sti snti etc. (edh) v. + (sva sma smahe asateM., symahe c .) Perf. sa sitha etc. v. + Deriv.: s u v. + sta v. + asti v. + sa (itiha) AV. + st V.B .

2 a s , 'throw'. Pres. [4.] syati etc. v.+, asyate etc. RV.B. [I.] asati etc. RV . (? asan) E . + Perf. asa etc. RV. +, se RV . Aor. 1. asyt R . ; si c . 2, sthat etc. A V ! . K ! . C . ( ? see sth). [ 3. siat. 5. sia.] Fut. i. asiyti etc. RV. + [ 2. asit.] Verb, asta v.+, asita R . ; stave B ., tav B . ; asitum E . ; asitv s.; sya v. +; s am B .S.U. Sec. Conj.: Pass, asyate etc. AV. + [ Desid. asisia.] Caus. sayati etc. E . +
1 1 1 1 1 1

2 as]
Deriv* : s v.

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

6
sa AV. + asin AV. + sya AV. sana c.

sana v . + asan RV. asanya c. asi? v.+

sira RV . siha v. asti c. astavya c. st V.B .

astr v. + asya B . + asy E. + asr TB .


1

ah, 'say'. Perf. ha hs v.+, ttha hatus B . + Deriv. ha? P B . If nirha is from this root, then perhaps sv h v.+ is also to be re ferred to it.
1

ch, 'tear'. Pres. [I.] chati c. Deriv. chana c Foxmd only in the Suruta, and doubtless artificial. p , 'obtain'. Pres. [5.] pnti etc A V . + , pnute E. Perf pa pitha etc v. +, pir pn RV. Aor. I. pi B .+ 2. pat etc v.+ (apeyam AV.) 3. pipan B . (ppi pat B AU.) 4. pss E. Fut. I. psyatx B . + , te B .R. 2. pt B . Verb, pt v.+; ptumB . + ; p t v B . + ; apyaB .+ Sec Conj.: Pass, pyte etc B . + Desid. psati etc AV. + psate etc B .E. (ipst etc B . ) Caus. payati etc B .+, te etc E. (pipayiet B .) ps E. + pt c panya s. + Deriv. : pa B . + pnna? RV.S. psin u. poka E . + paneya u . payitavyau.c. p s u s. + p v.+ pin u.+ payit u. pti AV. + pipayiu E. py AV.+ ptavya u. + pana v.+ To a more original form of the root (p is perhaps + ap) doubtless belong also: pas v. aps V.B . pnas, apna RV. apta (? n) RV. BR. regard aps at Rv.iii. 6.7 as a verbform from this simpler root.
1

r , 'praise' (?). Pres. [4.] ryanti R V . Verb, rit RV. Is perhaps a form of + , 'resort to, have recourse to'; aryanti in both occurrences is accented as if it contained a preposition.
2

s 'sit'.
JVea. [2.] ste etc ( s na) v.+ (sn sv .), sti B . [I.] sati te etc E. + [4,] syati te etc E.
2

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[2i

Perf. s cakre etc. B. +, s cakra E. Aor. 5. sia etc. B .S. Fut. I. siyate etc. B.+, yti TS. [ 2. sit.] Verb, sit B . + ; situm B .+, stum K.; sitv B .S.; sya c. Sec. Conj.: Pass, syate E. + [ Desid. sisia.] Caus. sayati B . asti c. sya u. + Deriv.: s V.B . sanya c. sy E. + s u. sitavy B . + sana AV. + asaka E. + sit E.
1

1 i, , ay, 'go'.
1

Pres. [2.] ti y n t i etc. v.+, it iyate etc. B. + [1.] yate etc. v.+, ayati etc. Av .?+ [4.] yate etc. V.B .C. [5.] see 2 i. iye RV . iyte RV ., mahe V.B ., i y n v . + , yati RV ., iyntB (imi TA .; itat .M. A V . ; y a n RV . ; y n s v . ; ymna B .; mahi o.) Perf. iy y a y s etc. v.+ [iyayitha] (iytha V.B ., iytha v.) ay cakre E. + Aor. 1. yt etc. E.+ (iysam GGS.) [ 4. (adhy) ia. 5. yia.] Fut. 1. eyti etc. AV.+, te etc. B . + ; ayiyati etc. B. + 2. et etc. B . + Verb, it v.+, ta a ; t u m B .+, tave tav V.B ., tos V.B .S.; itv B .U. ; t y a v . + , ya a; y y a B . ; y a s e , i t y , iydhyi RV. ;
1 1 1 1 1 1

y am V.B . Sec. Conj.: Pass. yate c. Int. yyate PU . [ Desid. ayiyiate, iyia ti. ] Caus. (praty) yayati etc. (yyate) c.; (adhy) payati te etc. TA.E. + [pipat.l Deriv.: ya v. + paka c. it B . + etu RV. pya c. aytha RV.S. ti V . + etavy B . + pana E . + yana v. + it V.B . et v. + payit c. ya v. + itya B .S. ma vs. yin AV. + ity V.B . man RV. yana AV.U. yaka c. tvan v. eya E. + y v. + yana E. itvar RV.C. va V.B . yu v. + y itavya c. itha RV. yus v. + ti E. + yuka B . ya RV. The last three derivatives only with prati; the four preceding, onlj with adhi. The forms most distinctly calling for the admission of a rootform are, ii the older language, mahe V. B . (common in RV.), y m and yta and yut B.U., yn sv. (all single occurrences); in the later language, ta, ti, yfi (all rare or sporadic). The presentstem ya is improperly called intensive.
1

2 i, inv, in, 'send'. Pres. [5.] inti etc. (invire) RV. [I.] i n v a t i etc. v. [9.] inmasi ? sv . Verb, inita CB .
1

2i]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS, nas v. +

Deriv.: in RV.C inva V.B . invak B . + Doubtless the same with the preceding root. ig, 'stir'.

Pres. [I.] igati te E . + Verb, igita E. + Sec. Conj.: Caus. igyati etc. v.+ (igyte B.) Deriv.: iga E . + igana s.+ igya c. ijan c. Isolated forms as if from g, ik, ij are found in the Brahman as.

ich, see 1 i . i.
A root i, 'wander', is assumed by BR. on account of the proper name i a n t in KB., and the doubtful and obscure itas atRv.x. 171.1 which latter, however, is shown by its accent to be no participle.

A root i d is perhaps to be assumed on account of the nouns v. + and v.+ idh, indh, 'kindle'. Pres. [I.] inddh indhte etc. v. + (indhat RV., ndhna v.; ikva AB . ; inttm TA.) Perf. dh dhir RV.B . [ indh cakre.] Aor. 1. idhat? R V . , idhmahi v., idhn v. 5. indhia etc. B ., indhiya TS., idhimahi s. Fut. I. indhiyant s. [ 2. indhit.] Verb, iddh v. +; idhya s. +; dham, dhe RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, idhyte etc. v. + [ Desid. indidhia.] Caus. indhita c. Deriv.: idh v. + dhya TS. dha V.+ ndha V.B . iddhiB. idhra?v.+ dhasAv.+ indhaka E.
1

idhm v. +

eddh RV.

indhana v. +

in, inv, see 2 i. inak, see 2 n a . iyak, see yaj. irajy, see j. iradh, see rdh.

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES. i l , 'be quiet'.

[k

Pres. [6.] ilati etc. c. [Perf. etc. iyela, ilt, eliyati, elit.] Sec. Conj.: Caus. ilyati etc. AV.B .S. (ilayt AV. ; ilit Deriv.: ilaya B .S. In TS., lyanti is once read. 1 i , i c h , 'seek, desire'.

B .)

Pres. [6.] ichti te etc. v.+ [1.] eati te etc. E . + [6.] ia iant E. + [4.] iyati E. + Perf. i y e a s , e ire etc. B . + Aor. [3. iiat. ] 5. it iius etc. B .U. Fut. 1. eiyati etc. B., te B . [ 2. eit, e.] Verb, i v. + ; u m B . + , av B . , e i t u m R . ; [ i i t v , i v ; ] ya v. + Sec. Conj.: Pass, iyate etc. E. +, ti E. [ Desid. eiia.] Caus. eaya ti etc., eita c. (ichaymi R . ) Deriv. : ichaka E. + eaka E. iir V.B . a B . + e i n AV. + ich E. + i V.B . eaya c. i c h u s. + eya AB . i m n RV. eavy B. + V.B . ey v. + a v. + eitavya c. ia RV. aa v. + e RV. e E. i v. Compare the roots 2 i and , e . The presentstems ea, i a , iya only later, unusual, and with certain prepositions.
1

]/ 2 is,

'send'.

Pres. [9.] i t i etc. (ia) V.B .S. [4.] y a t i te etc. v. + [6.] i e etc. RV. Perf. thus u s RV., ir A v. Aor. 5. prit E.+ (aprit M.) [Fut. eiyati, eit.] Verb, iit v. +; [iitv;] ya B . +; am B . idhyi RV. Sec. Conj.: [ Desid. eiia. ] Caus. iyati te etc. (iaydhyi RV.) eayati te etc. E.+ (eyate E . ) Deriv. : ii RV. ea v. + eya B . + eitavya B .C. u v.+ eaa E. + eayit E. eaka E. Doubtless the same with 1 i , with causative meaning. In later language, almost only preaya. The derivatives hardly occur except with pra.

, see 1 i.
k , 'see'. Pres. [I.] kate etc. v.+, ti etc. B. + Perf. k cakre etc. B. +, k cakrua E.

k]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

10

Aor. 1. i k i c. [3. i c i k a t . ] 5. i k i i etc. B. ( i k t c. ?) Fut. I. k i y t e etc. B. + , y t i B . [ 2. k i t . ] Verb. k i t B . + ; k i t u m E . + ; k i t v B . ; k y a B . + ; k a m B .S. Sec. Conj.: Pass. k y a t e etc. s. + Desid. c i k i a (in d.). Caus. k y a t i etc. v.+, te AV. ( k y a t e s.) k a a R v . ? s.+ k i t a v y B . + k i n E. + Deriv. : ka B . + k a y a E. + k y a E. + k i t c. k B. + k e y RV. c i k i u c. kaka B . + Only three occurrences in RV., but growing rapidly common. Active forms sporadic. kh, 'swing'.

Pres. [ I . ] k h a t i etc. c , t e AA. Sec. Conj.: Caus. k h y a t i t e etc. v.+ Deriv.: k h a v. + k h a n a c. k h a y a RV. The form e k v a AB . is false.

j , see y ej,
, 'praise'. Pres. [2.] e ate etc. ( i v a ) V.B . [ 1 . ] m a h e v., a m n a s. Perf. RV., i r e E. + [ c a k r e . ] [Aor. etc. i i a ; i y a t e , i t . ] Verb. i t v. +; i t u m c Sec. Conj.: Pass. y a t e c. [ Desid. i i a . ] Caus. i a y a n c. Deriv.: RV. ya v. + itavya B . n y a V.B . it AV. Only a few sporadic occurrences in the later language. r, 'set in motion'. Pres. [2.] rte rate etc. V.B. ( r t e B .") [ I . ] r a t etc. RV., i r a t e (3s.) AY. Perf. r i r v. ( e r i r e RV.) [ r c a k r e . ] [Aor. etc. i r i r a t , i r i a ; r i y a t e , r i t . ] Verb. r B . + Sec. Conj.: Caus, r a y a t i etc. v.+, t e etc. V.B . ( r y a t e etc. B . + ; r i t v. + ; r y a n t M. ; r a y d h y i RV.) r i t u. r a a E. + Deriv. : r a B . + rya B. r i n E. + r a y a c. r m V.B . r a k a c. r y c. The form r y a y a t i , doubtless false, is found once in B. r y , 'be jealous'. Pres. [J.] ryati etc. B.S. Verb. r y i t a c. r y i n c. Deriv. : r y AV. + r y l u c. r y a k a c.

r y AV. +

r y i t a v y a c.

11

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[1 u k

Evidently a secondary root, but of doubtful origin (BR., from irasy). Not seldom written without the y in later works. , 'be master'. Pres. [2.] e ate etc. (2s. ke RV., ie RV.S.; e 3s. V.B ., i t e u.; i d h v e AV.) v.+ [I.] a t e a t a V.B .U. Perf. ire ? RV. [ cakre.] [Aor. iia.] Fut. 1. i y a t i u., te B . [ 2. i t . ] Verb. i t a u. ana u. i t u. + Deriv.: B . v a r AV. + AV. + i t a v y a c. u v. + B . + i n u. + , e , 'move'. Pres. [I.] ate etc. V.B ., ti etc. V.B .U. ati etc. Perf. RV. (yes plpf. RV .) [ cakre.] [Aor. etc. iia; i y a t e ; it.] Verb. ita V.B .
1

AV.

Deriv.:

? RV.

e RV.

ei c.

B .s. e

Doubtless ultimately one with 1, 2 i . h , 'be eager'. Pres. [1.] hate etc. B.+, ti E . + [Perf. etc. h cakre; ijihat, ihia; hiyate, hit.] Verb. hita E. + ; h i t u m c. [Sec. Conj.: Desid. jihia. Caus. haya.] Deriv.:ha c. hE,+ hana B . ehAv. ehasv.+ U, 'proclaim'. Pres. [2.] u v e RV . [5.] unoti RV . [ 1. avate.j [Perf. etc. etc. v e ; u a ; oyate, o t ; i a , vaya.] Extremely doubtful root; u v is possibly interjection (B.); v y n o t i is perhaps for v i y u n o t i ; and the pple ta, put here by BR., doubtless belongs to v , 'weave'. 1 u k , 'sprinkle'. Pres. [6.] u k t i etc, v.+, te etc. v.+ [Perf. u k cakra.] Aor. 5. ukiam etc. B . Fut. 1. u k i y a t i etc. B .S. [ 2. ukit.] Verb, ukit v. +; kya B . + Sec. Conj.: Pass, u k y a t e etc. B. + ; Caus. ukayati etc. s.+
1 1

1 uk ]
Deriv.:

ROOTS,

VERB FORMS,
1

12

uk RV. kaa AV. + ukitavya B .C. u RV . > uka B .S. ukaya JB . B .S. ra v. + u k n v.+ Whether u k n and u etc. belong here, is very doubtful. 2 u k , vak, 'grow', see vak. u c , 'be pleased'.

Pres. [4.] ucyati etc. V.B . Perf. u v c i t h a u v c a , c i RV. [Aor. etc. u c t ; uciyat, ucit.] Verb, u c i t v. + [ocitv.] Deriv.: ka RV. oky RV. kas v. + o k i v s RV . cana v. ocara AV.
1

uch, see 1 vas.


ujh, 'forsake'. Pres. [6.] ujhati etc. E. + Perf. ujh cakra c. Aor. 5. ujht c. [Fut. ujhiyati, ujhit.] Verb, ujhita E. + ; ujhitum c ; ujhya c. Deriv.:ujha s.+ ujhana c. ujhiti PB . A secondary root, coming from u d + h (ujjahmi etc.). uch, 'glean'. Pres. [6?] uchati etc. s.+ [Perf. etc. u c h cakra; ucht; uchiyati, uchit.] Verb, u c h i t u m c.; uchyac. [Sec. Conj.: Desid. ucichia. Caus. uchaya.] Deriv.: u c h a s. + uchana c. ud, und, 'wet'. Pres. [7.] untti undnti etc. V.B .S., undte (3p.) AV. [6.] undati etc. B.S. Perf. d u s AV. [ und cakra.] [Aor. etc. undidat, u n d t ; undiyati, undit.] Verb, utta B . , unna s.c.; dya B .S. Sec. Conj.: Pass, udyate RV. [ Desid. undidisa. Caus. undaya.l dat RV. udani RV. udra v. + Deriv.; d RV. t s a v.+ odan v. + udit c u d a k v. + ndana B . + dman B. u d a n u d a v.+ d m a n B . u b j , 'force'. Pres. [6.] ubjti etc. V.B .S. ]Perf. etc. ubj cakra; ubjijat, ubjt; ubjiyati, ubjit.]

13

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[2 h

Verb, ubjit AV.B . ; ubjya JB . [Sec. Conj.: Desid. ubjijia. Caus. ubjaya.] Deriv.: udga? B . + ubja RV.? B . + ubji PB . ubh, umbh, 'confine'. Pres. [9.] ubhnt ubhn s RV. [7.] unap RV., umbhan TS. [6.] umbhata (2p.) AV., umbhat MS.[; ubhati.] [Perf. etc. u v o b h a , umbh cakra; u b h t , umbht; ubhiyati umbhiyati, ubhit umbhit.] Verb, ubdh RV.B ., umbhita c.; ubhya s. Deriv. mbhana TS. u , 'shine', see 1 vas. u , 'bum'. Pres. [I.] ati etc. v.+ [9.] un, unt RV . Perf. u v o a B. [ o cakra.] Aor. 5, ut etc. B .S. [Fut. I. osisyati. 2. oit.] Verb, ua B .S. ; [oitv;] oya TS. ; uasK.; am B. Sec. Conj.: Pass, uyate etc. c. [ Desid. oiia. Caus. Deriv.: a? RV. u v. + uy B. u c. m n v. + ui TA. u m o n E. + Apparently a differentiated form of 1 v a s , which see. 1 r u , see 1 v .
1

oaya.] o, a v. + as RV. oiha B .

1 h , 'remove'. Pres. [I.] hati v.+, te v.+ [Perf. h cakra.] Aor. I. uhyt B. ; ohi c. [ 3. ujihat.] 5. uht B . Verb. ha B . + , hita c ; h i t u m E.+, ohum E.+, hitav B . ; hya B . + , hya B . + ; ham RV., h am MS. Sec. Conj.: Pass, uhyate B .+, hyate c. Caus. hayati c. Deriv. : uha AV. + uhy B . + hanya s. + hi c. hana s. + haka c. hitavya c. oha RV. oghas ? RV. Doubtless a differentiated form of v a h , from which in'some forms and meanings itjis hardly to be separated. 2 h, 'consider'. Pres. [I.] hate etc. v. [2.] hate (3p.) hna ohn RV. [I.] hati a, te E. ohie (Is.) RV . Perf. h etc. v. [ h cakre.] Aor. [3. ujihat. ] 5. uhia v.
1

2 h]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

14

[Fut. hiyate, hit.] Verb. hitum c.; hya c.


Sec. Conj.: [ Desid. jihia. ] Caus. h a y a t i etc. E. Deriv. : uha E. + hana c. u h i t a v y a c.

has RV. hya c. hanya A. ha ? RV. hasna RV. Probably 'bear in mind', and so originally identical with 1 u h and v o h . , ch, 'go, send'.

Pres. [6.] chti etc. v.+, te etc.B ; archati etc. U.E. [3.] iyarti etc. .E. (iyri) V . B . [5.] ti etc. ve etc. v. vti etc. RV. [6.] rante ranta RV., rnt? sv. [9. ti.] [2.] rti TS. Perf. ra ( r itha) rs etc. v. + ; narchat M . [ ar cakra.] Aor. 1. rta rata etc. (aryt TS., arta RV.; ar RV.) V.B . 2. rat etc. V.B . (aranta armahi v.) [ 4. rt.] Fut. I. ariyati B . [ 2. art.] Verb, t v. +, ara c ; rtos B , ; tv AV.B .; tya AV.; ram RV.
1

Sec. Conj.: [ Pass, aryate. ] Intens. larti etc. RV. [arryate etc. Desid.

ariria.] Caus. arpyati etc. v. +, te c. (arpipam AV. ; arpayit E.; arpit rpita v. + ; rpya v. + ; arpyate c.)
Deriv. :

ar, ra v. + ary, rya V . B . S . raa v. + ari v. + arat RV, arru V.B . ar v.+ arit RV. artra,ritrav.+

ra v. + ras RV. rtha v. + arman, rma v.+ rvan, arva v.+ rvant V . B . r v. + rin B. ruka TA.

rya v. + iras RV. ria v. + rya v. ch u. + t, ti v. + t v. + tha v, v. +

rtha v. + arpaka c. arpya c. rpaa v. + arpaya c. arpit E. + arpayit B. arpayitavya c.

e,

see

arc.

j, j, arj, 'direct, stretch, attain'. Pres. [7.] jate (3p.) RV. [6.] jti te etc. RV. AA. [4.] jyant, jyate RV. jase (ls.) jasn RV. [I.] rjati B . U . C . Perf. [narjus] nja AV . ? Aor. [3. rjijat. 5. rjia.] [Fut. arjiyaU, arjit.] Verb, jse R V .
1 1

Sec. Conj.: [ Pass, jyate. Desid. arjijia. ] Caus. arjayati te etc. S.E.+ Deriv.:

arjaka c. arjya c. arjana E . + arjanya c. arjayit c.

j'ipy B V. j v a n RV. jpn RV. j RV. jnas RV. ga RV.

jyas v. j v. + rji RV. rjiha RV.B . rajyas JB. rji AV. +

15

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[dh

It seems impossible to divide these forms (generally distributed to two different roots) from one another. The root has three wellmarked stages of development: j or j in RV., a r j in Brh., and a r j a y a in the later language. Compare also r j , probably a derivative from it. With it is related, further, the anomalously formed stem i r a j y a ( i r a j y t i t e etc. RV., and i r a j y RV.), 'direct, rule'. 2 j, Inferable from the derivatives: r j u n a v.+ j k v. t, art,
1 1

'shine'. jti 'pursue'. RV. j r RV.

Aor. 5. a r t i h v a m PB . Fut. a r t i y e Av . Deriv.: a r t a n vs . artit v . r t u k a B . A very doubtful root ; n v a r t i y e and a n v a r t i t apparent contractions for a n u v a r t ; and B. amends a r t i h v a m to a r t h i ( b u t ??). B ut a r t a n a and a r t u k a seem to show that the thing had assumed the value of a root.
1 1 1

d, ard, stir, dissolve'. Pres. [6.] d a n t u rdan RV. [1.] r d a t i etc. AV.+ [ 7. a t t I . ] [Perf. etc. n a r d a ; r d i d a t , r d t ; a r d i y a t i , a r d i t . ] Verb, a r a ? B. Sec. Conj.: [ Desid. a r d i d i a . ] Caus. a r d y a t i etc. ( [ r d a y t ] a r d y a t e a r d i t a ) v.+ Deriv.: a r d a k a c. a r d i n c. ardanaE,+ Of perplexing variety of meanings.
s

dh,

'thrive'.

Pres. [5.] d h n t i etc. v.+ [7.] d h a t n d h y m n d h n t v. [4.] d h y a t e t i v. + (Pass. ?). Perf. n d h s AV., n d h e RV.B . Aor. 1. rdhma B . S . , d h t h e RV., d h y m etc. V.B .S., d h y s a m etc. AV.B.S. , d h m h i RV. , d h n t RV. ; rdhi B . 2. d h e t d h e m a AV.B. [3. r d i d h a t . ] 5. [ r d h t ] r d h i a MS. Fut. I. a r d h i y a t e B. 2. a r d h i t JB . Verb, d d h a A v , + [ d d h v , a r d h i t v . ] Sec. Conj.: Pass, d h y a t e etc. v. +, d h y a n t M. Desid. rtsati etc. ( a r t s t etc.) AV.B. [ a r d i d h i a . ] Caus. a r d h y a t i etc. AV. + Deriv. : r d h a ? v. + d h n u k a AGS. a r d h i RV. d ha RV. a r d h ? v.+ r t s AV. r d h u k a B .S. dhat, dhak? V. . B r d h y a RV. a r d h a y i t u.s. d h v.s. ddhi AV. + Compare roots v d h and r d h .

ROOTS,

VERB FORMS,

16

( ? ) , 'harm'. Perhaps to be inferred from the derivatives: ara RV. ras vs. + ka v. + arani RV. arasn RV. kara v. , 'rush, push'. Pres. [1.] rati etc. (arase A V . ) V . B . [6.] ti etc. V . B . S . Perf. narat TA. [Aor. etc. rt; a r i y a t i , arit.] Verb, a V.B . [aritv.] [Sec. Con?.: ariia; araya.] Deriv.: ara B. v. + ru RV. abh v. + v V.B . raa B. i v. + ar B . ara AV. RV. Hardly calls for the usual division into two roots. Some of the derivatives doubtful. ej, j , 'stir'. Pres. [I.] jate, jamna RV. ; jati etc. v.+ [Perf. etc. ej cakra; ijijat; ejiyati, ejit.] Sec. Conj.: [ Desid. ejijia. ] Caus. ejayati B., te c. Deriv.: ejthu AV. ejayav.+ edh, 'thrive'. Pres. [I.] dhate etc. v.+, ti etc. B . + Perf. edhire c. edh cakrire B., edhm babhvire c. Aor. [3. ididhat. ] 5. edhiy etc. AV.B . [Fut. edhiyate, edhit.] Verb, edhita E. +; dhitum B . + Sec. Conj.: Desid. edidhia (in d.). Caus. edhayati etc. s. + Deriv.:edha? B .S. edhat V.B . edhana R. edhas S.E. e d i d h i u V S . Perhaps related with dh. katth, 'boast'. Pres. [I.] katthate etc. E.+, ti etc. E. [Perf. etc. cakatthe; akatthia; katthiyate, katthit.] Verb, katthita E. +; katthitum E. Sec. Conj.: Caus. katthayati E. Deriv.: katth E. katthaka c. katthin E.+ katthana E.+ katthitavya c. A secondary prakritized root, but of unclear derivation. kad, 'destroy'. kk AV.B .

Only in the deriv. kadana E.+, and in cakda kadanam R . , where cakda is a misreading for cakra.

17

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES. k a n , k , be pleased, enjoy'.

[kal

Pres. [4.] k y amna Rv . Perf. ckana cknas etc. ckanyt ckandhi etc. c k nanta ckn RV. ; cak cakn V.B .S. Aor. 5. akniam k n ias RV. Deriv.: kan RV. kanih V.B . kan n a v. + kany v. + kanaka? E.+ kniha.+ knyasv.+ kti RV. kyy RV. Doubtless the same with the following root, kam. The stem ckn, on account of its accent, rather perfect than intensive. k a m , 'love'. Perf. cakam etc. v. + Aor. 3. [acakamata] ackamata etc. B. [ 5. kamia.] Fut. I. kamiyate etc. B. 2. kamit B . Verb, k t a E, + ; [ktv, kamitv;] kamas B , ; k m am B . Sec. Conj.: [ Intens. cakam. Desid. cikamia. ] Caus. kmyate etc. v. +, ti etc. E. Deriv. : km? v.+ kamit c. kamuka B . + k m ya v. + kama ? v. kamra c. kti E. + kmy A v. + kama v. + kmayitavya kamana c. kman RV. c. kamanya c. k m n v. + kmana s. + Doubtless the same with the preceding. kamp, 'tremble'. Pres. [1.] kampate etc. u.+, ti etc. E. Perf. cakampe etc. E. [Aor. etc. acakampat, akampia; kampiyate, kampit.] Verb, kampita E. + [kapita]; k a m p i t u m E., tos B . ; kampya s. + Sec. Conj.: [ Int. cakamp. Desid. cikampia. ] Caus. kampayati etc. B . +, te etc. u. + (kampyate a ) Deriv. : kampa E. + kampin E. + kampan E. + kapan ? RV. kampya E. + karnpa E. + kampanya c. kapi? v.+ kampaka E.+ kampana E. + kampra s.+ kpi? RV. k a l , 'drive, produce', etc. [Pres. etc. kalate, cakale, etc.] Sec. Conj.: Caus. klayati etc. s. +, te etc. B . + (klyate etc. s. +) ka layati etc. E. +, te etc. c. Deriv.: kal? B . + klaka c. kalanya c. kalya c. klana s. + kalayit c. kalana s. + kalik c. Divided by BR. and B. into two roots: 2 kal (kalay), 'drive'; and 1 kal (kalay), 'drive etc. etc'

ROOTS, VERB FOB MS,

18

ka, Pres. [I.] kaati etc. AV.+, te etc. B . + [Perf. etc. c a k a ; ak t.] Fut. I. kaiyati TS. [ 2. kait.] Verb, kaita c.; kam s. + Deriv.: k a a E. + kaaa c

'scratch'.

ka B . +

kin c

k a s , 'open'. Pres. [I.] kasati etc. AV.C. Perf. cakase c. Aor. 3. ackasat c. [Fut. kasiyati, kasit.]
Verb, k a s t a V.B .S., k a s i t a s.+

Sec. Conj.: [Int. cankas. Desid. cikasia. ] Caus. ksayati etc. c. Deriv. : kasan? c. kasti TS. kasa E. + ksin s. + ksanya c. (ksyate c.) kasuka AV.+ kasvara c. ksaka c. ksana c.

kS,

see

kan.

kk, 'desire'. Pres. Perf. [Aor. Verb,


Sec.

[I.] kkati te etc. B . + cakka E. + etc. acakkat, akkt; kkiyati, kkit.] kkita E. +
Conj.: [ 1n. ckkya. Desid. cikkia. ] Caus. kn

kayate E. Deriv. : kka c. k a n k E. +

knkaa c. kkaya c. kkitavya c. Perhaps a desiderative formation from k a n or kam. y k , 'appear, make a show'. '

kakin E. + knkya c.

Pres. Perf. [Aor. Verb,

[1.] k a t e etc. B. +, ti etc. E. cake etc. E. + [ k cakre.] etc. acakat, a k i a ; kiyate, kit.] k i t a E. ; k ya B .

Sec. Conj.: Int. c k a t i etc. V.B.U., c k a y t e etc. B.S. [ Desid. cikia.] Deriv.:

Caus. k a y a t i AV. +, te v. + (kyate E . ) kin E. + kanya c. k a v. + kya c. cakaa AV. kaka E. + kana EI+ kayitavya c.

19

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[kuth

k s , 'cough. Pres. [I.] ksate etc. c , ti c. [Perf. etc. k s cakre; acaksat, aksia; ksiyate, k s i t ; cks, ciksia, ksaya.] Deriv.: ks AV. k s AV.C ks AV. k s ik AV. ksana c. Verbforms only in the medical literature, and probably denominative, from kas or ks* k u , see k . k u c , k u c , 'shrink, curl'. Pres. [I.] kucate etc. c. [6.] kucati etc. s .c. Perf. cukoca c. [cukuca.] [Aor. etc. akoct, akuct; kociyati kuciyati, kocit kucit.] Verb, kucita E. +, kucita E. + . See. Conj.: Pass, kucyate c. [ Int. cokucya. Desid. cukucia, ] Caus. kucayati etc. E. +; kocayati etc, E. + Deriv.: kuca E. + kucana c. kocaka c. k u c i c. kocin c. kucana c. k o c a E. + kocana E. + kucaka c. Given by the grammarians as two distinct roots, and not without some justification. k u j , 'rustle'. Pres. [ i.] kujati c. A single occurrence, in the Harsacarita. If not a false reading, is pro bably an artificial word. k u , 'divide, crush'. Sec. Conj.: Caus. kuayati etc. c. (kuita c , kuya E. + ) Deriv.: kua E. + kuaka c. kuana c. Perhaps a prakritized form of 1 kt. The forms avakuya and prakuya (BR. 2 k u ) are only the usual and permitted abbreviations of kuya, k u h , 'dull'. Doubtless only a denominative from kuha E. +, 'dull'. The participle k u h i t a c , and the derivatives kuhaka E.+, kuhana E.+, occur. k u t h , 'stink'. Verb, kuthita c. Sec. Conj.: Caus. kothayati etc. c. Deriv.: kotha c. kothaka B. Except the n. pr. nikothaka. found only in Suruta: no proper root.
1

kup]

ROOTS,

VERB FORMS,

20

kup, 'be angry'. Pres. [4.] k u p y a t i etc. E. +, te etc. E . Perf. cukopa etc. u .E. Aor. [2. akupat. 3. ackupat. ] 5. kopihs E. [Fut. kopiyati, kopit.] Verb, kupita Rv . E. + (kupta c . ?) Sec. Conj.: [ 1nt. cokup. Desid. cukupia, cukopia. ] Caus. ko pyati etc. RV. B. E. +, te E. (cukopayia in d.) k u p y AV. ? kopit E. Deriv.; kup B .S. k o p i n E. + kupya E. k o p a y i u E. kupana? c. kopya E. kopa E. + cukopayiu E. k p a y a RV. kopana E. +
1 1 1

k u , 'tear'. Pres. [9.] k u t i etc. c. [6.] kuati etc. c. [Perf. etc. c u k o a ; akot, a k u k a t ; koiyati kokyati, koit k o ; coku, cukuia cukoia, koaya.] Verb, kuita c.; kya MS. Deriv.: k o (? n.pr.) . koaa s.c. B The occurrence in MS. hardly a genuine one. k , 'design'. Pres. [6.] k u v a t e CB . Verb, kta AV. + ; k v am TS. Deriv.: kti v. + k a v i v. + kvyas sv. Used only with , except in nik v am, the belonging of which is doubtful (as is also that of kavi), RV. has kava, kavatn, kavr, 'stingy', of ques tionable relationship. The grammarians set up roots 1 ku 2 k u or k , 'shout', giving them a full set of forms; and Nir. once uses their intens. k o k y a t e . k j , 'hum'. Pres. [I.] kujati etc. AV.+, te etc. E. Perf. cukja je etc. c. Aor. I. akji c [Fut. kjiyati, kjit.] Verb, kjita E. +; k j i t v c [Sec Conj.: cokj, cukjia, kjaya.] Deriv.: kja E.+ kjana E.+ kjitavya E. k , k l , 'burn'. Sec. Conj.: Caus. kayati etc. kya s.c)
E Y U BU ,
2

klayati etc. s.+ (klita o.,

21

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[1 k

k, Pres. [I.] kati c . Sec Conj.: Caus. kayati etc. c.


1

'shrink'.

krd, 'leap, exult'. Pres. [I.] krdati te etc E . + Perf. cukrda etc c. [de.] [Aor. etc akrdia; krdiyate, krdit.] Verb, krdita c. Deriv.: krda s. krdana c. kroda? TS. krodin? MS. Compare grd, which is doubtless the same with this.
1

1 k ( s k ) , 'make'.
3

Pres. [5.] kti kut etc V.B .S. [8.] karti kurut etc R V . AV. +

[2.] kri AV ., kths ktha k RV. [I.] karanti etc RV. kurmi E. ke (Is.) RV . Perf. cak r a cakr etc (cakrtha cak etc) v.+ (cakriys acakrat etc acakriran RV.) Aor. I. karam kar kran etc akri kta krata etc V.B .S. (krati te etc V.B .S., kriyma RV., kriysam sma V.B .S. , kdh etc v. +, k v etc RV., krnt kr RV.; krnta RV.; akat B ,); kri v.+ 2. karat etc A V . B . S . 3. ackarat c. 4. akrt etc B .+, aki
1

etc. B .C.

Fut. I. kariyti etc v.+, te etc B . C (akariyat etc B .+) 2. kart s.+ Verb, kt v. + ; krtum AV.+, tave V.B ., tav B .S., tos V.B.S.; ktv AV.+, tv V.B ., tv y a B . ; k t ya v. + ; k r am B . + Sec Conj,: Pass, kriyte etc v. + 1nt. karik carik V.B . Desid. c krati etc AV.+, te etc s.+ (acikrs B.; cikrayati c ) . Caus. krayati te etc B . + (kryate etc E. +; cikrayia in d.) Deriv.: kar v. + ktha RV. krt RV. kruka B. + kara RV. kart v. + krmi, in RV. kra RV. krtu v. + kraa v. + krtra AV. kt v. + kriy KS.E.+ karaya B . + krman v.+ k t ya n. v. + ckri RV. karai? E. krvara v. ktya a. v. + karikra B . kras RV. kra v. + kty v. + cikr c kriha RV. kraka E. + k t i v. + kariu s.+ krin AV. + k t u (tvas) v. + cikr B . + cikru E. + kara V.B . kry AV. + k t vya RV. krayit B .E. krtva v. kraa s. + ktn v. krayitavya E.+ kartavy B . + kraya c. ktrma v. + cikrayiu c. kru E. + k t van v. cikrayiu E. k t var AV. The rootform sk is found especially after sam and pari; but also the aor. n r askta RV., and pple upaskrta B . +. In v. occur only saskta

1 ky]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

22

and parikta RV. AV., and parikvnti and vnt RV. (against s m akvan etc. RV.). B ut from B . on, forms with s k after sam are frequent, almost to the exclusion of those with simple k; even such as sam askur v a t a , sa caskra, sa skarisyanti, saskraym sa, saeik rayiu. Of the derivatives, there are found with sa only: skaraa s.+ skartavya a, skart E . + , skraka E.+, skrya E . + , skti B . + ; also skriy with sa c. and pari c.; skra with sa s. +, pari E. +, and u p a c ; and skara with apa c , upa E.+, pari E., and v i (?) E. + ; finally, skra RV., which is doubtful. 2 k, kirj 'scatter'.

Pres. [6.] kirti etc. v. +, te etc. v. + Perf. cakra cakre E. [cakarus.] Aor. I. kryt c 4. akrata PB . 5. kriat RV. Fut. 1. kariyati etc. E. [karyati. 2. kar t .] Verb, kra B . +; krya s. + Sec. Conj.: Pass, kryte etc. B. + (kryet E.) [ 1nt. ckar, cekrya. Desid. cikaria. ] Caus. [krayati,] krayet E. krya c. Deriv. : kara v. ? B. + kra ? s. + kira c kula? E . + karaka E. kira v. + kraka a kiri B . karit B . kir c. One or two late forms occur with prefixed s: apaskirama, praticas k a r e ; others are authorized by the grammarians; in derivatives, vikira s.+ 3 k , 'commemorate'. Pres. cakrnt? RV. Aor. 4. akram AV. 5. akriam krt RV. Sec. Conj.: Int. carkarmi carkdhi etc. carkirma ran crke (3s.)
RV. AVl. Deriv. : kar RV.

krn RV.

kr v. kr, in RV.

krt v. + keru RV.

carkt RV. cark t ya v.

Cakrnt is anomalous and altogether questionable. 1 k t , 'cut'.

Pres. [6.] kntti etc. v.+, te etc. B .E. [1.] kartati etc. E. Perf. cakarta etc (cokartitha, cakartus) v. +, cakartire E. Aor., 2. ktas RV. (ktant RV.) 3. acktas TB . [acakartat.] 5. karts B . Fut. I. kartsyati AV. ; kartiyati c. [ 2. kartit.] Verb, ktt v. + ; k t ya v. + ; krtam B. Sec Conj.: Pass, k t y t e etc AV. + [Int. carkt. ] Desid. cikartia (m d.) [ciktsa.] Caus. kartayati etc s. +, kntayati LS.

23
Deriv.

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[k

kntana s.+ k t RV. knttra V.B . kt RV. cikarti c. k t ti? v . + cikartiu c. knta B. Sasktatr v . is doubtless not referable to this roof. kart v. + grta'? B . + kartya c. kartana v. + kartin c. karttavya E. kartt E. + kartar c.
1

2 k t , 'spin'.
Pres. [7.] ktti etc.
V.B .S.

Sec. Conj.: Caus. kartita kartya c. Deriv. kartt E. k p , 'lament'. Pres. [1.] k p ate etc. v. Perf. cakpnta RV. Aor. 1. akpran v. 5. akrapia RV.
Sec. Conj.: Caus. kpyati etc. RV. (kpaynt Rv .), te etc: JB.
1

Deriv.:

kp E. +

kpa v. +

kpa AV. +

k , 'be lean'. Pres. Perf. [Aor. Verb, [4.] k yati B. cakra AV. etc. akat; kariyati, karit.] kita AB . [kitv, karitv.]
Caus. k a r y a t i etc. v. +

Sec. Conj.:

Deriv.:

karana v. +

k v. +

kryas c.

k , 'drag, plough'. Pres. [1.] krati etc. v . + , te etc. B. + [6.] kti te etc. v . + Perf. cakara etc. (cakaratus) B . + Aor. 3. ackam RV. [acakarat. 4. akrkt, akrkt.] 7. akk at etc. B. (akkaths B .) Fut. 1. krakynt s., krakye B ., [karkyati] kariyntB . [ 2. kar , kra.] Verb, k AV. +; kraum E. + , kv B . + , kya s. + Sec. Conj.: Pass, kyte etc. B. + Int. crkati etc. V.B. [cark. Desid. cikka.] Caus. karayati etc. E. + Deriv.: kara s. + kya s. + k r i, n B . kar B . + k v. + karaka E. + k r man RV. karaa E. + kraavya c. karin, B . + karaya c. k v. + kra c. It does not seem worth while to divide this root, evidently one, into two nearly related ones, as is often done.

kp]

ROOTS, VERB-FORMS,

24

kp, 'be adapted'. Pres. [1.] klpate etc. v.+ (klpant? AV.) Perf. cklp etc. v., pus AV. (pat v.); caklpe c. Aor. [2. aklpat. ] 3. acklpat etc. v. + [ 4. aklpta. 5. akalpia.] Fut. 1. klapsyate AB ., kalpiyate c [kalpsyati. 2. kalpit, kalpt.] Verb, klpt v. + Sec. Conj.: [ 1nt. calklp, calklp. Desid. ciklpsati, cikalpiate. ] Caus. kalpyati te etc. v. + (kalpyte B . +; cikalpayiati AB .) Deriv. : klpa v. + kalpitavya c. kalpayit B . kalpana u. + kalpaka E. + kalpayitavya kalpan E. + kl'pti B . + B.+ kalpya E. + kalpanya u.+ With this root are apparently related kp V.B ., kpa v.+

kn, ' w e t .
[Pres. etc. knyate, cuknye, aknyt, knyiyati, knyit.] Verb, kn y am B. Sec. Conj.: Caus. [knopayati] (knopam c ) Deriv. knopana c. krak, 'crash'. Pres. [1.] krkama Rv . Deriv.: kraka Rv . krakin RV . Apparently an onomatopoetic root.
1 1 1

krath, 'be jubilant'. [Pres. etc. krathati etc.]


Sec. Conj.: Caus. krthyati T B .
1

Deriv.: kratha E. + krathana E. + krtha E. krthin E. krthana c A very doubtful group of derivatives, in meaning and connection.

krand, kland, 'cry out'.


Pres. [1.] krndati etc. v.+, te etc. E. Mandate c . Perf. cakranda c, cakrad RV. (cakradat etc. RV.) Aor. 2. kradas RV. 3. acikradat etc. V.B. 4. krn V.B . 5. akran dt c. [Fut. krandiyati, krandit.] Verb, krandita c.; kranditum c. Sec. Conj.: Int. knikrand, knikrad, kanikrady V.B . [ckrand. Desid. cikrandia.] Caus. krandyati etc. v. + kland AV. krandan RV. Deriv.: krnda v.+ krndana v.+ krndas v. krandin c krandanya c kanikrad B . krndya V.B .
1

25

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[kr

kram,

'stride'.

Pres. [1.] krrati etc. krmate etc. v. + (kramati etc. RV.? E.+, krmate etc. U.E.) [ 4. krmyati.] Perf. cakr m a cakrams etc., cakram etc. v. + (ckramanta RV.) Aor. 1. akran kramus etc. RV. 2. akramat man AV.B . [ 3. acikra mat.] 4. akrasta sata etc. V . B . S . (krasate R V . ) 5. kramt etc. V.B .U., krmia (3s.) RV. (akramm RV., akrmt B.) Fut. 1. krasyti te AV.B .E.; kramiyati te B.+ (akramiyat u.) [ 2. k r a m i t , krat.] Verb, krt AV.+ ; krmitumB . + , tosB ., krtum E. + ; kramitv E.+, krtv B . + [kratv]; krmya v. + ; krme RV.; kr m am
AV. +

See. Conj.: Pass, kramyate etc. s.+. Int. cakram v.+, cakramyte B . + Desid. cikramiati etc. B.U. [cikrasa.] Caus. kramayati etc. B . +; krmayati etc. B.+ (krmyate c.)
Deriv.:

krma v. + kramin E. + kramya c. krmaa v. +

kramaya E. + kramitavya E. krma B. krmin AV.B .

krmya c. krmaa c. kr m uka B . krti B . +

krt E. cakrama AV. + cakramaas.+ krmayitavya c

The aor. akran is by some referred to krand. kr, 'buy'. Pres. [9.] kr t i krt etc. v. + Perf. cikrya s. [cikriye.] [Aor. akrit, akrea.] Fut. 1. kreyati te etc. B.S. [ 2. kret.] Verb, krt v. +; kretum E. +; krtv AV. +; kr y a B . + Sec. Conj.: Pass, kryte etc. B. + [ 1nt. cekr.] Desid. cikrate c [ Caus. krpayati, acikrapat.] Deriv. : kray AV.+ kretavya E . + krayya B. + kryaka E . + kret E. + krayaka E. kryaa B. + kr AV. + krayin E. + kreya E . + krayaya s. krti B . kr, 'play'. Pres. [I.] kr ati te etc. v.+ Perf. cikra e etc. B . + [Aor. acikrat, akrt.] Fut. I. kriyati c. [ 2. krit.] Verb, krita E. +; kritum c.; krya E. Sec. Conj.: [ 1n. cekr. ] Desid. cikria (in d.). Caus. krayati etc. s. + (krpayati R . )

kr]
Deriv.: kr v. + kr B . +

ROOTS,

VERB FORMS, kr RV.B . krit c. kr RV. cikria c. cikriu c

26

krn v. + krana B . +

k r u , 'be rough or raw'. Such a root appears to be assumable for the derivatives : kravaRv. k r a v s , v i v . k r a v i v . kravy v.+kru RV. krrAv.+ k r u d h , 'be angry'. Pres. [4.] krdhyati etc. AV. +, te etc. E. + Perf. cukrodha cukrudhus etc. B. + Aor. 2. krudhat etc. A V . + 3. cukrudhat etc. RV. [Fut. k r o t s y a t i , kroddh.] Verb, kruddh v. +; kroddhum E. ; kruddhv s. Sec. Conj.: [ Int. cokrudh. Desid. cukrutsa. ] Caus. krodhyati etc AV. + (krodhyate M.) Deriv.: k r u d h c . krudhm RV. krdhaAv.+ krodhana E.+ krodhanyaE. k r u , 'cry out'. Pres. [1.] k r a t i etc v.+ , te etc RV.E. Perf. cukroa etc E. [cukrue.] Aor. 7. akrukat etc V.B . [Fut. k r o k y a t i , kro.] Verb, krua B . +; k r o u m E. ; kruya E. + Sec Conj.: Pass, k r u y a t e E. [7nt. cokru. Desid. cukruka. ] Caus. k r o y a E. + k l a RV. krou c. kroin c. Deriv.: kroa v. + kroan v. + kro v. + kroaka B . + kroya s. kroayit c. k r , 'thicken' (?). Sec. Conj.: Caus. akrayat, kruyamna, cukruayati B . All in a single passage of the Khaka. Possible derivative, kro AV. + k l a t h , 'turn' (?). Pres. [I.] klthan B. A single occurrence, in vs.; no derivatives. k l a n d , see k r a n d . k l a m , 'be weary'. Pres. [4.] k l m y a t i c. Perf. [ c a k l m a j caklame c [Aor. etc. aklamt; klamiyati, klamit.]

27

AND PRIMARY

DERIVATIVES.

[kad

Verb, klt E. + Sec. Conj.: Caus. klmayati c. Deriv.: klama E. + klti c. Compare ram. k l a v , 'stammer'. Verb, k l a v i t a c. Probably artificial and false, inferred from v i k l a v a E . + , v i k l a v i t a c. k l i d , 'be wet'. Pres. [4.] klidyati te etc. E. + [I.] klindant c . [Perf. etc. cikleda; aklidat, aciklidat; klediyati k l e t s y a t i , kledit klett.] Verb, klinna s.+ [ k l i d i t v , klittv.] Sec. Conj.: [ Int. ceklid. Desid. cikledia, ciklidia, ciklitsa. ] Caus. kledayati etc. s. + kledin c. kledana c. Deriv.: klindu AV. kledya E. kledyas AV. kleda E. + k l i , 'distress'. Pres. [9.] k l i n t i etc. E. + [4.] k l i y a t e etc. E. + , ti etc. E. + Perf. ciklea etc. c. [Aor. etc. k l i y t a k l e i , a c i k l i a t , a k l e t , aklikat; k l e i y a t i k l e k y a t i , k l e i t kle.] Verb, k l i a E.+ [kliita]; k l e u m E.; [kliitv, k l i v ; ] klya B. + Sec. Conj.: [ Int. cekli. Desid. c i k l e i a , c i k l i i a , ciklika. ] Caus. k l e a y a t i etc. E. + Deriv.: k l e a u. + kleaka o. k l e i n c. kleana c. k l e E. k v a , 'sound'. Pres. [1.] k v a a t i c. [Perf. etc. c a k v a ; a k v t ; k v a i y a t i , kvait.] Verb, kvaita c. Sec. Conj.: Caus. kvaayati etc. c. Deriv. kvaana c. k v a t h , 'boil'. Pres. [I.] kvathati te etc. B. + [Perf. etc. c a k v t h a ; a k v a t h t ; k v a t h i y a t i , kvathit.] Verb, k v a t h i t a c. Sec. Conj.: Caus. kvthayati etc. s.+ (kvthyate etc. E. + ) Deriv.: kvatha c. kvathana c. kvtha c. kvthayitavya c. k a d , 'divide'. Pres. [1.] kdate etc. V.B . Perf. cakad etc. RV. Deriv.: katt v. kad RV. kdman RV.
1

kan]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

28

k a n , ] 'wound'. Pres. [8.] kati kaut etc. B. + [Perf. caka cakae.] Aor. [1. akata. ] 5. kaihs AV. [akat.] [Fut. kaiyati te, kait.] Verb, kata v. +; katos B. [Sec. Conj.: caka; eikaia; kaya.] Deriv.: kaana c. kati E. + k a p , 'be abstinent'. Pres. [1.] kapati E. + , kpate v.s. Verb, k a p i t u m c. Deriv. kapaa E. + The words kp v., kap v. + do not appear to be connected with this root. k a m , 'endure'. Pres. [1.] kmate etc. v. + , ti etc. E. + (k m at AV. ?). [4.] kamyate etc. E. + [kmyati.] Perf. cakame etc. B . + (cakamths RV.) [Aor. akamat, acikamat, akasta, akamia.] Fut. 1. k a s y a t i etc. E., kamiyati B . + [ 2. kat, kamit.] Verb, k t a E. +, kamita E. ; k a t u m E. + Sec. Conj.: Pass, kamyate E. + [ 1nt. cakam. Desid. cikasa, cikamia. ] Caus. kamayati etc. E.+ (kmaye M. , kam paya c.) Deriv. : km, k v. kamaya E. kat E. kti E. + katavyaE.+ kmya E. km v. + kam AV. + kamitavya E. k m an v. ckm ? RV. kam E. + k m i sv. kampaa c .
1

k a r , 'flow'. Pres. [1.] krati etc. v.+, te etc. E. Perf. cakra c Aor. kr (3s.) RV. [Fut. kariyati, karit.] Verb, karita B . ; kradhyi RV. Sec. Conj.: [ Int. ckar. Desid. cikaria. ] Caus. krayati etc. B . + Deriv.: kara v. + karaa c. kraa c kr?v.+ k a l , 'wash'. See. Conj.: Caus. klayati etc. B.+ (klpayta s.) Deriv.: kla E. + klaka E. + klya c Doubtless the same with the preceding root. klana s. +

29

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[kip

k , 'burn'. Pres. [4.] k y ati etc. B .S. Verb, ka? B .S. Sec. Conj.: Caus. kpyati etc. A V . B . S . Deriv.: k a B . kt RV. kma B . + 1 k i , 'possess'.

kra E. +

Pres. [2.] kti etc. V.B. (kynt TS., kiynt v.). [6.] kiyti etc. AV. B. [1.] kyati etc. v. [Perf. cikya.] Aor. 4. k e a t RV. Fut. k e y n t RV. Sec. Conj.: Caus. kayya RV., kepayat RV. Deriv. : kya v. kaya vs. kit v.+ ket RV. k ? v. katr? v.+ kit v.+ ktra v.+ kas? RV. k m a v. + 2 k i , k , 'destroy'. Pres. [9,] ki t i etc. V.B . [5.] kioti etc. AV.+ [1.] kayati E. [4.] k y ate etc. V.B . [2.] kidh sv . [Perf. cikya.] Aor. 1. [kyt;] kyi B .s. 4. kehs kea AV. B .S.U. Fut. I. akeyata (3s.)B; kayiymi R. [ 2. ket.] . Verb, k i t v. +, k a AV. +; ketos B . ; [ktv;] k y a CB . Sec. Conj.: Pass, kyte v.+ [ Int. ceki. ] Desid. cikati B . Caus. kayayati etc. E. +; kapayati etc. E. + Deriv.: kaya E. + kapayit c. kayaa AV. B.S. k e B. k a p a y i u c. k a y i n E. + k a y i u u.c kapaa E. + kayya B . + kit B . kapitavya c. kayayitavya E. k t i AV. +
1

k i p , 'throw'. Pres. [6.] kipti etc. v. +, te etc. E. + Perf. cikepa etc. E. +, cikipe E. Aor. [1. k i p y t ; akepi. ] 3. cikipat etc. v. [ 4. akipst, akipta.] Fut. 1. k e p s y a t i etc. E.+, te E. [ 2. kept.] Verb, k i p t v. +, k i p i t a s.; k e p t u m E. +, tos B . ; k i p t v c.; kipya E. +; kepam E. Sec. Conj.: Pass, kipyate E. + (yant M.) [ 1nt. cekip. ] Desid. ciki psa (in d.). Caus. kepayati etc. E. + Deriv. : k p RV. keptavya E. + k i p t i c. kepya c kipa c kept E. + kipr v. + kepan B. k p RV. kepa E. + kepaa s. + k e p n RV. kipa RV. kepaka E. + kpiha B . cikipsu c. k i p a RV. kepin c. kpyas B , +

ku]

ROOTS, VERB-FORM S,

30

ku,

'sneeze'.

Pres. [2.] kuti kuvnti etc. B. + Perf. cukva etc. B., cukuve c. [Aor. etc. akvt; kaviyati, kavit.] Verb, kuta E. +; k u t v B. +
Sec. Conj.: Desid. c u k a t i JB. [ Desid.-Caus. cukvayiati.]

Deriv.: kava AV.

k a v a t h u c. kud, 'crush'.

Pres. Perf. [Aor. Verb,

[1.] kdati -te RV. [ 7. k u a t t i kuntte.] cukudus E. etc. akudat, akutst a k u t t a ; kotsyati -te, kott.] k u a E. +; -kudya c. kdas RV. kdiha B. kodyas B. +

Sec. Conj.: Caus. k o d a y a t i etc. RV. c. Deriv.: kudr v. + koda E. +

k o d y a E. kudh, 'be hungry'.

Pres. [4.] kdhyati etc. v. + [Perf. cukodha.] Aor. 2. kudhat AV. [Fut. kotsyati, koddh.] Verb, kudhita u. + [kudhitv.] Deriv.: k d h v.+ kudh E.+ -kudhya AV. k u d h i c. kdhuka B.S. kup, 'be startled' (?). Pres. [6.] akupat R . (Aor. 2?). Deriv.: kupa E. + k m p a RV. Not a genuine root. The only verbal form in a single punning etymology. kubh, 'quake'. Pres. [4.] kubhyati -te etc. E.+ [I.] kobhate u . [5.] kubhnuyus JB. [ 9. kubhnti.] Perf. cukobha a , cukubhe A V . + [Aor. etc. kubhyt akobhi, akubhat, acuksubhat, akobht -bhia; kobhiyati -te, kobhit.] Verb, kubdha B. +, kubhita E. +; -kobdhos B. [kobhitum; kubdhv, kubhitv.] Sec. Conj.: [Int. cokubh-. Desid. c u k u b h i a - , cukobhia-. ] Caus. kobhayati -te E. + (kobhyate E. +, cukobhayia- in d.) kobha B. + kbhaa v. + -kobhin c. Deriv.: k b h RV. kobhayit c kobhaka c. kobhya E. + k u b h E. + cukobhayiu E.
1 1

31

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES. k u , 'whet'.

[khad

Pres. [2.] k u m i RV., kuti s., k u v n AV. [Perf. etc. c u k v a ; akvt; kaviyati, kavit.] Verb, kut B . ; kutya B . Deriv.: kut B .S. ktra RV. km, 'tremble'. [Pres. etc. kmyate, cakmye, etc.] Sec. Conj.: Caus. kmpayati c. NO genuine root. The single example in Nirukta. kvi, 'hum'. Pres. [1.] kveati etc. E . + Verb, kveita E. + Sec. Conj.: Caus. k v e a y a t i E. Deriv.: k v e a E. + kveana E. + A later form of the root next following. kvid, 'hum'. Pres. [1.] k v e d a t i etc. B . Verb, k v i a c.; kvdas B . Apparently onomatopoetic. kvel, 'play'. Pres. [1.] k v e l a t i etc. R. Verb, k v e l i t a E. + Deriv.: kvelana c. k v e l i c. khac, show through'. Pres. [1.] khacati etc. c. Verb, khacita E. + khaj, 'limp'. Pres. [1.] khajati etc. c. [Perf. etc. cakhaja etc. etc.] Deriv.: khaja c. khajana c. khad, 'be hard'. Pres. khadnt ? B . [Perf. etc. cakhda etc. etc.] Deriv.: khad s. khadir v. + Very doubtful root; the occurrence inBperhaps a false reading. .

khan]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

32

khan, kh, 'dig'. Pres. [1.] khnati te etc. v. + Perf. cakh n a cakhnus etc. AV. + [cakhne.] Aor. [1. khanyt, khyt. 3. ackhanat. ] 4. k h n B . [ 5. akh n t, akhania.] Fu. 1. khaniyati etc. B. + [ 2. khanit.] Verb, kht v. +; khnitum B . +; khanitv c., khtv B . +, tv B . ; khya B . +; khnam s. Sec Conj.: Pass, khyate etc B . +, khanyate etc E. + [ Int. cakhan, ckh. Desid. cikhania.] Caus. khnayati etc s. + (kha naya E. ?) Deriv.: k h v.+ khanana c. khantra v. + khnya s. kh v. + khananya c. khara v. + khni c. khan AV. + khan AV. kht c. khu v. + khanit v. + khanaka E. kheya c khnaka c. kharj, 'creak'. Pres. [I.] kharjati s. Deriv.: khargl v. + kharj r a B , + khall, 'be relaxed' Pres. [1.] khallate c. Verb, khallita c. Deriv. khalla c.

kh, see khan.


khd, 'chew'. Pres. [1.] kh d ati etc v.+ Perf. cakh d a etc v. + [Aor. acakhdat; akhdt.] Fut. 1. khdiyate E. [ti. 2. khdit.] Verb, khdit B . + ; k h d i t v B .U. Sec Conj.: Pass, khdyate c. [ Int. ckhd.] Desid. cikhdiati E. + Caus. khdayati etc E . + cikhadiu E . + Deriv. : khd v. + khdya E. + kh d as RV. khdaka s.+ khdana E. + khditavya c. khdin E. + khdanya c. khdit c khid, 'tear'. Pres. [6.] khidti etc v.+. [ 7. khintte.] [4.]? see Pass. [Perf. etc c i k h e d a ; ackhidat, akhitst; khetsyati, khett.] Verb, khinna E. +; khidya B .S. ; khidam AV.
Sec Conj.: Pass, k h i d y a t e etc E.+, ti etc E . + [ Int. cekhid. Desid.

cikhitsa. ] Caus. khedayati te E . +

33
Deriv.: khida B . khidr RV.

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES. khidvas RV. khd v. + khud, k h e d i n c. khedana c. 'futuere .


1

[gad
kheditavya E. khedayitavya c.

Pres. [6.] khudti etc. v. Sec. Conj.: Int. cankhudat s. (knkhunat TB .) Deriv. khdana AV. khel, Pres. [I.] khelati etc. E . + Verb, khelita c. Sec. Conj.: Caus. khelayati etc. c. Deriv.: khel v. + khelana c. 'stagger'.

kheli c. 'see'.

khy,

Pres. [2.] khysi khyti khyhi khyta E. + Perf. cakhyu cakhyus etc. v. + Aor. [ 1. akhyyi; khyyt, khyeyt. ] 2. khyat etc. V.B.S., akhyata etc. V.B . \. k h y e a m B .S. [khysa.] Fut. 1. k h y s y t i etc. B.+, te E . + [ 2. khyt.] Verb, khyt AV. + ; khy t um B . + ; khy y a v.+; khy V . B . ; khy yam B . Sec. Conj.: Pass, khyyate etc. B.+ ( k h y y i y a t e B . ) [Int. ckhy. ] Desid. cikhysita c. Caus. khypayati te etc. B . + ([acikhyapat;] khypyate etc. c.; cikhypayia in d. c.) khyt v. + Deriv.: khya B. + khyeya AV. + khypana E. + khy n a B . + khypaka c. khypanya c. khy v. + khyyaka E. + khypin c. cikhysu c. khyti B . + khytavyaE.+ khyyin s. + khypya E. cikhypayi c.

gach, see gam.


gad, 'say'.

Pres. [I.] gadati etc. s.+ Perf. jagda jagade etc. E . + Aor. I. agdi c. [ 5. ag d t.] Fut. I. gadiyate E. [ 2. gadit.] Verb, gadita E. +; gaditum c.; gadya s. Sec. Conj.: Pass, gadyate etc. E.+ Int. jgadyate c. Desid. jigadi ati E. Caus. gdayati s. Deriv. : gada B . + gadgada c. gadana B . + gdin c. gadya E. + gadi c. gdya c. v i gada in AV. (V. 22. 6) is doubtless a vocative, vigada.

gadh]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

34

gadh, 'attach' (?). Verb, gadhita RV2. Deriv. gdhya RV. A root of doubtful meaning and relations.

gabh, see gah. gam, gach, 'go'.


Pres. [I.] gchati etc. v.+, te etc. v.+. gmanti RV., ntu V. [2.] gath RV . Perf. jag m a (jagntha [jagamitha]) jagms etc. jagm etc. v.+ (ja ganma RV. ; jaganv s v.+, jagmivs B . + ; jagamyt etc. v.; ja gan etc. ajagmiran v.) Aor. 1. gamam gan gman etc. gata ganmahi agmata etc. V . B . S . (gmat etc. V.B ., gammahi RV. gamy t etc. V.B.S., gmya B . ; gahi gantu etc. V.B .S. ; gmnt v.); agmi RV., agami c. 2. agamat etc. B .+ (gamt etc. V.B .S., gamemahi v.s.) 3. ajgamat etc. V.B . 4. agasi agasmahi etc. S.+ (agasmahi etc. V.B .) [gasa, gasa.] 5. gamiam RV., gmiya vs. Fut. I. gamiyati etc. AV.+, te etc. E. (agamiyat u.) 2. gat etc. B . + Verb, gat v. + ; gtum B .+, tave V.B ., tav v., tos V.B. ; gatv AV.+, tv y a V.B ., tv R V . ; gtya v.+, gamya u.s. + ; gmadhyi RV., dhye TS. ; gmas MS. Sec. Conj.: Pass, gamyte etc. AV.+ int. gngamV.B ., jagam (in d.), j g a m A V . ? Desid. jgamiati te etc. B. + , jigsati etc. AV.+, te etc. s. + Caus. gamyati etc. v.+, te etc. s.+ (gmaya R V . ) gtvan RV. gamayit B. + Deriv.: gacha c. g a m i u B. gatvara c. gamayitavya B .C. gama v. + gat v. gmin E. + jgat v. + gamaka c. gti v. + gmuka B . + jgmi RV. gamin c. gatva s. jigatn v. gamya u. + gatavy B . + gm RV. gman RV. jagama u. + gmana v. + gt v. + jm RV. jagamana c. gamanya E.+ gatha V.B . j m n v. jigamiu c. gmiha v.s. gatn AV' jigsu c.
1 1

garj, 'roar'. Pres. [I.] garjati etc. E.+, te etc. E . + Perf. jagarja etc. E. + [Aor. etc. agarjt; garjiyati, garjit.] Verb, garjita E. + ; garjitv E. ; garjya c. Deriv.: garja C. garjin c. garjana E.+

garji c.

35

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[2 g

g a r d , 'exult' (?). Pres. [I.] agardat PB . Deriv. grda TS. Perhaps the same with grd. g a r h , 'chide'.
Pres. [1.] garhate etc. RV.S.E.+, ti etc. E . +

Perf. jagarha he etc. E. + [Aor. etc. agarhia; garhiyate, garhit.] Verb, garhita s. +; garhitum E. ; garhya c. Sec. Conj.: Pass, garhyate etc. a [1nt. jgarh. Desid. jigarhia, ] Caus. garhayati te etc. u. + garhaa E. + Deriv. : garha E. + garhya s. ? + garhitavya E. garhaya E . + garhin E. + gal, 'drop'. Pres. [I.] galati etc. a [Perf. etc. jagla; aglt; etc.] Verb, galita E. + Sec. Con;.: 1nt. galgalti vs., galgalyate c. Caus. glayati etc. c Deriv.: galana c. glana c. galbh, 'dare'. Pres. [I.] galbhate etc. c. Perf. jagalbhe c. Deriv. galbha B . + With pra, and doubtless in reality a denominative of pragalbh.
1

1 g, 'go'.

Pres. [3.] jgti etc. V.B . [ 2. gate.] Perf jagyt Rv. , (adhi) jage etc. E . + Aor. 1. gt gus etc. v.+ (gni gt etc. v.; agan 3p. c.) [agyi.] 3. (adhy) aga gata etc. B . + [agsta]; geam ma AV.B .S. [Fut. gsyate, (adhy) agyata; gt.] Verb, g t ave RV . Sec. Conj.: [ Pass, gyate. 1nt. jegya. ] Desid. jigati etc. svi.c . [jigsa. Caus. gpayati, ajgapat.] gng? v.+ Deriv.: g v. + gya v. gtra v, + g? B , ga v.+ gna RV. gea? u. gt V.B . gman RV.
1 1

2 g,
1

'sing'.
1

Pres. [4.] g y ati etc. v.+, te etc. v.+ [I.] gti KB ., gnti M. gyie (ls.) R V .

2 g]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

36

Perf. jagu etc. B . + , jage etc. c. Aor. [I. g e y t ; agyi. ] 4. gsi (Is.) RV. 6. agst sius etc. V.B .U. (gsiat RV.) Fut. I. gsyati etc. B.+ (agsyat etc. B.U.) [ 2. gt.] Verb, gt v. + ; gtum B . + ; g t v B . + ; gya AB ., gya B .C. Sec. Conj.: Pass, gyte etc. v.+ (gyant M.) Int. jegyate etc. E . + [jg.] Desid. jigsati etc. B . Caus. gpayati etc. B .+, te B. [ajgapat]; gyayeyus JUB . gyatr v. + gti s. + Deriv.: g v. + gt v. + gyana s. + gtha AV. + ga AV. + gth v. + g y as RV. geya B . + gya c g t h v. + g t RV. gea AB . gyaka E. + gna u.s.+ gtavya c jigtha, ta B.U. gyin c. gman RV. gpana s. gh etc.,
1

'plunge'.

Pres. [I.] g h ate etc. v.+, ti etc. E. Perf. jagha c (jighre s .) [Aor. ajgahat; agha, aghia.] Fut. I. ghiyate E . + [ 2. gh, ghit.] Verb, giia s.+, ghita E. + ; ghitum E.; ghya s.+ Sec. Conj.: Pass, ghyate etc. E.+ Int. jgahe v. [jgh, Desid. jighia, jighka.] Caus. ghayati etc. c gh v. + Deriv. : gha RV. gmbhan B . gabhvara c ghin c gambhra RV. gdh v. + gahana RV.E. gmbhiha B. gdhana c gah, gahmn B. ghya E. + gabhr v. + ghana s. + ghvara AV. + ghanya c. gambhr v. + The connection of these derivatives is probable, but not beyond question.

gir, gil,
gu,

see

2 g.

'sound'.

[Pres. etc. g a v a t e ; j u g u v e ; agoa; goyate, g o t ; guta.] Sec. Conj.: Int. j g u v e j g u v n a V.B .


Deriv.: gUt?RV. jog RV.

* g u j , 'hum'. Pres. [I.] gujati etc. c. [Perf. etc. j u g u j a ; agujt; gujiyati, gujit.] Verb, gujita c. Deriv,: guja c. gujin c.

37

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[gulph

guh, 'cover up'. Sec. Conj.: Caus. guhayati etc. c. (guhita E. +, guhya s. +) Deriv. guhana a Probably a denominative formation. gup, 'protect'. Pres. [1.] gopant? c . Perf. jugopa jugupus etc. v.+ Aor. 3. ajgupat etc. B.S. (ajugupa B .) [ 4. agupst. 5 ogopt.] Fut. I. gopsyati etc. AV.+ [gopiyati. 2. gopt, gopit.] Verb, gupit v., gupt Av.+; goptum B ,, gopitum c. Sec. Conj.: Pass, gupyate etc. B. [ Int. jogup.] Desid. jugupsate etc. B . + , ti etc. E.+, jugupia (in d.) [jugopia.] Caus. gopayati etc. E. +, te etc. E. (gopyate E.) jugups E . + Deriv. : gup E. + goptavya E. gopya E. + gupya B. jugupsu s. + gopt AV. + gpana AV. + gpti AV. + jugupiu E. gpiha B . gopanya a Perhaps ultimately a denominative from gopa, but assuming the aspect of a root even in the Veda. guph, gumph, 'twine'. Pres. [I.] gumphati etc. c. Verb, gumphita, guphita c.
Sec. Conj.: Caus. gumphayati etc. c.
1

Deriv.:

gumpha c.

gumphaka c.

gumphana c.

gur, 'greet'. Pres. [6.] gurte etc v. +, ti etc. c. Perf. [jugure] jugurat rys ryt RV. Aor. 1. grta RV. [ 5. aguria.] [Fut. guriyate, gurit.] Verb, grt v.+, gra s. + ; g r ya v.+, gurya c. Sec. Conj.: Int. jrgura RV. Caus. graya (in d.). groa c. goraa c. Deriv. : gur B .S. grt RV. grayit c guraa c. Doubtless a secondary form of y 1 g. gulph, 'bunch'. Sec. Conj.: Caus. gulphayeyus s ., gulphita s. Deriv. gulph AV. + A very doubtful case.
1

jugurvi RV.

guh]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS, guh, 'hide'.

38

Pres. [I.] g h ati te etc. v.+ Perf. jugha c , juguhe jughire E. Aor. [I. aghi. ] 2. guhas guhant guhmna RV. [ 3. ajguhat. 4. agh. 5. aght, aghia.] 7. aghukat etc V.B . [aghuk ata.] [Fut. ghiyati te, ghokyati t e ; ghit, goh.] Verb, gh v.+; ghitumE. + , [ghitv, ghv,] ghv R v.; guhya E. +, ghya ? E. Sec Conj.: Pass, guhyte etc v. + [ Int. joguh.] Desid. jugukati RV. (jughuka.] Caus. guhayati etc s. + gha V.B .S. Deriv. : guh RV. ghya v. + ghitavya E. gohana RV. gha c ghit c guha E . + gohya RV.S. ghana s. + gh v.+ grd, 'exult' (?). Pres. [I.] agrdan JB. Deriv. grda B . + Compare roots krd, gard, and grdh. See J.A.O.S., vol. xi., p. cxlvii. gurdh, 'exalt' (?). Sec Conj.: Caus. grdhaya RV . Perhaps the same with the preceding. 1 g, 'sing'.
1

Pres. [9.] g t i gt etc v . + (g 3s. v., gta 2p. AV.) [6.] (sam) girate etc c , ti c. g (ls.) v. Perf. jogra TA. [Aor. g r y t ; ogrt.] Fut. I. gariyati s. [garyati. 2. gar t .] Verb, [gra;] grya B . ; gi RV. gr v . + grya B. Deriv.: gara AV. + garit B .S. garaa c. gira c Compare roots gur and 2 j . 2 g, gir, gil, 'swallow'.
1

Pres. [6.] girti etc A V . + , te etc. E.+ (grmi Av .); gilati etc B . + [9.] g t i etc AV.S. Perf. jagra v.+ Aor. I. (or 2.) garat ran v. [gryt.] 3. ajgar R V . ? [ 4. agra.] 5. grt RV. Fut. I. gariyati B .C. [garyati. 2. gar t .]
1

39

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[graht

Verb, gr v.+, gilita c ; giritum c ; grya A v. + Sec. Conj.: Pass, gryate etc. E. 1nt. jrgura RV,, jalgulas RV. [jg, jegilya. Desid. jigaria.] Caws, girayati c. [grayati.] grgara? v.+ Deriv.: gar AV. + gila AV. + gra E. + jgarta? B . + giraa c. gala E. + grin E. + jigarti RV. gilana c. garaa c. gir V.B .S. gra, gri RV. garas? B .S. gira AV. 3 g , j g , 'wake'. Aor. 3. jgar RV. , jigtm t RV. Sec. Conj.: Int. jgarti j g rati etc. v.+ (jgarsi etc., jgyt etc., jgh etc.; j g rat; jgar; j g a r a e t c ; jgariyti t e ; jgarit; jga ryati etc), Irreg., as jg: jgmi M.; jgrati, te etc. S.E., jga rati M. jajgra E.+, jgarm sa c ; [jgaryt, ajgri, ajgart.] jagara B. + Deriv. : jagara B . + jagarka RV.C. jagtavya E. jgaraka c. jgariu c. jgartavya E. j g vi v.+ gdh, 'be greedy'. Pres. [4.] g d hyati etc. v. + Perf. jagdhus B .c. (jgdhs RV.) Aor. 2. gdhat etc. V.B .U. Fut. 1. gardhiyati B . [ 2. gardhit.] Verb, gddha E. + ; gddhv c. [gdhitv.] [Sec Conj.: jargdh; jigardhia; gardhayatI.] Deriv.: gdhna E. g t sa ? V.B. g d hya AV. gdhn v.+ gardha c. gdhy E. gardhin v. + gdhyin E. grath, granth, 'tie'. Pres. [9.] grathn t i etc B . + [7.] gatti? AV. [ 1. granthati, gra thati.] [Perf. etc jagrantha jagranthus grethus; grathyt, ajagranthat, agrantht.] Fut. 1. granthiyati B . [ 2. granthit.] Verb, grathit v. + ; [granthitv, grathitv;] grathya B .+; gran tham B . Sec Conj.: Pass, grathyat c. [ 1nt. jgranth, jgrathya. Desid. jigranthia. ] Caus. granthayate E., grathayati c. Deriv.: grathin RV. granthana s.+ grathana c. grathna s. granthi v. + grathya c. grathanya c. grantha B . + grathitavya c. granthin RV.

gdhra v. +

grabh]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

40

y grabh, grah,

'seize'.

Pres. [9.] gbh t i gbht etc. V.B.; gh t i ght etc. (gh) v.+ [1.] ghati etc. E. , te u. ghths E., t MS.C, va B., aghtm E. Perf. jagr b ha jagbhus jagbhr etc. v . (jagbhma jagbhyt v . , jagbhrir RV. ; ajagrabham etc. V.B .S.U.); jagr h a jaghus jaghe etc. v . + ( j a g h m SV.; jagrhatus M.). Aor. I. agrabham V.B ., agbhran RV.; grabhat AB ., gbh MS. [ghyt; agrhi.] 2?. ghe (3s.) MS., ghate (3p.) ghmahi RV. 3. aji grabhat MS. (ajgbham K.), ajigrahat c . [4. aghkata. ] 5. agrabht agrabhus etc. agrabhia etc. V.B. (agrabhm TS.); agraht etc. agraha etc. AV.+ (agrahiam AB .) Fut. 1. grahyati te B.+ (agrahyat etc. B.+ , agrahiyat B .U. ; gh yati, grahiyati E.) 2. graht E. Verb, gbht v . B . , ght AV. + ; grhtum B .+, tavi B ., tos B.; g bhtv AV., ghtv AV.+; g b hya v . , ghya v . + ; grbhe RV., gbh RV., graham JB .; ghaye K.; gr h am B . + Sec. Conj.: Pass, ghyte etc. AV. + [Int. jgrah, jarghya. ] Desid. jighkati te etc. B. + , jigraha KB . (ajagrabhian? AB .) Caus. gbhyant RV. ; grhayati te B . + (grhyate etc. c ) Deriv.: grbha RV. g r a h i u s. grhy v . + gbhi v . grha v . + g r a h t a v y a B . + grhi v . gh RV. grahin E. g r b h t AV.B . gr h uka B . ghti B. + g r a h t AV. + gbh V.B . grbha v . + jighk E. + gh c . grbhaa v . s . g r b h V.B .S. jighku E. + gbh RV. grhaa AV. + g r h a AV. + gh v . + grahaya E. g r h a k a E. + g r h i n E. + g h ya AV. + grhi B . +
C o m p a r e glah. T h e r e s e e m s t o be n o g o o d r e a s o n why t h e r o o t s h o u l d

n o t be g i v e n a s gbh, gh. gras, 'devour'. Pres. [1.] grasati etc. E.+, grsate V.B . Perf. jagrasn jagrasta RV. Aor. 5. agrast c . Fu. I. grasiyati te etc E . + [ 2. grasit.] Verb, grasit RV., grasta E. + ; grasitv B . ; grsam c . Sec Conj.: Pass, grasyate etc E. [Int. jgras. Desid. jigrasia. ] Caus. grsayati etc B .S. grsa s . + grsiha V.B . grasti c . Deriv. : grasya E. grasiu E. grsaka c . grast c . grasana c.

grah, see grabh.

41

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[ghar

glap, see gl.


glah, 'gamble'. Pres. [1.] glahate etc. E. [Perf. etc. jaglahe; aglaha.] Fut. I. aglahyat E. [ 2. glahit, glh.] Deriv.: glha AV. + glh AV. glhana AV. Doubtless from grah. gl, 'be weary'. Pres. [4.] gl y ati etc. AV. +, te etc. S.E. [2.] glti E. [Perf. jaglu.] Aor. [I. glyt, gleyt. 4. glsa. ] 6. (or 4.) glss E. [Fut. glsyati, glt.] Verb, gln B . + (glnta M.) Sec. Conj.: [ 1nt. jgl. Desid. jiglsa. ] Caus. glpyati etc. v . + ; glapayati etc. E.+, te E. [ajiglapat] (glapet M . ) g l v n vs. Deriv.: gla? GB . gl p ana B . glsn s. + glni E. + glapana a
1

gha,

'strive'.

Pres. [I.] ghaate etc. E.+, ti E . + Perf. jaghae c. [Aor. ajghaat, aghaia.] Fut. 1. ghaiyate a [ 2. ghait.] Verb, ghaita c.; ghaitum a Sec. Conj.: Int. jghati a [Desid. jighaia. ] Caus. ghaayati etc. (ghayate) E.+, te o.; ghayati etc. (ghyate) E . + ghi RV. ghin c. ghaan c. Deriv. : ghaa E . + ghona c. ghaayitavya c. ghaaka c. gha AV. + ghanyaE.+ ghaana c. ghaka c.

gha, 'rub' etc.


[Pres. 1. ghaate.] Perf. jaghaire R. Fu. [1. ghaiyati. ] 2. ghait M. Verb, ghaita E. + Sec. Conj.: Caus. ghaayati etc. E. + (ghayate c.) Deriv.: ghaa E.+ ghain c. ghaanaE.+

ghait E.

ghar, see gh.

ghas]

ROOTS,

VERB FORMS,

42

ghas, 'eat'. [Pres. I. ghasati.] Perf. jagh s a jakus jakiv s etc. V.B. (jaky t RV.) Aor. I. ghas (2, 3s.) kan etc. V.B .S. (aghat 3s. B .S., ghastm 2d., aghasta 2p. B. ; ghsas sat RV.S. ; ghstm impv. B .), gdha? Rv . 2. aghasat? JB . 3. ajghasat MS. [Fut. ghatsyati, ghast.] Verb, gdha TS. Sec. Conj.: Desid. jghatsati etc. A V . + Deriv. : k v. gdhi B . ghasmara E. + ghs AV. + ghasa AV. + jighats B. + ghasra c. ghsin vs. ghasana c ghasvara c. jighats AV.+ ghsy B . ghasi vs. ghs RV. Compare 1 j a k , which is a reduplicated form of this. The anomalous participle gdha occurs only in agdh d , and gdhi in sgdhi.
1

g h u , 'turn' (?). [Pres. etc. g h u a t i , g h o a t e ; jughoa j u g h u e ; aghuat, a g h o i a ; ghoisyati te, ghuit ghoit.] Verb, ghuita c , ghoita E. ; ghuya c. Deriv. ghoa s. No proper root. ghu, 'sound'.
1

Pres. [I.] ghati te etc. v.+ [4.] ghuyant c . Perf. j u g h o a JB . Aor. I. g h i RV. [ 2. aghuat. 3. ajghuat. 5. aghot.] [Fut. ghoiyati, ghoit.] Verb, ghua E.+ [ghuita]; ghya RV.C. Sec. Conj.: Pass, ghuyate etc. E . + [ Int. joghu. Desid. jughuia, jughoia. ] Caus. ghoyati etc. v.+ (ghoyate o.) ghi RV. ghoaa E. + Deriv. : ghua AV. g h a v.+ gho B . ghoa c. ghuya E. ghoaka c ghoaya c. g h o n AV. + One or two RV. forms (including the anomalously accented ghayas) are referred by B R. to a root 2 g h u , 'crush'; but hardly with sufficient reason. g h r , 'waver'. Pres. [6, I.] ghrati te E . + Perf. jughra e E . + [Aor. etc. aghrt; ghriyati, ghrit.] Verb, g h m i t a E. + Sec. Conj.: Caus. ghrayati etc. (ghryate) c Deriv..- ghra s.+ gHrana c

43

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

;caks

gh, ghar, 'drip'. Pres. [3.] jgharti etc. V.B . (jiharti s .) [ 1. gharatI.] [Perf. etc. jaghra; aghrt; ghariyati, ghart.] Verb, ght v. +; ghram GB . Sec. Conj,: Pass, ghriyata MS. Caus. ghrayati etc. AV. + (ghryate s.) Deriv.: ghra B .S. gharm v. + gh RV. ghraa s. ghrin AV. gh RV. gh i v. jghri RV. Gharm etc. are referred to a second root gh, 'be hot'; but the two are probably ultimately identical. g h , 'rub'. Pres. [1.] gharati etc. E.+, te etc. E. Perf. jaghara c. [Aor. etc. aghart; ghariyati, gharit.] Verb, gha E . + ; ghv c ; ghya s.+
Sec. Conj.: Pass, ghyate etc. c. (ti etc. E . + ) Caus. gharita R. Deriv. : ghara E . + gharaa E. +
1

gh u RV. gh vi RV. ghi E. gharin c. gh va TA. The relation to this root of the last three derivatives is doubtful. ghr, 'smell'.

Pres. [3.] jghrati (3p.) AV.MS., jighraE., jighrat c. [1.] jghrati etc. v.+, te etc. S.E. [2.] ghrti KB .E. Perf. jaghru c. Aor. 1. [aghrt,] ghryt s. [ghreyt, aghryi. 6. aghrst.] [Fut. ghrsyati, ghrt.] Verb, ghrt B .+ [ghra; ghrtv,] jighritv c ; ghrya s.+, jighrya s.+; ghr y am B .S. Sec. Conj.: Pass, ghryate c. [1nt. jghr, jeghrya. Desid. jigh rsa. ] Caus. ghrpayati etc. B.+ [ajighrapat ghripat.] jighra AV.+ ghrati B. + Deriv. : ghra s, ghrat B . + jighraa s.+ ghrtavy B . + ghrya B. + ghr a B , + ghrpaa s. Cak, 'quake'. Pres. [I.] cakanti c . Verb, cakita c. cakas, 'shine'.
1

Pres. [2.] caksti sati etc. c. (cakat c , cakete? E.) [Perf. etc. caks cakra; acacaksam, accaksam.] Sec. Conj.: Caus. caksaym satue c.

cak]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

44

cak,

'see'.

Pres. [2.] ce ckate etc. v.+, caki cakus RV. [I.] cakate ante etc. RV.E. +, cakati etc. E. Perf. cacak etc. B. +, cacka RV. (acacakam RV.) Verb, caum c ; ckya v. + ; cke RV., cki v.; ckase v.
Sec. Conj.: Pass, cakyate etc. E . + Caus. cakayati etc. V.B . Deriv. : cak RV. ckya V.B . caki RV. ckus v.+

cak B . cakin AVP.

ckan AV. ckaa v. +

ckas V.B .S. c k u v.u.

c a c , 'dance'. Pres. [1.] cacati e. A late and doubtless derivative root (perhaps from cacala?). c a , 'go'(?). Pres. [1.] caati etc. c. Perf. caca c Verb, caita c
Sec. Conj.: Caus. cayati etc. c.

Deriv.: ca c. cana c canya c Also a late root, perhaps a form of c a t ; caaka E.+, cau c , cu c. probably have nothing to do with it. c a t , 'hide' (?). Pres. [1.] ctant RV. [Perf. cacta cete.] Aor. 3. accatam te TA. [ 5. acatt, acatia.] [Fut. catiyati t e ; catit.] Verb, catt v.
Sec. Conj.: Caus. ctayati te V.B.

Deriv.: cat RV. c a t i n RV. catana v. catnuka? AB . The words ctaka a, catura a , cattra or cttra c. probably do not belong to this root. c a n , 'be pleased'. Aor. 5. canim RV., cnihat? RV. Deriv.: cnas V.B . cniha RV. c r uv.+ Compare k a n . The form cnihat is plainly corrupt. c a n d , see c a n d . cam, 'sip'.

Pres. [I.] c m ati B . + ; camanti etc. c [ 5. camnoti.] Perf. cacma c e m u s E. [Aor. etc. acmi, a c a m t ; camiyati camit.]

45

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[cal

Verb, cta s. + ; camya B. + Sec. Conj.: [ 1nt. cacam. Desid. cicamia. ] Caus. cmayati etc. B.+ (camayya G S . ) Deriv.: camaka? n. pr. c. camana s.+ cam ? v.+ cma s.+ camas v.+ cti c. Always with prep, , except in Nirukta.
1

c a r , 'move'. Pres. [1.] crati te etc. v.+ Perf. cac r a (cacartha c.) cerus etc. AV.+, cere c. Aor. 3. ccarat etc. A V . + 4. acram B . S . 5. acrt etc. V.B .U.S. (cacrt ? u.) Fut. 1. cariyati etc. B.+, te B. (acariyat M.) [ 2. carit.] Verb, carit v.+, cra u. + ; critum B .+, tave v., tav B ., tos B .S., cartum E. + ; caritv B .+, cartv M., crtv M,; crya B . + ; carse RV. ; cardhyi RV. ; c r am B .
Sec. Conj.: Pass, caryte etc. B . + Int. carcarti etc. AV.B .; carcry

v.+ Desid. cicariati etc. CB .; cicarati KB . Caus. cryati te etc. B . + (cryate E. + ) cru RV. cara v. + caraya c. Deriv.: cara v.+ cacar RV. cra AV. + carya RV. car RV. crcara RV.C. caritavya B . + craka E. + craka B. + carcar V.B . crin v. + cartavya E. crya AV.+ crayitavya c. cry B . + carit u. cary S.+ crayit c. craa E. + caritra v.+ cartha RV. cicariu B. craya c. cari v.+ craa v.+ craa? RV. cruka B . cari RV. Compare cal. earc, 'repeat'. Sec. Conj.: Caus. carcayati c , carcitaE.+ Deriv. : carca c. carci s. carcaka a carc c. carcana c. Probably in reality a denominative of carc, and this a frequentative formation, perhaps from car. c a r v , 'chew'. [Pres. etc. carvati etc.] Verb, carvita c , cra s.+; carvitum c.
Sec. Conj.: Pass, c a r v y a t e etc. c Caus, carvayati etc c

Deriv.:

carvya c

carvaa c.

carva c

cri c.

c a l , 'stir'. Pres. [I.] calati etc AV.+, te etc K. Perf. cacla celus etc E . +

cal]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

46

[Aor. calysam; aclt.] Fut. 1. caliyati E . + [ 2. calit.] Verb, calita E. +; calitum E. + Sec. Conj.: 1nt. calcalti MS., ccalat AV. Desid. cicalia (in d.). Caus. calayati etc. c ; elayati E.+, te R. (clyate E., ti M.) Deriv. : cala E . + call AV. + clin c. ccali RV. calaka c. cacala E. + cal B .S. clya E . + calka B. + calcal V.E. calitavya E. clana E. + calana E. + cicalisu c cla c. ccala AV. A later variation of car. cy, 'note, observe'.

Pres. [1.] c y ati etc. B., c y amna RV. Perf. c i k y n s AA. [cacya ye.] cy cakrus JB . Aor. 5. acyiam AV. [acyia.] [Fut. cyiyati te; cyit.] Verb, cit B . ; cyitv AV. ; c y ya V.B .U.
Sec. Conj.: Pass, cyyate TS.

Deriv.:

cyanya c.

cyit c.

cy RV.

citi B .

A form, but an early specialized one, of 2ci. The meanings 'reverence, be in awe' are rare and secondary. ] / 1 ci, 'gather'. Pres. [5.] cinti cinut etc. v.+ cinvati (3s.) c [2.] ceti RV. [ 1 . ] cayat cyema RV. Perf. cik y a etc. cikye yire etc. v.+ [cicya cicetha, cicye.] Aor. 1. acet citana ciyntu RV. [cyt.] 4. aciam etc. B. [acea.] 5. cayiam RV. Fut. I. ceyti te etc. B. + 2. cet etc. E. Verb, cit v.+; c e t u m B .+, tavi B . ; eitv B . + , cayitv E.; citya c , cya M. Sec. Conj.: Pass, cyte etc B .+ (cyant M.) [ 1nt. ceci. ] Desid. cik ate etc B .+; cicati c. Caus. cyayate c. [cpayati.] ct AV. Deriv. : kya VS.? E . + cayiha RV. cit B . cetavy B . caya S . + citya AV.B . cya B . cyana AV.+ city B. + cet B . cyin E. + cayanya c. citi B . + ceya E . + cyy B . cayitavyMs. cic c See 2 ci. 2 ci, 'note, observe'. Pres. [3.] c i k i etc V.B . (cikhi AV., ciketu TS., cikthe RV., cikitm AV., ckyatv., acikayus B .) [5.] cinoti cinute E. + [I.] cayate etc V.B . Perf. cikya etc v.+

47

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[cint

Aor. 1. eet cidhvam RV. 4. acea C. Fut. ceyati E. Verb, cit v. + ; cetum E.+; citya E.+ Sec. Conj.: Pass, cyate etc. c. Desid. cikati te etc. V.B .S. cetavya E. + ceya E. Deriv. : caya v.+ cyin E . + cet V.B . cira RV. cayana c. cit RV. citi B. + cyaka c. Compare cy, which appears to be an early specialized form of this root; cay (B R. 3 ci) is another. The forms and derivatives of 2 ci are not everywhere well separable from those of 1 c i , and there is reason to suspect the two roots of being ultimately one; words with the prefixes n i s and v i , es pecially, are probably best referred to 1 c i , with the meaning 'take apart', and so 'resolve, decide'. c i t , 'perceive, know, appear'. Pres. [I.] ctati etc. ctante R;V. Perf. cikta cikitus etc. cikit tr etc. V.B .S. (cketa; ciketati etc. cike tat etc.; cikiddhi; aciket, acikitat, cikitas; cikitrire) [ciceta.] Aor. 1. ceti ctRv,, cit?Rv,, citnt? RV,, ctna V.B . (cetna RV.) [3. accitat. ] 4. acit RV. [ 5. acett.] [Fu. cetiyati, cetit.] Verb, citt v. + ; cit? RV.; citye vs. Sec. Conj.: Int. ckite etc. tat RV.C. Desid. cikitsati etc. v.+, te E . + (acikitss AV., cikitsyate etc. E . + ) Caus. cityati etc. te etc. RV.; cetyati etc. te etc. v.+ Deriv. : kta v. + cikits B . + ctya RV. cety RV. cikitsaka B . + ctana v.+ ketana E. + cikit RV. cikitsya E. + cetan E.+ k e t v.+ cikiti SV. cikitsana E . + ctas v.+ cit v. + cikit v. ctiha V.B . citi c. cikitvn RV. cikitsanya c. cikits AV. + cet RV. citti v.+ cikitvit RV. cetayitavyau.+ cetna RV. citti RV. ciketas u. cetayit B. + ctt V.B . citr v.+ cikita s. Compare roots 2 ci and cint. The grammarians give two separate roots, k i t and cit, each with full sets of forms which are not all reported here. cint, 'think'. Sec. Conj.: Caus. cintayati etc. te etc. B.+ ([acicintat;] cintyate etc u.+; cintayita c.) cintit E. Deriv. : cint E. + cintana E . + cintin c. cintayitavya c cintaka E . + cintanya c. cintya u.+ Perhaps the denominative of a nasalized derivative of cit.

cud]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

48

cud, 'impel'. Pres. [I.] cdati te etc. v. Aor. 3. accudat E. 5. cods RV. Verb, cudita M. Sec. Conj.: Caus. codyati etc. te etc. v.+ (codyate etc. s.+) Deriv. : cod RV.C. codin c. codan s. + cdiha RV. coda RV. codya E. + codanya B . codayitavya c. codaka s.+ cdana v. + codas RV. codayit RV.C. codit RV. cup, 'stir'. Pres. [1.] copati M . [Perf. etc. cucopa; acopt; copiyatI. copit.] Verb, cupita c. Deriv. cumpuna? V.B .
1

cumb, 'kiss'. Pres. [I.] cumbati etc. E.+, te c. Perf. cucumba etc. E . + [Aor. etc. a c u m b t ; cumbiyati, cumbita.] Verb, cumbita c.; cumbitum c.; cumbya c.
Sec. Conj.: Pass, cumbyate etc. c. Desid. c u c u m b i a t i c. Caus. cum

b a y i t u m c. Deriv.: cumb c.

cumbaka c.

cumbin c.

cumbana c.

cur, 'steal'. Aor, 3. accurat c. Sec. Conj.: corayati etc. E.+, te E.+ (coryate c.) Deriv.: cor TA. + coraka c. corayitavya c. culump, 'suck in'. A single occurrence of a form from this bastard root, with u d , is referred to in Bhtlingk's Lexicon, as found in the Mahvracarita. c, 'draw, suck'. [Pres. etc. cati; c u c a ; acucat, act; ciyati, cit.]
Sec. Conj.: Pass, c s y a t e c. Caus. c s a y a t i c. Deriv.: c i n c. cuaa c. coa c.

coaa c.

c y a B. +

coya E . + c t , 'bind'.

Pres. [6.] ctti etc. V.B .S. [ I. cartati.]

Perf. cacarta AV.

49

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[chad

[Aor. etc. acctat, acacartat, acartt; cartiyati, cartsyati, cartit.] Verb, ctt v.s.; ctya B .S. ; c t am AV. Sec Conj.: Pass, ctyte B . [ 1nt. carct. Desid. cicartia, ci ctsa. Caus. cartayatI.] Deriv.: cartya B . cartana B . ctv.+ ctya B . ce, Pres. Perf. [Aor. Verb, 'stir.

[1.] cati etc AV.+, te etc. B . + cicea etc. E. etc. aciceat acaceat, acet; ceiyati, ceit.] ceita E.+; ceitum E. + ; ceitv B . ceayit E.

Sec. Conj.: Caus. ceayati etc. B. +, te etc. s. + Deriv.: ciu? B . () cea c. ceana E . +

ce s. +

ceitavya E.

cyu, 'move, stir'. Pres. [1.] cyvate etc. v.+, ti etc. RV.? E . + Perf. cucyuv RV. (cicyu RV.) Aor. 1. cyvna? RV. 3. acucyavat v a n vus V.B . (vt vtana c u cyavat vrata cucyuvmhi RV.) [acicyavat.] 4. acyoa etc.
V.B.U.

Fut. 1. cyoyate B . [ 2. cyot.] Verb, cyut v. + ; cyavitum E., cytos B . Sec. Conj.: [ Int. cocyu. Desid. cucya. ] Caus. cyvyati etc. v.+, te etc v.+ [cicyvayia, cucyvayia]; cyavayati P B . cyutn RV. Deriv.: cyava v.+ cyavyas RV. cyvuka B . cyut v.+ cyvayi AV. cyvana v.+ cyva E. cyuti v. + cyvayitavya B . cyvas RV. cyvana E. + The RV. forms here grouped under the reduplicated aorist are of difficult and doubtful classification.
1

cyut, 'drip'. Pres. [1.] cyotati etc s.c. [Perf. etc cucyota; acyutat, acucyutat, acyott; cyotiyati, cyotit.] Sec Conj.: [ Int. cocyut. Desid. cucyotia, cucyutia. ] Cau. c y o tayati c. Only a blundering varia lectio for c u t , which see. chad, 'cover'. [Pres. 1. chadati te.] Verb, channa B. + Sec Conj.: Caus. chdyati etc v.+, te etc E.+ (chdyate etc s.+ [cich dayia.])

chad]
Deriv.:

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

50
chadya c. chdana s. +

chad v.+ chada s.+ chadin c. chadana E. +

chadi B. + chadis v.+ chattra s.+ chadman s.+

chala? E . + chda B. + chdaka c. chdin c.

ehand, chad, 'seem, please'.


RV.MS. [1.] chandati B .E. Perf. cachanda RV. (cachadyt RV.) Aor. 3. acachadat c. 4. achn ntta ntsus RV. (chantsat RV.) Sec. Conj.: Caus. chadyati etc. V.B.; chandayati etc. B .+, te etc. RV. (chandyate etc. E . + ) chand RV. chndya RV. chndas v.+ Deriv. : chad RV. chndu RV. chandaka E. + chandana c. chnda v.+ Of very questionable relationship to chad 'cover', although the two are not separated by the Hindu grammarians.

Pres. [2.] chantsi ntti

ch, 'cut up'.


Pres. chyati etc. AV.B . chyti? TB . chayet c. [Perf. etc. c a c h u ; acht, achst; chsyati, cht.] Verb, chta s,, chit B.C; chayitv c ; ch y a B. Sec. Conj.: [ Int. cch, cchi. Desid. cichsa. ] Caus. chyaya t i B .U, Deriv.: chav vi? B.+ chna c.

chid, 'cut off'.


Pres. [7.] chintti chindnti etc. v.+ ( chindeta c ; achinam M.) Perf. cicheda cichide etc. B . + Aor. I. chedma RV.; [chidyt;] chedi V.B .S. 2. achidat etc. A V . + 3. acichidas E. 4. achitst etc. B.+ (chetst etc. B.+), chitsi etc. AV. + (chetsi etc. B . U . ) . Fut. 1. chetsyati te etc. B.+ (achetsyat M.) [ 2. chett.] Verb, chinn v.+; chettumB .+, ttavB .s.; c h i t t v B . + ; chdya A V . + Sec. Conj.: Pass, chidyte etc. v.+ (chidyati etc. E.) [ 1nt. cechid. ] Desid. cichitsati te JB . Caus. chedayati etc. s.+ Deriv.: chid v. + chitti B . + chedaka c. chedanya c chid c. chidr v.+ chedin E . + chettavya E . + chedya E. + cheda A V . + chidura c. chett B. + chedana B. + cichitsu E. chu, chu, ' w r e n c h . Sec. Conj.: Caus. choayati etc. c , choita c. Deriv. choik c. All very late and questionable forms.

51

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

chur,

'scatter'.

[Pres. etc. churati; cuchora; achort; etc.] Sec. Conj.: Caus. churayati etc. c , churita E.+; chorayati etc. c. Deriv. churaa c. chd, 'spue, eject. Pres. [7.] chatti etc. B. [chntte. I. chardati.] Perf. cacharda c. [de.] [Aor. etc. achdat, acachardat acichdat, achrdt, achtta; chardi yati te, chartsyati te, chardit.] Verb, ch B . [charditv, chttv.] Sec. Conj.: [Int. carchd. Desid. cichardia, cichtsa. ] Caus. chardayati te etc. B.+ [cichardayia.] Deriv.: chardana s. + chardi s.+ chardis c. chardayitavya c. chardanya c. 1 jak, 'sat'.

Pres. [2.] jakiti jagdhi c , ajakus KB ., jakat (pple) u.c. [I.] jakati etc. u.c. [Perf. etc. jajaka; ajajakat, ajakt; jakiyati, jakit.] Verb, jagdh v . + ; jagdhum c ; jagdhv AV.+, jagdhv y a RV. [Sec. Conj.: jjak; jijakia; jakaya.] Deriv. jgdhi B. + A reduplicated form of ghas. The present forms found later only in the BhgavataPura. 2 jafc, 'lagh'.
Pres. [2.] jkat (pple)
RV.B .

A reduplicated form of h a s . jagh, 'eat, devour'. Pres. [5.] jaghnuyt? c. Found only in Vasiha (i. 23); but Buhler appears to read jahnuyt; he renders it 'offend'.

jajh.
Pres. jjhat Rv . This is a an. "key. of doubtful character and meaning.
1

jaj.
Pres. jjat Rv . This is of the same character as the preceding.
1

jan]

ROOTS,

VERB FORMS,

52

jan, j, 'give birth, be born'. Pres. [I.] jnati te etc. V.B . [4.] j y ate etc. v.+, ti etc. E. + [2.] j n i v a RV.B . [ 3. jajanti.] Perf. jaj n a jajs etc. jaj etc. v.+ (jajans RV., jajnat B . ) 4or. 1. ajan (3s.) s., ajata (3p.) B . ; jani jni V . B . , j n i RV. ; jyt E . + 3. jjanat nata etc. v. + 5. jania etc. v. +, j n i m RV. (janiya a mahi V . B . S . ; j a n i e y a m ya K. ; jnihat ? sv.) Fut. I. janiyti te etc. v.+ (ajaniyata etc. B. ) , jsyati etc. E. 2. janit B . + Verb, jt v.+; j n i t o s V . B . S . ; janitv RV. Sec. Conj.: [ Pass, janyate. Int. jajan, jj. ] Desid. jjaniate B. Caus. janyati te etc. v. + (jijanayiet B .) Deriv.: janit v.+ jnya RV. jn v.+ gn V.B .S. j n uka B . janu,n A v.B. jantra v.+ jana c. jnman v.+ jji B . jans V.B . jna v.+ jniman v. jnayati B .S. jant v . + janaka E . + jniha? V.B . janayitavya c. j n t v a RV. jnya v. + janiu B . janayit B . + j n i t v a v. jnana v.+ janiya E . j a n a y i u E'. j a n i t a v y AV. jnas v.+ jijanayiitavy B . jy v. + j t u? v . + j n i v.+ j v.+ jyin E . + jt RV. jaman v. ja v.+ j v an RV. jt AV.? jm E. jti B. + jvara B . j n a V.B .U. jm v.+ j a p , 'whisper. Pres. [I.] jpati etc. B. + , te etc. s.+ Perf. jajpa j e p u s etc. E. Aor. [3. ajjapat. ] 5. ajapt GB . [ajpt.] Fut. I. japiyti B . [ 2. japit.] Verb, japita s.+ japta E. + ; j a p i t u m E.; japitvB .+, j a p t v s.+ Sec. Conj.: Pass, japyate E. Int. jajapyte B. [ Desid. jijapia. Caus. jpayati.] jpya E . + jpa E . + japana E. Deriv.: jap B . + jajapa c. jpaka E . + japanya c. j a p i n c. jajapka c. j p i n c. j a p t a v y a E. + jpya B . +

jam.
[Pres. I. jamati.] Sec. Conj.: Int. jjamat M. Artificially made forms, to frame a derivation for the name jamadagni.

53

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[1 Ji

j a m b h , j a b h , chew u p , crush'. [Pres. 1. jambhate, jabhate.] Aor. 3. ajjabham AV. [ajajambhat. ] 5. jambhiat RV. Verb, jabdha AV.; jabhitum c
Sec. Conj.: 1nt. jjabhna AV.S., bhat s.; jajabhyte etc. B. + Caus. Deriv,:

jambhyati etc. V.B . jmbha v.+ jmbhaka B . + jambh AV.+

jabhya? Av.

jmbhana A V . +

jar* see j , j a l p , 'murmur, speak'. Pres. [I.] jlpati etc. B. + , te etc. a Perf. jajalpa etc. E. (jalpire c.) [A or. etc. ajalpt; jalpiyatI. jalpit.] Verb, jalpita E . +
Sec. Conj.: Pass, jalpyate c

Deriv.:

jalpa E . + jalpaka c

jalpin E. jalpya E.

jalpana c jlpi v.

jalpit E. jarjalpa? vs.

j a s , 'be exhausted'. Pres. [1.] jsamna RV. [4.] jasyata (2p.) RV. Perf. jajsa AV. Aor. 3. ajjasata (3s.)B(jajastm RV.) . Sec. Conj.: Caus. jsayati etc. B.+ (jsyate E.) Deriv.: jsu RV. jsuri RV. jasra v.+ j a h , see h a . j , see j a n . 1 j i , 'conquer'. Pres. [I.] jyati te etc v.+ [2.] j i j i t a m RV. Perf. jig y a etc (jigetha RV.; jigv s v., jigiv s B .+) jigye etc v.+ jaym sa c Aor. I. [ajyi, jyt] jayyt JLUB .M. 3. ajjayat M. 4. ajit etc v.+ (ajis it j e a m j e s j m a V.B .S., jat etc RV.), jjsi TB . (ajia M.) 5. ajayit TS., ajayiata (3p.) c. Fut. jeyati etc. v.+, te etc E . ; jayiyati JB .E., te B. 2. jet etc B .E. Verb, jit v.+; j t u m B .+, tave B . ; jitv B .+; jtya AV.+; j i RV. Sec Conj.: Pass, jyate etc E.+ (jyeyam M.) [ Int. jejya.] Desid. jgati te etc v. + Caus. jpayati etc B .S. (ajljapata jipata B. )

jsvan RV.

1 ji] Deriv. : jay v.+ jayin E . + jayy B. jay ana E . + j a y s RV. ji AV. jit v.+ jity B.

ROOTS, VERB FORMS, jitiv.+ jitvan V.B . jitvara c. j i n a c. j i v. + j a y i u U.E. j t v a V.B . jetavya E . + jet v . + jayit B .E. j m a n RV. j e m n B. jeya E. + j e V.B .S. jein B. j a y i n B. +

54 j y RV. j y uka MS. jigy RV. jig v.+ jigin GB .E. j i g v.+ jpayit B.

2 j i , jinv^ 'quicken'. Pres. [5.] j i n i RV.TS., ajinot JB . , j i n v RV. [I.] j i n v a t i etc. te RV. Perf.fjijinvthus RV. [Aor. ajinvt.] Fut. I. j i n v i y a t i AB . [ 2. jinvit.] Verb, j i n v i t AV. Deriv.: j r V.B .S. jr RV. jinva RV. i j v , 'live'. Pres. [I.] j v ati etc. v.+, te etc. E . + Perf. jijva etc. B . + , ve R. Aor. I. jvy s am ysma AV.B .S. [ 3. ajjivat, ajijvat.] 5. ajvt etc. A V . + FuU I. j v i y a t i etc. B.+ (ajviyam u.), te M. [ 2. jvit.] Verb, j v i t v.+; j v itum B .+ , tav A v . ; ; j v i t v J B . ; j v y a | E . + ; j v s e v.B .M . Sec. Conj.: Pass, j v y t e etc. B . + [ 1nt. jejvya.] Desid. j i j v i a t i B . + , te o.; jjyati etc. B. (jijyita AB .) Caus. jvyati etc. v. + (jvpayati etc. B. + ; jijvayia in d.) jvya E.+ j v s V.B .E. jvit c. Deriv. : j v v.+ j v ana v. + jv t u v. + j v a k a s.+ j i j v i E. jvon y a AV. + j v t (in d.) a j i j v i u E. jvin B.+ jijvayiu E. j v i t a v y a c.
1

V.B .S.,

jur see j .
j u , 'enjoy'. Pres. [6.] j u t e etc. v.+, ti etc. RV.E.+ [2.] j i v. Perf. j u j a etc. v.+, j u j u etc. v.c. (jjoati etc. jjoat etc. R V . ; jjo ate RV., jujate sv.; jujuona v.; ajujoam K.) Aor. 1. ajuran RV. (joati j a t j RV. , joase AV. ; j u a V . B . C ) ; juyt c. [ 3. ajjuat.] 5. jiat RV. [Fwt. joiyate, joit.] Verb, ja v., j u v^; j u v RV.

55

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[2 j?

Sec. Conj.: [ Int. joju. etc. v.+, ti E. Deriv.: jus v. + jua B. ji v.

Desid. jujuia5 jujoia. ] Caus. joyate j a v.+ jya RV. joaa B. + jas V.B . jo V.B .S. joayitavya o. jayit B .

j, 'be swift'. Pres. [9.] jun t i etc. RV. [I.] jvate etc. RV.B . Perf. jjuvus vat vs vn RV. [Aor. 3. ajjavat.] Verb, j t v., j a v i t a E. + ; jvam TS. Sec. Conj.: Caus. jvayati a [jijvayia.] jvana v.+ jviha v. + Deriv. : jav v.+ jvas v. jvyas RV.B .U. j a v i n v. +

j v a s RV.

j V.B . jt V.B .U. Related with j i v , and perhaps with j i j i n v ; javita is more probably denominative from java. jurv, 'consume'. Pres. [1.] j r vati etc. v. Aor. 5. jrvt RV. Doubtless a secondary formation (u or eighth class) from j jur. 1 j, jur, 'waste away'.

Pres. [I.] jrati etc. jaranta RV. (jrant v.+) [6.] jurti etc. RV. [4.] j r yati etc. AV.+, te etc. E.+; j r yati etc. RV. Perf. jaj r a AV. [jajarus, j e r u s ] ; jujurv s RV. Aor. [1. jryt. 2. ajarat. 3. ajjarat. ] 5, jarius RV, [Fut. jar yai, jar t .] Verb, jr Av.+, jr RV. [jar t v.] Sec. Conj.: Pass, jryate etc. o. [ 1nt. jj, jejrya. Desid. jijar a, jijra. ] Caus. jaryati te etc. v.+ (jryant RV.) Deriv. : jra v.+ jguri RV. jrtha? RV. jrti c. jra RV. j r i B . jarjara B . + ] jar v.+ jraa c. jur RV. jarayit c jara v. + jirvi AV. jurya V.B . jarai RV. jarayu RV. jivri? RV. j r ya RV. jars v. + jar y u? v.+ jr RV. jarimn V B . Compare jurv and jvar.
F

2 j , 'sing'. Pres. [I.] jrate etc. v. Verb, jardhyi RV. Deriv.: jar? RV. jar RV. jarit v.s. j r i? RV. A secondary form of 1 g. B R; ascribe a few of the forms to a third j(jar), 'approach'.

jmbh]

ROOTS,

VERB FORMS,

56

j m b h , 'gape'. Pres. [I.] j m bhate etc. v.+, ti etc. B . + Perf. jajmbhe etc. E. + [Aor. etc. ajmbhia; jmbhiyate, jmbhit.] Verb, jmbhita E. +; jmbhitv s. Sec. Conj.: 1nt. jarjmbhate c. Caus. jmbhayati etc. c. Deriv.: jmbha E. + jmbhaa E . + jmbhaka B. + jmbhin c. jmbh c. j e h . Toll, pant'. Pres. [I.] jhamna v. [Perf. etc. jijehe; ajijehat, ajehia; jehiyate, jehit; jehayati.] If, as seems probable, jihm v.+ belongs here, the root should be written jih. It is perhaps a secondary reduplicated formation from h. j, 'know'.

Pres. [9.] jn t i nt etc. v.+ Qnma jniths M.) I. jnati te etc. U.E. ja (2s. impv.) c. Perf. jaj jaj etc. v.+ Aor. I. ajyi v.+; jeys RV. [jyt.] 4. jsarn ajsths AV.B ., jeam AV.B . 6. ajsiam etc. AV.+ Fut. 1. jsyati te etc. B.+ (ajsyat M.) 2. jt B . Verb, jt v. +; jtumB .+, tosB .; jtvB . + ; j y aB. + ; j y amB . Sec. Conj.: Pass, jyte etc. v.+ [Int. jj. ] Desid. jijsate etc. AV.+, ti etc. E.+ Qijsii B ., jijsyate etc. E . + ) Caus. japayati etc. AV. + , te u. (ajijipat TS. , ajijapat etc. c ; japt B .+ [japita], japtum E. +; japyte B . [jpsa]); jpayati etc. B. +, te etc. E . + (jpyate etc. E.+, ajpiyat? u.) Deriv.: jnaka? E. japya c. jpayitavya c. jt v.+ j v. + japana AV. jijs B . + jtra B . j B . + japti c. jijsy B. + jya V.B . js RV. jpaka E. + jijsana c. jeya B . + jna v. + jpya E . + jijsenya B . jaji V.B . jt v.+ jpana a jijsitavya u. jiju E. jtavya u. + jpanya a jijsu E. + j y , j , 'overpower, injure'. Pres. [9.] jin t i etc.
V.B .S.

4. jyate

RV.B .

Pe'f- jijy B. Aor. [1. jyt. ] 6. ajysiam etc. B. Fut. 1. jysyati te B . [ 2. jyt.] Verb, j t AV. [jna; j t v ; jyya.] Sec. Conj.: Pass, j y t e AV.MS. [ InU jjy, jejya. ] Desid. jjysati etc. V.B . [ Caus. jypayati, ajijyapat.]

57
Deriv. : jti
V.B .S.

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[jha
jy y as v.+ jyeha v.+ jyyiha E. +

jy v.B . jya AV. Related with ji.

jy n a B . jyn AV.B . jyya MS.

jyeya B .U. jyya n. AV. jyyuka JB .

j y u t , '^hine'. Pres. [I.] jytati MS., te M,? Verb, jytya B .S. Sec. Conj.: Caus. jyotya A*V. (jyotymna B.) jyotaya? AV. Deriv : jyuti E. jyot VS. jyotana s. A differentiated form of dyut.

jytis v.+ jytsn B . +

jri, 'go'.
Pres. [I.] jrayati RV . [Perf. etc. jijrya; jryt, ajijrayat, ajrit; jreyati, j r e t ; jejr, jijra, jryaya.] Deriv.: jrya RV. jryas RV. jrayasn RV. jri RV.
1

jvar, 'be hot'.


Pres. [I.] jvorati etc. u.+ [Perf. etc. jajvra; jijvarat, ajvrt.] Fut. I. jvariyati E. [ 2. jvarit.] Sec. Conj.: Pass, j vary ate c. [ Int. jjvarya, jjr. Desid. jijva ria.] Caus. jvarayati etc. o. Deriv.: jvara Av.+ jvra RV.O. Another form of jval, and apparently related with j , jur, jrv. j v a l , 'burn, flame'. Pres. [I.] jvlati etc. B.+, te etc. E . + Perf. jajvla etc. B . + Aor. [3. ajijvalat. ] 5. ajvlt B .U., ajyalt c. Fut. 1. jvaliyati B . + [ 2. jvalit.] Verb, jvalita B .+; jvalya s. Sec. Conj.: Int. jjvalti c (lati lant E.), lyate E. [ Desid. jijvalia. ] Caus. jvalayati etc. B.+, te GB .; jvlayati etc. s.+ Qvlyate B . + ) jvalit c. jval E . + jvalana c. Deriv.: jvala E . + j v l a s.+ j v l i n E. + jvalana B . + Compare jvar, of which this is another form. j h a , 'confuse'. Only in ujjhaita, in a single doubtful occurrence ( c ) . Given a full set of forms by, the grammarians.

jha]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS , jha, 'sound'.

58

A single occurrence, jhaati, in the Haracarita (B.). j h a r , fall'. Pres. [I.] jharant c . Deriv.: jhara E.+ jharaa c. A very questionable root.
1

a k , 'cover'(?). [Pres. etc. akati, aaka.] Aor. 1. aaki c. Verb, a k i t a c. Sec. Conj.: Caus. akayati c. Deriv. aka E . + Most probably a denominative of aka, rather. a l , 'be confused'. Pres. [1.] alati c. A single late occurrence, doubtless artificial. . k , 'trip'. Pres. [1.] k a t e c. A single late and doubtless artificial occurrence. B . gives also ukita, but without statement of authority. up, 'swell'.

B. suggests such a root as origin of () opa E . + am, 'sound'.

A single doubtful (onomatopoetic?) occurrence, amant c. a m b , 'mock'. Pres. [I.] ambate? c. Sec. Con).: Caus. ambayati etc. c. (ambyate c.) Deriv.: amba c. ambaka c. ambin c. ambya c. ambana c. All forms only with prefix v i . , 'fly'. Pres. [4.] yate a ? [I.] ayate c ? [Perf. etc. i y e ; aayat, aayia; ayiyate, ayit.] Verb, na E. + ; ya c. Sec. Conj.: Pass, yate c. [ Int. e. Desid, iayia. ] Caus yayati c Deriv.:ayona o. yona B . tara? B . y na c. A later form of d, and rare, except in na.

59

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[tak

v a l , 'mix'. Sec. Conj.: Caus. vlayati etc. c. Deriv. vlana c. Only used by one scholiast; no proper root. Y h u k , 'approach. Pres. [I.] hukate etc. c. Perf. uhuke c. [Aor. etc. auhukat, ahukia; hukiyate, hukit.] Verb, hukita E . + Sec. Conj.: [ Int. ohuk. ] Desid. uhukia. ] Caus. hu k a y a t i etc. o. Deriv. hukana c. y tas, tas, 'shake'. [Pres. 1. tasati te.] Perf. tatasr RV. Aor. 2. tasat AV.B . 3. tatasatam RV. Sec. Conj.: InU tantaste RV. [tantasyate.] Caus. tasayati vs., te RV. (tasaydhyi RV.) Deriv.: tasa B. + tsara V.B . tantas y ya RV. tasu? E. tta? Rv.s.+ tasti? B. + tasana c. y t a k , 'rush'. Pres. [2.] takti atakta RV. [ 1. takati.] [Perf. etc. t a t k a ; at k t; takiyatI. takit." Verb, takt RY. ; tkam AV. tkavna RV. tkvar AV. t a k v RV. Deriv. : takana c. takri? RV. t k v a n V.B . t k u RV. Probably not to be separated from t a c , which with prefix has won a special meaning. y t a k , 'fashion'. Pres. [2.] ti AB ., tkati (3p.) etc. RV. [5.] takuvnti etc. B .S. [I.] tkati etc. v.+, te etc. E . + Perf. tatka etc. v.+ (takathus t a k u s V.B .), t a t a k etc. V.E. Aor. [3. atatakat. ] 5. atakius RV. (takiat s.) [Fut. tokiyati, takyati; takit, ta.] Verb, ta v.+; takya c. [Sec. Conj.: takya; t t a k ; titakisa, titaka; takaya.l tai c takaa s.+ tkya RV. Deriv. : t a k a s.+ t RV. takak A V . + tkan v. +

tac]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

60

t a c , t a c , 'coagulate'. Pres. [7.] tankti etc. B .S. [Perf. etc. tataka; a t k t , atact; takyati t a c i y a t i , takt tacit.j Verb, [takta;] [taktv, t a c i t v ; ] tcya B . [Sec. Conj.: ttac, ttacya; titaka, titacia; tacaya.] Deriv.: taka E.+ tcana B .S. takmn AV. takraE.+ taky B .S. See tak. Only used with . t a , 'clatter'. A single form, taati, in Adbh.Brh,, doubtless an onomatopoetic formation. t a , 'beat'. Pres. [2.] thi? RV . Perf. tata c [Aor. 3. attaat.] Sec. Conj.: Caus. tayati etc. E.+ (tyate E . + ) Deriv.: tat v.+ taka E . + tya E . + t a AV. + tana B. + tin c.
1

tanya c. tayit c

1 tan, t,

'stretch'.

Pres. [8.] tanti tanut etc. v.+ Perf. tat n a etc. v.+ (tatntha V.B . [tenitha]), t e n u s etc. E.+ (tatnat etc. tatananta tatanyus RV.); t e n etc. AV.+ (tatane RV., tatne etc. v., tate RV.) Aor. 1. atan RV., tata etc. (ataths atnata) V.B .; atayi B . 2, atanat etc. RV. [ 3. attanat.] 4. atst B . (atn v.), atasi atasmahi B. 5. atnt MS. [atant, atania.] Fut. 1. tasyte B . [taniyati te.] 2. [tanit,] t y i t C. Verb, t a t v.+; tantum B . ; t a t v B ., tatv y a B . [tanitv]; ttyaB .+, tya c Sec. Conj.: Pass, tyte etc. v.+, tanyate etc. o. [ 1nt. tantan. Desid. titansa, titania. ] Caus. tayati AV.C. tanti v.+ Deriv.: tn v. tniman B. + t RV. tati B. + tniha B .S. tana RV. tana v.+ tnyas B . t n t u v.+ tana AV. tnaka c. t a n v.+ tanit c tnaya v.+ tnuka? c tan v. + tntra v.+ tnas RV. tyit c. t a n u s E. tatn AV.B . toni v. + t a t a n i RV. tatnu AV. tena? c. Compare ty.

61

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[tark

2 tan, 'roar'. Pres. [4.] tanyati RV. Deriv.: tanyat RV. tanyat v. tany RV. Appears to be an abbreviated form of stan. tand, 'be weary'. Pres. [I.] tandate RV . (tandrat? R V . ) Deriv.: tandra v.+ tandriE.+
1 1

tanayitn RV.

tandr A v.+

tap, 'heat'. Pres. [1.] tpati te etc. v.+ [4.] tpyati etc. B.+, te etc. B . + Perf. tatapa t e p etc. v. + (tatpate RV.) Aor. 1. tapn sv.; tpi V.B . 3. attapat E., pe RV. (ttapsi AV.)
4. atpst etc. V.B .S., atapths? AV.

Fut. 1. tapsyti etc. B.+ (atapsyat M.), te etc. E . ; tapiyati etc. E. 2. tapt E. Verb, tapt v. + , tapita c ; taptum E . + , tptos B .; t a p t v B . + ; tpya v.+
Sec. Conj.: Pass, tapyte etc. v.+ Int. ttapyate etc. E . + [ Desid.

titapsa.] Caus. tpyati etc. te etc. AV.+ (tpyate B .E.; tpit


fut. E . ) Deriv.: tap
RV.S.

tapa v . + tapya E. tpana v . + tapan,n v .B. tpas v.+

tpu RV. tpus v. tpu V.B . tapti c. t a p t a v y a E. tapt E.

tpiha v. t a p i u E. tapyas c. tapyat V.B . tpa AV. + tpaka c.

tpin B. + tpya B. tpana E . + tpit? E. tpayit c. t p a y i RV.

t a m , 'faint'. Pres. [4.] t m yati etc. B.+, te etc. E. + Perf. t a t m a B . Aor. [1. at m i. ] 2. tamat etc. RV.B .S. [Fut. tamiyaj,.tamit.] Verb, t t B .+; tmitoa B .S.
Sec. Conj.: Caus. tamyati etc. B .S. Deriv. tamaka c. tam c.

tamana S. tmas v. +

t m i c i v. tmisra v. +

t t i c. tameru vs. tamr RV.

tma c. tamaka c. tm s. tmr AV. +

t a r k , 'think'. Sec. Conj.: Caus. tarkyati te etc. E.+ (tarkyate etc. B . + ) tarkaya E. Deriv.: tarka s.+ tarkaka E. tarky B. + tarkuka? te. tarkaa E . + tark E. tarkin c. Probably a denominative formation.

tarj]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

62

t a r j , 'threaten' Pres. [1.] tarjati etc. E.+, te E. [Perf. etc. tatarja; atarjt; tarjiyatI. tarjit.] Verb, tarjita E.+; tarjya E. Sec. Conj.: Caus. tarjayati etc. E.+, te E. (tarjyate etc. E.) Deriv.: tarjaka C. tarjanaE.+ tarjanE.+ t a s , see t a n s . t , see t a n . ty, 'stretch'.

[Pres. I. tyate.] Perf. [tatye] ty cakre? JB . [Aor. etc. atyi, atyia; tyiyate, tyit.]
See. Conj.: Pass, t y y m n a vs.

Very questionable forms. The JB . manuscript reads (iii. 177) anusat y y cakre. B elongs probably in some way to tan, t. The Bhgavata Pura has once tyit(periph. fut.), which is given above under tan. Pres. [I.] t v ati AV. Probably a false reading. t i , 'crush'. Pres. [5.] tinoti c . A single occurrence, and most probably a false reading.
1

tv.

t i j , 'be sharp'.
Pres. [I.] tjate etc.
RV.B .

Perf.? titigdhi B .S. Verb, tikt v.+ Sec. Conj.: Int. t t i k t e etc. V.B . Desid. ttikate etc. v.+, ti etc. E . + (titikmahe M.) Caus. tejayati etc. E . + tjyas RV.C. tjana v.+ Deriv.: tikti RV. t k v.+ t i t i k E. + tjas v.+ teg? vs. tigit RV. t i t i k AV.+ tjiha V.B .S. teja c t i g m v.+

Y t i m , 'be quiet' Pres. [4.] timyant c . [tmyati.] [Perf. etc. titema etc.; tetimya.] Verb, timita R. Deriv.: timi? E.+ timira? E . + Ap parently related with tarn; the participle, with that of stim.
1

63

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[tur

tir, see t. til.


Accepted by BR. in vs. xxiii. 24 prtilmi (TS. TB. prsulmi); but an unintelligible and probably false reading. tu 'be strong'. Pres. [2.] tavti RV. [tuti.] Perf. ttva RV. (ttos ot RV.) Sec. Conj.: Int. tvtuat RV. Deriv.: tav? RV. tavs v. tvya RV. t a v i v. tavy TS. t v i RV. tvas V.B .S. tvyas v.

tvyas RV. tvr v.+ tmra? RV. tur v.+

tuvi v. vs. t v i s V.B . t y a v. ttum? RV.

t u c , 'impel, generate'. A root or rootform (see tuj) inferable from the following derivatives: tc RV. tka? RV, tok v. + tkmon, ma v. + t u j , 'urge, thrust'. Pres. [7.] tujti tujte (3p.) etc. RV. [I.] tjamna RV. [6.] tujnt tujete RV. [ I. tojati.] Perf. ttujn (and t t ujna) tutujyt RV. [tutoja.] [Aor. etc. atojt; tojiyati, tojit.] Verb, tujse RV., tje RV., tujye? v.
Sec. Conj.: Deriv. : Pass, t u j y t e etc. RV. Caus. tujyant etc. v.

tji RV, tgra RV. tunga? E . + tuj RV. t g v a n RV. ttuji RV. tjya RV. This and the preceding aTe probably two forms of the same root. For the connection of meaning, compare the roots s u , B. t u d , 'push, thrust'. Pres. [6.] tudti etc. v. +, te E. [7?] tundn AV., tundate RV. ( t u dyti Av.) Perf. tutda v. + [tutude.] [Aor. etc. attudat, atutst atutta; totsyati te, tott.] Verb, tunn v . + ; [tuttv;] tudya E. Sec. Conj.: Pass, tudyate etc. E. + Int. totudyate s. [ Desid. tututsa.] Caus. todayati etc E. + (todyate E. + ) Deriv.: tud S.E. todin v. tunda? c. todana c. tuda AV. + tod v. + tttra B . + todya c.

tuj v.

tur, see t.

turv]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

64

t u r v , t r v , 'overcome'. Pres. [I.] t r vati etc. RV.B. Deriv. : turv RV. turvn RV. turv t i RV. t r vi RV. t u r v i RV. A specialized form of t, tur, to which the derivatives might in part with equal propriety be referred. tul, 'lift, weigh'. [Pres. I. tolati.] Sec. Conj.: Caus. tolayati etc. E.+ (tolyate c ) ; tulayati etc. E.+, te
etc. E . + Deriv.: t u l a c.

tul B . +

tulya s. + tulana c.

tolaka c. tolya c.

tolana E. +

tu, 'drip'. Pres. [I.] t o a t e etc. v. (to Rv.)


Sec. Conj.: Caus, t o a y a RV.

Deriv.: t o RV. tana RV. t o s RV. BR. refer two or three of the forms to a root 2 t u = t u . t u , 'be content'. Pres. [4.] tuyati etc. s.+, te c. Perf. t u t o a etc. E . + [Aor. etc. atuat, attuat; tokyati, to.] Verb, tua E. +; t o u m E. ; tuya c. Sec. Conj.: [ Int. t o t u . Desid. tutuka. ] Caus. toayati etc. JB . + (toyate c.); tuyant RV. Deriv.: t u i E. + toaka c. toaa E. + toayitavya E. t m ? v . + toin E. + toayit c. toaya E . + t o a E. + toya E. toavya c.

trv, see turv.


t, tir, tur, 'pass'. Pres. [I.] trati etc. v.+, te etc. v.+ [6.] tirti te etc. V.B.S.; turti te etc. V.B . [3.] titarti etc. RV.C [tutorti.] [8.] tarute RV . [2?] tury m a RV. [4.] t r yat? AV.; trya R V . truema ante onta RV. Perf. tatra v . + (tataras Rv,), terus E.+, tatare c.; titirus titirv s RV.; tutury t yma RV. Aor. 1. atari V.B . [tryt.] 3. attaras AV. 4. atrt etc. s.+ 5. trt etc. V.B .S. (trima RV. ; triat etc. V.B .S. ; trimohi R V . ) Fut. 1. tariyati etc. s.+, te etc. E.+ [taryati. 2. tar t .]
1 1

65

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[tp

Verb, tr v.+, trt B., tra s.+; tartumE.+, taritumE.+, tatiitum E . + ; trtv AV.U.; trya E.+, tryaRv.; tram tire RV.; tardhyi RV. ; tarni RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, tryate ? E. Int. tart RV. , trit RV. , trtur RV. [tt.] Desid. titrati etc. B .+, te etc. E., t t rati RV. [titar a.] Caus. tryati etc. AV.+, te etc. s.+ (tryate etc. E.+); turyant v., yante RV. Deriv.: tra v. + tr AV.+ tras v. + tartavya E. traka E . + tarin? AV. tars sv. taritavya s. + trin R V . E . + trya RV. tryas RV. trtu? V.B . try A V . E . + tar E. + tru? RV. tart v. traa E. + traa v. + trua? v.+ tarut v. traya c. taraya E. + trus RV. trutra RV; trayit B . tari v.+ trua v. taritra? E. taratha? c. tras RV. trman RV. tira AV.B . tirs? v.+ tra B . + titr c. trth v.+ titru E.+ turas RV. tr RV. . B trti V.B . tturi V.B .S. turi RV. tra RV. t r i V.B . tartura RV. tury TS. t r ya V.B .S. tura RV. t u t u r v i RV. toraa? E . + Compare roots tur (oftener given as a separate root), turv, tvar, and tr. y t d , 'split, bore'. Pres. [7.] ttti etc. V.B.U., tntte B. (atam KB U.) [ I. tardati.] Perf. tatrda etc. v.c. (tatrditha RV.), tatdn RV. Aor. 1. trdas RV., tdyus s. [ 3. atatardat, attdat. 5. atardt.] [Fut. tardiyati te, tartsyati t e ; tardit.] Verb, t B .S.U. ; t d ya B .S. ; t d as v. Sec. Conj.: [ Int. tartd. ] Desid. tttsati etc. V.B . [te; titardiati te.] Caus. tordayati s. td RV. tdil RV. Deriv.: tard AV. + tardi? E. trdman AV.B .S. ttti B . t t su? RV. trad RV. t man? AV. tardana v. + y t p , 'be pleased'. Pres. [4.] t p yatietc AV.+, te etc. E . + [5.] tpoti etc. V.B . (tpnoti etc. c.) [6.] tmpti etc. V.B .S. [I.] tarpanti E. Perf. tatarpa etc. B . (ttpus p v.) Aor. I. tpysma TS. 2. tpat etc. V.B . (tpnt Rv.) 3. attpat etc. panta AV. + [atatarpat. 4. atrpst, atrpst. 5. atarpt.] Fut. 1. atrapsyat B . [tarpsyati, tarpiyati. 2. tarpit, tarpt, trapt.] Verb, tpt AV.+.

tp]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

66

Sec. Conj.: [ Int. tartp. ] Desid. ttpsati v. [titarpia.] Caus. tarpyati etc. v.+, te etc. v.+ (tarpyate etc. E . ; titarpayiati B .S.) Deriv.: tarpaka c. trpaa AV.+ tpa RV.C. tpr? V.B .S. tarpya E. tarpaya u. tpla RV. tpsu TA. tp RV. tlpa? AV.+ t p ti V.B . t t pi RV. tpt RV. tarpayitavy B . Some accept a 2 tp 'steal' for asut p v.c and paut p RV. t , 'be thirsty'. Pres. [4.] t yati etc. V.B . Perf. tts tat RV. Aor. 2. tat etc. AV.B ., t RV. 3. attma etc. V.B . [Fut. tariyati, tarit.] Verb, tit v.+, t? adj. v. [titv, taritv.] Sec. Conj.: Caus. taryati etc. B. (tarita E . + ) t E. + Deriv.: tara E . + t RV. taraa c. t c. tarula E. t v.+ tary RV. ty v. tj RV. t h , 'crush'. Pres. [7.] tehi thu thanti etc. V.B . [tehmi. 6. thati, thati.] Perf. tatarha AV. Aor. [I. thyt; atarhi. ] 2. atham AV. [ 3. atatarhat, atthat. 5. atarht. 7. atkat.] [Fut. tarhiyati, tarkyati; tarhit, tarh.] Verb, th RV. ; thv AV. [tarhitv]; trham AV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, thyte etc. AV. [ Int. tarth. Desid. titarhia, titka. Caus. tarhaya.] Deriv. trhaa v. t y a j , 'forsake'. Pres. [I.] tyajati etc. s.+, te etc. E . + Perf. tatyja tatyaje etc. E.+ (tity j a RV., tityagdhi? K.) Aor. [I. tyajyt; atyji. 3. atityajat. ] 4. atyakt etc. E . + Fut. I. t y a k y a t i te etc. E., tyajiyati te etc. E . + [ 2. tyakt.J Verb, t y a k t B .+, tyajita c ; t y a k t u E.; tyaktvf, E.+; tyjya B . + Sec. Conj.: Pass, tyajyate etc. E . + [ Int. ttyaj.] Desid. t i t y a k a c. Caus. tyjayati etc. E. + (tyjyate c ) tyaj an a AVP, t y a k t a v y a E. + tyj oka c. Deriv.: tyaj v. + tyjya E . + tyaj as RV, tyakt E. + tyaja E. + tyj ana c tyg v.+ tyajs v. tyajya E . + tygin E. +

67

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[tru

trap, 'be abashed'. Pres. [I.] trapate etc. E,+, ti etc. E. [Perf. etc. trepe; atrapta, atrapia; trapsyate trapiyate, trapt trapit.] See Conj.: [int. ttrap. Desid. titrapsa, titrapia. ] Caus. tra payati etc. c. [trpayati.] Deriv. : tpr? V.B .S. trapa E. + trapaa c. trpu? A V . + trap E . + trapaya c. tras, 'be terrified'. Pres. [1.] trsati etc. v.+, te etc. E. [4.] trasyati etc. E.+, te etc. c. Perf. tatrsa tatraB us etc. E.+, tresus E.+ (treus M . ) , tatrasire E. Aor. 3. atitrasan AV. 5. trss B. [atrast.] Fut. 1. trasiyati E. [ 2. trasit.] Verb, trast B .+; trasas K. Sec. Conj.: Int. ttrasyate JB . [ Desid, titrasia.] Caus. trsayati etc. AV. +, te etc. E. (trsyate E.) trasara c. Deriv.: trasa v. + trsa AV.+ trasana E. + trasnu B . + trsanya c. trsaka c. trasana s. trsuka B . trsin E.
1

t r , 'rescue'. Pres. [4.] tr y ate etc v.+ [2.] tr s va tr d hvam RV,, trti trhi
etc
E.+

Perf, tatr V.B . Aor. 4. atrsmahi B. (atrsatm B., trsate tr s the sthm RV.) Fut. I. trsyate etc B .+, ti E. [ 2. trt.] Verb, trta B .+ [tra]; trtum E.+; trtv c.
Sec. Conj.: Pass, tryate etc. c. tra u. + Deriv.: tr v. +

tra v.+

trtavya B . +

trt v.+ trtra RV.C

A secondary root, from t. tru, 'come to pieces'.

tr m an v.+ tr v an? AV. trayay y ya RV.

Pres. [6.] truati etc. c. [4.] truyati etc c. (truyeyus c.) Perf. tutroa c. Verb, truita c.
Sec Conj.: Caus. troayati etc c.

Deriv.: trui E. +

troaka c.

Probably a denominative formation from trui.

tvak]

ROOTS, VERB-FORM S,

68

t v a k , 'fashion'. Pres. [2.] t v a k Rv . [ 1. tvakati.] [Perf. etc. t a t v a k a ; a t v a k t ; tvakiyati, tvakit tva.] Deriv.: -tvkaa RV. t v k a s RV. tvkyas RV. t v a i c. tv v. + CompaTe tak.
1

t v a g , 'leap'. Pres. [I.] tvagati etc. C. Late and probably artificial. t v a e , 'cover. Such a root is assumed by some for t v c v.+ 'skin', and tc RV. 'dimness'. t v a r , 'hasten'. Pres. [I.] tvrate etc. B.+, -ti etc. E . + Perf. tatvare E. + Aor. 3. atitvarat E. [atatvarat. 5. atvaria.] [Fut. tvariyate, tvarit.] Verb, tvarita E . + Sec. Conj.: [Int. ttvarya-, totur-. Desid. titvaria-. ] Caus. tvaryati etc. AV.+, -te etc. E. (tvaryate E.); tvraya- c. Deriv.: tvara c tvar s. + tvara AV. tvaraya E. A secondary root-form from t, tur, under which are here placed the derivatives with tr- (trta, trti, tra). t v i , 'be stirred up'. Pres. [2.] a t v i u s RV. [6.] atvianta RV. [4.] t v i y a n t c . [ I. t v e a t i -te.] Perf. t i t v i etc. RV. (titvianta RV.) [titvius.] [Aor. etc. atitviat, atvikat -kata; t v e k y a t i -te, tve.] Verb, t v i i t RV. ; t v i RV. [Sec. Conj.: t e t v i - ; t i t v i k a - ; tveaya-.] t v e t h a RV. t v e n RV. Deriv.: t v v. + t v i V.B.S. t v e s RV. t v e y RV. t v e V.B. t v i C. tsar, 'approach stealthily'.
Pres. [I.] tsrati etc.
V.B.S.
1

Perf. tatsra RV. Aor. 4. atsr RV. 5. atsriam B. [Fut. tsariyati, tsarit.] Verb, -tsrya B. tsru v.+ Deriv.: tsara C.

-tsra v.+

tsrn V.B.

69

A N D PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[dan

thurv ?
Pres. [L] th r vant MS. Probably a false reading; the edition has t r vant, with one of the manu scripts (and the parallel texts). da, d a , 'bite'. Pres. [I.] dati etc. v.+, te etc. E.+ daati c . Perf. dadaus E. (dadav s RV.) [Aor. dayt, adadaat, adkt.] Fut. 1. daiyati E. [dakyati. 2. da.] Verb, da AV. +; dav B . daya E. Sec. Conj.: Pass, dayate etc. E. 1nt. dndana RV. (dandaayitv c.) [ Desid. didaka.] Caus. daayati etc. S. + (daita adj. E. + ) dr v.+ daana E. + Deriv. : daa AV. + da? B. + dman AV.S. daana E. + duka B. daaka c. dak B. da AV. dain AV. das, 'be wondrous'.
Sec. Conj.: Caus. dasyas R V . Deriv. : dsa RV. dsas V.B .
1

dasn RV.S. dsiha RV.

dsu RV. dasmnt RV.

dasm v. dasr v. +

d a k , 'be able'. Pres. [I.] dkate etc. V.B., ti RV. Perf. dadake B . Aor. 3. adadakat B . [ 5 . adakia.] Fut. 1. dakiyate B . [ 2. dakit.]
Sec. Conj.: Caus. dakayati etc. B .

Deriv.:

dka v. +

dkas v.

dakyya RV.

dkia v. +

d a g h , 'reach to'. Pres. [5.] daghnuyt B . Aor. 1. dhak dhaktam daghma daghys RV. 2? daghat B . Fut. 1. daghiyante JUB . Verb, dghas B ., dghos B . Deriv.: dagh s. daghna v. + d a d , see 1 d . d a d h , see 1 d h . d a n , 'straighten' (?). Pres. dn dnas RV. Very doubtful forms. daghvan V.B .

dabh]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

70

d a b h , d a m b h , 'harm'. Pres. [I.] dbhati etc. V.B. [5.] dabhnoti etc. V.B . Perf. dad b ha debhus RV. ; dadmbha AV. (dadabhanta RV.) Aor. 1. dabhs RV. [ 3. adadambhat. 5. adambht.] [Fut. dambhiyati, dambhit.] Verb, dabdh v.; dabdhum B . ; [dambhitv, dabdhv;] dbhe RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, dabhyate RV. [ Int. ddambh, ddabh.] Desid. dpsati etc. V.B . ; dhpsati JB . [dhipsa, didambhia.] Cais. dambhyati etc. V.B . Deriv. : dbha v. dbhya v. + dambhin E. + dabdhi B .S. dbhya RV. dabhna? AV. dambha E. + dmbhana v. + dabh t i RV. dabhr v. + dambhaka c. dips v. dbha V.B . d a m , 'control'. Pres. [4.] d m yati B. [Aor. adamt.] Verb, dt B .+; [dtv,] damitv E.; damya E.?
Sec. Conj.: Caus. damyati etc. v. + Deriv.: dm v. + damaka E. +

dma v. + dam B .

damin E. damya E. day,

damatra s. + damana v. +

damit RV. damayit E.

'share'.

Pres. [1.] dyate etc. v. +, daymasi AV. Perf. daym sa c. [Aor. etc. adayia; dayiyate, dayit.] Verb, dayita E . + Sec. Conj.: [ Int. dandayya, ddayya. ] Caus. dayayet c. Deriv.: day v. + dayitnu s. A secondary form of 2 d 'divide', from which it is hardly worth separating.

daridr, see 1 dr.


dal, 'burst'.

Pres. [I.] dalati etc. E . + [Perf. dadla.] Aor. 5. adalt c [adlt.] Fut. \. daliyati te etc. c (adaliyat c.) Verb, dalita E. + See. Conj.: Caus. dalayati etc. c.; dlayati etc. E.+ ( d a l y a t e c , dlya te c )

71
Deriv. : dala E. +

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[1 dS
dli c. dalayit c

dala B. + dlaka B . + dalana c. A secondary rootform from 1 d.

dlana c dlya c.

das, ds, 'waste'.


Pres. [4.] dsyati etc. V.B .S. [I.] d s ati etc. V.B .S.

Perf. dadasv s RV. [dadsa.]


Aor. 2. dasat etc. V.B .S. (dsamna? RV.) 5. dst RV.

[Fut. dasiyati, dasit; dsiyati, dsit.] Verb, dasta B . + See. Conj.: Caus. dasaye TS., yanta RV. ; dsayati etc. AV.B . Deriv. : dsa RV. dasvant AV. das v.+ ds ami B . dsin s. + dasya v.s. dsyu v.+ dsuka B . Usually classed as two roots, das and d s ; dasati etc. only with abhi. d a h , 'bum'. Pres. [1.] dhati etc. v.+, te etc. E . + [4.] dahyati E. [2.] dhki RV. Perf. dad h a etc. B . +, dehe c Aor. 1. dahyt M.? 3. addahat c 4. adhkt etc. v.+ (adhk V.B .S., dhkant dkant RV.) Fut. I. dhakyti etc. vjf, te etc. s.+ (dhakyet adhakyam M.); dahi yati E . + [ 2. dagdh.]
Verb, dagdh v. + ; dgdhum B . + , C U I O S B . ; dagdhv B . + ; dhya.+;

dhas B . ; dham c Sec. Conj.: Pass, dahyte etc. AV.+, ti etc. s.+ Int. dandahti etc. c , dandahyate etc. c Desid. didhakati etc. E.+, te etc. E.; dh k ate B. Caus. dhayati etc. E.+ (dhyate u.) dak RV. Deriv.: dah v.s. dhana E. dgha AV. d k u RV. d h uka B .S. dahati E. dha AV. + d h k u RV. didhak E . + dhana AV.+ dhaka c daks RV. didhaku E . + dagdhavya E. dhin s.+ dagdh v.+ dhya E . + 1 da, dad, 'give'.

Pres. [3.] ddti dtte etc. v.+ (deh v. + , daddhi v.) [1.] ddati te etc. v.+ (dadyam u., dadyant u.) [4.] dyamna M, [2.] dti dtu RV. ; dadmi E , + Perf. dad dad etc. v. + (dadtha dadrire RV. ; dadiv s dadv s AV., dadv s RV.) [dadade.] Aor. I. dt etc. v.+, deym RV.; adi MS., adiths adita adimahi B., d v a B . ; dyi V.B . [addi.] 2. dat etc. V.B . [3. addadat. ] 4. adii adiata AV.B .C. (dsat dasathas R V . ; deam dema B . S . ) [dsa.] 5. adadia sv.

I d]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

Fut. 1. dsyti etc. AV.+ (adsyat M.), te etc. B.+; dadiye K. 2. dt etc. B .E. [dadit.] . Verb, data RV. , datt v. + , tta v. + , dita B .+ [dadita]; d t um v.+, tave v., tav RV., tos V.B . ; dattv AV.+, tv y a RV.; d y a v.+, ddya AV. ; dam B ., d RV. ; dvne RV. ; dayam B . + Sec. Conj.: Pass, dyte etc. v. + ; dadymnaRV. [ 1nt. dd, dedya, ddad.] Desid.-dtsati etc. v.+, te etc. c.; ddsant RV., did sitha B .S. [didadia.] Caus. dpayati etc. AV.+ [addapat.] Deriv.: d, da v. + dy v. + dadi v. di JB . + dyaka E. + dits c. dti v. diya RV. dyin AV. + dits v. + tti V.B . dha RV. d v an V.S. diditsu M. dtavya B. + d e v. + dvn RV. dpin c. dt v.+ dd AV. d n u? v. dpya s.c. dtr? V.B . dada a dya n. V.B . dpana s. dna v. + datti c. dya gdve. v. + dtra ? v. dpanya c. dn? RV. ds? v.+ dpayitavya c. daman RV.E. dda M. das V.B . dpayit B . dmn RV. dadit vs. 2 d , 'divide, share'. Pres. [I.] dti etc. v.B.s. [6?] dyti etc. AV.B .S. Perf. dadire B . Aor. 1. [adt, deyt;] adimohi B . (adm VS.K.). 4. diya RV. Fut. 1. dsyati s. [ 2. dt.] Verb, din V.B ., dita a, [data,] tta B .+; d y a B .+, ditya? c. Sec. Conj.: Pass, dyate etc. AV. + [ 1nt. dd, dedi. Desid. ditsa, didsa, ddasa. ] Caus. dpayta s. dy? RV. Deriv.: tti B . d n a AV.B .S. dt RV.C. diti?Rv. d t u RV. dnya B .S. d t ra RV. deya c. dtavya c. d n u v. dn? RV. A form of this root is day, given above separately. 3 d , d i , 'bind'. Pres. [6?] dyati etc. V.B . [2?] d v a vs. Aor. 5. adii AV.? Verb, dita v. +; dya s. + diti? v.+ daya c. daman v.+ Deriv.: dt RV.C. dn? v.+ di AV. dmn RV. daiia v. + Not recognized by the native grammarians as separate from the preceding, and of somewhat doubtful character. 4 d , 'clear'. Pres. [4?] dyafflna c*. [Perf. etc. d a d u ; dyt, a d s t ; dsyati, dSt.]

73

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[dih

Verb, data TA.E. + [Sec. Conj.: dya; dd; didsa; dpaya.] Deriv. dna c. Only with a v a ; certainly no separate root, and probably a specialization of meaning of the participle of 2 d. d, 'make offering'. Pres. [1.] d ati etc. v. [2.] di RV. [5.] dnti RV. Perf. dad a etc. v. (ddati as at RV.; dadv s RV.B ., dv s v., div s sv.) [Aor. etc. a d t ; diyati, dit.] Sec. Conj.: [ 1n. dd. Desid. didia. ] Caus. adayat B . Deriv.: d v. d a AV. + d v. d uri v.
1

ds, see das.


dv, 'play', see 1 dv. No root div 'shine' exists as such in the language, except so far as it may be inferable from the noun div or dy v.+, divit RV., and the (in that case, secondary) root dyut. With all these the root dv 'play' has nothing to do. di, 'point'.
1

ddeati ddeu etc. didia RV. [4.] diyati M . . Perf. dida etc. AV. +, didie c. Aor. [3. addiat. ] 4. adiki dia RV. 7. adikat B .C. Fut. 1. dekyati etc. s.+, te c [ 2. de.] Verb, di v. +; deum E. +; dya B . +; de RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, diyate etc. E . + 1nt. ddiat etc. ddie etc. RV., de diyate AV.VS. Desid. didikati c. Caus. deayati etc. E. +, te c. de v. + Deriv. : d v.+ dana B . + deaka c der RV. dii v. + d e i n s. + dean c deya AV. + didiks o. de AV. + deavya E. + didiku c. dih, 'smear'.

Pres. [6.] diti etc. v.+, te etc. R V . E . + [3.] (Perf.?)

Pres. [2.] degdhi dihanti dihan etc. v. + (dhat RV.) [digdhe.] Perf didihe E. [dideha.] Aor. [1. adehi. 3. addihat. 4. adigdha. ] 7. adhikus JB . [adhi kat ata.J [Fut. dhekyati t e ; degdh.] Verb, digdh AV. + ; dihya s.+

dihl

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

74

Sec. Conj.: Pass, dihyate etc. a [ Int. dedih. Desid. didhika. ] Caus. dehayati te E. + dehi RV. degha B. Deriv.: dih v.s. dehya a deha B . + dehik a dehal s. + 1 d , fly'. Pres. [ 4 . ] d y ati etc. RV., d y ase sv. Sec. Conj.: Int. ddyitav CB .
R e p r e s e n t e d l a t e r b y . F r o m i t m a y p o s s i b l y c o m e didy V.B.

2 d, dd,

'shine'.

Pres. ddyati (3p.) etc. ddet etc. ddye etc. V.B .S. (d d ayat RV., ddyat

ddayonte AV., ddih V.B .S., didh RV. ; ddysam B .S.)


Perf. dd y a V.B .S. (ddaya B .S. , ddtha ddiyus RV. ; ddiv s V.B . ,

ddyasi etc. ddyat etc. V.B. ; ddidya ?AS.; ddidsi ddyasva s.


Deriv.: d t i RV. d d i t i RV. d d iRV. d d ivi RV. ddhitis.+ C o m p a r e dp. S o m e c o n f u s i o n o f f o r m s i s m a d e b e t w e e n dd a n d

ddh. d k , 'be c o n s e c r a t e d ' . Pres. [I.] dkate etc. B . + Perf. d i d k etc. B., us PB .c. Aor. 3 . adidkas B . 5. adkia etc. B . Fut. 1. dkiyte etc. B. + [ 2. dkit.] Verb, dkit Av.+; dkitv B .U. dkya s .
Sec. Conj.: Desid. d i d k i a t e etc. B . Caus. dkayati etc. B .+, te E.

(dkpaya E.)
Deriv.: d k A V . + d k a k a c . (n. pr.) B R . s u g g e s t a d e r i v a t i o n f r o m daks. dkaas.+ dkayit . B

d d h , see d h .
dp, 'shine'.

Pres. [4.] d p yate etc. AV. +, ti etc. E. + Perf. didpe a Aor. [I. adpi. ] 3. adidpat etc. RV.C ; adldipat etc. B.E. [ 5. adpia] [Fut. dpiyate, dpit.] Verb, dpta u . + Sec. Conj.: 1nt. dedpyate etc. E.+ (yantm E.) [ Desid. didpia. ] Caus. dpyati etc. v. +, te etc. S.E. (dpyte TB .E.) dip ana s.+ dpaka E . + Deriv. : dpa U.S. + d p ti B . + dpin c . dpra c . Probably related with 2 d.

75

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[dul

1 d v , 'play'. Pres. [4.] d v yati etc. v.+, te etc. B.+ (divyati etc. M.?) Perf. didva AV. Aor. [3. addivat. ] 5. adevt etc. E. Fut. I. deviyati etc. B.+ (adeviyat M.) [ 2. devit.] Verb, dyt AV.+ [dyna]; devitum E. + ; [devitv, d y t v ; ] d v ya RV. Sec. Conj.: [ 1nt. dedv. Desid. didevia, dudya; dudyaya. ] Caus. devayati etc. c. Deriv.: d v , dy v. dvit? devinAv.+ devitE.+ dvan v. deva B . devitavya E. dyty RV. dvana c. dvana v. + Proper form, d ; and it has nothing to do with the socalled root d i v 'shine', which is diu. 2 d v ( d e v ) , 'lament'. Pres. [1.] devati E.+ [te.] [Perf. etc. dideva; adidevat, a d e v i a ; deviyate, devit.] Verb, dyna B . +; devitum E.
Sec. Conj.: Caus. d e v a y a t i etc. E.+, te E . +

Deriv.: deva E. devaka c. devin E. devana C. Only with pari (unless in dyna); hence perhaps a peculiar specializa tion of meaning of 1 d v (paridyna 'played out' ?). At any rate, rather dv than d i v , on account of the long in dyna. d u , d , 'burn'. Pres. [5.] dunti etc. AV.+ dunvasva M. [Perf. etc. d u d v a ; dyt, adut; doyati, dot.] Verb, dn Av.+, duta AA.? C . Sec. Conj.: Pass, dyate etc. u.s.+, ti etc. E . + [ Int. dodu. Desid. duda. ] Caus. dvayati c. dav AV. + duyana c. Deriv.: dava c davathu c dvy AV.B . davya B .S. doman AV. For the form daviai RV., B R. assume a 2 d u = 1 d v 'play'.
1

d u d h , 'stir up'. Pres. ddhat v. Verb, ddhita RV. Deriv.: ddhi RV. dudhr RV. dodhaka? c. Probably a reduplicated form of dh. d u l , 'raise'.
Sec. Conj.: Caus. dolayati etc. c

Deriv.: dul? TS. dola E. + Doubtless another form of t u l ; as verb, denominative of dola.

du]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

76

du,

'spoil'.
1

Pres. [4.] duyati etc. B.+, te etc. E.+ (dyant c .) [Perf. dudoa.] Aor. 2. duat B . 3. adduat etc. v. 5. doiam B. [Fut. dokyati, do.] Verb, dua s, + Sec. Conj.: [ Int. dodu. Desid. duduka. ] Caus. dayati etc. v.+, te etc. E. + (dyate etc. E. +) [doayati.] din E. + Deriv.: dus v.+ doa u.s.+ doya MS. dya E. + di AV.C. do v. + dos AV. d aa AV.+ d a E. + doin c. dayit c. d i AV. daka E. + d u h , 'milk, derive'. Pres. [2.] dgdhi duhnti etc. v.+ dugdh duhte etc. v.+ (duh 3s. V.B., duhat RV., duhrate hr V.B . ; dhna v., duhn dghna RV. ; duh m 3s. V.B ., duhr m duhratam 3p. AV., dhugdhvamAS.; dohat dhate etc. RV. ; duhyt yn R V . ; duhs RV., duhan B ., hran AV.B .) [6.] duhet etc. E. +, aduhat V.B .E. + [4.] duhyati etc. c , te M. Perf. dudha duduh etc. v.+ (dudhitha v.+, duduhr V.B ., hrire v.; dudhus c.) Aor. [1. adohi. ] 3. adduhat etc. c. 4. [adugdha,] dhukata (3p.) RV., dhukmhi B . 7. dhukat ata etc. v. + (dhuksva aduk at etc. dukata RV.) Fut. \. dhokyate c. [ 2. dogdh.] Verb, dugdh v. + ; dogdhum E., dgdhos B . ; dugdhv B .+; duhdhyi RV. ; dohse RV. ; doham c. ^ec. Conj.: Pass, duhyte etc. v.+ [ 1nt. doduh.] Desid. dudhukati c. (ddukati RV.) Caus. dohyati etc. B . +, te S. (dohyte B . ) dha v. + Deriv. . duh v. + dhana B . + dogdhavya B .E. dgha RV. dohna RV. dogdh AV. + dugh s. dhas V.B .S. dohoka c. dogdhra s. duha E. dohs RV. dohin E. d u d h u k u E. dgha v. dohya c. duhit v. +

du, see du.


Another root d seems inferable from the derivatives: dviha v. dvyas V.B . dtv.+ drv.+ 1 d, 'pierce, split'. dr? B.

Pres. [2.] dri adar drt RV. [9.] dy t B . Perf. dad r a etc. v. + (dadv s RV.) [dadaritha dadaratus dadratus], dadre s.+

77

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[dfoh

Aor. 1. dryt c, [ 2. adarat.] 3. addarat etc. E.+ [adadarat.] 4. darasi drat darate dara RV. [ 5. adrt.] [Fut. dar yati, dar t .] Verb, dr B . + , dta R . ; d r ya B .+; dram C. Sec. Conj.: Pass, dryte etc. B .+, dryati etc. E . + 1nt. drd RV.TS. (dardirat adardirus RV.) ; ddh RV. [dedrya. Desid. didar a, didra.] Caus. drayati etc. B.+, te etc. c (dryate etc. E . + ) ; daryati etc. RV.C. dartn RV. Deriv.: dara v. + draa E. + dti v. + darmn RV.S. dri E. + daraa s. + dvn? vs. darm RV. dr RV. daraya c. dr? AV. dra AV. + dru? B. + dari RV.C. driya RV. dir B . drman RV. draka E. + dadru c. drin v. + dur? RV. dart RV. dardira RV. Compare dal. 2 d , 'heed'. [Perf. dadre.] Aor. 1. adths etc. B. [3. addarat. ] 4. dhvam B. [Fut. dariyate, dart.] Verb, dta E.+; d t ya B . + Sec. Conj.: Pass, driyte etc. B.+, ti etc. E.+ [ Int. dard, dedrya. Desid. didaria. Caus. draya.] Deriv.: dara u.? c. duri RV. dartavya c daraa s. + dtya B. darin c. dra V.B .S. daraya c. Only with prefix a, and with passive presentsystem, suggesting a special zation from 1 d. d p , 'rave'. Pres. [4.] dpyati etc. v.+ [I.] darpati s. [Perf. dadarpa.] Aor. 2. adpat B . [ 4. adrpst, adrpst. 5. adarpt.] Fut. 1. drapsyati B ,, darpiyati JB . [ 2. drapt, darpt, darpit.] Verb, dpta v. +, dpita RV.
Sec. Conj.: Caus. darpayati etc. E.+

Deriv.:

darpaE.+

darpaka c.

darpin c.

darpaaE.+

dptRv.

d b h , 'bunch'. Pres. [6.] dbhti etc. B. [1.] dbhmas? B. Verb, dbdha B . +


Sec. Conj.: Caus. darbhita c.

Deriv.:

darbhv.+

d b hka? v. B

dbdhi?

darbhaas.?

d]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

78

d,

'see'.

Pres. [4.] p a y a t i etc., see p a . Perf. dadra dad etc. v. + (dde ddre ddna RV., dadrm AV., rire TB . , dadivs u., darivs E.+) [dadaritha da draha.] Aor. 1. adaram etc. B . + (adarma TS., adma JB ., adarusB .; adar a s at B .S. ; darati etc. v., drat etc. V.B.), dran V.B . (adram dn d na RV.), dari dri v. 2. dan v., dan B ., dyam etc. V.B . 3. addat etc. B. + [adadarat.] 4. adrkt etc. B .+ (drk B .) , adkata RV. (d k ase RV.) [drakran.] 7. dkam K. Fut. 1. drakyti etc. B . +, te etc. E. + 2. dra etc. E. Verb, d v . + ; drumAv. + ; dv AV.+, v y a RV. ; d yav. + ; d V.B . ; dye v.; daram c. Sec. Conj.: Pass, dyte etc. v. + , ti etc. E . + 1nt. dardyate c. [dard.] Desid. ddkate etc. v. +, ti E. Caus. daryati etc. AV. +, te etc. s. + (didarayia s. +) Deriv. : dra v. + daran y a.+ dk B .S. dra AV. + dnya RV. d a r AV. + d v.+ dreya u. d i v. + daraka E. + d a v. + didk E. + dna TS. darin E . + d ya v. + did k u v.+ dvan c drya RV. dat RV. didkya RV. dka B . + darat V.B . d v. + didkya V.B . draavy B . + darayit E. + drana v. + dka v. dh, dh, 'make firm'. Pres. [1.] d hati etc. te etc. V.B. [6.] dhntam AV., dhthe RV. [4.] d h ya d h yasva RV. [ 1. darhati.] Perf. [dadarha, dadha] ddh adadhanta RV, Aor, [3. adadarhat, addhat. ] 5. adht etc. B. [adarht.] [Fut. darhiyati, darhit; dhiyati, dhit.] Verb, dh v. + Sec. Conj.: [Int. dardh, dardh; dardh, dardh. Desid. di darhia, didhia. ] Caus. [darhaya;] dhayati etc. v.s. dha AV. Deriv.: dh B . + dhit V.B . dadh v. d haa AV.B .S. drahyt? RV. Divided by the Hindu grammarians into two roots, dh 'fix', and dh 'grow', from the latter of which are then derived drgh v. + and the related words dr g hyas V.B .S., dr g hiha RV., drghmn V.B ., drghimn B . (drghuy TS.).

dev, see 2 dv.

79

AND PRIMARY

DERIVATIVES.

[2 d r a

d y u , 'attack'. Syaa has once pra dyuti, apparently an artificial formation, on the authority of the occurrence of a root dyu in the Dhtupha. dyut, 'shine'.

Pres. [1.] dytate etc. v.+, ti etc. E. Perf. didyute etc. v . + , didyta AV., didyutus TS. Aor. 1. dyutant dyutn V.B ., dytna RV. 2. adyutat etc. B . + 3. didyutat etc. V.B. 4. dyut dyut V.B . [ 5. adyotia.] Fut. 1. dyotiyati B . [ 2. dyotit.] Verb, dyutt AV.B . [dyutita; dyutitv, dyotitv;] dyutya AB . Sec. Conj.: Int. dvidyutV.B . [dedyut. Desid. didyutia, didyotia.] Caus. dyotayati etc. v. + (dyotyate c.); dyutayanta RV. dytana v. + dytman RV. dyota AV.+ Deriv.: dyt v. + dyotan RV. dyotaka c. didyt V.B . dyuta E. dyotin c. dyotani v. dyotayitavya u. dyuti E. + dyotya c. dyotis c. Compare j y u t and div. B R. set off a few of the forms to a 2 dyut 'break'. d r a m , 'run. [Pres. etc. dramati; dadrma; adramt; dramiyati, dramit.] Sec. Conj.: Int. dandramyate u. [ Desid. didramia. Caus. dra mayati.] Apparently another form of 1 dr. 1 d r , 'run'.

Pres. [2.] drhi dr t u drntu v. Perf. dadrus etc v . c , dadr RV. Aor. [1. dryt, dreyt. ] 4. drsat RV. [ 6. adrst.] [Fut. drsyati, drt.] Verb, dra u. + Sec Conj.: Int. dridrti etc. TS.C [ddr. Desid. didrsa.] Caus. drpayati B. ([adidrapat] ddrpayiati B.) Deriv.: d r ? AV. drk? c. dB . rpi? dridra .+ B Compare roots dram and dru. The intensive stem daridr is reckoned by the Hindu grammarians as a root, and artificially furnished with a set of verbforms and primary derivatives. 2 d r , 'sleep'. Pres. [2.] drti etc B .+ [4.] dryate etc. E. + Perf. dadru c. Aor. 4. (or 6.) adrst B .

2 dr]
Fut. drsyti B .

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

80

Verb, dra AV.B .+, drita? c Sec. Conj.: Desid. didrsati c.

Deriv.:

dr v. +

didrsu c dra, 'split'.

A single doubtful occurrence, uddrayan c. d r u , 'run'. Pres. [1.] drvati etc. v.+, te etc. E . + Perf. dudrva etc. B. + [dudrotha, dudruma], dudruve etc. E. Aor. [I. dryt; adrvi. ] 3. adudruvat B .+ (adudrot dudrvat RV.) [adudravat, adidravat.] Fut. I. droyati B . [ 2. drot.] Verb, drut B . +; drotum c.; drutv B . ; drtya B . + Sec. Conj.: Int. dodru (dodrva TS.) [ Desid. dudra.] Caus. dr v y a t i etc. v. +, te etc. E. (drvyate E.) ; dravayanta RV. dravi RV. Deriv.: drav v. + drva vs. dru v . + dravya? U.S.+ dravit RV. drvin s. + druti c. drvaa B . + dravitn v. drvya E. drvayitn RV. drvia etc.? v.+ drvaa E. + dravar RV. druh, 'be hostile'. Pres. [4.] drhyati etc. B.+, te etc. E . + Perf. dudrha etc. V.B . (dudrhitha AV.), dudruhe c Aor. [I. druhyt; adrohi. ] 2. druhas han V.E. [ 3. adudruhat.] 4. drogdhs M. 7. adrukas B . Fut. 1. dhrokyati MS. [drohiyati. 2. drogdh, droh, drohit.] Verb, drugdh v.+ [drha]; drogdhavi K . ; [drugdhv, drohitv, druhitv;] drhya MS.E. Sec. Conj.: [ Int. dodruh. ] Desid. dudrukat K. [dudrohia, du druhia, dudhruka. Caus. drohaya.] drogdhavy B . + Deriv. : drh v. + drgha v. druhy RV. drogdh E . + droha v. + druhya c. druhia c. dudhruku c. drohin E . + drhvan v. druh AV. dr, 'hurl'(:). Pres. [9.] drti MS., drn RV. Only two occurrences, of which that in Ms. does not appear coimectible with dru.

dvar ?
Such a root perhaps to be recognized in dvar RV., dvarin RV., dvaras? RV., and in dv r or dr v.+ 'door'.

81

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[dhav

dvi, 'hate'. Pres. [2.] d v i dvinti etc. v.+ dvie dvite etc. AV.+ [6.] dviati etc. M., te etc. s.u.+ Perf. d i d v e a B. [didvie.] Aor. [1. a d v e i . 3. adidviat. ] 7. dvikat dvikata (3s.) AV. [Fut. dvekyati t e ; dve.] Verb, d v i a v. + ; d v e u m E., d v o s B. Sec. Con;.: [ 1nt. dedvi. Desid. didvika. ] Caus. d v e a y a t i c. Deriv. : d v v. + dvii c. dvein E . + dveaya c. d v i a c. d v a v. + dvya AV. + d v a s V.B . dvieya RV. dveaka E. dvaa v. + dve E. + d h a n , 'run'. [Pres. 3. dadhanti. 1. dhanati.] Perf. dadhnat dadhanyus dadhanv s RV. See. Conj.: Caus. dhanyan yante yanta RV. Deriv. dhniha RV.* Compare roots dhanv, dhav, dhv, dh. d h a n v , 'run'. Pres. [I.] dhnvati etc. V.B. (dhaniva sv.) Perf. dadhanv vir RV. Aor. 5. d h a n v i u s V.B . Deriv. dhnut RV. Seems to be a secondary rootform, from the preceding. Its v has value as u in half the RV. cases (in the presentsystem). d h a m , d h m a , 'blow'. Pres. [I.] dhmati etc. v.+, te etc. U.E. [2.] dhmnt c. Perf. dadhmu etc. dadhmire E. Aor. [1. dhmyt d h m e y t ; adhmyi.] 6. adhmst c. Fut. 1. dhamiyati etc. E.+ [dhmsyati. 2. dhmt.] Verb, dhamit RV., dhmt v.+; dhm y a B . + See. Conj.: Pass, dhamyate etc. v.+, ti E. ; dhmyte etc. B.+, ti etc. CB .E.+ 1nt. ddhmyate c. [dedhmya. Desid. didhmsa. ] Caus. dhmpayati etc. E.+ (dhmpyate E.) [adidhmapat.] dhmpana c Deriu. : dhama AV. + dhamitra c. dhmnya c. dhamana c dhm B . + dhmtavya c dhamni v. + dhm n a AV. + dhmt RV. d h a v , 'flow'. Pres. [1.J dhavate etc. RV. Deriv. dhvyas RV.

1 dhj

ROOTS,

VERB FORMS,

82

1 dh, dadh, 'put'.

Pres. [3.] ddhti dhatt/tc. v . + [1.] ddhati te etc. v . + [2.] dhti RV3. [4.] dhyeta*Mu,, adhyata M. Perf. dadh dadh etc. v . + (dadh t ha v . , dadhidhv iv idhvam RV., dadhre RV.) A or. I. dht adhus etc. v . + (adhtm RV. ; dheym yus [ysus] RV. ; dh t u etc. v . ; dhetana RV.TB .), adhiths adhita etc. v . + (ahita hita AV.TA.; adhmahi dhmahi dhmahe v . ; dhmahe RV.; dhie dhire dhthe dhithe RV. ; dhiv RV.) ; dhyi dh y i v . + 2. adhat SV., dhat RV. 4. dhsus dhsathas tha RV., adhii ata B . + (dhiya B .S., dheya MS.) 5 ? dhys RV. Fut. 1. dhsyati te etc. B.+ (adhsyat c . ) 2. dht etc. B. Verb, h i t v . + , dhita v . c . ; dh t um B .+, tave V.B ., tav AV., tos V.B ., dhitum c . ; dhitv B . [hitv]; dh y a AV. +; dh m AV. ; dhiy dhyi RV. ; [dhyam.] Sec. Conj.: Pass, dhyte etc. v . + [ Int. dedhyate. ] Desid. dhtsati etc. v . +, te etc. v . + (dhitsyate a ) ; ddhiati etc. te etc. RV. (didhi a RV.) Caus. dhpayati etc. v . +, dhpayta s . (dhpyate c . ) dhi v . + dhya s . Deriv. : dh v . + dadhus MS. dhyaka c . dhiti V.B .S. dadhi AV. dh n a v . + hiti v . + dhyin c . didhi v . + dhn ? v . + dheya B . + dhyy B .S. didhi y ya RV. dhnya c . dhya n. v . + dhits E. + dh y u RV. dh t u v . + dhha V.B . dhitsu s . + dhtavya B . + dhs RV. dadha B .S. dhas v . + dhpana s . dht v . + ddhi V.B . dhpayitavya c. dh m an v . + 2 dha, 'suck'. Pres. [4 ?] dhyati etc. v . + Perf. dadhs RV. Aor. 1. adht AV. [dheyt. 3. adadhat. 6. adhst. j Fut. I. dhsyati E. [ 2. dht.] Verb, dht V.B . ; dh t ave v . ; dhtv CB . ; dh y a CB . [dhya.] Sec. Conj.: [ Pass, dhyate. Int. ddh, ddh, dedhya. Desid. dhitsa. ] Caus. dhpayate etc. RV., ti B. [addhapat.] dhn v . dhr AV. dhyin c . Deriv. : dh v . + dhen v . + dhs RV.S. dh y as v . dhaya B. + dhsy AV. dadhn, ddlii v . + dhy RV. dh t u RV.S. R e l a t e d w i t h dhi. T h e c o n n e c t i o n o f s o m e o f t h e d e r i v a t i v e s b y no means beyond question.

y 1 dhv, 'run .
Pres. [I.] dh v ati etc. te etc. v . + [Perf. dadhva ve.]

83

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[dhuk

Aor. [1. dhvysam. ] 3. adadhvat RV. [addhavat.] 5. adhvt B. [adhvia.] Fut. 1. dhviyati c . [te. 2. dhvit.] Verb, dhvita E. +; d h v i t v c . ; dhvya c . Sec. Conj.: [ Int. ddhvya. Desid. didhvia. ] Caus. dhvyati
etc. v . +

Deriv.:

dhvaka E.

dhvin c .

dhvana E. +

dhvit E.

dh r ?v.+

C o m p a r e r o o t s dhan, dhanv, dhav. I t i s r e c k o n e d b y t h e g r a m m a r i a n s a s filling u p t h e d e f e c t i v e c o n j u g a t i o n o f s.

2 d h v , 'rinse'. Pres. [1.] dh v ati etc. te etc. v . + Perf. [dadhva] dadhvire c . or. 5. adhvia (3s.) RV. Verb, dhut s v . + ; dhutv? c ; dhvya s .
Sec. Conj.: Pass, dhvyate c . Caus. dhvayati etc. *te etc. B. + dhavin c . dhauti RV. dhra ? v . + Deriv. : dhava c .

dhvaka E.

dh v ana B . +

P e r h a p s r a t h e r r e l a t e d w i t h dhu t h a n w i t h 1 dhav.

d h i , d h i n v , 'nourish . Pres. [5.] dhinoti dhinvanti etc. B. + [Perf. didhinva.] Aor. 5 . adhinvt PB . [Fut. dhinviyati, dhinvit.]
P e r h a p s o n l y a n o t h e r f o r m o f 2 dh, w i t h c a u s a t i v e v a l u e . S o m e o f t h e d e r i v a t i v e s g i v e n u n d e r 2 dh m i g h t b e p u t a s p r o p e r l y h e r e .

d h , d l d h l , 'think'. Pres. [2.] dhmahi B . + [3?] ddhayas d d hayan ddhyat etc. d dhyat addhet etc. ddhye ddhythm ddhthm d d hyna addhta etc. V.B. Perf. ddhaya dhima (mas s v . ) dhiyus dhyus ddhire v . n . Verb, dht v . + Sec. Conj.: Int. dedhyat TS. Desid. ? dh ama RV . dhiyasan RV. didhayu RV. dhra v . + Deriv. : dh v . + d d hiti v . + dh v an AV. dht V.B .
1

C o m p a r e dhy. T h e f o r m dhimahi b e l o n g s h e r e o n l y a s t h u s u s e d later, w i t h a false apprehension of i t s proper m e a n i n g .

d h u k , 'kindle'. Pres. [1.] dhukate E . [Perf. etc. d u d h u k e ; a d u d h u k a t , adhukia; dhukiyate, dhu kit.]
1

dhuk]

ROOTS,

VERB FORMS,

84

Sec. Conj.: [ Int. dodhuk. Desid. dudhukia. ] Caus. dhukayati etc. E.+ (dhukyate c ) Deriv. dhukaa E . + Occurring only with the prefix sam. dh, dhu, 'shake'.

Pres. [5.] dhnti dhnut etc. v. +; dhunoti dhunute etc. JB.S. + [2.] dhuvte (3p.) B., d h u v n TS. [6.] dhuvati etc. AV.B . (dhvet K.) [9.] dhunyt dhunna dhnna c. dhunet? Ml. Perf. dudhva etc. E.+, dudhuve AV. (dudhuvta ddhot RV.) A or. 4. adha ata RV.S. [adhoa. 5. adhvt adhuvt, adhavia.] Fut. 1. dhaviyati B .S., te B . [dhoyati te. 2. dhavit, dhota.] Verb, dht v. + , dhuta E.+ [dhna; d h a v i t u m ; ] d h t v A . ; B dh y a AV. + Sec. Conj.: Pass, dhyte etc. AV.+ (dhyant M.) Int. dodhavti etc. V.E., dodhyate etc. E.+ (dodhyat pple. E.+); davidhu RV. (da v i d h v a RV.) [ Desid. dudha. ] Caus. dhnayati te etc. E. + [dhvayati.] Deriv. : dhu v. dhva B. dhuvaka JB . dhuti c dhava RV. dhavitavy B . dhvana B .S. dhni? V.B . dhavana B .S. dhavtra B .S. dh t i RV. dhnana E. + Compare 2 dhv. d h r v , 'injure'. Pres. [I.] dh r vati etc. V.B . [Perf. dudhrva.] Aor. 5. adhrvt B. [Fut. dhrviyati, dhrvit.] Verb, dh r vitum B . A secondary rootform from dhv dhur. d h , 'hold'. Pres. [I.] dhareran Asl. ; adhram R . Perf. dadhraetc. (dadhartha) JB .E.+; ddh r a V.B . (ddhrtha R V . T A . ) ; dadhr etc. v.+ Aor. 1. dhths AV.; adhri c. 3. ddharat etc. V.B .S. (ddhar, didh t a m t RV.), rata (3s.) B. [ 4. adhrt.] FuU I. dhariyati etc. E.+, te etc. AV.+ 2. dhart c. Verb, dht v.+; dhartum c. tavi KB . ; dhtv B . + ; dhtya B . ; dhar tri RV. ; dhram s. Sec. Conj.: Pass, dhriyte etc. v.+, ti etc. E . + Int. dardhari adardhar RV.; ddharti ddhrati ddhartu B . (dadhartu? AVP.; ddhrayati JB.) Desid. didhra (in d.) [didhariate.] Caus. dhryati te etc. v.+ (dhryte B . + ; didhrayia s.c.)
1

85
Deriv. : dhra v. +

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[dhy dhruvs RV. dhruvi V.B . d d hvi RV. ddhr? RV. didhr c. didhru c. dhraya v. + dhray RV. dhrayitavya u.+ dhrayit B. + dhrayiu o. didhrayi c.

dhraa AV.+ dharaya c. dharai E. + dhara V.B . dhrtu RV. dhrtu RV. dhart V.B . dhartr B .S. dhrit B . + dharas V.B . dharni RV.

dharmn RV. dhrman v. + dhrma AV. + dhariman c dhrman RV. dhryas B .S. dh r a v. + dh r aka B . + dhrin u.s. + dhrya E. + dharaa v. + dhraya c.

dhri c. dhra E. + dhr v. + dhura E. + dht v. + dhk E. + dh t i v. + dhtvan B . dhra v.+ dhri ? v. + dhruv v. +

d h , 'dare'. Pres. [5.] dhti etc. v.+ [1.] dhrati etc. VS.R. [2?] dhnt RV., dh AV. Perf. dadhra etc. V.B. (ddhus AV. ; dadhrat ati dadhart RV. ; dadhate ddhanta AV. Aor. 2. adhas B. (dhma? RV.) [3. addhat, adadharat. ] 5. adharius TA. [Fut. dhariyati, dharit.] Verb, dh v.+, dhit v.; dhya B . + ; dh e V.B ., dh as RV. Sec. Conj.: [ Int. dardh. Desid. didharia. ] Caus. dharayati
etc.
B .+

Deriv. : dhra v.+

dharaa E . + dharakaE.+ dharaya E . + dh v. dharin c. dhary AV. dhj RV.

dh i B . + dadh RV. d d hi v. dh v. + dadhvi RV. dhya v.+ dharayitavya c.

d h m , see d h a m . d h y , 'think'. Pres. [4.] dhy y ati etc. B.+, te etc. E.+ (dhyyta u.) [2.] dhyti etc. E.+ (dhyyt B .S.) Perf. dadhyu etc. B. + Aor. 4. dhysus M. 6. dhysiam B. Fut 1. dhysyati E. 2. dhyt JUB . Verb, dhyta B .+; dhytv B .+; dhyya E.+; dhyyam c Sec. Conj.: Pass, dhyyate c [Int. ddhy. ] Desid. didhysate B . [ Caus. dhypayati.] didhysana c dhyt c. dhyana u.+ Deriv.: dhy v.+ dhyeya E . + didhysitavy B . dhyyin B . + dhytavya c. didhysu c. Compare dh, of which this is a later secondary form.

dhraj]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

86

dhraj, dhrj,

'sweep'.

Pres. [I.] dhrjati etc. RV.; dhr j amna MS. Aor. 5. dhrjiya MS. Deriv. : dhrajati RV. dhrj MS. dhrjas RV. dhrj MS, dhrji RV. dhvas, dhvas, 'scatter'.

dhrji V.B . dhrj MS.

Pres. [ I . J dhvasati te etc. B. + Perf. dadhvasus u., dadhvasire E . ; dadhvas V.B . Aor. 2. d h v a s n RV. [ 3. adadhvasat. 5. adhvasia.] [Fut. dhvasiyate, dhvasit.]
Verb, d h v a s t a B . + ; d h v a s y a E . +

Sec. Conj.: Pass, dhvasyate c , ti GB . [ 1nt. dandhvas dhvasya. Desid. didhvasia.] Caus. dhvasyati etc. B . + , te etc. JB . ; dhvasyati etc. RV.
Deriv. :

dhvasnti n. pr. RV. dhvasmn RV. dhvasin E. + dhvasa E. + dhvasr RV.B . dhvsana B .+ dhvasn n. pr. CB . dhvasir RV. dhvasni v. dhvasti c . dhvas AV. + dhvasi s. dhvasaka c . dhvan, 'sound'.

Pres. [ I . J dhvanati etc. c . Perf. datdhvonus c . Aor. [3. adidhvanat adadhvanat. ] 5. d h v a n t RV. [Fut. dhvaniyati, dhvanit.] Verb, dhvanita c , d h v n t B . + Sec. Conj.: 1nt. dandhvan (in d.). Caus. dhvanayati B . ( d h v a n a y t RV.); adhvnayat RV. (dhvnita c ) dandhvana E. Deriv. : dhvana TA. dhvani AV.C. dhvana s. + dhvanana s.+ dhni? V.B . dhvany RV. The RV. forms are set off by BR., perhaps rightly, to a separate d h v a n 'cover', to which then d h v n t RV.E.+ 'dark' is also referred. d h v , d h u r , d h r u , 'injure'. Pres. [I.] dhvrati etc. B . [Perf. dadhvra.] Aor. 4. [adhvrt,J dhrata (3p.) RV. [dhva. 5. dhvaria.] [Fut. dhvariyati, dhvart.] Verb, dhrta E. +, dhruta TB . ; dh r vane RV. Sec. Conj..- [ Int. ddhvarya. ] Desid. ddhrati etc. AV.B . [ Caus. dhvrayati.]

87
Deriv. : dhr

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[nand

.MS. B dhvar MS. dhvartavya TS. dhru? RV. dhvars RV. dhvt RV. dhrt RV. dhrut RV. dhoraa? c dhrti RV. Compare dhrv, which is a secondary form (uclass) of this root.

na, see y 2 n a .
y nak, 'attain'. Pres. [1.] nkati te etc. V.B . Perf. nanaks k RV. [Aor. etc. anakt; nakiyati, nakit.] Deriv.: nkatra? v . + nakya RV. A secondary form of 2 n a . Compare also inak, under 2 n a . y na, 'dance, play'. Pres. [l.J naati c.
Sec. Conj.: Caus. nayati etc. c . Deric.: naa E. + naana c.

naa c. naka c naanya c. A prakritized formation from nt.

nin c. nayitavya c

y n a d 'sound'. Pres. [1.] ndati etc. AV.+, te etc. E . + Perf. nanda n e d u s E. +, nedire E. [Aor. etc. annadat, an d t; nadiyati, nadit.] Verb, nadita C. ; nadya E . + Sec Conj.: Pass, nadyate E. Int. n n adati (3p,) etc. V.E., nnadyate etc. JB .E. [ Desid. ninadia. ] Caus. nadyati te etc. RV.E. ; ndayati te etc. E. + (ndyate E. + ) Deriv.: nad v. + nd v. + nadathu u. nadana E. n d n AV. + nadan RV. nnada B .S. nad ? v . + nadanimn AV. ndi S. nadin E. Compare the next root.

y n a n d , 'rejoice'. Pres. [1.] nndati etc. v . + , te etc. E . + Perf. nanandus etc. E. + [Aor. ananandat, anandt.] Fut. nandiyate E. [ti. 2. nandit.J Verb, nandita B . + ; nandya E . + Sec. Conj.: Pass, nandyate etc.c. [ Int. nnand. Desid. ninandia.] Caus. nandayati te etc. u. +

nand]
Deriv.:

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

88
nnnd? v. nandayitavya u.+ nandayit c.

nnda v . + nandaka E . + n a n d i n AV. + nandya c

nndana AV.+ nandanya c. nndi B. + nanditr E.

nandthu B . + nndan sv.u. nnd RV.E. + nnduka c.

D o u b t l e s s t h e s a m e w i t h t h e p r e c e d i n g root.

nabh,

burst'.

Pres. [1.] nbhate etc. v. [ 9. nabhnti. 4. nabhyati.] [Perf. etc. nanbha nebhe, etc.] Sec. Conj.: Caus. anabhayan AB . ; nambhaya TS.S. Deriv.: n b h RV. nabhany RV. nabhaka RV.B . nbh RV. nabhan, RV. nbhas v . + nabhi v. + nbhya V.B .S.
T h e c o n n e c t i o n o f p a r t o f t h e d e r i v a t i v e s w i t h t h i s root i s q u i t e q u e s t i o n able.

n a m , 'bend, bow'. Pres. [1.] nmati te etc. v.+ (namna R.) Perf. n e m u s c (nnma nanmas RV.), n e m e RV. (nanmire M.) Aor. 3. annamat etc. RV.C. 4. ann K., anasata (3p.) B . (nasi nsante R V . ) 6. anast c. Fut, 1. nasyati B ., namiyati c. [ 2. nat.] Verb, nat v. + ; n a t u m c , n a m i t u m c.; n a t v c ; ntya B . , namya E.+; nmam name RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, n a m y a t e u . + Int. nnnamtietc. V.B. (nannamus B .), mna (nmnate anamnataRv.); nannamyate s. Desid. ninasa (in d.) Caus. namayati etc. v.+; nmayati etc. U.S.+ (nmyate etc K.+, ti etc c ) n e m i v. + nm? RV. Deriv. : nam AV. nma E . + nannama RV. n m a RV.? E . + nati AV. + nmaka c. ninasu c. n t v a RV. n m i n v.+ namana c. n a m a y i t a v y a c. nat c. nmya E.+ n a m a n y a c. namayit c. namr v. + nmana c. nmas v. + nmuka B . n a m a y i u RV. namasn v. nard, 'bellow'. Pres. [I.] nardati etc B .+, te etc E . + Perf. nanarda E. [Aor. etc anardt; nardiyati, nardit.] Verb, nardita E.+; nardam E. Sec Conj.: Int. nnardyamna c Caus. nardayati GB . Deriv.: narda s. + nardin u. nardana c.

89

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[nth

1 n a , 'be lost'.

Pres. [4.] n y a t i etc. v.+ te etc. E. [1.] n a t i te etc. V.E.+ Perf. n a n a V.E., n e u s B . + Aor. 2. anaat E . + 3. aneat etc. V.B . ; annaat etc. v . + (nnaus E.) Fut. 1. naiyati AV. + ; nakyati te etc. E.+ (anakyata M.) 2. n a it E. [na.] Verb, na v . + [naum, naum; nav, nav.] Sec. Conj.: [ Int. nna, Desid. ninaia, ninaka. ] Caus. n yati etc. v.+, te etc. E.+ (naydhyi RV.; ninayia c.) Deriv. : na RV.B . nai B . + nin B. + nar B . AV. navara c. n y a E. + nain v.s. nayit vs. na B . + n ana AV. + naana B . + naka E. + n uka TS. nauka K. The forms from the stem naa are perhaps to be classed as of aorist 2. 2 n a , na, 'attain'. Pres. [1.] nati te etc. v . Aor. 1. na V.B . (a v . ; anam nak n a k i impv. rnahi RV.)
Verb, ne Rv.vs. See. Conj.: Desid. n a k a t ietc.RV.

ni na

Deriv.: na RV. nana RV. na V. naRv.s. The form na is by some referred to 1 a . Compare nak. n a s , 'unite'. Pres. [1.] nsate etc. RV. Aor. 1. nasmahi RV. n a h , 'tie'. Pres. [4.] nhyati te etc. v. + (nahyus A B .) [1.] nahet M. [Perf. etc. nanha (nanaddha nehitha) n e h e ; annahat, anaddha; natsyati te, naddh.] Verb, naddh v. + ; [naddhv;] nhya B. + nhayati etc. s. +
Deriv. : nah(ndh) v.+ nhus v. +

antst

Sec. Conj.: Pass, nahyate c [ 1nt. nnah. Desid. ninatsa.] Caus.

nhana v. + nhas? c.

nha AV. + naddhi B . nhya B .S. naddhavya E. +

nhana c. nhuka? B . A

nth, nadh, 'seek aid'. Pres. [I.] nthate etc. B.+, ti etc. E.+; n d hamna v. [Perf. etc. nantha, n a n d h e ; antht, andhia; nthiyati, ndhi y a t e ; nthit, ndhit.J

nth]

ROOTS,

VERB FORMS,

90

Verb, nthit v.+, ndhit RV. ; nthitum c ; nthya c. Sec Conj.: Pass, nthyate c. Deriv.: n t h v.+ ndha B . n d has RV. nis, 'kiss'. Pres. [2.] nsate nisata nsna RV. [Perf. etc. ninise; anisia; nisiyate, nisit.] Deriv. nisin c. n i k , 'pierce'. Pres. [1.] n k a t i etc. AV. [Perf. etc. n i n i k a ; a n i k t ; n i k i y a t i , n i k i t . ] Verb, nke v. Deriv.:nikaa C. n k aaVRv. n k a a AV.S. IS perhaps a desiderative formation from y 1 n a . n i j , 'wash'. Pres. [2?] nije c , nijn RV. [3.] ninikta (2p.) RV. [Perf. nineja, ninije.] Aor. 2. anijam jan AV.S. [ 3. annijat.] 4. anikt n i k i AV. [Fut. nekyati te, nekt.] Verb, n i k t v. + ; niktv B . + ; njya B .+; nje RV. Sec. Con;.: Pass, nijyate etc. E . + Int. n n e k t i n e n i k t etc. v.+ [ Desid. ninika.] Caus. nejayati etc. B . + njana v.+ neja c. neka s.c. Deriv.: nij v.s. nekt s. nejaka c. nega B .S. nikti a nejya PB . The intensive is regarded by the grammarians as the presentstem of this root. nind, nid, 'revile'. Pres. [1.] nindati etc. v.+, te etc. E. + Perf. nininda E. + (nindima n i n i d s RV.) Aor. 1. nindyt u., n i d n RV. 5. nindius RV.S. (nndiat AV.) Fut. [1. nindiyati. ] 2. nindit E. Verb, nindit v.+; nindya E. Sec. Conj.: Pass, n i d y t e RV. ; nindyate c. Desid. n i n i t s a t i RV., te s. ninda AV. + n i n d y a v. + Deriv.: n i d RV. nindit RV. nindaka E. + nindana c. n d RV. n i n i t s RV. nindanya c. n i n d i n c. nedya RV. n, 'lead'. Pres. [I.] nyati te etc v.+ [3?] ninths n i n y t RV., n i n e t u MS. [2.1 n i V.S., n e t h RV., n t m RV.

91

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[nud

Perf. nin y a n i n y u s etc. v.+ (nintha RV., n n i m a TS.), ninye B . + naym sa M., nay cakre R. Aor. [1. anyI. 3. annayat. ] 4. anit etc. v.+ (nis anit B .S. ; n e a t i etc. RV,, nat V.B ., n e a AV.), anea etc. V.B . 5. anayt AV., anaya (2p.) s. anyiata (pass.) c. Fut. I. n e y a t i etc. AV.+, te etc. B .+ (aneyaths M,); nayiyati etc. J B . E . + (anayiyat JB .), te etc. R. 2. n e t E., nayit E. Verb, n t v. + ; n t u m B .+, tav B .S., tos B ., n a y i t u m B . + ; ntv B . + , n a y i t v E. + ; nya AV. + ; n e i RV. ; nyam JB. Sec. Conj.: Pass, nyte etc. v. + Int. nenyte etc. v. + Desid. nn ati etc. v. +, te etc. u.s. + Caus. nyayati etc. E. +, te R. Deriv.: n v. + netr AV. + na RV. nyya C. n t h v. + n v. + nyana c. naya v. + n t h v. nen RV. nti v. + nayin E. + neman? RV. n i n E. + nayana U.S. + netavya E. + nayitavya E . + nya B . n i n u E. + ny RV.C. net v. + neya s. + nineya B . nyaka E. + nayit E. nyiha RV. nyin E. nT, ' n e s t \ May be mentioned on account of n v. + and n RV. 1 n u , n , 'praise'.

Pres. [2.] nuti n u v n t i etc. v.+ (anvan RV.) [I.] nvate ti etc. v. [ 6. nuvati.] Perf, n u n v a c Aor. 3. [annavat] nnot etc RV, 4. [anut,] ni etc. V.B . 5. [anvt anuvt,] anavia RV. [Fut. n a v i y a t i , n u v i y a t i ; navit, nuvit.] Verb, n u t a c [nta; n a v i t u m , n u v i t u m ; ] nutya s,; nvam B . Sec Conj.: Pass, n y a t e etc E . + Int. nnavti nonumas etc v., n o n u v a n t a RV. (nnva n o n u v u s RV.) nvnot RV. [ Desid. n u n a. Caus. nvayati (nunvayia).] Deriv.: nava B . + n o n u v a c. navana c. n v a RV. n v y a RV. nvii RV. nuti c.
;

2 n u , 'move'. Pres. [1.] nvate etc. RV. [2.] n u t i s. Verb, nta? PB .


Sec Conj.: Caus. n v a y a t i etc. B.

n u d , 'push'. Pres. [6.] nudti te etc v. + Perf. nunoda c , nunude etc v.+

nud]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

92

Aor. 1. n u d y t E . + [3. annudat. ] 4. [anutst,] nutta etc. V.B. 5. nudihs AV. Fut. 1. notsyati E., te B .E. [ 2. nott.] Verb, n u t t v.+, n u n n a SV.E.+, nudita M. ; nudya s. + ; nde RV., nudas K. ; ndam v.
Sec. Conj.: Int. anonudyanta B . Desid. n u n u t s a (in d.). Caus. nod Deriv. : nud v. +

ayati etc. u. + (nodyate E. + ) noda v. + nodaka c. nuda E. + nodin c. nutti B . +

nodya c. nodana c. nottavya B .

nunutsu c. nodayitavya c.

n , 'sport'. To be recognized with probability in the derivatives: nara TA. nar AV.VS. nariyant E. + narm vs. narman also in snra V.B . and sn (sn t v. +). Compare also nt. n t , 'dance'.

E. +

Pres. [4.] n t yati etc. v. +, te etc. E. + Perf. nanarta nantus E. + Aor. 1. ntus RV. (perf.?) 2. ntmna? RV. [ 3. anntat, ananar tat.] 5. anartius v. Fut. 1. nartiyati c. [nartsyati. 2. nartit.] Verb, ntt AV. + ; nartitum c , narttum c.; nartitv c.; nartam B . Sec. Conj.: Pass, ntyate c. 1nt. narnartti etc. c , narntyate c. ti? c. Desid. ninartia (in d.) [nintsa]. Caus. nartyati etc. v.+, te etc. E . + nt RV. Deriv. : nartin vs. nartayit E. nt AV. nartana s. + nt RV. ninarti c. ntya u . + n t i? AV. ntti B . narta E. + nt v. nartitavya c. nartaka E. + Compare roots n a and n . n e d , 'flow'. Pres. [I.] n e d a t i etc. B . , te u. [Perf. etc. n i n e d a , ninede n i n i d e ; a n e d t , dia; n e d i y a t i , t e ; nedit.] Deriv. neda MS. p a c , 'cook'.
Pres. [I.] p c a t i te etc. v . + (pacna M.) [4.] pcyate etc. R V . B . Perf. pap c a p e c u s etc. V.B . [papaktha, p e c i t h a ] , p e c e pecire etc. v . + (peciran AV.) Aor. [I. p a c y t ; apci. 3. appacat.] 4. [apkt, apakta] pkat RV.

93

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[pa

Fut. 1. p a k y a t i te etc. B. + (apokyat c ) 2. pakt B . Verb, (pakv;) p k t a v e AV.B . ; paktv AV.E. Sec. Conj.: Pass, pacyte etc. v.+, ti M. Int. ppacyate etc. a [Desid. pipaka. ] Caus. pcayati te etc. B . + (pcyate E.) Deriv. : pac? c. p a k t i RV. p a k t h i n RV. pcaka E . + pkti vs. + p a k v v. + pcin c paca B . + paktavya E. pacelima c pcya u. pacya AV. pakt AV. + pka v. + pcana c. pcana v. + paktrima c. pkin c pcayit c. pacat V.B . pakth RV.B . pkya u.s.+ pacaty RV. p a j , 'start'(?). Perf. papaje RV . Deriv.: pajr v.s. p j as V.B . The connection of form and meaning among these words is altogether questionable.
1

p a , 'tear'. Pres. [I.] paati el. Sec. Conj.: Caus. payati etc. u. +, te etc. E. (pyate c ) Deriv.: pa E. + paka B .+ pin c pana E . + pya c. panya c p a h , 'read'. Pres. [I.] pahati etc. TA.+, te etc. E . + Perf. papha c [Aor. etc. appahat, ap ht; pahiyati, pahit.] Verb, p a h i t a s. +; p a h i t v c. Sec. Conj.: Pass, p a h y a t e etc. B. + 1nt. ppahti etc. c , p p a h y a t e c. [ Desid. pipahia. ] Caus. phayati etc. c (phyate c ) pahitavya c. pha s.+ Deriv.: pahaka E. phya E. + pahiti c phaka E. + pahana c. phana c phin E. + pahanya c. p a , 'bargain'. Pres. [I.] paate etc. B . +, ti etc. E. + [Perf. etc. p e e ; appaat, a p a i a ; paiyate, pait.] Verb, paita E. ; paitv s. Sec. Conj.: Pass, payate etc. E. [ Int. pampa. Desid. pipaia. ] Caus. paayati etc. c. [payati.] } pa AV. pana B . + payya B . Deriv.: paa AV. + p? v.+ pain c. pa v. + vaj ? v. + paayit c. pait c pya B . +

1 pat]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

94

1 p a t , 'fly, fall'.

Pres. [I.] ptati etc. v. +, te etc. E. + Perf. papata p e t s etc. v. + (paptima papts paptiv s RV.; papat yt A V . ) Aor. 1. apti B . 3. apaptat etc. V . B . S . ; appatat etc. v. Fut. . patiyti etc. AV.+, te E. (apatiyatB.+) 2. patit M. Verb, p a t i t AV. +; ptitum B . patitv AV.B . ; ptya B . +; p t am B . + Sec. Conj.: Int. p p atti etc. RV. [panpat.] Desid. pipatiati etc. AV. CB. ; pitsa (in d.). Caus. ptyati etc. v. +, te etc. E. + (ptyate
etc. E.+); p a t y a t i etc. V . B . S . , te RV. Deriv. : pat RV. ptman V.B . pta AV. +

pata v. + ptana v.+ ptu? MS. patka S . + patitavya c. pttra v.+ ptatra v.c.

patya B . p t v a n V.B .S. patar RV. patru RV. ptiha V.B . patiu B . + patyas B .

ptaka s. + ptin A v. + ptya E. + ptana s. + ptanya c. p t uka B .E.

paptani RV. patpata s. p i p a t i u E. + pitsu c. patayl AV. p a t a y i v. ptayit c.

2 p a t , 'rule'. Pres. [4.] p t y a t e etc. V.B . Doubtless only a denominative of pti. y p a t h , 'go' (?). Pres. [1.] pthati etc. s. [Perf. etc. paptha, apatht; pathiyati, pathit.] Sec. Conj.: Caus. pthayati B .S. . Deriv.: p a t h path pnthan v.+ pnth v. pthan B

p t has v. +

p t his B . NO real root; the present forms doubtless bad readings for patati etc.; the causative a denominative of the stem path. p a d , 'go'. Pres. [4.] pdyate etc. v.+, ti etc. AB .E. [2?] p a d y m R . , p a t s v a M . Perf. papda p e d u s etc. v. +, pede etc. B . + Aor. 1. apadmahi vs. dran RV. (padti dt v.; pad v.); pdi p d i v. + 3. appadat AV.B . 4. apatsi etc. V.B .U. (patths AV.) Fut. I. patsyati etc. B.+ (patsyantu a ) , te etc. u.+ [ 2. patt.] Verb, p a n n AV. +; pttumB .+, tave RV., t o s B . ; p d y a v . + ; pdas V.B.; p d am B . + Sec. Conj.: Int. panpadyate c. Desid. p i t s a t i B ., te c. Caus. pd yati etc. v.+, te etc. AV.+ (pdyate etc. B. + ; pipdayiati B . + )
1 1

95
Deriv.:

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[1 p a pits c pitsu c patsu c pdayitavya c. pdayit c pipdayi c . pipdayiu c .

patti AV.+ pattavya E. + pad v. + patt c . p a d a n a B . u . s . padva? c . p a d a n y a B . + pda B . + pdi RV . pdaka E. +


1

pad v. + p d v.+

pdin c. p d ya B . + pdana E. + pdanya c. pd? RV.MS. p d uka B .

p a n , 'admire'. Pres. [1.] pnanta RV. Perf. papana papn RV. Aor. 5. pania (3s.) RV. Verb, panit RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, panyte RV. Int. pnipnat V.B . Caus. panyati te
etc. RV. Deriv.: pana RV.

pnya RV.K. pan y ya RV.AB

panas RV. p a n RV. panit RV.

paniama sv. pnii sv. pniha V.B . pnyas v.

pnyas RV. pany RV. panyu RV. panay y yaRv.

T h e w o r d s paya s,, payya B. s e e m t o b e l o n g i n m e a n i n g t o t h i s r o o t .

pard,
Not quotable either i n verbforms

'peder.
or derivatives [par d a , pardin,

pardana]. 1 pa, spa, 'see'.

Pres. [4.] p y a t i te etc. v . + Perf. p a s p a etc. v . Aor. 1. spaa (pres.?) RV. [ 3. apaspaat.] Verb, spaa v . +
Sec. Conj.: Caus. s p a y a t e etc. V.B ., ti s. Deriv. : p ? RV. payin c . payana c.

p a y a v. +

'payata AV.

s p V.B .

spaa B . + sp ana AV. paspa c .

T h e s t e m p a y a i s r e g a r d e d a s s u p p l y i n g t h e d e f i c i e n t p r e s e n t o f d.

2 p a , 'bind'.
R e g a r d e d a s i n f e r a b l e f r o m p a v. +, p a v. +

1 p , 'drink'.
1 1

Pres. [1.] pibati te etc. v . + [2.] p n t i RV ., pths AV . [3.] pipatu K., pipte pipate pipya apipta B ., pipn RV., ppna AV. Perf. p a p etc v . + (paptha RV., papyt RV.), pape etc v. Aor. 1. apt etc v . + (ph ptm pt pant v.); peys (3s.) RV.; pyi RV. [3. appyat. ] 4. psta AV.

1 PS]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

96

Fut. I. psyati te etc. B . + [ 2. pt.] Verb, pt v. + ; p t u m c , p t ave V . B . , tavi B ., tos KB . ; ptv V.B .S., tv RV. ; pay a A v. s,, pya E. + ; p? R V . ; pbadhyi RV. [pyam.] Sec. Conj.: Pass, pyte etc. AV.+ Int. pepyate etc. U.C. [pp.] Desid. pipsati etc. v. + ; ppati etc. RV. ( p?) Caus. pyyati etc. v.+, te a (pyyate s.; pipyayiet K.) Deriv.: p v. + pit? V.B . piba AV.C. panta RV. p n a v. + pt V . B . S . papi RV. pyaka E. pnya E. + ptha v. + pipsa B . + payin B . + ptavya B . + pya v. + p i p s u E. + pyya RV.C. pt v. + p i p u RV. pyna v. + p t ra v.+ p y a y i t a v y MS. p v an V.B . Compare 3 p. 2 p, 'protect'. Pres. [2.] p t i etc. v. + (pn R V . ) [Perf. papu.] Aor. 4. p s a t i etc. RV. 6. apst c [Fut. psyati, pt.] Verb, [pta;] p t u m E. [Sec. Conj.: p y a t e ; pp; pipsa; playati.] Deriv.: pla v. + p v. + pt v . c p v an V.B . p n a AV. + p t ra? Rv . pti? v.+ ptavya c. p y v. p y ya RV.
1 1

pit ? v. + pti RV. ptha v. p t hya RV.

3 p, 'rise against'. BR. refer to such a root certain forms from the reduplicated middle stem p i p with prefix ud. Since, however, such forms occur with the unquestion able meaning 'drink', and, on the other hand, forms from utpiba (CB .) with the meaning given to 3 p, it seems probable that we have here only a curiously specialized use of 1 p + ud.

py> 'cacar'.
Pres. [I.] pyate? u. Deriv. p y B. + A single very doubtful occurrence (see BR.). pi, pi, 'swell, fatten'.

Pres. [1.] pyate RV. [2?] p y n a RV. [3?] ppih V.B ., p i p y a t a m etc. ppyat etc. ppaya ppet etc. (payat pema pyan) ppyanta ppyna RV. [5.] p i n v n t vat AV., pinvire p i n v n RV., p i n vte apinvtm JB .<

97

AND PRIMARY

DERIVATIVES.

Perf. pp y a etc. (ppetha pipyathus yus ppiv s pipy) pipye ? (ppyn) RV. Verb, p n AV. + pit RV. Deriv. : paya? RV. pvara E. + p v a AB . p i t V.B . pyas v. + p v as V.B . p v an v. + pyasa? AV. py a v. + p v iha B . pvs M. The roots p i n v and p y a (given for convenience separately) are extensions of this. The classification of the reduplicated forms is difficult and questionable. p i n v , 'fatten'. Pres. [I.] p i n v a t i te etc. V.B .S. Perf. p i p i n v t h u s RV. [Aor. etc. a p i n v t ; pinviyatI. pinvit.] Verb, p i n v i t B. Sec. Conj.: Caus. pinvayati B. Deriy.: pinva RV. pinvana B .S. A secondary rootform, from stem [5.] p i n u of p, from which stem a few regular forms are also made in the older language. p i b d , 'be firm')?). Pres. [I.J pbdamna V.B . Deriv. pibdan v. p i , 'adorn'. Pres. [6.J piti te etc. V.B . Perf. p i p a p i p i u s p i p i re v. Aor. 1. p i n RV. [ 3. appiat. 5. apet.] [Fut. peiyat, peit.] Verb, p i V.B ., p i i t A V . + Sec. Conj.: Pass, p i y t e AV. 1nt. p p i a t na V.B . [ Desid. pipi i a pipeia. Caus. peaya.] Deriv.: p v. p e a v. + p i c v. + p a s v. + pe B . + pi c i RV. p i v. peit vs. p a n a v. puna? v.+ pinga v. + p i , 'crush*. Pres. [7.] pini pinti etc. v.+ (pik RV.), pie M. [6.] pi AV. ?, apiat M. ; p i e y a m piant apian E , pan AV. Perf. p i p a p i p i e etc. v. + Aor. 1 ? apim (3d.) cl. 3. appiat E. 7. apikan B. [apiktm.] Fut. I. p e k y a t i u. [ 2. pe.] Verb, pi v. + ; p u m B . + , av B . ; p i v a B . ; piya s.+; pam B . +

pi]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

98

Sec. Conj.: Pass, piyte etc. B. + [ Int. pepi. Desid. pipika.] Caus. peayati etc. s.+ Deriv. : p e a E. + peya c paa B . + pra? AV. peaka c pe c p RV. ppivant?Rv. Doubtless we are to read apim for apim (B hg. Pur.), p i s , 'stretch' (? . Pres. [4.] pisyati B. Perf. pipisus CB . Deriv. p s u k a B. 1 p i , see p i , py.

2 p , see

p , 'press'. Perf. pip RV. Sec. Con;.: Caus. payati etc. AV.+, te E. (pyate etc. B.+; pam c.) panya E. paka c Deriv.: pa E . + plana c. payitavyaE. pipla? AV.+ pin c p s. + pana u.+ ] / p l y , 'abuse'. Pres. [I.] p y ati etc. V.B . Deriv.: p y m v. p y aka AV. p y a t n RV. p y V.B .

p u , 'scale' etc. Pres. [6.] puati c [Perf. etc. p u p o a ; apot; poiyati, poit.J Verb, puita? c. poana o. poa poayati.] puana c Deriv.: p u Pass,+ p u y a t e c. [ Caus. puayati, c. Sec. Conj.: a B. poaka c puaka c A late and bastard root, probably denominative of pua. p u t h , 'crush. [Pres. etc. puthyati; p u p o t h a ; apotht; pothiyati, pothit.] Sec. Conj.: Caus. pothayati etc. E.+, te E . + Deriv.: potha E. pothaka E. p u , 'thrive'. Pres. [4.] pyati etc. v.+, te etc. E . + [9.] p u t i etc. E . + [1.] poati c .
1

D9

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

Perf. p u p a etc. v.+ (pupuys RV.) Aor. 1. puysam sma B ., yt c. [apoi.] 2. [apuat] (pueyam ema V.B .S., p u a s.) [ 3. appuat. 5. apot.] [Fut. poiyati, p o k y a t i ; poit, po.] Verb, pu v.+; puyse RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, puyate etc. c [7nt. popu. Desid. pupoia, pu puia, pupuka. ] Caus. poayati etc. v. + Deriv. : pu RV.C. pa c p o a v. + poas RV. puya v. + pn v. + poaka E . + pouka B . pka v. + pa RV.E. p o i n RV.C. po E. + ppa v. + pary RV. p y a v. + poit c pu v. p o a a E. + p o a y i t n RV. pi AV. + poaya c. p o a y i AV. p , 'cleanse'. JVes. [9.] pun t i punt etc. v.+ (punh sv., punat RV.) [I.] p v a t e etc. V.B .S. (pvamna v.+), p a v a RV ., p a v a n t c . p u n (ls.) R V . Perf. p u p u v u s B .S., ve etc. B . (apupot RV.MS.) Aor. [3. appavat. ] 5. apvius RV., apayia etc. RV.MS. [Fut. paviyati te; pavit.] Verb, p t v. + [ p a v i t a , pna;] p a v i t u m J B . ; [ p a v i t v , ] ptv AV.,
1 1
1

ptv RV,; p y a B . s . ; pvam s. Sec. Conj.: Pass, pyte etc. v.+ [ int. popu. Desid. pupa, pi pavia.] Caus. p a v y a t i etc. B.S., te AA.; p v a y a t i e t c . B.+, t e E . (pvyate etc. c ) p v y RV. Deriv. : p V.B . pot v. + pva v.+ pvona v. + potr v. + pu AV. pvak v. + p t i B . + pavt RV. pv? v. pvona E. + ptrma AV. pavit AV. + pava c. puna E . + pavtra v. + pav RV. pavayit B . p j , 'reverence. Pres. [I.] apjan? Ml. Perf. pupjire Ml. [Aor. apupujat.] Sec. Conj.: Caus. pjayati etc. s. +, te etc. E. (pjyate etc. E. + ) Deriv.: pj s.+ pjya E . + pjanaRv.E.+ pjayit E. pj aka E. + pj anya E. + puj ayitavya c py, 'stink'.

Pres. [1.] p y ati etc. B.S. [te.] [Perf. etc. p u p y e ; appuyat, a p y i a ; pyiyat^, pyit.] Verb, [ p t a j pyita (caus.?) B . [Sec. Conj.: popy, p o p ; p u p y i a ; pyaya.] Deriv.: p y a B . + p t i AV.+

pr]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

100

p r , see 1 p . l p , p , p r , 'fill'.
1 1

Pres. [3.] pparti pprati etc. v.c (piprata 3s. RV. ; pipphi c .) [9.] p t i etc. V.B .8. [6.] pti te etc. V.B . [5.] puyt s . [4.] p r yama RV . Perf. pupre rire c. (puprys R V . ) ; [papra, paparus paprus] papv s ? MS. Aor. 1. prdh RV. ; apri C. ; priysam AV. [pryt.] 3. appuram B. (ppurantu RV.) ; pparat RV . 5. [aprt,] prihs TA. [Fut. par yati, par t .] Verb, pr v.+, p r t v . + , pta s . [prita]; pritum R. ; [prtv;] prya E. + ; puras K. ; pdhyi RV.; pram s. Sec. Conj.: Pass, pryte etc. B.+, ti etc. E. (or pres. 4.) [ 1nt. pp, p o pr. Desid. pipar a, pupra. ] Caus. [prayati;] pryati etc. AV. +, te etc. E. + (pryate etc. E. + ) pras RV. ppri RV. pr v. Deriv. praka E. + prman RV. ppuri RV. paraa c. prin E. preman sv. ppuri sv. prus v. + p r ya B .E. praya ? RV. p r v a n v. + pra? v.+ p r aa B . + prt v. + praya c. prayit E. p u r v. + pa V.B .S. pra E . + prayitavya c See also pr, which is a secondary form of this root.
1 1 1 v

2 p , 'pass'.
Pres. [3.] pparti piprati etc. V.B .S.C. (pphi s .c .) [I.] para vs.?
l 1

[2.] pri RV. Aor. 3. pparat etc. V.B . (p p arat V.B ., pprat R V . ) 4. prati etc. RV., prat V.B ., para v. 5. priat RV. Verb, pari RV. Sec. Conj.: Caus. pryati etc. v. + te etc. E.+ (pryate c ) Deriv.: praa v. ' parai RV. p r aav.+ ppru?v. part RV. priha RV. praya E. + praya RV. par? RV. pr v. + per v. prayit B . parin? B . prin AB . * ppri v. prayiv.+ The aorist stem p a r s has almost won the value of a secondary root.
1

3 p , 'be busy'. Pres. [5.] poti c ., p v a el. Verb, pta B . + Sec. Conj.: Pass, priyate E . + Caus. prayati etc. c. Deriv.: pra? RV. pra E. +
1

101

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

Only with and (especially) v y ; hence in all probability a specialized use of 1 or 2 p (1 p 'be filled up or occupied', or 2 p with v i , 'made to pass to and fro, kept in motion'), p c , 'mix'. Pres. [7.] pkti pcnti etc. V.B., pkt etc. V.B . [1.] pca p cat AV. [3.] pipgdhi V.B ,, pipkta RV. Perf. papcus B . (papcsi RV., cyt etc. v.), papcn RV. Aor. 1. prcas RV., pcya etc. RV.S., pcn RV. 4. aprk AV., apki kta etc. V.B .S. [ 5. aparct, aparcia.] [Fut. parciyati te, parcit.] Verb, pkt v.+, pga? RV . ; pce RV., p c as V . B . S . Sec. Conj.: Pass, pcyte etc. v.+ [ Int. parpc. Desid. piparcia. Caus, parcaya.] Deriv.: pc V.B . parka AV. + prak? v. p k ? RV. prcana v. pk'? RV.
1

P, see

1 p.

p t , 'fight'. Inferable from the derivatives pt RV., ptan v.+

PC, P9 (?;.
Under this heading may be grouped a number of words of doubtful rela tions, in part perhaps connected with s p : p r u v. + p V.B . p ana RV. p ni v.+ prna v. p V.B . pan RV. p ant v. + ph v.+ pat B . + p y , 'fill up'. Pres. [4.] py y ate etc v. + Perf. pipye? RV. [papye.] Aor. [1. apyyi. ] 4. apysam AA. 5. pyyimahi s. 6. pysi mahi AV.B .8. [Fut. pysyate, p y y i y a t e ; pyt, pyyit.] Verb, pyta TS. [pyna.] Sec Conj.: aus. pyyyati etc AV.+, te etc c. (pyyayihs u.; pyy y t e etc B . + ) Deriv.: pyya c. pyyya E. py yB .+ ana pyyayit B . pyyin c Is a secondary rootform from pI.

iprach]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

102

prach, 'ask'. Pres. [6.] pchti te etc. v.+ Perf. papracha paprachus B . + Aor. [3, apaprachat. ] 4. prkt etc. v.+ (pr RV.), apraa c (pkase? RV.) Fut. I. prakyati etc. B.+ (aprakyat B .U.) [ 2. pra.] Verb, p v.+; prum v. + ; pv E.+; pchya E. + ; p c ham che RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, pchyte etc. v. + [ 1nt. parpch. ] Desid. p i p chia (in d.). [Caus. praohaya.] Deriv. : pch RV. pra u. + pipchiu c pchaka B . + pran v. + prch E. + p c hya RV.C. papkya RV. pch c. praavya E . + panya B . The RV. form papk is also referred hither by B R. prath, 'spread . Pres. [I.] prthate etc. v.+, ti etc. v.+ Perf. paprath etc. v.+, thatus c. Aor. I. prathn RV. 3. (perf. ?) paprthat etc. thanta RV. 5. aprath ia etc. RV. [Fut. prathiyate, prathit.] Verb, prathita E. + Sec. Conj.: Caus. prathyati etc. v.+, te etc. v. (prthayi TB .S.)
Deriv. :

pth? RV. pth B. + p t hak v. + p t havna RV.

pth V.B . pth v. + pthiv v. + prath C.

prthana B . + prthas V.B . prathu E. + prathimn RV.C.

prthiha V.B . prthyas B .S. prathasnu? TB . prathayit c

pr, 'fill'. Pres. [2.] pr s i RV. Perf. papr etc. v. (papr t ha RV.; papr RV.), papre etc. v. Aor. 1. aprt etc. V.B. ; apryi AV. 4. aprs (3s.) RV.B . Verb, prt RV. Deriv.: pr RV. pra AV.B .S. pr a (api) RV. pr v an A secondary rootform, from 1 p. pr, 'please'.

RV.

Pres. [9.] pri t i t etc v. + [4. (or pass.)] pryate etc u.+, ti etc E . + (priyanti R . ) Perf. pipriy y RV. ; apipres etc B .S. (pipryat etc. yasva p i prh RV.) Aor. 1. pryt C. 4. aprit etc. B. (prat RV.) [aprea.]

103

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[plu

[Fut. preyati te, pret.] Verb, prt v. +; prtv B . Sec. Conj.: [ Int. pepr. ] Desid. pprati RV. Caus. prayati etc. s.+ pipr E. + premn v.+ B prti s. + Deriv. : pr V. .S. pipru E . + pryas v.+ pret RV.S. priy v. + prana E. + prha v. + pre v. pryas V.B . The socalled causative is, of course, a denominative, apparently of a pple pra, not occurring independently. p r u , 'flow'.
Pres. [I.] prvate etc. RV.B .S. Perf. pupruve etc. B. Aor. 4. prohs s. Verb, prut RV. Deriv.: prav RV. prava? v.+ prut V.B . A sideform to the much more common plu.

pruth,

'snort'.

Pres. [I.] prthati etc. V.B ., amna RV. [Perf. etc. p u p r o t h a , othe; aprotht, thia; prothiyati te, pro thit.] Verb, prthya RV., prothya s. Sec. Conj.: Int. ppruthat RV. Caus. prothayitv s. Deriv.: protha B . + proththa RV. pru, 'sprinkle'.

Pres. [5.] pruuvanti vat ute RV. [9.] pruant B . [6.] p r u a RV., nt? AV. [4.] pruyat B. [Perf. etc. p u p r o a ; aprot.] Fut. I. proiynt TS. [ 2. proit.] Verb, pruit RV.
Deriv.:pru v. + p r TS. pruvAv. . B p v ? TS.

Compare p l u . pl(?). The isolated form v i plyonte occurs at SVB . iii. 9. I. p l u , 'float'. Pres. [I.] plvate etc. v.+, ti etc. B . + [2?] p l u v t a s., apluvan E. Perf. p u p l u v e B .+, vus E . + Aor. 3. [apuplavat,] piplavam B. 4. aploa etc. B . Fut. I. ployati te etc. B . Verb, plut AV. + ; plutya s.+, pl y a B .K.

plu]
Sec. Conj.:

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

104
c. p l v y a E. + plvana B . + plvayit E.
1

Int. p o p l y a t e etc. B . + [ Desid. pupla.] Caus. pl

v a y a t i etc. B .+, te etc. E.+ (plvyate c ) ; plavayati Deriv. : plav v.+ plavana s. + plva B . + plavaka E. plavit E. plvaka c plavin c pluti s. + plvin B . + Compare pru. p l u s , 'burn. Pres. [I.] p l o a t i c . [pluyati, pluti.] [Perf. etc. p u p l o a ; a p l o t ; ploiyati, ploit.] Verb, p l u a E . +
Sec. Conj.: Pass, p l u y a t e c.
1

Deriu.: p l i V.B . Compare pru.

p l o a c.

ploin c .

ploaa c .

ps, 'devour. Pres. [2.] ps t i etc. AV.B. [Perf. etc. p a p s u ; p s y t , pseyt, apsst; pssyati, pst.] Verb, pst B . ; ps y a B . Sec. Conj.: Pass, apsyata JB . [ Int. pps. Desid. pipssa. Caus. pspaya.] Deriv. psnya c. Doubtless a secondary rootform, from bhas. phakk, 'swell' (?). Pres. [I.] phakkant c . [Perf. etc. p a p h a k k a ; apaphakkat, aphakkt; phakkiyatI.phakkit; phakkyate, pphakk, piphakkia, phakkaya.] The single occurrence doubtless artificial. pha, 'spring'.
1

Pres. [I.] phaati c. [Perf. etc. papha paphaus p h e u s ; aphat apht; phaiyati, phait.] Sec. Conj.: Int. pnphaat RV., pamphaat s. [Desid. piphaia. ] Caus. phayati etc. RV.LS. [phaayati.] Deriv.: pha B . + pha B . + phna? v. + p h a r , 'scatter' (?).

Sec. Conj.: Int. parpharat av*. Deriv.: pharvi V.B . phrvara RV. ph r iva RV. parphar k a RV. All the derivatives of doubtful meaning and connection.

105

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[bandh

1 phal, 'burst'.

Pres. [I.] phalati etc. E . + Perf. paphla E. [phelus.] [Aor. etc. apphalat, a p h l t ; phaliyati, phalit.] Verb, phalita E. + Sec. Conj.: [ Int. pamphul. Desid. piphalia. ] Caus. phlayati etc. B Deriv.: phlaka B .+ phalin c . ph l a v.+ phulla E . +
S e e 2 phal. T h e p p l e phullant M . i s d o u b t l e s s a d e n o m i n a t i v e f o r m a t i o n f r o m phulla.
1

2 phal, 'fruit'. Pres. [1.] phalati etc. E.+, te E. Perf. phelire a Fut. phaliyati etc. E. + Verb, phalita E. + Deriv.: phla v. + phalitavya E.
D o u b t l e s s i n r e a l i t y a d e n o m i n a t i v e o f phla, w h i c h f r o m 1 phal.

bah, 'make firm'. [Pres. etc. bahate; babahe; abahia; bahiyate, bahit.] Verb, bha v.+
Sec. Conj.: Caus. bahayate etc. B . Deriv.: bahala c . bah v. +

bhiha v. + bhyas MS.

bh? v.+

bandh, 'bmd'. Pres. [9.] badhn t i etc. v. + (badhna AV. +, bandhna E., badhnhi c ) , nt etc. V . B . S . [1.] abandhat c , dhata (3s.) E . , abadhnanta E . Perf babndha AV.+, bedhs AV., babandhus E. + ; bedh dhir etc. AV. [babandhe.] [Aor. badhyt, ababandhat, abhntst.] Fut. I. bhantsyati etc. B.S., bandhiyati te E . + [ 2. banddh.] Verb, baddh v.+; banddhum E. +, baddhum? E . , b a n d h i t u m E. ; bad dhv AV. +, dhv y a B . ; bdhya B . + ; bdhe AV. ; bandham c Sec. Conj.: Pass, badhyte etc. v. +, ti c [ Int. bbandh, bbadhya. Desid. bibhantsa. ] Caus. bandhayati etc. B . +
Deriv. :

bandh v. + bandhaka E.+ bandhin E. + bandhya B . +

bndhana v. + bandhanya E. + bndhu v. + bndhuka B.

baddhavya C. banddh c. banddhra AV.

badhir v. + bandhayit c.

bal]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

106

b a l , whirl'(?). Sec. Conj.: 1nt. balbalti B . It is not probable that this solitary verbform has anything to do with the common derivatives (from a bal 'be strong') bla v.+, blyas AV.+, bl iha B .+, baliman u., bl? s.+ b d h , 'oppress'. Pres. [I.] b d hate etc. v. +, ti etc. E . + Perf. babdh v . + , dha? M. Aor. [3. ababdhat. ] 5. badhia v. (bdhiths TA.); bdhim TA. Fut. 1. bdhiyati c , te E. [ 2. bdhit.] Verb, bdhit v. +; bdhitum E. ; b d hya RV. ; b d he RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, bdhyate etc. E . + 1nt. bbadhe b b adhna, badbadh dhn RV.B . Desid. bbhatsate etc. v. + ; bibdhiate B. Caus. bdhayati etc. AV, + bbhatsa s. + Deriv. : bdh RV. bdhin B . C bdhanya c. bbhats B . bdh, v . + bdhy B . + b d has RV. bdhaka E. + bdhana E. + bdhitavya E. + bbhats v. + bdhit E. + Compare v a d h , badh. The reference of bbhatsa to this root is not beyond question. b u d h , 'know, wake'. Pres. [4.] bdhyate etc. v.+, ti etc. E. + [I.] bdhati etc. v. +, te etc. E.+ Perf. bubudh etc. v. +, bubodha E. (bbodhati etc. bubodhas RV.) Aor. 1. bodhi (impv.) RV. ; abudhran ram RV., budhn RV.; bodhi v.+ 2. budhnta RV., budhmaAv.? 3. abbudhat v. 4. bhutsi etc. V.B ., abuddha o. [bhutsa.] 5. bdhiat RV., abodhiata c Fut. I. bhotsyati B ., te E. [ 2. boddh.] Verb, buddh v. + ; boddhum E. + ; b u d d h v c , budhyaB . + ; bdhe B., budhi RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, budhyate c Int. bobudhlti etc B ,C Desid. bubhut sati te etc c. [bubodhia.] Caus. bodhyati etc. v.+, te B . (bodh y a t e E., bubodhayia in d.)
Deriv.:
1

budh V.B . budha B . + budhya RV. bdhan TB . bodh v. + bodhaka E. +

bodhin B . + buddhi s. + bodhya E . + boddhavya u. + bdhana v. + bodhitavya c. bodhanya E.+ boddh E. + bodhi B . + bubhuts c. bodhit RV. bubhutsu E. +

bodhayitavya c . bodhayit RV.C bodhayiu B. bubodhayiu E . + bibodhayiu R ' .

107

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

bhak

bul,
Sec. Conj.: Caus. bolayati c.

'submerge'.

The single occurrence in a commentary is doubtless artificial. b h , vh, 'roar', see vh. 1 b h , 'make big or strong'. Pres. [1.] bhati te etc.B [6.] bhati etc. AV.B . . Perf. babarha AV., babh RV. Verb, bha B., vha B .C. Sec. Conj.: Int. brbhat barbhi RV. Caus. barhaya v.; bhayati etc. (or vh) E.+, te E. bhnt v. + brhman v. + bhaa E. + Deriv. : bh v.+ brhas V.B . brahmn v. + bhaya c barha s. + bhayitavya c. brhaa v. + brhiha v.+ bhin c barhs? v.+ barh RV. Compare the following root. 2 bh, vh, 'tear', see vh. The relations of the two roots b h , and the connection of some of their derivatives, are not wholly clear. br, 'say'. Pres. [2.] brvti bruvnti etc. brt bruvte etc. v.+ (brmi R., bra vhE.+, abrvan u, abravat? M.) [6.] abruvam U.E., bruva dhvam M., bruvama c. Aor. 1. brysta Ml. Deriv. ? brava v. bruva AV. +

bll, see vl.


b h a k , 'partake of, eat'. Pres. [1.] bhakati te etc. E . + Aor. I. abhaki c. 3. ababhakat B . Verb, bhokitum E. +; bhakam s.
Sec. Conj.: Desid. bibhakiati E . ? Caus. b h a k y a t i etc. v.+, te etc.

B.+ (bhakyte etc. B . + ; bibhakayiati E . + )


Deriv.:

bhakya E. + bhak v. + bhakitavya c. bhakayit E . + bhakayitavya B . + bhakaka a bhkaa v. + bhakit E. bhakin a. + bhakaya B .C. bhakivn B .S. bibhakayi c. bibhakayiu E. + Secondary rootform, from bhaj (as denominative of bhak); the non 'causative' forms only sporadic.

bhaj]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

108

b h a j , 'divide, share'. Pres. [1.] bhjati te etc. v.+ 2. b h a k i RV. Perf. babh j a bhejus etc. v. + (babhaktha B . [bhejitha]), bhej jir etc. v. + Aor. 3. abbhajus B. 4. abhkt etc. v.+ (abhk V.B ., bhakat RV.), bhaki kta etc. v. + (bhaka etc. V.B .S., ta sv.) Fut. 1. bhakyati te etc. B. (abhakyan M.); bhajiyati te etc. E . + [ 2. bhakt.] Verb, bhakt v. + ; bhaktum B .+, bhajitum E . ; bhaktv AV.+, tv y a RV. ; bhajya B . + ; bh j am (inf.) B . Sec. Conj.: Pass, bhajyte etc. A V . + [ 1nt. bbhaj. ] Desid. [bibhak a;] bhika (see bhik). Caus. bhjayati etc. v . + , te a (bhjyte etc. AV.B .) Deriv.: bhj v. + bhajanya E . + bhg v. + bhjaka c. bhajenya c. bhgin B . + bhj in u. + bhga v. + bhakti v. + bhgya s. bhjya c. bhaj in a bhajitavya E. bhgyas c. bhaj ana B. + bhajya c. bhakt RV. bhja s. bhjay RV. bhaj ana c. Compare the derivative rootforms bhak and b h i k ; compare also bhaj. b h a j , 'break'. Pres. [7.] bhankti etc. v.+ (abhanas AV.) Perf. babhaja etc. v. +, jire c. Aor. 1. abhjic. [abhaji; bhajyt. 3. ababhajat.] 4. abhnkt
etc.
E.+

Fut. I. bhakyati E. 2. bhakt M. Verb, bhagna s.+ ; bhaktv E.+, bhaktv E. ; bhajya E.+ ; bhajam c. Sec. Conj.: Pass, bhajyte etc. AV.+, ti etc. E . + [ 1nt. bambhaj, bam bhajya. Desid. bibhaka. Caus. bhajaya.] bhajana AV.+ bhakt c. Deriv. : bhag v. + bhangi c. bhajanu RV. bhagur v. + bhangin RV.C. bhajaka c. b h a , 'hire'. This socalled root (bhayati etc. c.) is only a denominative of bhaa E. +. doubtless a prakritized form of bhta. bha, 'speak.

Pres. [1.] bhaati etc. JB .C. Perf. babha c. [babhaitha.] Aor. 1. abhi c. [3. abbhaat, ababhat. 5. abht.] [Fut. bhaiyati, bhait.] Verb, bhaita c.; bhaitv c.

109

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[bhas

Sec. Conj.: Pass, b h a y a t e c. Desid. bibhaia (in d.) [ Caus. b h

ayati.]
Deriv. : bhaa c.

bhaana c. bhaanya c. A later form of bhan. bhan,

bhaiti c. bha c.

bhaka c. bibhaiu c.

'speak'.

Pres. [I.] bhnati etc. nanta RV. Probably related with bh. Compare bha, the later form. bhand, 'be bright'. Pres. [I.] bhndate etc. RV.
[See. Conj.: Caus. bhandayati.]

Deriv.:

bhandna V.B .

bhndiha V.S. b h a r t s , 'revile'.

bhadrv.+

Pres. [I.] bhartsati etc. A V . ? K B . E .

Sec. Conj.: Caus. bhartsayati etc. E. +, te cl. (bhartsyate etc. E . + ) Deriv. bhartsana E . + The form bhartsy m i AV. is certainly a false reading. bharv, 'devour'. Pres. [I.] bhrvati etc. RV. Deriv.: bharva ? RV, bhrvar? RV. bhal, 'perceive'. [Pres. etc. bhalate etc.]
Sec. Conj.: Caus. bhlayati te etc. u.c

bha, 'bark'. Pres. [I.] bhaati etc. E.+, te etc. E. [Perf. etc. b a b h a ; abht; bhaiyti, bhait.] Verb, bhaitum E. Deriv.: bha vs. bhaaka c bhaaa c bhas, 'devour'. Pres. [3.] bbhasti bpsati etc. V . B . (babhasat RV., babdhm cl.) [1 ?] bhsat bhasthas RV. Verb, bhasita c. babhasa u. bhstr? B . + Deriv. : bhas c. psu RV. bhsman v. + bhasa? E. Compare the derived root ps. The nouns bhasd V.B .S., bhsas v. hardly belong here.

bh? AB .

bh]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

110

bh, 'shine'. Pres. [2.] bhti etc. v. + Perf. babhu etc. E. + [Aor. bhyt, abhst.] Fut. I. bhsyti B . + [ 2. bht.] Verb, bhta u. + [Sec. Conj.: Pass, bhyate. Int. bbh. Desid. bibhsa. Caus. bhpaya, abbhapat.] Deriv.: bhana E. + bhon v. + bh v an var v. + bh v. + bhti c. bh m a v. bh s v. + bha s. + Compare roots bhan and bhs. bhm, 'be angry'. [Pres. etc. b h m a t e ; babhme; abhmia; bhmiyate, bhmit.] Verb, bhmit RV.TS. [Sec. Conj.: 1nt. bbhmya. Caus. bhmaya.] Deriv. bh m a V.B . In reality, the solitary form bhmit is doubtless quasipple from bh m a ( bh). bh, speak'. Pres. [1.] bhate etc. B .+, ti etc. E. + Perf. babhe etc. B. + Aor. [1. abhi. 3. ababhat, abbhaat. ] 5. abhii c. Fut. 1. bhiyate c. [ 2. bhit.] Verb, bhita E. + ; bhitum u.+, bhum E. ; bhitvE.; bhyaE.+ Sec. Conj.: Pass, bhyate etc. E.+ [1nt. bbh. Desid. bibhia. ] Caus. bhayati etc E.+, te etc. B .E. bhaa E. + Deriv. : bh AB . bhaka c. bhaitavya E. bha E. + bhin E. bhaya c. bh it B . + b h s.+ bhya s. + Related with roots bha, bhas, bhan. bhs, 'shine'.

Pres. [I.] bh s ati etc. AV. +, te etc. E . + Perf. babhse etc. E. + [Aor. etc. ababhsat abbhasat, abhsia; bhsiyate, bhsit.] Verb, bhsita a Sec. Conj.: [ Int. bbhs. Desid. bibhsia. ] Caus. bhsayati etc. u. +, te E. (bhsyate c.) bhsana E. + bhsura E. Deriv. : bhas E . + bhsaka c. bhsvar B . + bh s as RV. bhsin E. + bhs B . + bhsya c. Doubtless a secondary rootform from bha, perhaps through the noun bhas. Compare also bhs.

Ill

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[bhl

bhik, 'beg'. Pres. [1.] bhkate etc. v. +, ti etc. E. Perf. bibhike B .U. [Aor. abhikia.] Fut. 1. bhikiye E. [ 2. bhikit.] Verb, bhikita E. +; b h i k i t u m E. ; bhikitv c.
Sec. Conj.: Deriv.: Caus. b h i k a y a t i c.

bhikitavy B . b h i k u c. bhikaa s. + bhik v. + bhikuka s. + bhikin E. A desiderative formation from bhaj. bhid, 'split'.

Pres. [7.] bhintti bhindnti etc. v.+ bhintte c , bhindn RV. Perf. bibhda bibhids v. +, bibhide c. Aor. 1. bhedam et etc. RV. (bht bhdati bhidnt RV., bhidys? MS.); abhedi B .E. 2. [abhidat] bhideyam AV. [ 3. abbidhat.] 4. [abhitst,] bhitths TS. [bhitsa.] Fut. 1. bhetsyati etc. s.+, te etc. B.+ (abhetsyat u.) [ 2. bhett.] Verb, b h i n n v . + ; bhettumB . + , bhttav B .S. ; bhittv v . + ; bhd ya v.+
Sec. Conj.: Pass, b h i d y t e etc. B. +, ti etc. E. [ Int. bebhid.] Desid.

bibhitsati etc. RV.E. Caus. bhedayati etc. E. +, te E. (bibhedayia in d.), bhidpaya (in d.). Deriv.: bhid v. + bhind V.B . bhedaka s. + bhett v. + bhida E. + bhedin B. + bhidura c. bibhits E. + bhid c. bhitta? c. bhedya E . + bibhitsu E. + bhitti B . + bhidya v. + bhedana s. + bibhedayiu E. bhettavya E. + bhidpana c. bhed v. + bhedanya E. b h i a j , 'heal'. Pres. [2.] bhiakti RV. [7 ?] abhiak RV. Deriv.: bhiaj v.+ bheaj v.+ The use of bhiaj as a verbal root in RV. is very abnormal. The denomi native bhiajyti etc. V.B ., from the noun bhij, is quite common. bh, bh, 'fear'. Pres. [3.] bibhti bbhyati etc. v. + ([bibhitas etc.] bibhiyt c.) [1.] bibhyati yanti etc. E. + bhyate etc. v. Perf. bibhya bibhyus etc. v. + (bbhya AB .AA.), bibhye E. bibhay cakra B . Aor. 1. bhes B . S . , bhema RV., bhiyn RV. [abhyi.] 3. bbhayat bbhayanta RV. 4. bhit etc. v. + (bhis B . + ) Fut. 1. abheyat B. [ 2. bhet.]

bh]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

112

Verb, b h t v. +; b h e t u m E. ; bhya c. bhiyse RV. Sec. Conj.: [ Pass, bhyate. 1nt. bebh. Desid. bibha. ] Caus. bhyayati etc. c. (bhyya B . ) ; bhayate etc. B . + , ti etc. E . + (bbhias TS. , aths RV. ; bhiayant c.) Deriv.: bhiysna AV. bheya E. b h E. + bh v. + bhti c. bhr v. + bhaka E. + bhay v. + b h e t a v y a E. + bhla E. bh aa v. + bhayya B . bhm v. + bhs V.B .U. bhm B. + bhiys v. The 'causative' stem is, of course, a denominative from a derivative noun. Compare bhyas. 1 b h u j , 'bend'. Pres. [6.] bhujti etc. v.+ Perf. [bubhoja] bubhojs RV. [Aor. etc. abhukt; bhokyati, bhokt.] Verb, bhugna s. + ; bhujya s.+ Sec. Conj.: Pass, bhujyate c. bhuji RV. bhog v. + Deriv.: bhuj AV. bhujmn? RV. bhuj a E . + 2 b h u j , 'enjoy'. Pres. [7.] bhukt bhujte etc. v.+ (jat RV.), bhunkti bhujanti etc. v.+ (bhujyt etc. s.+, bhujtam E.) [1 ?] bhujati etc. u.+, te etc. E. Perf. bubhuj etc. v.+ (jmhe jrir RV.), bubhujus E . + Aor. 1. bhojam, bhjate RV. [bhujyt; abhoji.] 2. bhujema RV. [3. abbhujat, jata. 4. a b h u k t , abhukta. ] 6? bhuki ya B .S. Fut. I. bhokyate etc. s.+, ti etc. E . + 2. bhokt R. Verb, b h u k t a E. + ; b h o k t u m E. + ; b h u k t v s.+, b h u k t v c ; bhjase RV. ; bhj am bhuj RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, bhujyate etc. B .+ tiM.? 1nf. bobhujti c , jyate c. Desid. bubhukate etc. E.+, ti E. Caus. bhojayati etc. A V . + , te c.; bhujpayati c.
Deriv. :

bhujy V.B .

bhj v.+ bhoj RV. bhoj v.+ bhojaka E . + bhojin s. + bhojyk v.+

bhga v.+ bhogin B . + bhgya AV.+ bhj ana v. + bhojanya B . + bhjas v.


1

bhuji RV. bhogi RV. bhogaya RV. bhukti s.+ b h o k t a v y a s.+ bhokt u.+

bhujiy AV. + bhujiha? AV. b u b h u k E. + b u b h u k u c. bhojayitavya E . + bhojayit c.

The word bhukita B . is perhaps an irregular formation from this root.

113

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[bh

b h u r , 'quiver'. Pres. [6.] bhurntu rnta rma RV. Sec. Conj.: 1nt. jrbhurti rat ra RV. Deriv.: bhuraa v. bhurvi RV. bh r i V. bhurij?v.+ Doubtless a specialized rootform from b h ; all the forms and deriva tives such as might come from b h : cf. t. bhuraj. The single form bhuraj ant a RV . is regarded as coming from bhjj 'roast'. b h , 'be'. Pres. [I.] bhvati etc. v.+ te etc. B . + Perf. babh v a etc. v.+ (babh t ha v itha V.B . ; babhys yt ba b h t u RV.) Aor. I. bht van etc. v.+ (bhy s am sma etc. v.+, yma V . B . U . ; bodh V.B ., bh t u etc. v.); abhvi c. 2? bhuvat etc. v. (bhvat etc. V.B ., bhuvni RV.) 3. abbhuvas AV. [abbhavat.] 5. bha vit? AB . [abhavia, bhavia.] Fut. 1. bhaviyti etc. v.+, te etc. E.+ (abhaviyat etc. U.+, bhaviya d h v a m E.) 2. bhavit B .U.E. Verb, bht v.+; b h v i t u m B .+, tosB.; bhtv v .+, tv RV. ; bh y a v.+ ; b h u v bhve v., bhv RV. ; bhRv.; bh y amB ., bhvamB . See. Conj.: Pass, bhyate etc. E.+, ti U. 1nt. bbhavti etc. v.+ Desid. bbhati etc. v.+, te etc. E . + Caus. bhvayati etc. AV.+, te c. (bhvitum R. ; bhvyate etc. E. +, bibhvayiati B . )
Deriv. :
1

bh v. + bhu v. + bhva v. bhva B . + b h a v a v. + b h a v Av. + bhavaka c. bhavin c. b h v y a v. + bhvan v. bhavana E . + bhavanya c.

bhvana v.+ bhavas B. bhvas B . + bh t i v. + bht RV. bhvtva RV. bhavitavy B. + bhavit E. + bhavtra v. bh m an v.s. bhmn v. + bhm v. +

b h v y v. + bh y asv.+ bhvana E. + bhvyas RV. bh y iha v. + bhvanya E . + bhaviha RV. bh v uka B . + bubh B . + bh r i v. + bubhaka E. bh v ar V.B . bubhitavya JB. bhu B . + b u b h u s. + bhavi B . + b h v a y i t a v y a B. + bh y a AV. + bhvyit B . + b h v a u.s. + b h v a y RV. bhvaka E. + b h v i n E. +

b h , 'attend upon, adorn'. Pres. [I.] bh ati etc. V.B . [Perf. etc. b u b h a ; abubhat, a b h t ; bhiyati, bhit.]
1

bh]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

114

Sec. Conj.: Caus. bhayati etc. E. +, te etc. E. + Deriv.: b h u E. + bhya RV. bhayitavya E. + bhuaa E. + bhya c. b h i t a v y a JB . A secondary rootform, from b h . The Vedic forms are divided by B R. between two roots: 1 b h , 'be, move' etc., 2 b h , 'attend upon' etc.

b h , 'bear . Pres. [3.] bbharti bibhrati etc. V.B., bibhrti etc. RV.+, bibhva bi bhra c. [1.] bbhrama R V . bhrati te etc. v.+ [2.] bharti RV . Perf. babhra etc. B .+ (babhrima C ) , babhre r RV. ; jabh r a etc. V.B., bhre etc. v. (jabhartha bhrat ajabhartana RV.) bibharm b a b h v a c. Aor. 1. bhartm bhtm B . , abhta c.; bhriysam yt B . ; abhri V.B. 3. bbharas E. 4. abhrt etc. V.B. (abhr V.B . ; abhriam AV. ; bharat RV.) Fut. 1. bhariyti etc. v.+ (bhariyat RV.) 2. bhart B. Verb, bht v. + ; bhrtum v.+, tave v., tav v.; bh t ya v. + ; bhra dhyi RV. See Conj.: Pass, bhriyate etc. v.+, ti E. 1nt. jarbhts RV., bhri bhrati etc. RV., barbharti c. Desid. bubhrati etc. B.+ [bibhar ia.J Caus. bhrayati E. bhart v. + Deriv.: bhra? v. + bhr v.+ bhtra RV. bhra v. + bhr t ? v. + bhrin B . + bh t van v. bhala? AV.S. bhartra RV. bhry AV. + bhth v. + bhraa v. + bhras RV. bht v. + babhra B . bharaya E. + bhrman RV.C. bht v. + babhr v. bharas V.B . bhrman RV. bh t i Bl. jarbhri RV. bhri RV.C bh r man RV. bh t ya gdve. B . + bmbhri ? B . bharu c. bhari ? RV. bh t ya n. AV. bubhra a. bharat v. + bhr v.+ bhty v. b u b h r u c. bhartavy v. + bhtenya? AV.
1 2

b h j j , 'roast'. Pres. [6.] bhjjti etc. v.+ [te.] [4.] bhjyyus? B . [Perf. etc. babharjja je, babhrajja j e ; ababharjjat ababhrajjat, abhrkt abhrkt, abhraa abhara; bhrakyati te, bhark yati te, bhra bhar.] Verb, bha s. + ; b h v c. Sec. Conj.: Pass, bhjjyate c , ti E. [ 1nt. barbhjjya. Desid. bi bhraka bibharka, bibhrajjia bibharjjia. ] Caus. [bhrajja y a t i ; ] bharjjayati etc. c. Deriv.: bharjjana s.+ bhjjana B . bhrra B . bhrra C.

115

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[bhrSj

b h y a s , 'fear'. Pres. [I.] bhyasetm RV., bhyst sv. [Perf. etc. b a b h y a s e ; abibhyasat, abhyasia; bhyasiyati, b h y a s i t ; bbhyas, bibhyasia, bhysaya.] Deriv. bhyasa AV. A derivative rootform, from b h (through bhiyas ?). bhra, bhra, 'fall'. Pres. [1.] bhrate etc. B.+, ti AV .? [4.] bhrayate etc. s,+, ti etc. E.+ [Perf. babhraa aus, babhrae.] Aor. 2. bhraat V.B . [ 3. ababhraat. 5. abhraia.] [Fu. bhraiyati te, bhrait.] Verb, bhra AV. +, bhta v. Sec. Conj.: [ 1nt. bbhraya, banbhraya, banbhra. Desid. bi bhraia. ] Caits. bhraayati etc. E.+ (bhrayate etc. s . + ) ; bhryan RV. bhrana AV.+ bhruka B . bhr ya RV. Deriv.: bhraa B . + bhrain B . + bhraathu c. b h r a m , 'wander'. Pres. [1.] bhramati etc. B . ? E. +, te etc. E. + [4.] bhrmyati etc. E. + Perf. babhrma babhramus etc E. +, bhrematus mus c. A or. 1. bhramyt s.., abhrmi E. 3. abibhramat E. [ 5. abhramt.] Fat. I. bhramiyati c. [ 2. bhramit.] Verb, bhrta E.+ ; bhramitum c , bhrtum c ; bhramitvE., bhr t v c.; bhramya c , bhrmya c.; bhrmam c. Sec Conj.: Int. bambhramti etc c , myate etc c. [ Desid. bibhram ia.] Caus. bhrmayati etc. E.+, te c. (bhrmyate u.+); bhram ayati etc s.+ (bhramyate c.) bhram v. + bhrami c. bhrmaka c. Deriv.: bhm v. bhramin c. bhrti c. bhrmin c. bhm RV. bhramaa E . + bhrma c. bhrmaa c. bh m i RV. bh ga? AV.+ bhramaya c. bhrj, 'shine'.
1 1

Pres. [I.] bhr j ate etc v.+, ti etc v. + Perf. babhrja jatus E.+ [babhrje, bhreje.] Aor. 1. abhr R V . ; bhrjysam AV. ; abhrji RV. [3. ababhrjat, abibhrajat. 5. abhrjia.] Fut. I. bhrjiyate E. [ 2. bhrjit.] Sec Conj.: [ Int. bbhroj. Desid. bibhrjia. ] Caus. bhrjayati
etc
E. +

bhrj]
Deriv.: bhrj v. + bhraj ? v. bhrga B . + bhrj v. +

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

116
bhri RV. bh? V.B .S. bhr j iha B .C. bhrjiu E. +

bhrjaka c. bhrjin c. bhrjana c. bhr j as V.B .S.

bhrajas? AV.B . bhrgas v. + bhrj MS. bhrjis B .E. bh g u? v. +

b h r , consume'. Pres. [9.] bhrnti RV . [Perf. etc. bibhrya; abhrit; bhreyati, bhret; bebhr, bibhra bhryaya.] b h r e , ' totter'. Pres. [I.] bhreati B ., te RV. [Perf. etc. bibhrea e etc. etc.] Deriv. bhra B . + Doubtless related with y bhra. m a h , m a h , be great, be liberal, bestow'. Pres. [1.] mhate etc. V.B . mane RV.M., heta hema RV. Perf. mmah hn V.B . (mmahanta etc. mmhas RV.) [mamha, mamahe.] [Aor. etc. amahista, a m a h t ; mahiyate m a h i y a t i , mahit mahit.] Verb, mahit B . +; m a h i t v E. ; moh V.B . ; mahye RV. Sec. Conj.: Caus. mahyam etc. RV. ; mahyati etc. v. +, te etc. V.B .
Deriv. :
1

makh? v . + mogh v. + majmn? v. mahn RV. mh v.+ mahonya c. maha n. E. + mhyas RV. mah v. + mhiha V.B . mah v . + mak? RV. mahya? E . . maku? c. m a h n v. mahay RV. Generally divided into two (related) not separable with distinctness. majj,

mahmn AV. mahana c. m h i s RV. mahanya E. m a h i v. + mahnt v. + mahiha c. mahs v. + mahyas B . + mhas v. + mahayya u. m h i v. + mah y ya RV. m a h n RV. m a h i m n v. + mahay y ya RV. roots, but the forms and meanings are

'sink'.

Pres. [I.] mjjati etc. v . + , te etc. E.+ (majjna c.) Perf. mamajja E. + Aor. 1. majjytcB .; amajji c. [ 3. amamajjat. 4. amkt.] 5. majjs M, Fut. . m a k y a t i etc. B.+, te B . ; majjiyati E. [ 2. makt.]

117

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[math

Verb, magna u.s.+; majjitum E.+ [ m a k t u m ; m a k t v , m a k t v ; ] mjjya A V . + Sec. Conj.: [ Int. mmakti, mmajjyate. ] Desid. m i m a k a (in d.). Caus. majjayati etc. B. +, te etc. E. + Deriv. : majjn? v.+ majjka c. madg? B. + m i m a k u c. majjana s.+ m a k t a v y a c. majra? RV. majjayit B mac, 'purify' (?). [Pres. etc. m a c a t e ; m a m a c e ; amacia; maciyate, macit.J Verb, macya c . Deriv.: maca? E.+ macana c. Doubtless artificial.
1

ma, Assumed for the quasipple Sanskrit.

'sound'.

m a i t a , occurring once or twice in late

ma, ? Sec. Conj.: Caus. mayet TB . Probably a false reading.


1

m a , 'deck'. [Pres. etc. maati te etc. etc.] Sec. Conj.: Caus. maayati etc. E. +, te E. Deriv.: m a a u.+ maana E.+ mait c. math, manth, 'shake'.

Pres. [9.] mathn t i etc. v.+, nte etc. B. (mathnadhvam M.) [1.] mnth ati etc. v.+, te V.B . ; mthati etc. AV.E.+, te etc. E. + Perf. mam t ha AV.+, mamathus c , m e t h u s methireB .; mamantha nthus E. + Aor. [3. ammathat, amamanthat. ] 5. matht etc. v., amathiata JB .; manthim RV. Fut. 1. mathiyati te etc. B. + ; manthiyati B .S. 2. mathit E. Verb, mathit v.+; mathitum E. + , tos B . , m n t h i t a v MS,; m a t h itv B .+ [manthitv]; mthya B .+, manthya E.?; mtham c. Sec. Conj.: Pass, mathyte etc. v.+, ti etc. E . + [ Int. mmath, m a m math, mmanth. Desid. mimathia, mimanthia. ] Caus. mthayati etc. E. ; manthayati etc. S. +; mathayati c. mathi RV. mthin E. + manthan B .S. Deriv. : math v. + mthi v. manth v. + manthitavy a MS.S. matha E . + mathit s. m n t h v. mnthit AV.B . mathy B . manthu? c. mthya B . + mathn RV. manthaka c. mathan c. mathr B Y. mnthya B .S. manthna E. + mathana u.+ mtha B . + mnthanav.+ manmathaE. +

mad]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

118

mad, mand, 'be exhilarated, exhilarate'.


Pres. [1.] mdati etc. V.B .S.C ., te etc. AV.B .; m n d a t i te etc. V.B . [3.]
1

mamatsi etc. (mamttu etc., mamdat etc., mamadus) v. [4.] m d yati etc. B.+ te E. 2. m t s i sva v. Perf. mam d a V.B . (mmadant? s.); mamanda etc. RV. (mamandat amamandus RV.) *
Aor. I. m a n d s dn RV. 3. mmadat etc. danta V.B .U. 4. amat s u s RV. , amatta etc. V.B .S. (mtsati etc. mtsat R V . ) 5. am

dius etc. v.+ (mdiths M.); mandt etc. mndia etc. (man dimahi) V.B . [Fut. madiyati, m a n d i y a t e ; madit, mandit.] Verb, m a t t Av.+, madit (caus.?) v. + ; m a d i t o s B . ; manddhyai RV.
Sec. Conj.: Pass. m a d y m n a R v . [Int. mmad. Desid. mimadia.]

Caus. madyati etc. AV. +, te c.; mdayati te etc. v. +; mandyati etc. RV. (mdaydhyi mandaydhyi RV.) Deriv. : manda s. madvara E. + md V.B . m d ya v. m a n d n RV. m d i h a V.B . mda v. + m d ana v. + mandna V.B . madiu B . + m a d n V.B . m d uka B . mand RV. matsar v. + mdya v. + m e d n ? v. + mandra v.+ mtsya? v.+ madana v. + madmada u. m a n d RV. mader? RV. maditavya u. madayit c. mandr v. + m d a v. + madir RV. mdayit c. mndiha RV. mdaka c. madr? B. + mdayitnRv. m a n d a s n v. mdin E . + m d v a n RV. m d a y i v. m a n d a y RV. Might well enough be divided into two different though related roots, of kindred meaning. B R. refer a few of the forms to a root 2 m a d 'delay'. man, 'think'. Pres. [4.] mnyate etc. v,+, ti etc. u.+ (many s i? CB .) [8.] m a n u t etc. v.+ ( m a n v a t 3p. R V . ) [3.] mamandhi nyt maman RV. Perf. m e n e etc. B. + (mamn t he te RV.) Aor. 1. amata RV., manmahi V.B . (mnmahe etc. mananta mann RV.) [ 3. amimanat.] 4. amasta etc. v.+ (msate etc. V . B . mas etc. srata v.; m a s y a RV. ; msta AV.TA. , stm TA., m a n d h v a m * B . ) [ 5. amania.] Fut. 1. masyate etc. B , + (syeran M,), ti E. ; m a n i y e V.B . [ 2. mant, manit.] Verb, m a t v.+ [manita]; m a n t u m E.+, m n t a v e RV., tav V.B ., tos B.; matv u.+ [manitv]; matya B .+, manya B. + Sec. Conj.: Pass, manyate o. [ Int. manman.] Desid. mmsate etc. AV. +, ti etc. B.U. (ammsihsB; mmsyte AV. +) [mi . masa, mimania.] Caus. mnayati etc. AV. +, te etc. E. + (man y a t e E.+; m i m n a y i a in d.)

119
Deriv.:

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[3 m

mana? TS. mana RV. mnas v.+ man v. + mnu v.J+ man v. m n u s V.B . manna RV. manan RV. Compare mn. cated present forms to 2 m a n Gr.),

mti V.B . mna v. + mnaka c. m n i n u. + many a E. + m a n ana E. + mnanya E. + manuka B . muni? v.+ B R. and Gr. refer, perhaps with another root, meaning 'delay' (

mati v.+ m n t u v. mantavy B . + manot RV. mant B . + mntra v. + mnman V.B .S. many v. +

manya v.+ manyaka c. mms B . + mmasaka c. mmsya u.s. + m i m n a y i u E. mnayit E . + mnayitavya E . + reason, the redupli 2 mad, m a n d B R.;

m a h , see mah. 1 m , 'measure'.

Pres. [3.] m m t e mimate etc. v.+, mimmas E., m i m y t etc. m i m t u m i m h etc. v.(mimet KB .) [2.] mti etc. v.+. m s v a RV., m m a h e c. [ 4. myate.] Perf. mam mamir etc. v.+, m a m u etc. RV.C. Aor. 1. [meyt;] amyi v.+ 4. msi AV. (m s ti AV.) [msa. 6. amst.] [Fut. msyati t e ; mt.] Verb, mit v. + ; m t u m B .+, m i t u m c.; mitv v.+, m t v s.; m y a v. + ; m m RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, myate etc. E . + [ 1nt. m m , memya. ] Desid. m i t s a t i c Caus. mpayati te etc. U.S.+ [ammapat.] mtavya c. mits c. Deriv.: my v. + m v.+ mt v. + mpaka c. m y v. m n a v.+ mt ? v.+ m s , mas v.+ mpya c. mn? RV. m t r v. + mpana E. m y a AV. + miti u. + 2 m , 'exchange'. Pres. m a y e t M., may ante RV. [Perf. etc. m a m e ; a m s t a ; msyate, mt.] Verb, mtya AW? [mya.] Sec. Conj.: Pass, myate c. [1nt. etc. as 1 m.] Deriv.: maya s, + mtavya c Doubtless a specialization of 1 main connection with certain prepositions, 3 m , 'bellow'. Pres. [3,] m m t i v. (mimeti sv., m i m a n t i RV.; m i m y t K.) Perf. mimya V.B . Aor. 3? m m e t v. (mmayat RV.)

3 m]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

120

Verb, m t av v. Sec. Conj.: Int. m m y a t RV. Deriv.: m y v.+ may? B . Apparently an onomatopoetic root.

may r a?v.+

m r g , 'chase'. Pres. [1.] mrgati te etc. E . + [Perf. etc. m a m r g a ; amrgt.] Fut. 1. mrgiyati E. [ 2. mrgit.] Verb, mrgita E.+; m r g i t u m E., m r g i t v E. Sec. Conj.: Caus. mrgayati etc. E. + Deriv.: mrgaE.+ margin E. mrgaa E.+ Really a denominative formation from mrga 'track'. m i , 'fix'. Pres. [5.] m i n t i etc. v.+, m i n u t e s. Perf. m i m y a m i m y s RV. [mimye.] [Aor. m e y t ; a m y i ; amst, a m s t a ; msa.] Fut. I. meyant? AB . [msyati te. 2. mt.] Verb, m i t V.B .S.U. ; mitya AV.? AB . [mya.]

mrgitavya B . +

Sec. Conj.: Pass, m y a t e etc. v. [ m e m i ; m i t s a t i f e ; mpayati.] Deriv.: maya? E . + m t v. mka?v. . B mt RV. mayana B . m i t v. Doubtless a form of 1 m , with which it agrees also in meaning in later Sanskrit. m i , 'damage', see m.

m i k ( m i ) , 'mix'. Pres. [3.] m i m i k v RV. [I.] m m i k a t i etc. V.B .S. Perf. m i m i k t h u s etc. ire RV. Sec. Conj.: Caus. m e k a y a t i B .S. m k a V.B .S. mila V.B . Deriv.: m i r v. +

m k a a B .S. m i m i k RV. Seems a desiderative formation to a simpler m i ; referred by the gram marians (and Gr.) to mih. m i g h , see m i h . m i t h , 'alternate, altercate'. Pres. [I.] m e t h a t i etc. V.B .S., m e t h e t e RV. [6?] mithat RV. Perf. m i m e t h a RV. Verb, m i t h i t a RV. ; m i t h i t v c. mthaka B. mi t h u s B . m i t h u V.B . Deriv. : mithati RV. mthana s. mithy B . + m i t h u n v. + miths v. +

121

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[m

mid, mind, see med.


m i l , 'combine'. Pres. [6.] milati etc. c. Perf. m i m i l u s c. [Aor. amelt, amelia.] Fut. 1. miliyati B. + Verb, milita c.; m i l i t v c.; milya c. Sec. Conj.: Caus. melayati etc. c.; melpaya (in d.). Deriv.: milana c. mela c. melana c. melaka c. m i , 'wink'. Pres. [6.] miti etc. v.+, te E. Perf. m i m e s a c. Aor. 3. ammiat u. [ 5. amet.] Fut. I. [meiyati] (miyanti? R.) [ 2. meit.] Verb, miita c ; miya c ; mas RV. ; meam E. Deriv. : mis v. + meaa c. mesa v. + m i a v. + mih, 'miwgere'.
2

melpaka c. m e l p a n a c.
9

memia B .

Pres. [I.] mhati etc. v.+, te etc. E.+ mghamna RV . [Perf. mimeha.] Aor. [3. ammihat. ] 7. amikat B. Fut. 1. m e k y t i etc. AV.B .S. [ 2. meh.] Verb, mha v. +; mih RV. Sec. Conj.: Int. mmihat CB . [ Desid. mimika, see mik. ] Caus. mehayati etc. RV.C. mhra AV. + Deriv. : m i h RV. meha B . + mhana v. + mehra? c. mehin c. mehanya s. mihya CB . mh? v.+ mehn RV. mehatn RV. megh v.+ mhv s?v.+ Compare mik. y m , m i , "damage'. Pres. [9.] min t i etc. V.B., aminanta minn RV. (minat nan RV., m i n t AV.); mnti CB . [mnte.] [5.] m i n o t i e t c . RV.C. [3.] mimtas? RV., yt? V.B . [4.] m y ate etc. R V . B . + Perf. mimya etc. RV., m i m y e c. (mmaya A v.) [mamu, mame.] Aor. 1. [myt;] myi. 4. [amsta, msa;] mea etc. AV.B .S. [ 6. amst.] Fut. 1. m e y a s e PB . [msyati, te. 2. mt.] Verb, mta v. + ; m t o s B . ; [mtv; mya, mya;] myam mye av.

ml] Sec. Conj.: Pass, myte Caus. mpayati Deriv. : mi? RV. m RV. maya B . +

ROOTS,

VERB FORMS,

122 Desid. mitsa.] mtavya E. mpana E. + mpayit c

etc. CB .MB . Int. m m y n a RV. [ etc. E. + [ammapat.] myu B. mya B . m y uka AV.B . mayu AV. mti c. m l , 'wink'.

Pres. [I.] m l a t i etc. B .+, te s. Perf. m i m l a c. Aor. 3. amimlat c. [ammilat. 5. amlt.] [Fut. mliyati, mlit.] Verb, m h t a B . + ; m l ya v.+ Sec. Conj.: Pass, m l y a t e c. [ Int. meml. Desid. mimlia. ] Caus. mlayati B .+, te E. Deriv.: mla s. + mlaka c mlin'Av.c. mlana E. + m l v , m , 'push'. Pres. [1.] m v ati etc. AV.B . Verb, m v i t B ., mta v.s.; m v ya B . Deriv.: mu ? c . mr RV . m a v i u ? RV .
1 1

mta ? AV .

m u c , m o k , 'release'. Pres. [6.] m u c t i etc. v. +, te etc. v.+; m u c n t i etc. m u c a s v a etc. (aor. 2?)
RV.TA.

Perf, m u m c a m u m u c etc. v.+ ( m u m o k t u etc. V.B ., m u m c a t etc. m m o c a t i m u m u c a s a m u m u k t a m RV.) Aor. I. mok AV. (mogdh TA.); m u c a RV.; moci v.+ 2. mucat etc. v. 3. ammucat c 4. amuk etc. B. (moks c ) , m u k i etc. v.; m u k y a V.B . Fut. I. m o k y a t i te etc. B . + [ 2. mokt.] Verb, m u k t AV. + ; m o k t u m B . + ; muktv B . + ; mcya v. + ; m k a m B . Sec. Conj.: Pass, m u c y t e etc. AV.+, m c y a s e etc. v., ti etc. U.E.+ [ Int. momuc. ] Desid. mniukati te etc. v. + ; mkate etc. B. + Caus. mocayati te etc. E. + (mocyate c.; m u m o c a y i a c.) Deriv. : muc v. + m u m u c u E. + m u c y u GB . m o c y a E. + mumuk E.+ muk MS. muc AV. m c a n a v. + m u m u k v. + muca E. + mocanya B . + m o k a B . + m o k a k a E. + m o c a y i t c moka, k v.+ muci E. mocayitavya c moksin E.+ mokya AV. mucu E.+ m u m o c a y i u E. m o k y a c. m o c a E. + m u k t i AV. + m o c a k a c. m o k t a v y a E. + m o k a a E. + m o k a y i t a v y a c moksanya E. m o k a y i t E. mocin c m o k t B. + m u m o k a y i u E. The^desiderative formation m o k has nearly the same right to be treated as a separate root that b h a k has.

123

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES. 'break'.

fmu

mu, Pres. [1.] moate cl. Sec Conj.: Caus. moayati c . Deriv.: moaka c. moin c.
1

moana c.

m u d , 'be merry'. Pres. [1.] mdate etc. v.+ ti etc. E . + Perf. mumda v.+ mumude etc. E . + Aor. 1. mudmahi RV. [3. ammudat. ] 5. modihs AV. Fut. 1. modiye E. [ 2. modit.] Verb, mudita E. +; modam c. Sec. Conj.: [ Int. momud. Desid. mumudia, mumodia. ] Caus. modayati te etc. B.+ (mumodayiati B.) Deriv. : m d v.+ modana E. + mudr v. mda v. + modaka E. + modanya u.+ mudira? c. muda AV.+ m o din AV. + mud E.+ mudvin? c. mu, 'steal'.

Pres. [9.] muti etc. v.+ (mua c.) [I.] matha nxK [6.] m u ati etc. E. Perf. m u m o a c. Aor. 1. a m o i c. [3. ammuat. ] 5. mos amoius V.B . [Fut. moiyati, moit.] Verb, m u i t v.+, m u a c.; m u i t v c.; mya v. + ; m u RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, m u y a t e etc. c , yant E. [ Int. momu. Desid. m u muia.] Caus. [moaya;] muayant ? c. Deriv. : mu v. + moin B . + mu ? v. + m aka c. moya c. mi B . m o a B. + m s RV. m u v n RV. moaa s.c. moaka E. ma E.+ m u h , 'be crazed'. Pres. [4.] mhyati etc. v.+, te etc. u.+ Perf. m u m o h a etc. B. +, mumuhe E. Aor. 2. amuhat etc. B. 3. ammuhat etc. AV.B . Fut. 1. mohiyti B . [mokyati. 2. mohit, mogdh, moh.] Verb, mugdh v,+, mha AV.S.U. + ; m u h RV. ; mham B . Sec Conj.: Int. momuhat s . , momuhyate E. [ Desid. mumohia, mumuhia, mumuka. ] Caus. mohyati etc. v. + , te etc. E . + (mohyate c.) mhuka B . mohaka E. mudh? E . + Deriv.: muh AV.B . momugh B . mgha V.B . m o h i n E. + m h u v.B . mohayit E. mha AV. + mohana E . + m h u s v.+

m, see mv.

mrch]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

124

mrch, mr, 'thicken'. [1.] mrchati etc. A V . + mumrcha E. + [Aor. etc. amrcht; mrchiyati, mrchit.] Verb, mrchita E . + , mrt B . + [mrtv.] Sec. Conj.: Caus. mrchayati B . +, te E. Deriv.: mur? V.B . murch E.+ murkh B . + mrti B . +
Pres. Perf.

mrchana E. +

1 m,

'die'.
1

B .C. [ 4. m a.] Fut. 1. mariyati etc. AV.+, te E. [ 2. mart.] Verb, mt v. +; martum E. +, tave AVP. ; mtv B . + mram E. Sec. Conj.: Pass, mriyte etc. v.+, ti etc. E . + Int. marmartic. [mar m, memrya.] Desid. mumrati etc. s. + Caus. mryati etc. AV.+, te E. (mryate etc. E. + ; mimrayia in d.)

Pres. [1.] maranti etc. mrate etc. RV. (mara c .) Perf. mamra mamrus etc. v.+, mamre etc. c. Aor, I. amta etc. V.B .S. ; murya v. 3. ammarat etc.

Deriv. :

mara v. + maraka a
maraa*B.+

maru? B . + mura? AV.

maryn V.B . mrta, tya v. + mti c martavya E. + mty v. +

mrman? v.+ mra v.+ mraka c mrin B . + mraa B .+

mruka B .S. mamri AV. murmur a? B . + mumr E.+ mumru B . + mimrayiu c.

The following root is doubtless the same with this. 2 m, m,


Pres. [9.] mh etc. v. [6.] Perf. mumurat? RV.

'crush.
V.B .

mti etc.

Aor. 1. myus K. 3. mman AV. [ 5. amrt.] Verb, mr AV.B . Sec. Conj.: Pass, mryte B . Deriv. : mr RV. mura? E.+ mart RV. mri RV. mra V.B .
Hardly to be separated from the preceding.

malimlu? B .

Pres. [6.] mk RV, Perf. mimkus RV. Sec. Conj.: Caus. mrakaya c , mkayati E. Deriv. : mk RV. mraka mkn RV.

mk, 'stroke'. [I.] mrakanti c.

RV.

mrakaa c

Doubtless a secondary rootform from mj.

125

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[m

m c , 'injure'. Pres. [4.] mcyati'? JB . Aor. 4. mka RV. Verb, mkt RV. Sec. Conj.: Caus. marcyati etc. V.B .S. Deriv.: mc RV. mark RV. mrka B .S.

mcaya AB .

m c h , 'perish'. Pres. mchante u. Very likely a false reading; if not, a secondary rootfrom j / 1 m. m j , 'wipe'. Pres. [2.] m r i mjnti [mrjanti] etc. v.+ , m mjate etc. v.+ (mrjta s.) [7.] mjata (3p.) RV., majni GB ., mjyt B . [I.] mrjati te etc. E . + [6.] mjati te etc. AV.S.C. Perf. mam r ja mamjus etc. v.+ ( m a m r j u s E . , mmjus RV.), mamje AV. (mmj jta RV.) Aor. [I. amrji. ] 3. ammjanta B . [amamrjat.] 4. amrkt etc. B. 5. amrjt etc. B. 7. amkat etc. V.B .S., amkataetc.RV.E. Fut. 1. mrakyate B . , mrkyate B .S. [mrjiyati.] 2. mra JB . [mr, mrjit.] Verb, m v.+, mjita c , mrjita (caus.?) s.+; marum c , mrum c , mrjitum E. + ; mv AV,, mrjitv B . ; mjya AV.+, mrjya c.; mjas B . Sec. Conj.: Pass, mjyte etc. v. + Int. marmjm janta etc. RV., jyte etc. V.B .S. (marmjn RV,), marmjyate B . [ Desid. mi mrjia, mimka.] Caus. marjayati te etc. v.; mrjayati te etc. B . + (mrjyate c ) . Deriv.: mrjaka E . + mravya c. mja c. mrjra E . + mgra RV. m r jana v. + mj E . + mrjly RV. m g van AV. mrjanya E. m i B . + mrjya RV. marmjnya RV. m r guka B . mri c. mrga AV. + Compare mk. m , 'be gracious'. Pres. [6.] mti etc. V.B.S., ase B . [ 9. mnti.] Perf. [mamara] (mamyus RV.) [Aor. etc. ammat amamarat, amart; mariyati, marit.] Sec. Conj.: [ Int. marm. Desid. mimaria. ] Caus. myati
etc. V . B . C , te c.

Deriv. : ma B . + mana c.

mk v. +

marit RV. mit AV.

maya B . may k u RV.

2n!

ROOTS,

VER FORMS, B

126

m, see 2 m.
md, mrad, 'rub, c r u s h . Pres. [9.] mdnti etc. S. + , mdnta S. [l.] mardati te etc. E . + mrada RV., date MS. Perf. mamarda mamdus E.+ (mamardus M.), mamde E. Aor. I. mdysam B .S. 3. ammdat E. [amamardat. 5 . amardt.] Fut. I. mradiyati mardiyate JB . Verb, mdit A V . ; marditum E.+, t o s . ; m d i t v c ; m d ya B . + ; mrad B . ; mardam C. Sec. Conj.: Pass, mdyte etc. B . + Int. marmarttu RV. [marmd.] Desid. mimardiati E. Caus. mardayati etc. E.+, te E. (mardyate c ; mimardayia in d.); mradayati TS. Deriy. ; md AV. + mardin E . + m t tik B . + md v.+ mtsn B . + mrdana B . + marditavya E. mda s. m i m a r d i u E. mardanya c mardit E. marda E. + mimardayisu E. mradas V.B .S. mradyas B. mardaka c m d h , 'neglect'. Pres. [I.] mrdhati etc. RV. [6.] mdhti RV.S., asva s. Aor. I. mdhys RV. 2. mdhas s. 5. m a r d h s etc. RV.B . (mrdhi at R V . ) Verb, mddh MS. mdhr RV. mdha v. + Deriv.: m d has RV. m d h V.B . mardhuka JB . m , 'touch, feel'. Pres. [6.] m t i etc. v.+, te etc. v.+ Perf. m a m a r a m a m u s E. + (mms RV.), m a m e B . + Aor. 4. [amrkt amrkt] mka? RV. 7. mkat etc. V.E. [Fut. markyati mrakyati, mar mra.] Verb, m v.+, m i t a c ; m a r u m E. + ; m ya v.+; m e v . B . ; mram B .S. Sec. Conj.: Pass, m y a t e etc. E . + 1nt. mrmrat etc. V.B ,, marmya B. Caus. marayati etc. B . + Deriv.: ma B. + marin u. + marm AV. mara B . + mrana v.+ mya B . + maraka E. m , 'not h e e d \ Pres. [4.] m yate etc. v.+, ti etc. E . + [ 1. marati te.] Perf. mamra RV.E., m a m e E.

127

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[mrit

Aor. 1. mhs RV. 2. aman M., mat s. (ant? c ) , anta RV. 3. mmas v. [amamarat.] 5. [amart,] marihs RV. [Fut. mariyati te, marit.] Verb, [mita; mitv, maritv;] mya E. ; m e RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, myate E. Int. mmat s. Caus. marayati etc. E. +, te etc. E. + mra v. + Deriv. : maraa E. + mari E. m a v. + marin E. + maraya E.+ mya RV. m e d [ m i d ] , 'be fat'. Pres. [4.] mdyati etc. V.B. [6.] medtm RV. [Perf. etc. mimeda, mimide; amidat, amedia; mediyatite, medit; minna, miditv meditv.] Sec. Conj.: [ Pass, midyate. ] Caus. [mindayati;] medyati etc. v. + medn v. + mdas v. + Deriv. : mdana RV. medur B . + medya c. y m o k , see m u c . m n , 'note'. Pres. [I.] manati etc. s.+, te s. [2.] mnyus cl. [Perf. mamnu."J Aor. [1. mnyt, mneyt. ] 6. amnsius c. [Fut. mnsyati, mnt.] Verb, mnta s. + Sec. Conj.: Pass, mnyate c. [ Int. mmn. Desid. mimnsa. Caus. mnpaya, amimnapat.] Deriv.: mnna s.+ mntavya c. mnya s.+ Only with prefix : a secondary rootform from man to which, indeed, the forms from stem mana more properly belong. m y a k , 'be situated' (?). Pres. [I.] m y a k a RV. Perf. m i m y k a mimiks kire RV. Aor. I. amyak RV.; amyaki RV. m r a d , see m d . m r i t , m l i t , 'dissolve'. Pres. [4?] mityt yeyus B , Verb, mletya s. Deriv. mretuka PB . Perhaps related with md.

mruc]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

128

mruc, mluc, mlup, 'set'. Pres. [I.] mrcati etc. AV.B. ; m l c a t i etc. B . + Perf. m u m l o c a B .U. Aor. 2. amrucat JB . [ 5. amroct, amloct.] [Fut. mrociyati, m r o c i t ; mlociyati, mlocit.] Verb, mrukta B .+, m l u k t a RV,, m l u p t a B .S.; mrcas RV. Sec. Conj.: Int. malimlucmahe s. Deriv. : mruc V.B . malimluc AV.+ mrocana c. mrukti B . malimluc s. mrok AV. mlocana c. mlukti c. mloca E. + mloci c.

mre, 'gratify' (?).


Pres. [I.] mreeran ul. Sec. Conj.: Caus. mreayati etc. E. + (mrelayati s.") Deriv. mrea c. ml, 'relax'. Pres. [4.] ml y ati etc. B.+, te etc. E.+ [2.] mlnti E. Perf. m a m l u etc. E. + Aor. [1. mlyt, mleyt. ] 6? m l s s E. Fut. I. amlsyatm B ., yetm u. [ 2. mlt.] Verb, mlt RV., mlna B . + See. Conj.: Caus. mlpyati AV. +; mlapayati c. Deriv.: mlni c. mlyin c. mlpana c.

m l p i n c.

mluc, see mruc. mlup, see mruc.


mlech, 'speak barbarously'. Pres. [I.] m l e c h a t i etc. B . + [Perf. etc. m i m l e c h a ; a m l e c h t ; m l e c h i y a t i , m l e c h i t ; mlechita, mlia.] Deriv. m l e c h B . + y a k , 'press on' (?).
Pres. [ L ] y k a t i etc. RV1.R ., te Rv . Deriv.:
1 1

Verb, yke RV . y a k v. + ykya RV. y k m a v. + y k u RV. y a k n RV. y a k m a n E. + The character of the root and the connection of its derivatives are very doubtful.

yach, see yam.

129

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[yabh

y a j , 'offer'. Pres. [1.] yjati te etc. v.+ [2.] yki V.B .S., y k v a RV. yajase (Is/) av . Perf. iyja etc. E.+, j etc. v.+, yej AV.? Aor. [1. ijyt. ] 3. ayyajat etc. B . 4. aykt etc. V.B .S. (ays RV., ay V.B .S. ; ykat V . B . S . , yakatas atm RV.), ayaa etc. V.B .S. (yakate etc. V.B. ; yakya MS.) 7. ayakata (3s.) AGS. Fut. 1. yakyati etc. B. +, te etc. v. + 2. ya B . Verb, i v. + ; yum B .+, ave V.B ., jitum M.; iv AV.+; [ijya;] yjadhyi v., yajdhyi TS. ; yjam AV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, ijyate etc. E. +, yant E. 1nt. yyaj (in d.). Desid. yiyakati te E. ; yakati etc. v., te etc. V.B. Caus. yjayati etc. B. +, te E. yaj v. + Deriv. : ij v.+ yaj s RV. yjin B . + yjyu v. yaji RV. yj v. + yjya B . + yjyas v. yj us V. + yja B . yjya B . + yjiha v. yaj s. yajat v. yjana s.+ yjvan v.+ yajin B . + i v.+ yjanya c. yjya RV. yaj v i n E. + yajati s.+ y j uka B . yajy V.B .S. yajiu E. yaavy B . + yyaj k a B . + ijya c. yga E . + ya v.+ y i y o k u E. + ijy s.+ yja v.+ yjatra V.B . yjayitavy B . yj ana A V . + yjaka E . + yajtha v. yjayit c. Appears to be related with roots y a m and yach and y a t , and to mean originally 'reach out, extend'.
1

y a t , 'stretch'. Pres. [I.] ytate etc. v.+, ti etc. v.+ Perf. y e t e etc. V.B .U. Aor. 1. ytna, yatn RV. [3. ayyatat. ] 5, ayatia B . Fut. I.Jyatiyate etc. B.+, ti etc. E . + Verb, yatta v.+, yatita E. ; yatitum E. ; ytya B .
Sec. Conj.: Deriv.: Pass, y a t y a t e c. [ 1nt. yyat. Desid. yiyatia. ] Caus.

ytyati te etc v.+ (ytyate etc. B . + ) yt v. + ytana AV.+ yatanya c. yti v. + ytti MS. yattavya E. yatitavya E . + yatna E. + yabh, Pres. [1.] ybhati etc AV.B . [Perf. etc yaybha; aypst.] ytaka E. + ytya S. + ytan E. + yatna RV. yay t i? v . +

futuere'.

yabh]

ROOTS,

VERB FORMS,

130

Fut. 1. yapsyti etc. B .S. Verb, yabdhum c , yabhitum c. Sec. Conj.: Desid. yiyapsate etc. s. Deriv.: yabhya AV. ybha c. yam, yach, 'reach'. Pres. [1.] ychati te etc. v.+ y a m a t i te etc. E . + [2.] ysi RV. ; yamiti? JB. Perf. y a y m a y e m s etc. V.B . (yayatha RV.; y a m t u s mus RV.), y e m e etc. v. + Aor. 1. yamus etc. RV. (ymati ymat etc. v., yamate etc. v.; yamys 3s. yammahi RV. ; yadh etc RV.) ymi V.B . [3. ayyamat. ] 4. ysam etc V.B . (yn RV.; y a s a t etc V.B .S., yasatas RV.), yasta tc. V.B . (aysi AB ., y a s a t e RV.) 5. y m i a (3s.) RV. [ 6. ayasiam.] Fut. 1. y a s y t i B ., yamiyati c. [ 2. yat.] Verb, yat v. + ; y t u m B .+ , tave RV. , y a m i t u m c., ymitav RV. ; y a t v s., y a m i t v c.; ytya AV.B ., yamya s. + ; ymam V.B . Sec Conj.: Pass, yamyte etc v.+ Int. yayamti RV. Desid. yiya sati B . Caus. ymyati etc V.E.+; yamayati etc B .+, te E. Deriv.: yma v.+ yti v.+ yamun v.+ ymm B.+ ytu RV. yam? v.+ yamyas RV. ymana c. y a t a v y B . + ymiha RV. yamaka c. yasnya RV. yatr RV. yamin B . + y a m a s n RV. yachana E. yat v. + yamya E . + y m a v. + ya'? B. + yatr v. + ymana B . + ymaka B . + Compare yaj and yat. yas, y e , 'be heated'. Pres. [4.] y s y a t i etc AV. + [3.] y a y a s t u RV. [I.] yati etc. V.B . [yasati.] [Perf. yaysa.] Aor. 2. ayasat c. [ 3. ayyasat. 5. ayst.J [Fut. yasiyati, yasit.] Verb, yast v.+, yasita B .C. [yasitv, yastv.] Sec Conj.: [ Int. yyas. Desid. yiyasia. ] Caus. ysayati etc E , + [te.] (ysyate E.) ysaka c. yaska ? B . + Deriv. : y a s V.B .S. y s ya v. + ysin c. ysa B . + ysana c

yah.
Such a root, of questionable meaning, is assumable for the derivatives: yah RV. yahv v. y a h v n t RV.

131

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[i y u

y , 'go'. Pres. [2.] y t i etc. v.+ (ayus B .+ [ayn]; ymaki = y m i KB .), ymohe ul. Perf. y a y etc. v. + (yay t ha v.), yaye c. Aor. 4. aysam etc. v. (y s at V.B . ; y e a m RV.) 6. aysiam etc. v. + (ysiat RV.; ysishs V.B .) Fut. ysyati etc. AV.+, te etc. E . + 2. yt E . + Verb, yt v.+ ; ytum E. + , y t ave v., v B . ; ytv B .S.; y y a B . + ; y V.B . ; yyam s. Sec. Conj.: Pass, yyate E. 7nt. yyate? u., yy (in d.). Desid. y i ysati etc. E . + Caus. ypyati etc. B.+ [ayyapat.] Deriv.: y V . B . yt v.+ yyvar B. + yym B.+ yiys c. y n a v. + ytra E . + y v an V.B . y i y s u E. + y? V.B . ytr E. + yha RV. ypa c. yti u. + ytha RV. yay, RV. ypaka c. yt? v . + y m a v. + yayin RV. ypya B . + ytavya E . + y m an V.B .S. yiyu RV. ypana s.+ y a y u V.B .
Doubtless a secondary form of i.

y c , 'ask'. Pres. [1.] y c ati te etc. v . + Perf. [yayca] yayce B . + Aor. [1. ycyt. 3. ayaycat. ] 5. ayct etc V.E. (yciat RV.), aycia B . (ycimahe RV.) Fut. 1. yciyati B .S., te E. [ 2. ycit.] Verb, ycit AV.+; y c itum AV. + ; y c i t v B . + ; y c ya B . + Sec Conj.: Pass, y c y a t e etc. E. + [ Int. yyc. Desid. yiycia.] Caus. ycyati te AV.+ ycitavya E . + yc B . + Deriv. : ycaka E . + ycana E. + ycit E. + y c i n c. ycan E. + ycy AV.B . y c i u E. + ycya E. + ycanya E . + y d , 'unite' (?). Pres. [I.] y d amna RV. Deriv.: y d as B . + y d ura RV. 1 y u , 'unite'. Pres. [2.] yti y u v a t i etc AV.B .S., y u t yuvate etc V.B . [6.] y u v t i te etc V.B . [ 9, y u n t i nte.] Perf. [yuyva] y u y u v RV. Aor. [I. y y t ; ayvi. 3. ayyavat. ] 5. y v iam? RV. [ayavia.] Fut. [1. y a v i y a t i te. ] 2. yuvit CB . [yavit.]

I yu]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

132

Verb, y u t v. + ; y y a v.+, yutya s. Sec. Conj.: [ Pass, yyate. ] 1nt. y y u v a t AV., y y u v e etc. RV. Desid. y y a t i RV. [yiyavia. Caus. yvayati, yiyvayiati.] Deriv.: y B . + yuti a yna s. y s ? v. + yava RV. yti? v.+ yni? v.+ y a etc. ? v. + yvana AV. + yotra E. y v a n ? v. + yva E . + yuvana s.+ yth? v.+ y v i h a v. + yvana c. yut V.B . y a v y a s s.+ y v a y i t c. Compare yuj and 2 y u ; from the latter, in combination with pre fixes , the forms and derivatives of this root are not always separable with cer tainty. 2 yu, yuch, 'separate'.

Pres. [3.] y u y t i etc. VB ., y u y u d h v m etc. V.B . [6.] yuvanta etc. V.B .S.

[I.] y u c h a t i etc. v. Aor. I. y u y t B ., y y t m (3d.) B. (yys 3s. v.), yavanta RV. ; yvi B. 3. y y o t RV. 4. ayut etc. V.B . (yus RV., y o a t i etc. v., y a t RV.; y o a m etc. B .S., y a m AV.), yohs B .S. 5. y v s RV. Verb, y u t RV.; y t a v e tav tos RV.; yvam AV.B . Sec. Conj.: Int. y y u v a t etc. V.B . (yoyva MS.) Caus. y v y a t i etc. v.; y a v a y a t i etc. V.B . yutvan RV. yuti RV.C Deriv. : y v a AV.C. yvana AV. yot RV. y v an AV. y y uvi RV. yvana MS. yut V.B . Compare 1 y u . y u j , 'join'. Pres. [7.] y u n k t i y u k t etc. v.+ (yunaki? c , yujyt R . ) [6?] yujati te etc. U . E . + [2.] yuj v., yujmahe yujata (3p.) RV., y u k v v. Perf. yuyja yuyuj etc. v.+ Xyuyujma jr v.; niniyoja A B . ; y u y jate RV.) Aor. 1. yuji etc. V.B . (yojate yujn RV.), (yojam yja yujy t m etc. RV.); yoji v.c 2.? yujanta RV., ayujat janta c 3. ayyujat etc. E . + 4. a y o k t S . , [ayukt] a y u k i etc. v.+ (ayunk mahi C ) Fut. 1. y o k y a t i etc. B.+,'te etc. AV.+ 2. yokt B . Verb, y u k t v. + ; y o k t u m B . + ; yuktv , v. + , tv y a V. B .; yujya,. + ; y u j RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, yujyte etc. v. + , ti etc. E . + [ 1nt. yoyuj. ] Desid. y u y u k a t i etc. E . + Caus. yojayati etc. E. + , te etc. E.+ (yojyate eic. c )

133
Deriv.

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[rah
yugma s.+ yugmn B . ygvan V.B .S. yuyuku c yojayitavya c. yojayit s.c.

yuj v . + yuja v.s. yjya V.B . yug v . + yugya E . + yuga B . yujaka E . +

yoga v . + ygya AV. + yogy RV. yogin s.+ yojaka E . + yojya E . +

yojana v . + yojanya c yukti v.+ yoktavy B . + yokt B . + yktra v.+ yojit c

y yudh, 'fight'.
Pres. [4.] ydhyate etc. v. + , ti etc. v.+ [1.] yodhati etc.
AV.PB .

[2.] y t s i RV. Perf. yuydha yuyudh etc. v . + Aor. 1. ydhi, yodhat, yodhn RV., yudhna ? c 3. yyudhas M. 4. y o t s s E., ayuddha c , y u t s m a h i AV. 5. ayodht etc. v. (yodhiat RV.) Fut. 1. yotsyati te etc. B. + 2. yoddh E. Verb, yuddh v. + ; y o d d h u m E . ; y u d d h v R v . ; yudhya E . ; y u d h a m JB., y u d h R v . ; yudhye RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, yudhyate c. Int. [yoyudh] yavyudh (in d.) Desid. yyutsati te etc. v . + Caus. yodhayati etc. v. + , te etc. E. (yodhyate E.) Deriv. : y d h v. + yudhm RV. yodhana E. + yyudhi RV. y u d h v a n RV. yodhanya c y y udhi RV. yudha v.+ yodh v. + yodhuka JB . y a v y d h RV. yudhi AV. yodhaka E. ydhyas RV. y u y u t s E. yudhya RV. y o d d h a v y a E . + yuts? c. yudhnya v. yodhin E . + ydhya v. + yoddh v. + y u y u t s u E. + y u p , 'obstruct'. [Pres. 4. yupyati.] Perf. yuypa yuyopim v. Aor. [2. ayupat. ] 3. ayyupan etc. B . [Fut. yopiyati, yopit.j Verb, yupit AV.B .S. Sec Conj.: 7nt. yoyupyte etc. B .s. Caus. yopyati etc. Deriv.: y p a v.+ ypana v. yoyupana cl.

V.B .S.

y
Pres. Perf. [Aor. Verb,

y e , see yas.

rah, 'hasten'. [I.] rhate etc. RV., ti RV. rrah RV.B . [raraha.] etc. ararahat, araht; rahiyati, rahit.] rahita s.

rah]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

134
rghyas B . lghyas A V . + laghiha JB .

Sec. Conj.: Caus. rahyati te etc. RV. Deriv.: raha E. ranghas c.

rhya RV. rhas v.+ Compare rah.

rahas ? c. rhi V.B .

hnt? RV. ragh v.+ lagh AV.+

rak, 'protect'. Pres. [1.] rkati te etc. v . + Perf. rarka etc. v. + (rrak RV.) Aor. [I. rakyt. 3. ararakat. ] 4. arakt etc. AV.+ (rakiat etc. RV.), arkt etc. B .S. (ar? MS.) Fut. I. arakiyas M., rakye? ul. 2. rakit E.C Verb, rakit v.+; rakitum E.+, rakya c. Sec. Conj.: Pass, rakyate etc. u.+ [1nt. rrak. ] Desid. rirakiati etc. E. Caus. rakayati etc. c , te B. Deriv.: raka B . + rkas v.+ rirak c. rakya E. + raks V.B . riraku c. rak E . + rkaa v . + rki V.B . riraki c. rakaka c. raka c. raksin s.+ rakaya E . + rakitavya E.+ riraksisu F. + rakit v. + The relation of rakas 'demon' to this root is questionable. B ut raks Av . is too weak evidence on which to accept a 2 rak 'harm'.
1

rang, 'rock'. Pres. [I.] ragant cl. Doubtless artificial. rae, 'produce'. Aor. I. araci c. 3. arracat c. Fut. I. raciyati c ? Sec. Conj.: Caus. racayati etc. E. + (racyate c.) raci c. Deriv. : racana E. + raca c. racan c. racya c. 1 raj, 'direct', see j. 2 raj, raj, 'color'.
Pres. [4.] rajyati te etc. A v . E . + [I.] rajati etc. ? E.+ [rajati te.]
1

racayit c.

[Perf. etc. raraja raraje; rajyt; arlrajat ararajat, arkt arakta, r a k a ; rakyati te, rakt.J Verb, rakt B , +; [raktv, raktv;] rajya c. Sec. Conj.: Pass, rajyate c. Int. r r ajti v. [ Desid. riraka. ] Caus. rajayati AV. ; rajayati etc. E.+, te E.

135 Deriv. : raga E. +

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[I ran
rakti c . rga u . + rgin E . + rajayit v s .

rajaka E . + rajya c . rajaka E. +

rajana E. + rajanya c . raj ana A V . + rajan E.

rajanya E. rjas ? v . + raji? RV. rajat v . +

T h e forms w i t h nasal belong to t h e later language.

ranch,

'mark'.

O n l y i n (ni) rachana c . : c o m p a r e lch.


ra, 'howl'.

Pres. [I.] rati etc. c . [Perf. etc. rara r e u s ; arraat, art; raiyati, rait.] Verb, raita c . Sec. Conj.: Int. rrati etc. E . + Deriv.; raana c . rai c . r a v , 'delight'. Pres. [I.] rava etc. TS. Verb, ravit RV.
A s e c o n d a r y f o r m a t i o n f r o m ran, a p p a r e n t l y t h r o u g h rav.

r a d , 'dig'. Pres. [I.] rdati etc. V.B., te AV. [2.] ratsi RV. Perf. rarda RV. [redus.] [Aor. etc. ar d t; radiyati, radit.] Verb, radit AV.B . Deriv.: rada RV.C. radana c . radh, randh, ' b e or m a k e s u b j e c t ' . Pres. [4.] rdhyati etc. AV.B . [2.] randdhi RV . Perf. [rarandha rarandhima redhma] rradhs RV. Aor. 2. radham etc. v. 3. rradhas etc. RV. (rradh Is. RV.) [ara randhat.] 5. randhs RV. [Fut. radhiyati, ratsyati; radhit, raddh.] Verb, raddh RV. [radhitum.] Sec. Conj.: Int. rranddhi? RV. [rradh.] [ Desid. riradhia, rirat sa. ] Caus. randhyati etc. v. + Deriv.: randhana RV.C. rnddhi RV. rndhra? RV.+ radhr? RV.
1 ran, ' t a k e p l e a s u r e ' .
1 3

Pres. [I.] rati etc. RV., anta RV. [4.] ryati etc. RV. (raythas R V . ) Perf. rraa RV. (rras etc. rrn rrandh etc. arraus RV.B .) Aor. [3. arraat, ararat. ] 5. arius RV. (riana RV.)

I ran]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

136

[Fut. raiyati, rait.] Sec. Conj.: [ Int. rara. Desid. riraia. ] Caus. rayati etc v., anta RV. [rayati.] Deriv.: ran RV. rya v. rnti? v. rit RV. ra v. + ray AV. rntya v. rav v. rvan RV. Compare ram. 2 ran, 'ring'. Pres. [1.] raati etc. c. Verb, raita c. Sec Conj.: Caus. raayati c. Deriv. raana c. A late and probably artificial formation. rap, 'chatter'. Pres. [1.] rpati etc. V.B . Sec. Conj.: Int. r r apti etc v. Deriv.: rp RV. rpin AV. A variant of lap, which compare. rap, 'be full'. Pres. [1.] rapate etc. v., rapant RV. Perf. rarape RV. Deriv.: rapa RV. rapin V.B .

raph.
Perhaps to be seen in raphit RV . 'miserable'(?) : compare riph. rabh, rambh, 'take hold'. Pres. [I.] rbhate etc. v.+, ti etc s. + ; rambhati te E . + Perf. rebh etc v.+ (rrabhe RV.), rarabhm RV. Aor. 1. arambhi c. [3. ararambhat. ] 4. rabdha RV. Fut. I. rapsyate etc E.+, ti E. [ 2. rabdh.] Verb, rabdh v.+; rabdhum E.; rbhya v. + ; rbham RV., rbhe V.B . Sec Conj.: Pass, rabhyate etc. E. + [Int. rrabh, rrambh. ] Desid. ripsate etc B .C. Caus. rambhayati etc B .+, te B.
Deriv. :
1

rabha E. rbhya B. + rbhas v.+ rabhasn RV.

rbhi v.+ rbhiha V.B . rambhin v. + rmbhana v. + rabhin v.s. rbhyas B .S. rambhanya B .S. rabdhi c. rbhyas RV. ripsu c rabdhavya E. rambh v. + rabdh c. rambhaka c. Compare labh, which is the same in another phonetic form.

137

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[ras

ram, 'be or make content'. Pres. [1.] rmate ti etc. v . + [9.] ramti etc. V.B . Perf. rarma remus etc. E.+, reme etc. B. + Aor. 1. rnt? s v . 3. rramat etc. RV. 4, arast c , rasta etc. v . [rashs.] 6. rasiam s v . Fut. 1. rasyate etc. B . +, ti B. [ 2. rat.] Verb, rat B . + ; ratum E.+, tos B., ramitum E. ; ratv B . , ratv c ; ramya s . + [ratya]; ramam s . Sec. Conj.: Pass, ramyate etc. E . + [ 1nt. raram. ] Desid. rirasa (in d.) Caus. ramayati etc. v . +, te etc. E. +; rmayati etc. v . + (riramayia in d.) Deriv. rama E. + ratavya c . rati B. + ramaa E. rt RV. ramy B. + rti AV. + rasu? RV. r t r? v . + ramaa B. + ramti AV.B . riras E . + rama v . + ramaya u.+ rmati AV.B . rirasu c . rmin RV. riramayiu c .
Compare 1 ran, from w h i c h o n e or t w o of t h e derivatives here given m a y p e r h a p s c o m e , a t l e a s t i n p a r t . C o m p a r e a l s o lam.

ramb, 'hang down'. Pres. [I.] rmbate etc. RV. Deriv. rambaa B .U.
C o m p a r e lamb, f r o m w h i c h t h e v e r b f o r m s a n d d e r i v a t i v e s m o s t l y c o m e .

rambh, 'roar'. Pres. [1.] rambhati te etc. c


T h e i s o l a t e d occurrences p r o b a b l y artificial.

ra.
S u c h a root i n f e r a b l e from t h e d e r i v a t i v e s :

raan v . +

ramn RV.

ram v . +

r v . +

ras, 'roar'. Pres. [1.] rasati te etc. B . + Perf. rarsa resus etc. E. + [Aor. etc. arrasat, ar s t; rasiyati, rasit.] Verb, rasita c . [Sec. Conj. rras; rirasia; rsaya.] Deriv.: rasana c . rasit c
C o m p a r e 1 rs. T h e root 2 ras ' t a s t e ' i s o n l y a d e n o m i n a t i v e o f rasa.

rah]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

138

rah, 'desert'. [Pres. etc. rahati; rarha r e h u s ; arrahat, araht; rahiyati, rahit.] Verb, rahita E. +; rahitum E.
Sec. Conj.: Caus. rahayati etc. s. + rahaa c. Deriv. : raha RV. +

rahin c.

rh ? RV. rahas E . + rahasya, yu B . +

1 r , r s , 'give'.

Pres. [3.] rirhi RY., rarsva AV., rardhvam etc. (rrate 3s., rra) v. [2.] rsi RV., rti o., rt B ., r s va V . B . S . [I.] r s ate etc. V.B .S. Perf. rarim ivs RV., rare etc. RV. Aor. 4. rsma etc. V.B . (r s at etc. V.B .) ; rsthm rsya RV. Fut. [1. rsyati. ] 2, rt c Verb, rt v . + ; rtave c. Deriv.: r c. rravan RV. ray? v.+ rk? v , + rru? V.B . rayiha B. r or r? v . + rt v. + rtna? v . + rya v. r v an V.B .
T h e p r e s e n t s t e m rsa i s p l a i n l y a n e x t e n s i o n o f t h e a o r i s t s t e m ras.

2 r , 'bark'. Pres. [4.] r y ati etc. V.B. [Perf. etc. raru; arst; rsyati, rt.] Deriv. r v an? v s . r j , 'be kingly'. Pres. [I.] rjati etc. v.+, te etc. E . + [2.] r i r RV. Perf. rarja rejus etc. E.+ rarjatus M., reje etc. E. + [rarje.] Aor. I. rjysam s. [ 3. ararjat.] 5. arjius RV. [arjia.] [Fut. rjiyat, rjit.] Verb, rjse RV. Sec. Conj.: [ Int. rrj. Desid. rirjia. ] Caus. rjayati etc. B.+, te
etc. AV.E. Deriv. :

I s m o s t p r o b a b l y a n o l d d e n o m i n a t i v e o f raj ' r u l e r ' , f r o m j, raj, w h i c h s e e . T h e a n o m a l o u s s t e m irajy ( s e e i b . ) i s r e l a t e d w i t h i t .

rj v. + rja v . +

raj an v . + rj an RV.

rjan B. + rj i n RV.E.

r r V.B .S. rr v . +

r d h , 'succeed'. Pres. [5.] rdhnoti etc. B. + [4.] radhyate etc. AV.+. ti etc. s.+ Perf. rar d ha etc. V.B . Aor. 1. ardham B . (rdhati dhat etc. R V . , dhs .B .); rdhysam sma AV.B .S. ; rdhi V.B .U. 3. arradhat etc. B . C 4. artst etc. AV.B.S. 5. rdhii etc. AV.B .U.

139

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[ric

Fut. 1. rtsyati etc. AV.B .S. [ 2. rddh.]

Verb, rddh AV.+; rddhv B . ; rdhya B . Sec. Conj,: Pass, rdhyate c. [ 1nt. rrdh. Desid. rirtsa, ritsa. ] Caus. rdhayati etc. AV. + (rdhyate E. ; rirdhayiati B .) Deriv.: rdhi AV. rdhayit c r d hana AV. + r d ha v. + rdhayius. rdhanya a r d dhi AV.B .S. rdhin E. rddh c r d has v. + r d hya v. + T h e f o r m iradhanta Rv ., w i t h t h e i n f l n . irdhyi ( f o r iradhdhyi)
1

RV ., a p p e a r s t o b e l o n g t o t h i s r o o t .

1 ras, 'roar .

Pres. [I.] rsati te etc. E . + Perf. rarse C. [Aor. etc. arsia; rsiyate, rsit.] Sec. Conj.: Int. rrsyate E. Deriv.: rsa? c. r s abha? B . +
C o m p a r e ras a n d 2 r.

2 rs, see 1 r. ri, r, 'flow'.


Pres. [9.] ri t i rite etc. V.B .S. [5.] arivan MS. [4.] r y ate V.B . [

6. riyati.] [Perf. etc. rirya; arrayat, arit; reyati, ret; reri, rira, r yaya, repaya arripat.] Deriv.: raya E. rt RV. rtv.+ rtasv.+ re v.+
C o m p a r e l.

rikh, Pres. [6.] rikha RV . Deriv. rekh E.


1

'scratch'.

T h e u s u a l form o f t h i s root i s likh, w h i c h s e e .

y r i k h , ring, 'creep'. Pres. [I.] rikhati etc. c ; rigati te etc. c. [Perf. etc. ririkha, ririga etc. etc.]
Sec. Conj.: Caus. rigayati C.

Deriv.:

rikhaa c.

rigin c

rigi c.

ric, 'leave'. Pres. [7.] rikti etc. V.B . [rikte.] [4?] rcyate etc. TS., ti E. Perf. rirca riric etc. V.B. (riricyt etc. v., ririkv s RV., arireot RV.) Aor. I. riktam? RV.; areci V.B .S. 2. aricat c 3. arlricat etc. B .S. 4. rik RV., ariki etc. V.B . Fut. 1. rekyate B . [ 2. rekt.]

ric]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

140

Verb, rikt v. + [rkta.] Sec. Conj.: Pass, ricyte etc. v.+ [ 1nf. reric. Desid. ririka. ] Caus. recayati etc. B. + rica E. + Deriv. : reka v. + rikti JB . recya c. ricya c. rikth v. + rekin c. rcana v. + rkas RV. rici E. + reca B. + recanya c. rikvan RV. r k u RV. recaka E . + The accent ricyate is quotable only from TS., and ricyte only from B . r i p , 'smear'. Perf. ririps RV. Verb, ript RV. Deriv.: rip v. rpas v. rip v.+ ripr v. Compare the other form of the root, l i p , to which most of the formation belongs. riph, 'snarl'.

Pres. [6.] riphant at AV.B . [I.] rephant B . [Perf. etc. rirepha etc. elc.] Verb, riphit B . +
See. Conj.: Pass, riphyate s.

Deriv. repha s. + ribh,


Pres. [1.] rbhati etc. V . B . C . ?
1

'sing'.

Perf. rirbha RV. [Aor. etc. arebht; rebhiyati, rebhit.]


Sec. Conj.: Pass, ribhyate RV.

Deriv. rebh v. + r i , 'tear'. Pres. [6.] rint rite etc. RV. Verb, ri v.u. Deriv. ri AV. See the other form, l i , from which the forms mostly come. r i , 'be hurt'. Pres. [4.] ryati etc. v.+, te etc. E.+ [I.] reat rt v. [Perf. rirea.] Aor. 1. rhvam TA. 2. arian etc. V.B .S. (ritha etc. RV., rant r ant? RV.) 3. rriat etc. v.+ (rria R V . C , riria riries RV.) [ 5. aret.] [Fut. r e i y a t i ; reit, re.] Verb, ri v. +; r i ris RV.

141

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[ruc

Sec. Conj.: [ Int. reri. ] Desid. rrikatietc. RV. [ririia, rireia. ] Caus. reyati etc. v. + (riaydhyi RV.) Deriv. : r v. rea c rea v. remn AV.B . r? B. rein s. ri V.B .S. ririk RV. ria AV. riaa RV. rika? c. r i h , 'lick'. Pres. [2.] rhi rihnti etc. V.B., rihat RV., rih v., rha vs. Perf. ririhv s RV. Verb, rha RV. Sec. Conj.: 1nt. rrihat ha etc. V.B ., rerihyte etc. V.B . Deriv.: rhaa AV. rerih AV. The other verbforms and derivatives made from lih, which see. r, see r i . y 1 r u , 'cry'.

Pres. [2.] ruti [ravti] ruvanti etc. B.+ (ryt s., rava? s.) [6.] ruvti etc. v.+ [1.] ravati te etc. JB . + Perf. rurva E., ruruvire B . Aor. [1. ryt. ] 3. arruvat c [arravat.] 5. rvt etc. RV. [Fut. raviyati, ravit rot.] Verb rut AV. + ; rotum c. Sec. Conj.: Int. rravti etc. v. +, r r u v a B . ; roryate etc. E. +, ti E. [Desid. rura. ] Caus. rvayati etc. s.+ rvas v.+ ruvtha B . rva E . + Deriv.: rva v. + ravit B. rvin E . + rma? RV. ravaa c. ravtha V.B .S. rvaa E . + ruvaa RV. 2 r u , 'break'. Pres. [2.] rudh AV.? [I.] rvat B . Aor. 5. rviam etc. V.B . Verb, rut V.B . Sec. Conj.: Int. rruvat RV. Deriv.: ravit B . rvin B. A very few sporadic occurrences, and not unquestionable. rue, 'shine'.

Pres. [I.] rcate etc. v.+, ti etc. E. + Perf. ruroca ruruc etc. v.+ (rurukv s rurucys rurucanta RV.) Aor. 1. rucya TA., rucn RV.; aroci RV. 2. arucat c 3. arurucat RV., cata (3s.) etc. B. 4. arukta TA. 5. arocia etc B .+ (rociya B., ruciya AV.)

rue]

ROOTS,

VERB FORMS,

142

Fut. 1. rociyate E. [ 2. rocit.] Verb, rucit B . +; rocitum E. ; ruc RV. Sec. Conj.: Int. rrucna RV. Desid. ruruciate? AA. [rurocia.] Caus. rocyati etc. v.+, te etc. B.+ (rocyate B .); rucayanta RV. Deriv. : rue v.+ rci AV. + rocaka E. + rucira E. + ruc B . roci c. rocin c . ruk RV. ruc E. rocis v. + rok v . + ruciya c . rucaka E . + rcuka MS. rka RV. roci B . + rucya c . rukm v. + rokin V.B . rua? RV. roc AV. + rkmant V.B . rocan v. + rant? v . rocas B . r u j , 'break'. Pres. [6.] rujti etc. v . + , te etc. E . + [2?] rukte B . Perf. rurja rurujus etc. v . + (rurjitha RV.) Aor. 1. rok v s . , ruk MS. 3. arrujat c . [ 4. arukt.J [Fut. rokyati, rokt.] Verb, rug v . + ; ruktv B , ; rjya B .+; rje RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, rujyate E. [7nt. roruj. ] Desid. ruruka (in d.) [Caus. rojayati.] rga v. + Deriv. : ruj v . + rujatnu RV. rujana c . log? V.B . ruj v . + rogaa AV. ruruki RV. ruj n RV. ruj E . + r u h , 'torment'. Pres. [1.] rohamna R . Compare luh. rud, 'weep'.
1

Pres. [2.] roditi rudanti etc. v . + (rudimas rudihi c , arodt B . + ) [6.] rudati te etc. s . + [I.] rodati te etc. s . + Perf. ruroda rurudus etc. E., rurude E. Aor. 2. rudat etc. AV.U. [3. arrudat. ] 5 ? arudit o. Fuf. I. rodiyati c . [ 2. rodit.] Verb, rudita E. +; roditum c . ; ruditv E.+, roditv E. ; rudya c . Sec. Conj.: Pass, rudyate c . Int. rorudat E., rorudyate etc. E . + Desid. rurudisa (in d.) Caus. rodyati etc. v. + Deriv.: rud AV. rodana E . + rdas etc.? v . + roruda AV. ruda? c . roditavya E. + rurudiu c . rudana c . rda AV.U. rudr? v.+ 1 r u d h , 'grow'. Pres. [I.] rdhati rdhat RV. [6.] rudhnt? RV . Deriv.:rudh v.+ rodhaAv.+ rdhana V.B . Appears to be another form of ruh.
1

143

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[ruh

2 rudh, 'obstruct'. Pres. [7.] ruddhi rundhanti runddh rundhate etc. v. + [2.] rudh mas AV. [I.] rodhati E. [6?] rundhati te etc. B . + Perf. rurodha rurudhe etc. v+ (rurodhitha RV., rurundhatus E.) Aor. 1. a r o d h a m R v . , arudhmaMs. (rudhnt? RV.); rudhyt c [ a r o d h I . ] 2. arudhat etc. v.+ [3. arrudhat. ] 4. arutst etc. B . + (arut AV., rotss u,), arutsi aruddha etc. B.U. (arutsi AB .) Fut. I. rotsyati te etc. B.+ [ 2. roddh.] Verb, m d d h v. + ; roddhum E. + , dhos B ., rodhitum E,; ruddhv E. + ; rdhya v.+, rundhya E. ; rdham AV.B ., rndham B . ; rdham B . Sec. Conj.: Pass, rudhyte etc. v. + , ti etc. B. + 1nt. rorudhas E. Desid. rurutsate etc. B., ti E. (syamna? B .S.) Caus. rodhayati te etc. E. + (rodhyate E.) ; rundhayati E. rodhaka E. + rdhana v. + ruddhi B . Deriv.: rudh v. + rodhin s. + rodhan RV. roddhavya B .+ rudha RV. rodhya.E.+ rdhas v . + rdha v.+ roddh B. + rodhuka B . r u p , 'brtfak, pain'. Pres. [4.] rupyati etc. B . [Perf. ruropa.] Aor. [2. arupat. ] 3. arrupat etc. AV.B . [Fut. ropiyati, ropit.] Verb, rupita RV.
Sec. Conj.: Caus. ropayati B.

Deriv.:

ropa AV.

rpi A v.

rpu RV.

P r o b a b l y t h e s a m e w i t h lup, t h o u g h differentiated from i t i n m e a n i n g .

ru, 'be vexed'. Pres. [I.] roati RV.B . [4.] ruyati te etc. E.+ [6.] ruati etc. s.+ [Perf. etc. ruroa; aruat, arruat, arot; roiyati, roit ro.] Verb, ruita E.+, rua E.+; ruya E. Sec. Conj.: [ Int. roru. Desid. ruruia, ruroia. ] Caus, roayati te etc. E.+(royate E . + ) Deriv.: r u E.+ roaE.+ roaaE.+
O c c a s i o n a l l y w r i t t e n r u ; a n d p a r t o f t h e AV. f o r m s o f r a n t a r e r e f e r r e d here b y BR .

ruh, 'ascend'. Pres. [I.] rhati te etc. v,+ [6.] ruhati te etc. E . + Perf. ruroha ruruhs etc. v . + (rurhitha AV.), ruruhe etc. a Aor. 2. aruhat etc. v.+ (ruheyam etc. ruha rha V.B .S.) 7. rukat
etc. V.B .S.

ruh]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

144

Fut. 1. rokyti B .+, te E., rohiye E. [ 2. roh.] Verb, rh v. +; rhumB . + , r o h i t u m E. ; rhv AV.; r h y a A v . + , rhya AB . ; rham RV. ; rhiyi TS. ; rham B . Sec. Conj.: Pass, ruhyate E. [Int. roruh. ] Desid. rrukati etc. v . + Caus. rohyati etc v. + , te etc B .+; ropayati etc. B . + , te E. (ropyate E. +, aropi c.) Deriv.: rh v . + rhaa v. + rohavya E. + ropin E. + ruha E . + rohaya s.+ roh c. ropya E. + rha AV. + rhas RV.S. ruruku E. + ropaa E. + rohaka E. + rhuka B . ropa E . + ropaya c. rohin B. + rhi B . + ropaka E . + ropayit E. + rohy B . r, 'strew'.

[Pres. etc rati etc. etc] Verb, rita E. + Sec Conj.: Caus. [rayati;] roayati etc. c. Deriv.: raa c. rk? v.+ rej, 'tremble'. Pres. [I.] rjati te etc V.B .
Sec Conj.: Caus. rejyati etc. RV.

y re, 'deceive' (?). Pres. [1.] reant B .S. Only in the phrase reat mnas. Of wholly doubtful character.

rebh, see ribh.


l a k , 'mark'. Pres. [I.] lakate c , ti E. Sec Conj.: Caus. lakayati te etc E.+ (lakita B .+, lakya s.+; lak yate E. + ) Deriv. : lak v . + lakaya c. lakya u.+ lakm v. + lakaa B. + lkman v. + lakaka c. lakayitavya E. Really a denominative formation from l a k , but having attained the position and value of a secondary root. l a g , 'attach. Pres. [I.] lagati etc E . + [Perf. etc lalga; alagt.] Fut. I. lagiyati etc c. [ 2. lagit.] Verb, lagna B .? B . + ; lagitv c ; lagya c.

145

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[labh

Sec. Conj.: Caus. l g ayati c. Deriv.:lagana c. laganya c. linga? u.+ The lateness of this root is strongly opposed to the derivation from it of l a k etc. lagh, 'leap'. Pres. [I.] laghati te c. [Perf. etc. lalagha ghe; alaght, alaghia; laghiyati te, laghit.] Sec. Conj.: Caus. laghayati etc. E.+ (laghita s. + ; laghyate c.) laghana s.+ Deriv. : langhaka c. langhya E . + laghin c. laghanya c. Doubtless related with rah. lajj, 'be ashamed'. ti etc. E . + Perf. lalajjire c. [Aor. etc. alajjia; lajjiyate, lajjit.] Verb, lajjita c.; lajjitum E. Sec. Conj.: [ Int. llajj. Desid. lilajjia. ] Caus. lajjayati etc. c. Deriv. lajj E . +
B .E.+,
1

Pres. [6.] lajjate etc.

lap, 'prate'. Pres. [1.] lapati etc AV.E.+, te etc E. [4.] lapyant M. Perf. lalpa lepus E . + [Aor. allapat, alalpat; alpt.] Fut. I. lapiyati etc. B. + [ 2. lapit.] Verb, lapit AV.+, lapta E , ; lapitum c , lap turn E , ; lapya E . + Sec. Conj.: Pass, lapyate c. Int. l l apti etc. AV.B. ; llapyate etc. E, + , ti E. [Desid. lilapia. ] Caus. lpayati etc. AV. +, te etc. B .U. lapana c. lpin E. + lapitavya c. Deriv.: lap AV. lapanya c. lpa AV. + lpya c. lapya c. lapti c. lpaka E. + lpana E. + Compare the other rootform, rap. labh, 'take'. Pres. [1.] labhate etc. AV.+, ti etc. AV.? E. + ; lambhate etc E. Perf. lalbha c , lebh etc. v.+ Aor. [1. alambhi. 3, alalambhat. ] 4. alabdha alapsata B . ; lapsya s. Fut. I. lapsyate etc. B.+, ti etc. B. + ; labhiyati c. 2. labdh E. Verb, labdha v.+; labdhv AV.+; lbhya B . + ; lmbham B .S. Sec. Conj.: Pass, labhyte etc. B.+, ti c. [ 1nt. llabh, llambh.] Desid. lpsate etc AV.+, ti etc. E. + ; lpsate etc. B .S. (lipsyteB .) Caus. lambhayati etc B .+, te B.

labh]
Deriv.:

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

146

labha s.+ labhya B. + lbha B . + lbhaka RV. lbhin c.

labhana c. labhanya c. labdhi E. + labdhavya u.+ labdh B. +

lambha B. + lambhaka B . + lambhin E . + lambhy B .S. lambhana s. + lambhanya u.+

lambhuka B .U. lips AVP.E. + lipsu E . + lipsitavya E. lpsitavya B .

Compare the other rootform, rabh. lam, take pleasure'. Pres. lalma c . Deriv. lamaka? s. Sporadic variation of ram. l a m b , 'hang down'. Pres. [1.] lambate etc. B.+, ti etc. E . + Perf. lalambe etc. E. + [Aor. alalambat, alambia.] Fut. I. lambiyati E., alambiyata c. [2. lambit.] Verb, lambita E. + ; lambitum E. + ; lambya E . +
Sec. Conj.: Pass, l a m b y a t e etc. E . + Caus, lambayati etc. E. + , te c. Deriv. : lamba B. +
l

(lambyate etc. E . + ) lambin B . + lambaka c. lambya c.

lambana E. + lambuka B .

lambitavya o.

l a l , 'sport'. Pres. [1.] lalati te etc. E . + Verb, lalita E. + Sec. Conj.: Caus. llayati etc. E.+, te c. (llyate c ) ; lalayati etc. c. llayitavya E.'+ llaka c. llana c. Deriv.: lalana E . + llanya E. + lla c. llya c. la, ' desire'. Pres. [I.] laati te etc. E . + [ 4. layati te.] Perf. l a l a leus c. [lee.] [Aor. allaat; al t, alaia.] Fut. 1. laiyati c. [te. 2. lait.] Verb, lait E. + [Sec Conj.: lla; lilaia; laya.] lin c laaya c la c Deriv.: laya c luka c laka E, + Hardly occurs, in verbforms or derivatives, except with abhi.

147

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[lip

las, 'be lively'. Pres. [1.] lasati etc. E.+, te etc c. Perf. lalsa c [Aor. etc. allasat, alast; lasiyati, lasit.] Verb, lasita E. + Sec. Con;.: Caus. lsayati etc. E.+ (lsyate c.) lasana c. Deriv.: las c lsa E. + lsana E. + lasa B. + lsaka E. +

lsin E. + lsya E. + llasa E. + In meaning, llasa belongs distinctly to l a , and the two roots are very possibly one in origin; alasa is the only preepic form. la, 'grasp'. Pres. [2.] lti c [Perf. etc. lalu; alst; lsyati, lt.] Verb, ltv c. A few sporadic occurrences, probably artificial. l c h , 'mark'. Only in lchita c. and lchana c ; perhaps connected with lak. likh, 'scratch'.

Pres. [6.] likhti etc. AV.+, te B .S. Perf. lilkha etc. B. + Aor. [1. alekhI. ] 3. allikhat JB . 5. lekhs B .S. Fut. 1. likhiyati c [lekhiyati. 2. lekhit.] Verb, likhit AV. + [ l e k h i t u m , l i k h i t u m ; lekhitv,] likhitv c . ; l khya B . + Sec. Conj.: Pass, likhyate etc. s.+ [ Desid. lilikhia, lilekhia. ] Caus. lekhayati etc s. + ; likhpayati c lekha s.+ lekhaka E. + lekhana s. + Deriv.: likhya c lekhin E. + lkh B . + lekhanya c. likhana c lekhya E. + Compare the other rootform, rikh. lip, limp, 'smear'.

Pres. [6.] limpti etc AV.+, te etc s.+ Perf. lilepa lilipus B . + Aor. I. alepi c 2. alipat c [alipata. 3. alUipat.] 4. alipta c , alipsata RV. [Fut. lepsyati t e ; lept.] Verb, lipta Av. + ; lipya B . + Sec Conj.: Pass, lipyate etc B . +, ti E. [Int. lelip. Desid. lUipsa. ] Caus. lepayati etc. E.+; limpayati s.

lip] Deriv. : lepa u.s.+ lepaka c.

ROOTS, lepin E. + lepya c.

VERB FORMS, lepana s.+ lipi E. +

148 limpa AV.B . limpi c .


1

Compare the other rootform, rip. l i , 'tear'. Pres. [6.] lite etc. B. (lina JB .) [ 4. liyate.] Perf. liliire B . Aor. [3. allliat. ] 5. a l e i i B . [ 7. alikata.] [Fut. l e k y a t e , le.] Verb, l i B .S. [Sec. Conj.: l e l i ; lilika; leaya.] Deriv.: (ku)lia? v.+ B .+ lea leUE.+ Compare the other rootform, ri. l i h , 'lick'. Pres. [2.] lehi etc. B.+, lhe etc. E.+ [6.] lihati etc. B . + [Perf. etc. lileha, lilihe.] Aor. [1. alehi. 3. allihat. 4. alha. ] 7. alikat s. [kata.] [Fut. lekyati te, leh.] Verb, lha E. + ; lihya s. Sec. Conj.: Pass, lihyate E. Int. lelihat etc. E.+, lelihna E.+, hita'jB ., lelihyate etc. E. +, hyant c. [ Desid. lilika. ] Caus. l e h y a t i etc. B .+ lehana s. + Deriv.: lih c. leha c. lehin E. + leliha E . + lehaka E. liha c. lehya E. + Compare the other rootform, rih. 1 l, 'sling'.

Pres. [4.] l y ate A v.? B.+, ti etc. U . C [I.] lyate etc. V.B . (ni)lyata B. [ 9. linti.] Perf lilye etc. B.+, lilyus B .+ (ni)lay cakre B . [lalu.] Aor. 4. alea B. [alit. 6. alst.] [Fut. leyati, lsyati; let, lt.] Verb, lna AV. + ; lya E.+, lya s.; l y am AV.B . Sec. Conj.: [ 1nt. lel. Desid. lila. ] Caus. lpayati etc. B. + (lp y a t e c.); lyayati etc. c. Deriv.: lya B. + lpya c. lyana c. lyya? RV. l p ana B . + lyana AV. + l y a? RV. lyana c. lpayitavya c. lay? MS. l y aka vs. leya? c. Compare ri, r.

149

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[lup

2 l , 'be unsteady'. Sec. Conj.: 1nt. lel y ati B .U.S., alelyat B ., alelet B ., lelynt lelyatas B. ; lelyate etc. u . , alelyata B . ; lelya? CB ., lel y a MS., lelyat J B. Deriv. lel CB . ? JB.
Perhaps intensive of t h e preceding. quite anomalous. T h e variety of form a n d accent i s

l u c , 'tear'. [Pres. lucati.] Perf. lulucus E., ce c . [Aor. etc. aluct; luciyati, lucit.] Verb, lucita c . ; lucitv c . [lucitv]; lucya E. Deriv.: luk? c . luca VS. lucaka c .

lucana E . +

1 l u h , 'roll'. Pres. [6.] luhati te etc. c . Perf. luloha c . [Aor. etc. alluhat alulohat, aloht alohia; lohiyati, lohit.] Verb, luhita c . Sec. Conj.: 1nt. l o l u h t i c Caus. lohayati c . Deriv. lohana? c . 2 l u h , l u h , 'rob'. Pres. [1.] luhati E . Fut. luhiyati c . Verb, luhitum c . Sec. Conj.: Caus. lohayati etc. c . ; luhayati etc. c. (luhyate c . ) Deriv.: luh c . luhaka c . luhana E.O. luhi c .
1

l u , 'stir up'. [Pres. etc. loati etc. etc.] Sec. Conj.: Caus. loayati etc. E. + ; loita loya s . + (loyate etc. E . + ) Deriv.: loana E. + loayit a
C o m p a r e luI. A f o r m o r t w o f r o m l u h a p p e a r t o h a v e t h e m e a n i n g o f lu.

l u p , 'break'. Pres. [6.] lumpti etc. AV.+, te etc. s . + Perf. lulopa etc. B .+, lulupe E. Aor. 1. lopi s . [2. alupat. ] 3. allupat E. [alulopat.] 4. [alupta;] lopsya u . [Fut. lopsyati te, lopt.] Verb. l u p t a A v . + ; l o p t u m c ; l u p t v s. + ; lpya AV. + ; lmpam MS., lopam s .

lup]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

150

Sec. Conj.: Pass, lupyte etc. AV.+ (lpyate TS.), ti s. Int. l o l u p a t pyate etc. u . + [Desid. lulupsa, lulopia. ] Caus. lopayati t e
etc. JB .E.+ (lopyate c.) Deriv. : lup C lopaka E . +

lopana E. + lumpaka E. + lupti B . lump an a E. lopt E. lolupa E. + loptra E. + Compare the other rootform, rup. Lolupa belongs in meaning to lubh. lupya c. lopa B . + lopin E. + lopya c. l u b h , 'be lustful'.

Pres. [4.] lubhyati etc. AV.+ [ 6. lubhati.] [1.] lobhase c . Perf. lulubhe s. + [lulobha.] Aor. [ 2 . alubhat. ] 3 . alulubhat JB . [ 5 . alobht.] [Fut. l o b h i y a t i ; lobdh, lobhit.] Verb, lubdha B . +; lobdhum E. Sec. Conj.: Int. lolubhyate c [Desid. lulubhia, lulobhia. ] Caus. lobhyati etc. v.+, te etc. E.+ (lobhyate E. + ; lulobhayiati AB .) Deriv. : lobha E. + lobhanya E. + lobhin E . + lobhana s. + lobhya c lobhaka a l u l , 'be lively'. Pres. [1.] lolati etc. c. Verb, l u l i t a E . +
Sec. Conj.: Caus. lolayati etc. E. +

Deriv.: lola E.+ lolana a The same with lu. l, 'sut'.

Pres. [ 9 . ] lun t i etc. B. + [ 5 . ] lunoti etc. B .S. Perf. l u l v a C. [Aor. etc. alvi, allavat vata, alvt a l a v i a ; laviyati te, lavit.] Verb, l n a B .+; lvam c [Sec. Conj.: l o l ; l u l a ; lvaya.] Deriy.: lva B .+ lavya c lavanas.+ l v a c. lvaka c

l o k , 'look'. Pres. [1.] lokate etc. B ' . a Perf. l u l o k e c. Aor. 1. aloki c. [ 3 . alulokat. 5 . alokia.J [Fut. lokiyate, lokit.] Verb, l o k i t u m c. lokayit c. lokana c. lokin s. + Deriv. : loka E. lokayati etc. E. +, te etc. E. + (lokyate etc. c.) Sec. Conj.: Caus. + lokanya E. + lokayitavya c lokya E. + lokaka E. + Doubtless from rue, through a noun l o k a : compare also l o c

151

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[vac

l o c , 'see, consider'. [Pres. locate.] Perf luloce c . [Aor. etc. alulocat, alocia; lociyate, locit.] Sec. Conj.: [ Int. loloe. Desid. lulocia. ] Caus. locayati te etc. E . + Deriv. : loea c. locya c. locana E . + locanya c. locaka c. The same root with the preceding.
1

vak, see vac.


vak, uk, 'increase'.

Pres. [ 1, 6.] kant ukma kat RV. Perf. v a v k a v a v a k etc. (vavkitha) v. Aor. 3 ? vavkat sv. 5. ks RV. [Fut. vakiyati, vakit.] Verb, ukit RV. Sec. Conj.: Caus. ukayanta RV. ; vakayam RV. Deriv.: vkaa RV. vak? V. v a k i RV. vaktha RV. vkas? v.+ v a c , 'speak'. Pres. [3.] v v a k t i etc. v. [2.] v a c m i v a k i vakti E. + Perf. uv c a cs etc. v.+ (uvktha AV.), c etc. v.+ (vavca vivakv s RV., v a v a k RV.) Acr. 1. ucysamB,; avci V.B . 2 . avocat cata etc. v.+ (vcati te etc. v. + ; vocti etc. V.B .S. , v o c t ceta etc. V.B ., v o c a t u etc. v.; vocant c.; avoci c.) [ 3. avvacat.] Fut. 1. vakyti etc. v.+, te etc. E.+ (avakyat etc. B .U.) 2. vakt B . + Verb, ukt v.+; v k t u m B .+, tave RV., tos B . ; u k t v B . + ; cya B. + Sec. Conj.: Pass, ucyte etc. v.+ Int. vvact RV. Desid. v i v a k a t i te etc. B .+ (vivakyate c.) Caus. vcayati etc. B . + , te etc. s. (vcyate c.) vcana v.+ ukti v. + Deriv.: vagnu V.B. v c v. + vacan RV. vakti u . vkman? RV. vaca E. + vacanya s, + v k t v a RV. vkmya? RV. cya B .S. vcana v. + v a k t a v y B . + vagvan RV. v k v.+ vcanya c. vakt v. + vagvan RV. vkin u . vcas v. + vaktra E . + v i v a k E. + v k y v. + v c as v. ukth v. + v i v a k u AV. + vcaka E. + v k u AV.+ uctha RV. ycayit c. v c i n c. vcayitavyas. v c ya v. + The aoriststem v o c a is treated quite as a secondary rootform.
1 1

vaj]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

152

vaj, 'be strong'. [Pres. etc. vajati etc. etc.] Sec. Conj.: Caus. vjyati etc. V.B .S. (vjaynt RV. ; vjaydhyi RV.) Deriv. : vj a v.+ jas v.+ jyas V.B . ugr v. + oja RV. vjana s. ojmn v. vjra v.+ jiha V.B . The verbal forms are really denominative, from vja. v a c , 'move crookedly'.
Pres. [1.] v c a t i V.B .S., te c .
1

Perf. [vavaca] vvakre RV, [Aor. etc. vacyt, avavacat, a v a c t ; vaciyati, v a c i t ; v a c i t v v a c i t v vaktv.] Sec. Conj.: Pass, v a c y t e etc. v.+ 1nt. [vanvac] avvact? RV. [Desid. v i v a c i a . ] Caus. vacayati etc. u.+, te etc. E.+ (vac yate E. + ) vakr AV. + Deriv. : vacaka E. + v a n k RV. vacayit c. v k v a RV. vacayitavya E.+ vacana v. + vkri v. + v k v a n RV. vacanya E . + It is hardly necessary to assume a different rootform v a k for a part of these forms, since they are all such as sometimes show a guttural in place of a palatal of the root. v a , 'divide'. [Pres. etc. v a a t i etc. etc.]
Sec. Conj.: Pass, v a y a t e c.

The single occurrence is doubtless artificial. vat, 'apprehend'. Pres. [I.] v a t e m a vtantas RV. Aor. 3. a v v a t a n v.
Sec Conj,: Caus. v t y a t i etc RV.

Deriv. vta ? RV. Only with api. .vad, 'speak'.

Pres. [I.] vdati te etc. v.+ (vdata deyus E. ; udeyam AV.) Perf. d i m d u s V.B ., d e etc B .U. Aor. I. u d y s a m etc B .S. ; avdi c. [3. avvadat. ] 5. avdt etc. v.+ (v d ias AV., v a d i m a AB .), v a d i h s B . (avdiran AV.) Fut. I. v a d i y t i etc. AV.+, te B. erb. udit v, + , v a d i t a E.+; v a d i t u m B . + , v d i t o s B .S.; u d i t v s.; udya B .+; de? AV.

153

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[vand

Sec. Conj.: Pass, udyte efc. v. + 1nt. v v adti etc. V.B., dyte etc. B. Desid. vivadiati etc. B .S. Caus. vdayati te etc. B .+ (vdyate B.+, ti E . ) Deriv.: vada v. + vdya AV.+ vadit B . + v a d m n RV. vdana B. + vditra u . s . + vadvada B . vadya v, + vdana s . + vadiu s . vadvadin s . udya AV. + vdanya s . + vadiu s . vdayit B . + v d a v.+ vaditavy B . + vadiha B . vdaka E. + v d i t a v y a E. vduka B. v d i n v. + Compare vand. vadh, badh, 'slay'.

Pres. [1?] vadha? vadheyam AV., vadhet vs. Aor. 1. badhysam sus AV.B .S., vadhyt B . ; avadhi c. 5. vadht etc. v. + (avadhm v d h m V.B . ; v d h i a s RV., badhs TA.) [vadhi h s ; vadhiia.] Fut. 1. vadhiyati te efc. E. +
Sec. Conj.: Deriv.: Pass, vadhyate etc. E.+, ti etc. E . + Caus. vadhayati etc. E.

vadh, ba v. + . vdhaka AV. + v d h y a , b AV. +

vadhn RV. vdhatra RV. vdhar RV.

vadhy E. + vadhra RV. vdhri? v.+

vadhasn RV. vadhasn v.

van, v, 'win'. Pres. [8.] v a n t i v a n u t etc. V.B.S. [I.] vnati te etc. v. [ b , ] van t i v a n m a V.B . Perf. vv n a v a v a n m etc. v a v n (vvntha v v n a s vavandh) RV. Aor. 1. vanta? RV., vsva RV. 4. vsat etc. RV., vsi (ls.) vasate V.B. , vasmahi v a s m a h i RV. 5. v a n i a t AV. , vanianta TS. (vanuanta RV.), v a n i a RV. 6. vasiya? AV. Fut. 1. v a n i y a t e s . [ 2. vanit.] Verb, vta V.B ., vanita E. + ; v a n t a v e RV.
Sec. Conj.: Int. v a n v a n (in d.). Desid. v v s a t i te etc. v. Caus.

vnayantu AV. Deriv.: van? B .S. v a n a v.u. v a n i n RV. vnya B. vand? RV.

vanana v. v a n n RV. v a n a n y a c. v n a s RV. v a n i V.B . v a n RV.

v a n u s RV. vant RV. vnit RV. v n i h a RV. v n y a s RV.

vnya B .S. vm? v.+ v n v a n RV. vv t a v. + vv t RV. vanayit c.

vand, 'greet'. jRres. [I.] vndate etc. v.+, ti E. Perf. vavanda etc. V.B., d etc, v.+

vand]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

154

Aor. 1. v a n d i RV. 5. v a n d i m h i RV. [Fut. v a n d i y a t e , vandit.] Verb, v a n d i t AV. + ; v a n d i t u m E. + ; v a n d i t v E. + ; vandya E. + ; vand dhyi RV.
Sec. Conj.: Pass, v a n d y a t e etc. E. + Desid. v i v a n d i a (in d.). Caus.

vandayati etc. E. Deriv, : vanda v, v a n d i n c. v n d y a v. + vndana v. + Doubtless the same with v a d . 1 vap,

vandanya E.+ vand r u v. +

v a n d i t a v y a E. + vandit V.B . vivandiu c.

'strew'.

Pres. [I.] vpati te etc. v.+ (upet s.) Perf. u v p a p s etc. v. + (vavpa E.), p e etc. RV. Aor. . [upyt;] v p i B . [3. avvapat. ] 4. a v p s t etc. B.+ [avapta.] Fut. I. v a p s y t i etc. B.S.; v a p i y a t i etc. E . + [ 2. vapt.] Verb, u p t v.+, upita E ., v a p t a E . ; u p t v E. + ; pya v.+ Sec. Conj.: Pass, u p y t e etc. v. + [1nt. v v a p . Desid. v i v a p s a . ] Caus. vpayati etc. B. + Deriv. : v a p B . vpaka E. v a p t a v y a c. v a p a n i y a c. vap V.B .S. vpin c. v a p t E. + v p a n a c. pya B . vpya B . + vapra s.+ v p E. + vpa B.+ v p a n a AV. + vapiha B . upti c. vpayit B . Compare the following root.
1 1

2 vap,
Pres. [I.] v a p a t i te etc.
V.B .S.

'shear'.

Verb, upta S. ; u p t v s.; upya s. Sec. Conj.: Caus. v p a y a t i etc. s., yta s. Deriv.: vpana B . + v p a c. vpana s. + vpt V.B Doubtless the same with the preceding root: 'scatter off from one'. vam, 'vomit'.

.S.

Pres. [2.] v m i t i v a m a n t i etc. v.+ (avamt V . B . , avamat B . + ) [ I . ] v a m a t i etc. E. + Perf. v a v m a E. +, v e m u s c. [vavamus] (uvma B .) Aor. [I. avmi. 3. avvamat. ] 4. av a n KB . [ 5. avamt.] [Fut. vamiyati, vamit.] Verb, v t B . +; v a m i t v c. Sec. Conj.: [ Int. vavam. Desid. v i v a m i a . ] Caus. v m a y a t i etc. c.; v a m a y a t i etc. c. vamr? V.B . v a m a n a c. Deriv. : v a m i c. v a m i t a v y a c. v m a n y a c. v a m a t h u c. vmin B . +

155

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[1 vas

v a l , 'turn'. Pres. Perf. [Aor. Verb, [I.] valati te etc. c . vavale c. etc. avvalat, a v a l i a ; valiyati, valit.] valit c . ; v a l i t v c .

Sec. Conj.: Caus. valayati c .

Deriv.: valana c . vali ? E. + valaya E. + Evidently a secondary root form, probably from 1 v , through some derivative. v a l g , 'spring'. Pres. [I.] vlgati etc. AV.+, te etc. E . + Perf. vavalga etc. E. [Aor. etc. a v a l g t ; valgiyati, valgit.] Verb, valgita E. +
Sec. Conj.: Caus. valgayati s.

Deriv.:

valg E.+

valgin a

valgana c.

valgv.+

valh, 'challenge'. Pres. [I.] valhati te etc. B.S. Verb, valhita c . ; valhya B . Deriv.:valha B .S. valhaka .s. B v a , 'be eager'. Pres. [2.] v i u n t i etc. v.+ (masi R V . , v a a sv.) [l.] v a n t i vaat RV., v a a e t AV.? [3.] v a v k i v i v a i RV., v i v a u sv. [6.] u m n a RV . Perf. v v a s e n RV. [uva u s . ] Aor. [1. u y t . 3. avvaat. ] 5. v a s E. [avt.] [Fut. etc. v a i y a t i , v a i t ; uita.]
1

Sec. Conj.: [ Pass, u y a t e . Int. v v a . Desid. v i v a i a . ] Caus, Deriv.:

v a a y a t i a ; vit ? A V . + un, nas v. + v a v. + u n y a RV. u ? RV.

va B . u? v.+ uj V.B .8. 'shine'.


1

v i RV. v a i t c. v y a s ? AV.

1 vas, u , uch,
Pres. [6.] uchti etc.
V.B .S.

[2.] v a s t e ?

B .

Perf. uv s a s etc. V.B. A or. 1. avasran RV. 4. avt? AV. Fut. 1. avatsyat B. Verb, u v.+, u i t a S.E. ; v s t a v e RV. ; i V.B .
Sec. Conj.: Caus. v s y a t i etc. V.B .

1 vas]
Deriv. : v.B .

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

156

u Rv. a E.+ uar, us RV. u s v.+

ui v. + v s t u V.B . vast RV. v s u v. + v s i h a v. +

v s y a s B .S. v s y a s V.B .U. usr v . + sri RV.

vsa AV.S. vsana c. vsar RV. v i v s v a n RV. v i v a s v a n t v. +

2 vas, 'clothe'. Pres. [2.] v s t e v s a t e v s n a etc. v . + ( v s i v a RV., u RV ., vad d h v a m s.) [6.] uma RV . Perf. v a v a s e c , v v a s e sn RV. A or. [3. a v v a s a t . ] 5. a v a s i a etc. RV. Fut. 1. [vasiyate;] v a t s y a t i c . [ 2. vasit.] Verb, v a s i t a E. v a s i t u m E. +; v a s i t v c. v a s y a E. Sec. Conj,: [ Int. v v a s . Desid. v i v a s i a . ] Caus. vsyati etc. v.+, te RV. (vsyate E.) vstra v. + Deriv. : v a s c. vsin B . + vasant? v.+ v s a n a v. + v s m a n RV. v a s i t a v y a E. v a s a RV. v s ana AV. + v a s i t c. v s y a B .S. v s as v. + v a s t s. vsa v.+
1 1 1

3 vas,

'dwell'.

Pres. [I.] v s a t i etc. v . + , te etc. B. + Perf. u v s a us etc. v. +; v s cakre u. Aor. I. vsna? V.B .S. [ u y t ; avsi.] 3. avvasat

MS.

4. avtst

etc. AV. + ( a v k s a m AB ., avst'am u.) Fut. I. v a t s y a t i etc. B .+, te etc. E . + ; v a s i y a t i etc. E. [ 2. v a s t . ] Verb, u i t a s. +, u a E., v a s i t a c ; v a s t u m r E . + , t a v i s., v a s i t u m c . ;

uitv B .+, u v E.+; ya B .+; vsam c. Sec. Conj.: Pass, u y a t e c. [ 1nt. v v a s . ] Desid. v i v a t s a t i B . Caus. v s y a t i etc. v . + , te etc. AV.+ (vsyte etc. B . + , yant E.
Deriv.:

v s as TA.) v s RV. vasa E. + uaka c. uya v. + v s v. + v s a k a E. +

v s i n AV.+ vsya E.+ v s a n a v. + uaa c. vsana s.+ vsanya E . +

v s a s u. vasu? v. vasat v. + v a s t u E. + vastavy B .+ u i t a v y a c.

v a s t u v. + vst B . vasatha V.B .S. v s m a n RV. v s a y i t a v y a E. v s a y i t E. +

A few vasforms, occurring in RV. in questionable connection, are refer red in B R. to a root 4 v a s 'aim'. The causative forms ascribed by B R. to a root 5 v a s 'cut off' are also doubtless peculiar technical specializations from 3 vas.

157

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[2 v

v a h , 'carry'. Pres. [I.] vhati te etc. v.+ [2.] v k i v o h a m h m uhta v k v a v o h v a m hvam hna V.B . Perf. uvha hs etc. v. +, h etc. v. (vavha v a v h a t u s E. + ) Aor. 1. avhi c.; uhyt s. [3. avvahat. ] 4. v k t etc. V.B .S. (v
v V.B .S., v k a t etc. V.B.S., v k a t i etc. v.) [avaki.]

Fut. I. vakyti etc. AV.+, te E. ; vahiyati etc. E . + 2. voh B . Verb. h v . + , v o h a ? E . ; v h u m v . + , have V.B .S., hav B . ; hv B . ; hya AV. + ; v h e RV.; vhadhyi RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, uhyte etc. v . + , y a n t E . + 7nt. v v a h t i o., v a n v h yte etc. B.S. [Desid. vivaka. ] Caus. vhayati etc. B . +, te etc. E. + (vhyate etc. E. + ) Deriv. vhya s. + v o h a v y a E. + vhyas V.B . vh v. + vahana s. + vhitavya B . v h n i v.+ vha AV. + vhman RV. v h ana v.+ v o h v. + v a h n B .S. v k a s ? v. vhanya c. vhit E. vahy v.s. vaka? v. vaht RV. vahit u . ogha u . + vak ? RV. vght? RV. vahitra c. ugh B. v v ahi RV. v h as V.B .S. vhiha v. v h v. + vvadh ? B . + hi B . + v h iha V.B . vhaka E. + vhayit c vahat V.B . v h n AV. + Compare roots 1, 2 h.
1

1 v , 'blow'. Pres. [2] v t i etc. v. + [4.] v y ati etc. v. +, te etc. E. Perf. v a v u etc. B. + A or. 6? avst B . Fut. I. v s y a t i etc. c. Verb, v t a s., v n a c ; v t u m c.
Sec. Conj.: Caus. v p y a t i etc. v. + Deriv. : V AV.B .

vpaka c. vpayit c. v t a v.+ vpana c. vpayitavya c. v y v. + vyy AV. The forms from pres.stem v y a have mostly the sense 'be blown or ex hausted', and are generally referred to a different root, 2 v. The two, however, seem evidently only two sides of the same original root, nor are the forms capable of being clearly divided between them. vna E. + 2 v , v i , u , 'weave'. Pres. [4.] v y a t i etc. v. +, te etc. B . + Perf. v u s RV. [ v a v u etc., u v y a y u s etc.] [Aor. I. yt. 4. avsta, v s a . 6. avst.] Fut. 1. vayiyti RV. [te; vsyatI. 2. vt.] Verb, ut v.+, t a s.; tum RV., tave RV., tavi v., v t ave AV.

2 v]
vyaya.] vya RV.C v y a k a c. vayana B .S.

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

158

Sec. Conj.: Pass, y a t e etc. B.S. [ 1nt. v v . Desid. v i v s a . Caus. Deriv.:

v n a s. + vayna? v.+ ti? c.

otu V.B . vtavya c. v a y i t B.

ve? s.+ v e m a E. vman B . +

3 vS (in vivSsa}, see van.


vch, 'desire'. Pres. [1.] v c h a t i etc. v.+ [Perf. etc. v a v c h a ; a v c h t ; vchiyati, vchit.] Verb, v c h i t a E. +
Sec. Conj.: Pass, v c h y a t e etc. c. Caus. v c h a y a t i E.

Deriv. v c h c. v , 'bellow'.
Pres. [4.] v y a t e etc. AV.+, ti E. [1.] v a t i etc. RV.E.+, te etc. E . +

Perf. v a v e etc. v.+ ( v v a r e n a v v a t a m v v a a n t a etc. RV.) Aor. 3. a v v a a t etc. v v a a n t a RV. [avavat.] 5 . a v i h s B . [Fu. v i y a t e , vit.] Verb, v i t a E.+; v i t v c.; v y a c. Sec. Conj.: Pass, v y a t e c. Int. v v aat RV. ; v v y a t e E. [ Desid. v i v i a . ] Caus. v a y a t etc. .v.s. Deriv.: va ? v.+ v a k a c. v y a s. vrv.+ v v.s. v i n E.+ v a n a c. vh, 'press'. Pres. [I.] vhate etc. c. [Perf. etc. v a v h e ; avhia; v h i y a t e , vhit.]
Sec. Conj.: Caus. v h a y a t i c.

1 vic, 'sift'.
Pres. [7.] v i n k t i etc. v.+ [3.] v i v e k i RV . Perf. v i v e c a ? AV. (vivikv s RV.) [Aor. a v v i c a t , avikt.] Fut. I. v e k y a t i c. [ 2. vekt.] Verb, v i k t a B .+ ; v e k t u m E . ; vicya s.+; vecam s. Sec. Conj.: Pass, v i c y t e etc. AV. + Int. v e v e k t i s. Caus. v e c a y a t i etc. c. Deriv. : v e k a u. + v e k t c. v e c a k a c. vikti B. + v v i c i V.B .S. vecana B . + v e k i n c. v e k t a v y a c. v e k y a c.
1

159

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[2 vid

2 vie, see vyac.


vij 'tremble . Pres. [6.] vijte etc. v.+. ti etc. E.+ [I.] vejate B. Perf. vivije etc. v.+ Aor. 1 (4?). vikths V.B ., vikta RV. 3. vvijas RV. [ 5. avijia.] Fut. 1. vijiyati E,, vejiyati c. [ 2. vijit.] Verb, v i k t a RV., vigna E.+ [vijitum,] Sec. Conj.: Int. vevijyte RV., vvijnaRv. [ Desid. vivijia. ] Caus. vejayati etc B.+, te E. Deriv.: v ij RV. vejaka c. v e v i j RV. vejana c. vga v.+ vejin c. vigr? RV. 1 vid, 'know'. Pres. [2.] vetti vidnti etc v.+, vidmahe B .+ (avidus B ., dan c.; v i d karotu etc c.) [1.] veda E., vedate u. [6.] vidti te etc AV.U.E. + ; vindati te etc. E. + Perf. vda v i d s etc. v. +, vidre RV. ; v i v e d a etc c. vid cakra etc
B.U.S.
1

Aor. [I. avedi. 3. avvidat. ] 4. avit? c. 5. avedt etc. B. + vidm akran B. Fut. 1. vediyati te ec B .U. (avediyat u.); v e t s y a t i te etc. E . + 2. vedit B., v e t t E. Verb, vidit AV. + ; v d i t u m B .+, tos B ., v e t t u m E. ; viditv B . + Sec Conj.: Pass, vidyate c [Int. v e v i d . ] Desid. v i v i d i a t i etc B . +, v i v i t s a t i etc c. Caus. vedyate ti etc v.+ (vedyate etc. E . + ; vivedayia in d.) v e d i t a v y B . + v i v i t s E. + Deriv.: v d v.+ vedana B . + vidtha V.B . . v i v i t s u E. + vida B . + vedanya E. + vidy v. + v d a v.+ vedi B. v i v i d i c. vidmn v. vid(s?) RV. vedaka E. + v i v i d i u c. vidura E. + vitti c. v e d i n B. + v e d a y i t c. v i d v n AV. vett u.+ v d y a v.+ v i v e d a y i u E. vidval v. vdit v. + vedy RV.C See 2 vid. 2 vid, 'find'. Pres. [6.] vindti te etc v.+ [2.] v i t t etc V.B. (vid 3s. V.B ., vidr V.B .,
v i d m 3s.Av.B ., vidnv.B ., v d n a v . ) ; v i n d a t e (3p.)E., v i n d y t ? c .

Perf. v i v d a v i v i d u s etc v.+ (vivditha RV. , v i v i d a t RV.), v i v i d


etc V.B .S. Aor.

I. avedi vdi RV. 2. vidat data etc V.B .S. (vid s i etc vid t etc vidt deta etc V.B.S., v i d e a AV.) [3. avvidat. ] 4. avitsi V.B.

2 vid]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

160

Fut. I. vetsyati te etc. B. + [vediyati. 2, vett.] Verb, vitt v.+, vinna AV. + ; vettum E., vttave AV., tavi? TB ., tos J B . ; VttV AV.B .; vdya B . + ; Vd RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, vidyte etc. v,+, ti etc. E. 1nt. vvidat dna etc. RV. Desid. vivitsati etc. B . + Caus. vedayati etc. E. Deriv. : vid v.+ vitti AV. + vedya B . + vidyya RV. vidya v. vettavya c. vdana v.+ vinda B . + vda v.+ vedanya c. vett E. + vindu V.B . vedaka c. vdas v.+ vdiha RV. vindaka c. vedin c. vduka B . vdyas RV. vivitsu? E.
D o u b t l e s s originally t h e s a m e w i t h t h e p r e c e d i n g root. I n s o m e of their meanings, t h e t w o are s o close together as hardly tob e separable; and there are instances, from t h e Veda down, o f exchanges of form b e t w e e n them.

Pres. [6.]

vidMti

etc.

V.B .U.C,

1 vidh, 'worship'. te etc. RV.

Deriv. vedhs v. +

2 vidh, see vyadh. vindh, lack'.


Pres. [6.] vindhte etc. RV. Deriv.: vidh v.+ vidhvav.+ vidhuraE.+ A body o f forms o f not unquestionable connection.

vip, vep, 'tremble'.

[I.] vpate etc. v.+, ti etc. E . + vivipre RV., vepus? c. [vivepe.] Aor. 1. vipn RV. 3. avvipat etc. RV. 5. avepia [Fut. vepiyate, vepit.] Sec. Conj.: Caus. vepyati etc. v.+; vipyanti RV. vepan v. + vpa v. + Deriv.: vip v. vpas RV. vipana? RV, vepin c. vipas v. +
Pres. Perf.

etc. B .S.

vepthu AV.+ vpiha RV. vipra v. +

vi, 'enter'.

(vivitha R V . , viveus RV., viveatus c , viivs AV., viviys v., vives RV.) Aor. 1. viranRv.; [viyt;] avei c. 3. avviat c. 4. vik mahi etc. RV. 5. vet RV. 7. avikat an B .C [avikata.] Fut. I. vekyati etc. B. + , te etc. B. 2. ve M. Verb, vi v.+; veum E . +, avi B ., vya A V . + ; vam RV.

Pres. [6.] viti te etc. v.+ Perf. viva vivie etc. v.+

161

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

Sec. Conj.: Pass, v i y a t e etc. a [ Int. v e v i . ] Desid. v i v i k a t i etc. E . + Caus. v e y a t i etc. v.+, te etc. AV.+ ( v e y a t e etc. s.+) Deriv.: v v.+ veaka a v a n a v.+ v e a v y a E. + via B . + v e i n s. + v e a n y a c. ve c. v e y v. + v e v. + v e a n t a V.B . v m a n v. + v i a n a E. + v e s AV. ve RV. v i v i k u E. + vii s. v e a y i t a v y a c. v i , 'be active'. Pres. [3.] v i v e i etc RV. (vivs v v e a s etc RV.) [I.] v a t i etc RV.E. Perf. v i v e a v i v i u s RV. (avives RV.) Aor. 1? vih^ AV.B .S. [2. aviat. ] 5. v e i a s RV. [ 7. avikat.] Fut. 1. v e k y a t i te etc B . + [ 2. ve.] Verb, v i v. +; viv RV. ; vya AV.B . ; v e RV. Sec Conj.: Pass, v i y a t e B . + Int. v v e i etc V.B ., v v i a RV., v e v i y a t e JUB . Desid. v i v i k a (in d.). Caus. v e a y a t i etc B .+ v a a v.+ v e a v y a c. v e AV. + Deriv.: V? RV. v e a RV. v a v. + ve AV. + veaka B. + viaya? E . + v u ? v.+ v i ? v. + vein c v i v. + v i v i k u E. veya AV.B .S. Divided by Grassmann into two roots. v i , v e , 'wrap'. Pres. [1.] v e a t e etc AV. + [Perf. etc v i v e e ; a v i v e a t avaveat, a v e i a ; v e i y a t e , ve it.] Verb, v i i t a V.B . Sec Conj.: [ Int. v e v e . Desid. v i v e i a . ] Caus. veyati etc AV. +, te etc B . + (veyate etc B . + ) veit u. Deriv. : v e a s. + v e a n a s. + v e a k a s. + veanya c. v , 'enjoy' etc. Pres. [2.J v t i v y n t i etc V.B . (vih R V . , v i y a n t u T S . , v e m a vs.), v y n RV. Perf. v i v y a v i v y e RV. [Aor. etc. avvayat, a v i t ; veyati, vet.] Verb, v t V.B . Sec Conj.: Pass, v y t e etc AV.B . Inf. v e v e t i RV., vevranTs., v e v yate RV. [ Desid. v i v a . Caus. vyayati, vpayati.] vetra? B. + vy? V.B . Deriv. : v v.+ vay RV. vr? v.+ v a y n a v.+ v y a RV. vayy? RV. v t V.B . vya AV. v y a s v. +

VI]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

162

A very perplexing root in its varieties of meaning; divided into two or three roots (on different lines) by B R. and Grassmann. It is treated by the grammarians as filling up the conjugation of aj. vj, vyaj, 'fan'. Pres. [I.] vijati etc E.+, te E. vyajate? c. Perf. v i v y a j u s E. Sec. Conj.: Caus. vjayati etc. E.+ (vjyate E . + ) Deriv.: vjana C vyajanaE.+ Perhaps from aj + v i . v, 'make strong.
Sec. Conj.: Caus. v y a t i te etc.
V.B .S.

Deriv. v V.B . 1 v, 'cover'.

Pres. [5.] vti v u t etc. v.+ (vvat RV.); rti (rvnti ru v a n t i ) r u t (rvta ruvta) etc. v.+ (ruti B .S.) [9.] avdhvai AV. [I.] vrati te etc. (aor. 1?) RV.C. Perf. v a v r a vavru v a v r etc. v.+ (vavrtha RV. [vavaritha, v a v m a etc.], vavriv s v a v a v r a s RV.) [runva.] Aor. I. var avran etc. (vam? v a r t a m RV., vdhi RV.) [vriyt], avta v. (vr RV.); vri RV. 3. avvarat AV., avvart? RV. 4. var athas RV. 5. avrt etc. B. [avar a; urvt.] [Fut. var yati, var t .] Verb, v t v. + ; v a r t u m E., v r t a v e RV., varitum c , v a r t u m c.; vtv V.B., tv RV., tv y a B . ; v t ya AV.+, rutya c. Sec. Conj.: Pass, v r i y a t e E. 1nt. avarvar RV., vrvta TA. [varv, vovur, vevri. Desid. vivar a.] Caus. vryati^te etc v. + (vryate etc. E. + ; v i v r a y i a t e B .) ur v.+ v r a v.+ vra v. + Deriv. : vr? RV. v t V.B . v r u a v. + vraka E. + vra v. + v t i v.+ r v.+ vrin c. varaka E. + vrtu RV. vrman v. + vrya v.+ val? v.+ vart RV. var m an V.B .S. vra v. + r? RV. vart c. rm? v.+ vraya E. + vr? v. vart V.B . vryas V.B . ravana o l . vraa v. + vrtra V.B .S. v r i v a s v.+ v a v r v. vara AV.+ vtr v.+ vriha v.+ v a v r v. varaya c. varatr v. + lba? v.+ vrayiu E. raa v.+ vrtha v. + r v V.B . v i v r a y i u E. vras RV. vrayitavyaB. ras v.+ See the following root. The presentstem r u is by the grammarians artificially provided with a complete set of forms, as if a root or conjugation stem. As to v a r m a n etc., see under v .

163

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[vj

2 v , 'choose'. Pres. [9.] v t etc. v.+ vti etc. E. + [5.] voti vute etc. U.E. + Perf. v a v r e etc. v.+ (vav vavmhe R V . ) Aor. 1. avri avta etc. v.+ (vurta V.B ., ur RV.), vras etc. varanta RV. 4. avi ata etc. AV.B .U. (avhvam B . ) [ 5. avar a.]* Fut. 1. variyate B . [varyate. 2. var t .] Verb, vt v.+; v a r t u m c. [varitum; vartv,] v a r i t v s., v t v s. Sec. Conj.: Pass, vriyate s.c. [ Int. v e v , varv, vovur. Desid. vivar a, vovra. ] Caus. varayati te etc. E. + (varyte B .) ; vrayati E. vrya n. B . vreya v. + Deriv.: vra v. + vrya v. + v r ya v.s. varas RV. var v. + vraa E. + varaa s.+ v t h,thakv. vriha v. + varaka s. varaya u.c. vra v. + varya E. + varyas u.+ varayitavya B . Doubtless ultimately the same with the preceding; and the forms a little mixed up. vh, bh, 'roar'. Pres. [1.] vhati etc. E . + Perf. vavhire c. Verb, vhita E. + v j , 'twist'. Pres. [7.] vkti vkt etc. (vktm? M . ) Perf. vavjus etc. RV. (vavjys v a v k t a m RV., varj AV.), vvje RV. Aor. 1. v r k etc. RV. (varktam avjan varjati vjym etc. RV., avk AV.), vkta RV. (vrjate RV.) [3. avavarjat. ] 4. avrks B., avkmahi etc. V.B. 7. avkat etc. V.B . Fut. 1. varkyati te B. [varjiyati. 2. varjit.] Verb, v k t v.+; vktv RV. ; vjya B .S. ; vje vjse vjdhyi RV. ; vrgam v.s.
Sec. Conj.: Pass, vjyte etc. v.B .S. 1nf. vrvjat RV. [varvj.]
1

Desid. vvkate B . Caus. varjayati etc. AV.+, te etc. E. + (varjyate etc. E. +; varvarjyant AV.) vjna v. vjana s.+ Deriv. : vj v. varjaka E. v j ana RV. vjin v. + varjin E. + rj etc. ? v. + vjan v. vkti V.B . varga v.+ varjya E . + varjana B . + vargy AV. + vraj v. + varjayitavya c. varjanya B . + varjayit E. + varja s.+ v r j v. v j ya V.B .S.

vt]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

164

v t , 'turn'. Pres. [I.] vrtate etc. v.+, ti etc. u. + [3.] v a v a r t t i v a v t y m etc. tya etc. tsva etc. vavtran ranta vavrtat tati vavtat V.B , [2.] vartti Rv. Perf. v a v a r t a v a v t u s etc. v.+ ( v v r t a . v t s v.), v a v t e etc. u.+ (vvt v . ) Aor. I. avart etc. (vrtat vartta) RV. , avtran V.B . 2. avtat etc. AV.B.C 3. avvtat etc. v. [avavartat.] 4. avtsan c ., avtsata V.B.S. 5. vartiths M. Fut. I. vartsyti etc. AV.+ (avartsyat B .), te etc. E. + ; vartiyati te etc. E . + 2 . vartit B . Verb, v t t v. + ; vartitumE. + ; v t yav.+; v t eRv., v t a s B . ; vr tam B . + Sec. Conj.: 1nt. vrvartti etc. vrvtna v.; varvartti etc. V.B. (avarvur RV.), varvtyate B . Desid. v v t s a t i etc. v., t e . [vivartia.] Caus. vartayati te etc. v. + (vartaydhyi RV. ; vartyate etc. B . + ) Deriv. : varti E . + vrat v. + vratti v. + vt v. + v a r t s RV. vrta AV. vrtman v. + vt RV. vtti B . + vrtana v. + varvt AV. varta v. + vartanya E . + v r t t u v. + v i v t s u c. vartaka v. + vartan V.B .U. varttavya E. vartayitavya E.+ v a r t i n v. + v a r t i t a v y a E.+ vartayit c. vrtas vs. vartya E. + vartit v . + Contracted in one or two forms with anu to a n v a r t : see t.
1

v d h , 'grow'. Pres. [I.] vrdhati te etc. v.+ Perf. vavrdha v a v d h e etc. v. + (vvdhs etc. v v d h etc. v.; v vdhti dhth s dhsva etc. RV., dhte AV*, v v dhnt v.) Aor. 2. avdhat etc. V.B .S. (vdhtas vdhtu B ., vdhnt v., v d h n RV.) 3. avvdhat etc. v.+, dhata etc. V.B .S. 5. avardhia etc. E. + (vardhimhi B .S.) Fut. I. vartsyati c. [vardhiyate. 2. vardhit.] Verb, vddh v. + ; vardhitum c ; [vardhitv, vddhv;] vdh v . , vdhse RV., vvdhdhyi RV. Sec. Conj.: [ Int. varvdh. Desid. v i v t s a , vivardhia. ] Caus. vardhyati te etc. v.+ (vivardhayia in d.); vardhpayati c.
Deriv.:

v d h v.+ vdh v. + vrdha v. + vardhaka c. vardhin E. +

vrdhana v. + vardhanya E. + v d h s RV. vdhk RV. v d dhi v. +

vardhit RV. vardhman c. vrddhra? AV.B . rdhv v . + vdhasn RV.

vardhiu c. vvdhnya RV. vardhayit c. vivardhayiu E . + vardhpana c.

165

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[veil

Compare dh. The asserted 2 v d h 'cut' (used only of the navel string) rests on a too narrow foundation to be admitted; it is probably a spe cialized application of this root. v , 'rain'. Pres. [1.] vrati etc. v.+, te etc. E . + [6.] vate etc. RV.S., vant RV. Perf. vavara vavus etc. E.+ (vavarus E., vavarv s MS.), v a v e etc. E. (vv asva RV.) Aor. 2. avt? TS. 3. avvat etc. E. [avavarat.] 5. vart etc. V.B . Fut. 1. variyati etc. B.U., te E. 2. vra MS. Verb, v v. + varitum c , varos B . ; [varitv,] v v B ., v RV. ; vya c. Sec. Conj.: [ Int. varv. ] Desid. vivaria (in d.). Caus. var yati etc. v. + vr B . Deriv. : v v. + varya V.B .S. v an v. + varit c. varaa s. + va V.B .S. v i v. + v i v a r i u E. vruka B . var v. + vabh v. + v v. + varin s.+ The connection of v an etc. with this root is questionable; and yet more that of varman v.+, varimn vs., vryas v.+, vriha v.+, all of which may come from an aoristically extended form of 1 v (like priha etc. from 2 p). v h , b h , 'tear'.
Pres. [6.] vhti bhti etc. V.B .U.S.

Perf. vavrha babarha v a v h u s v. + Aor. I. varhi RV. [3. avvhat, avavarhat. ] 5. barhs t RV. 7. avkat etc B . [Fut. varkyati, varhiyati; varh, varhit.] Verb, vh bha B .S.; [vhv, varhitv;] v h ya B .U.S.; vhas K. ; vrham barham B. Sec. Conj.: Pass, vhyate etc. B . [ 1nt. varvh. Desid. vivka, vivarhia. ] Caus. barhyati etc. RV. (varhita c.) Deriv.: vha s. + barhin, va E. brhaa, v AV. + barhs ? v.+ barha, va AV.+ Compare bh. The confusion of b and v goes back to the oldest time.

ven, 'long'.
Pres. [I.] v n a t i etcy. . B

[/erf. etc. v i v e n a ne; a v i v e n a t , a v e n t nia; veniyjati te, v e n i t ; v e v e n , v i v e n i a , venaya.] Deriv.: v e n V.B . v e n y RV.

veil]

ROOTS,

VERB FORMS,

166

veil, Pres. [I.] vellati etc. c. Verb, vellita E. + Deriu. vellana c.

'stagger'.

ve, see vi.


y vyac, vie, 'extend'. Pres. [3.] v i v i k t s v i v y c a t a v i v y a k a v i v i k t m a v i v y a c u s etc. v i v y a c a n t a RV. [ 6. vicati.] Perf. v i v y c a V.B ., v i v y k t h a RV. ; v i v e c a ? AV. [vivicus.] [Aor. etc. v i c y t a v y c i , a v i v y a c a t , avy c t; v y a c i y a t i , v y a c i t v i c i t ; v i c i t a , v i c i t v ; v e v i c v v y a c , v i v y a c i a , vycaya.] Deriv.: v y c a s V.B .S. v y c i h a V.B . v c i ? v. Has a very suspicious likeness to ac, ac + v i .

vyaj, see v j .
vyath, 'waver'. Pres. [1.] v y t h a t e etc. v.+, ti etc. E . + Perf. v i v y a t h e E. +, thus E. Aor. [I. avy t hi. ] 3. v i v y a t h a s B . 5. v y a t h i i etc. AV.+, vyathi at B . [Fut. v y a t h i y a t e , vyathit.] Verb, v y a t h i t AV.+; v y a t h i y i B .S. Sec. Conj.: [ Int. v v y a t h . Desid. vivyathia. ] Caus. v y a t h y a t i etc. v. + (vyathays AV. ; vyathyate c.) v y a t h a n a E. + v y t h i s RV. vyathayit c. Deriv. : v y a t h B. + vytha B . v y t h i v. vyathaka c. vithur V.B . s. vyathya V.B . v y a t h i ? AV. v y a d h , v i d h , 'pierce'. Pres. [4.] v d h y a t i etc. v.+, te B . Perf. v i v y d h a B . + , v i v y a d h u s E., v i v i d h u s u., vividhv s R V . ; v i v y a d h e E. Aor. [1. vidhyt. ] 3. avvidhat E. [avivyadhat.] 4. v y t s s B . Fut. 1. vet8yati te E. [vyatsyati.] 2. v e d d h E. [vyaddh.] Verb, viddh v.+; v e d d h u m E . ; v i d d h v B . ; vidhya E,+; vidhe RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, v i d h y a t e E. [ 1nt. v v y a d h , v e v i d h . ] Desid. v i v y a t s a t i B . Caus. vydhayati B . vyadhayati c.; vedhayati etc. E.

167
Deriv. : vidh v. +

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[vran
v e d d h a v y a u. + veddh E. + vedhima c. vyadhvar? AV.

vidhya E. v e d h a E. + vedhaka E. +

v e d h i n E. + vedhya c. vyadha c. vyadhya c.

vydha AV.+ v y d h i n AV.B . vyadhya AV. vedhana E. + vyadhana AV.C

vyay, 'expend'. Pres. [I.] v y a y a t i te etc. c . [Perf. etc. v a v y y a v a v y a y e etc. etc.] Verb, vyayita c. IS only a conjugation of i + v i , or denominative of vyaya. v y , v , 'envelop'. Pres. [4?] v y y a t i te etc. v . + Perf. v i v y a t h u s RV., v i v y etc. RV. [vivyya v i v y a y i t h a etc.]; vyay cakra B . Aor. [I. vyt. ] 2. vyat etc. RV., avyata etc. v. [ 4. avysta, v y sa. 6. avyst.] Fut. I. [vysyati te;] v y a y i y e s. [ 2. vyt.] Verb, v t v . + ; v y a B .S.C [vyya.] Sec. Conj.: Pass, v y t e B . [ Int. vvy, vev. Desid. vivysa. Caus. vyyaya.] Deriu.: v v. + vyya B .S. vyna c. vyayana B .S. vraj, 'proceed'. Pres. [1.] vrjati etc. v . + , te c. Perf. vavr j a etc. v. + Aor. 5. avrjt etc. B .U. Fut. 1. vrajiyati etc. B . + [ 2. vrajit.] Verb, vrajita B . + ; vrajitum E . ; vrajitv s. + ; vrjya B . + ; vrjam s. Sec. Conj.: Pass, vrajyate c. [ Int. vvraj. J Desid. vivrajia (in d.). Caus. vrjayati etc. B .+ (vrjyate E.) vrajy E . + Deriv.: vrj E . + vrjaka E . + vrj ana v . + vrj a v. + vrajya E . + vrjin B . + vrj ana E. vivrajiu c. vrad, vrand, 'weaken'. Pres. [1.] avradanta Rv . Deriv. v r a n d i n RV.
1

vran, 'sound' (?).


Pres. [I.] vraati c. Deriv. v r a a E. + No Teal root; the single occurrence artificial.

vrac]

ROOTS,

VERB FORMS,

168

vrac, 'cut up'.


Pres. [6.] v c t i etc. V . B . S . C [1.] vracati? c. Perf. [vavraca v a v r a c u s ] v a v k t a m ? RV. Aor. [3. avivracat. ] 4. [avrkt] v k i B .S. [ 5. avract.j Fut. 1. vrakynt B.? [vraciyati. 2. vracit, vra.] Verb, vk v.+; [ v a c i t v , ] vv AV., v k t v RV. ; vcya s.c; vrcam B . S . Sec. Conj.: Pass, v c y t e etc. V.B . (vcte AV.) [ 1nf. varvc. Desid. v i v r a c i a , vivraka. Caus. vracaya.] Deriv.: vrca B . vraskya s. vrcana v . + v k a ? v. + vraska V.B .S. vk? v . + v cika v. + v r d h , 'stir up'. Pres. [I.] vrdhanta vr d hant RV. v r , 'be abashed'. Pres. [1.J vrate etc. E . + [4. vryati.] [Perf. etc. v i v r a ; a v r t ; vriyat, vrit.J Verb, vrita E . + Sec. Conj.: Caus. vrayati c. Deriv.: vr E. + vrana c. vru, 'sink'.

[Pres. etc. vruati etc. etc.] Verb, vruita c. The occurrence or two are doubtless artificial. v l a g , v l a g , 'pursue' (?). Verb, vlgya RV . Deriv. vlaga RV. Only with abhi. Perhaps related with valg. v l , b l l , 'crush. Pres. [9.] v l n t i etc. B. ; vlinti etc. B . [Perf. vivlya.J Aor. 4. v l e s s. Fut. 1. v l e y a t i B . [ 2. vlet.] Verb, v l n a B ., blna AV. ; vl y a B . Sec. Conj.: Pass, v l y a t e etc. B . U . (blya K.. v l i y e r a n AB .) Int. ave vlyanta B . [ Desid. v i v l a . Caus. vlepayati, avivlipat.] Deriv.:vlaya B .S. vlayana B . vryas? RV.
2

169

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[ak

cans, 'praise'. Pres. [I.] sati te etc. v.+ (asyt c .) Perf. aasa se etc. B . + (asus sire E.) Aor. 1. asta (2p.) RV., astt AB . ; [asyt;] asi RV, [3. aaa sat. ] 5. aast etc. v.+ (asiat etc. V.B .) Fut. 1. asiyati B .S. [ 2. asit.] Verb, ast v. + , asita E. + ; asitum E. ; astv B . ; asya s . + , asya E. ; se RV. ; asam B .S. Sec. Conj.: Pass, asyte etc. v. + [7nt. as, as. Desid. ia sia. ] Caus. asyati etc. v.+, te c. Deriv.: as V.B . sa v. + astavya E, ansaniya c. as B . + s v. asit E. + asu s. asaka E. asa B . st V.B . asuka B . asin v.+ s RV. astr B . + ast v. + sya v.+ sya v. + asatha s. astenya B . asana E. + astavya B .E. s m a n RV. Compare the related 1 s .
1

ak, 'be able'. Pres. [5.] aknoti nuvnti etc. v.+ Perf. a k a e k s etc. v. + Aor. 1. agdh akta kat etc. akym v. 2* akat etc. v.+ (ak
y a m etc. V.B.S., a k e m a h i u.) [ 3. a^akat.J

Fut. 1. akyati te etc. B. + [ 2. akt.] Verb, akta E. +, akita E. +; aktave RV.


Sec. Conj.: Pass, a k y a t e etc. E.+, ti etc. E. [ 1nt. a k . ] Desid.

kati te etc. v. + (ika E. ; i i k a c.; ikyate etc. c.; i k a yati te etc. E . + ) [ Caus. kayati.] i k v AV. ikaka E. Deriv. : ka RV. kti v. + k v a n V.B .S. ikin c. akt RV. akya u.s.+ k v a n V.B . i k a a c. k m a n RV. k a v. k v a s RV. i k a y a c. k man RV. k RV. ciha V.B .S. ikeya s. kman MS. k ? RV. ik v.+ agm V.B .S. i k RV. c v.+ k B. + akr v. + i k u k a GB . ci? RV. The desiderative i k has won a so independent use and value that it might well enough have been treated (like bhak etc.) as a separate root B R. divide a k (and i k ) into two roots, the second meaning 'help', but favor their ultimate identity. There are other groups of words, not connectable with this or any other verbal root: thus, akun, akni, aknta, aknti v.+; ka, akn, kt v. +; a k v. +, akti ('spear') E. +

ak]

ROOTS,

VERB FORMS,

170

ak, 'doubt'. Pres. [I.] kate etc. B .+, ti etc. E. [Perf. aake.] Aor. 5. a k s akihs E.+ (akiths E.) [Fut. akiyate, akit.] Verb, akita E.+; a k i t u m E. + ; akya c. Sec. Conj.: Pass, akyate etc. c. Caus. akayati c. ankya s. + akana E. ? Derio.: ank B . + a n k i t a v y a E. + akanya E. + a k i n E. + cat, 'cut in pieces'. Sec. Conj.: Deriv.: Caus. tyati etc. AV. +, te B . t i n c. tana E. + tayit c .

t a c.

Called by the grammarians the causative of 2 ad. 1 ad, 'prevail'.

Perf. a d s RV. , a d m a h e etc. ( a d n a ) v. Deriv. tru? v.+ 2 ad, 'fall'. Perf. a d a e d u s B . [Aor. 2. aadat.] Fut. 1. a t s y a t i AV. [ 2. att.] Verb, a n n a s. [Sec. Conj.: Int. a d . Desid. iatsa. Caus. daya.] Deriv..* ada AV.B .S. d a V.B . dana c. Compare cat, assigned by the grammarians to this root as another cau sative, and 1 , regarded by them as its presentsystem. cap, 'curse'. Pres. [1,] pati etc. v.+, te etc. B. + [ 4. apyati te.] Perf. a p a e p u s AV. +, e p etc. v. + Aor. [3. a a p a t . ] 4. pta (2p.) B .S. [aapta.] Fut. I. a p i y e E. [apsyati te. 2. apt.] Verb, a p t a B . + , c a p i t a E . ; a p i t u m E . , a p t u m E . ; [aptv,] apitvE. Sec. Conj.: Pass, a p y a t e c. [ Int. ap, aap. Desid. iapsa. ] Caus. p a y a t i etc. AV.+ aptha v. + Deriv. : p a E. + pana AV. apt AV. apan B.

171

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[a

1 am, im, 'labor'.

Pres. [1.] mant sv. [2.] a m v a a m i v a a m d h v a m B .S. [9.] a m n e v a ths B .; c m n a n RV.? [4.] a m y a t i etc. B ,, i m y a t i etc. B . Perf. a a m mn V.B . (amate RV.) A or. 5. amihs RV. Verb, a m i t B . Deriv. : ma RV. ma B. amiha s. amit V.B . m V.B . m B. Compare the two following roots. 2 cam, 'be quiet'. Pres. [4.] m yati etc. B.+, te etc. B. + [1.] a m e t E. Perf. a m a e m u s B . + Aor. [I. a m y t ; a m i. ] 2. aamat B . 3. a a m a t etc. AV.+ [ 5. aamt.] [Fut. amiyati; amit.] Verb, t AV. + [amitv, tv.] Sec. Conj.: [ 1nt. aam. Desid. iamia. ] Caus. amyati AV. + te etc. B . + ; m a y a t i etc. E.+ (myate E . + ) Deriv. : m? v.+ maka c. a t i AV. a m a t h a c. ama B . + m y a E. + ti AV.+ amayitavya s. amayit s. + a m i n c. mana AV. + amit E. + amanya s. + Probably ultimately the same with the preceding.
7

3 cam, 'note'. Perf. emu? c. Verb, ta s.; a m y a E. + Sec. Conj.: Pass, amyate etc. E . + Caus. mayati etc. E.+ (m yate E.) Deriv.: mana s. amaya c. mayitavya c. Only with prefix ni, except in the strange e m u ; hence obviously a specialization from the preceding root, meaning 'settle in one's mind', or the like. al, 'leap'. Pres. [I.] alant c. [Perf. etc. e l e , aalia, aliyate alit.] Verb, alita c. Only with prefix u d , and probably from ri, . a , 'leap'. Pres. [I.] a a t i etc. c. [Perf. etc. a a a a u s , a a t , a i y a t i a i t . ]

a] Verb, a i t a Deriv. c

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

172

a v.+ Only t w o or three occur

Doubtless a denominative formation from a . rences.

a s , s , 'cut'.
Pres. [ 2 . ] a s t a ( 2 p . ) RV. ; s t i B .S., s a t i [ 1 . ] a s a t h a s . , s a n t i B ., a a s a t c . Perf. a s a [ a a s u s ] E. Fut. 1. a s i y a t i B . [ 2 . a s i t . ] Verb, a s t a E. ; a s y a E. ; s a s B . Sec. Conj.: Pass, a s y t e etc. B . + Desid. sana v. + a s i t B.+ i s i a n t s. st v.+ astr B .+ a s t B .S. i s i u B. a t u ( 3 p . ) B., a t ( 3 s . ) B .

Deriv. : a s B . s AV.B .S.

, i , 'sharpen'.
Pres. [3.] iti i m a s i t e etc. v . + ( i a n t i n t u s . ) [ 6 ? ] y t i etc. V.B .S., y n a B . S . Perf. [ a u ] a n AV. Aor. 1. t a ? RV. [ a t ; y t . 6 . a s t . ] [Fut. s y a t i , t.]

Verb, i t v . + , t a E. + ; y a v . [Sec. Conj.: Caus. Deriv.: Pass. ya. 1nf. . Desid. isa, sa.

yaya.] a ? c. i t i V.B . i a y RV.

n a B .S.

D i v i d e d b y BR . i n t o t w o s e p a r a t e r o o t s , w i t h i d e n t i c a l f o r m s .

1 s , i , 'order'.
Pres. [ 2 . ] s t i s a t i etc. ( [ i a s etc.] s t n a RV., i y t etc. u . s . + ; a t B . + ) v . + , s t e s t a s n a etc. v . + [ 1 . ] s a t i etc. E . + , t e E. Perf. a s a a s u s etc. v . + ( a d h i a s R V . ) Aor. 2 . a i a t etc. V.B .U. ( i n t aasat.] Fut. 1. B y a t i t e etc. B . + [ 2 . s i t . ] Verb. i v . + , s t a s . + , s i t a E . + ; s t u m s . + , s i t u m E . + ; [ i v , ] s i t v c . ; i y a B .U., s y a E . + Sec. Conj.: Desid. Deriv.: Pass, s y a t e etc. E. + ; i y a t e etc. c . [ 1nf. s , e i . i s i a . Caus. saya.] s a n a v .+ s a n y a c. s u s RV. s t i c. i i V.B .S. s i t E. + st v.+ s t r v.+ RV.), i m a h i RV. ( h e SV.AV.) [ 3 .

s RV. is v. + s v. s RV.

s a RV. s a k a c. s i n c. sya v . +

iya B .+ C o m p a r e t h e a p p a r e n t l y r e l a t e d root a B .

173

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

2 a s , ' c u t ' , see

as.

i k , see a k . igh, 'snuff'.

T h e o c c u r r e n c e s o f u c c h i g h a n a a n d upaihana i n S u r . a r e d o u b t l e s s artificial.

ij, ' t w a n g ' . Pres. [ 2 . ] i k t e ijate etc. v . + , ijant c . [Perf. etc. i i j e ; aijia; ijiyate, ijit.] Verb, ijita E. +
Sec. Conj.: Caus. ijayati etc. B.S.

Deriv.:

ijin c .

ij r a? RV. (n. pr.)

P r o b a b l y a n i m i t a t i v e root.

ip, ' b e s m o o t h ' ( ? ) . S u c h a r o o t m a y p o s s i b l y b e i n f e r r e d f r o m p i v . +, p r RV. , i p i t B .

i m , see 1 a j n .
i, 'leave'.

Pres. [ 7 . ] i n s t i etc. B. + [ 6 ? ] iati etc. B.S. [1.] eant c l . Perf. i i e etc. B. [iea.] Aor. 1. e i AV.B .S. [iyt.] 2 . aiat etc. V.B , (at RV.), ti AV. [ 3 . a i a t . ] Fut. I. e k y a t i te B. [ 2 . e.] Verb, i v . + ; i v s . ; iya B . + ; eam s . + See. Conj.: Pass, iyate etc. A V . + [ 1nt. e i . Desid. i i k a . ] Caus. eayati etc. E. +, te B. (eyate c . ) ein c . aa AV. + Deriv.: i a c . ea B . + as v . eya c . eaka E. + Deriv. yana c
Reckoned b y t h e grammarians as presentsystem t o 2 ad; a n d this i s

1 , 'fall'.

Pres. [4?] y ate etc. AV.B .U.S. (ynte? B V )

c u r i o u s l y s u p p o r t e d b y JB ., w h i c h h a s ( i i . 8 1 ) u p a y a t e tasmd upaadam, a n d ( i i . 8 2 ) avayante tasmc chada. S o far a s t h e m e a n i n g i s c o n c e r n e d ,


i t m i g h t w e l l b e a s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f 2 i.

2]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS, 2 , 'lie'.

174

Pres. [2.] t e rate etc. v . + (ye 3s. V.B ,, re 3p. AV.B ., ayire c.; a y m 3s. AV,, eran V.B .) [I.] yate etc. v . + , ti etc. E.+ (a y a t V.B .) ayatam yata (3s.) RV. Perf. i y e yire B .+; a a y n v. Aor. [I. ayi. ] 3. a a y a t E. 4. a n RV . 5. aayia etc. v.+ Fut. I. ayiyate ti B . + ; e y a t e ti E. 2. ayit U.C. (tse B.) Verb, a y i t a E. +; a y i t u m E. ; a y i t v u. +; ayya c.; aydhyi RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, [ayyate;] y a n t M . [ 1nt. e , ay. ] Desid. i a y i a t e c. Caus. yayati etc. s.+, te E. Deriv. : V.B . a y y B. + yana c. m a v.B .s. a? B . + yaka c. a y v. y y a v. aya v. + y i n s. + a y i t a v y a c. aylu c. ay RV. yana AV. + aytha RV. v an V. B . ayanya c. a y i n c. tha E. + i a y i u c.
1 1

cue,

'gleam'.
1 1

Pres. [I.] cati etc. v . + , te etc. v . + [4.] c y a t i B . [2.] o c i m i E . Perf. u c a etc. v . + (uukv s RV., u u g d h v . ) , u u c n RV. (cta RV.) Aor. I. [ucysam;] o c i RV. 2. aucat etc. v. + (ucnt v., uc m n a RV.) 3. u c a t etc. A V . B . 5. O C S B . Fut. 1. o c i y a t i etc. E.+, te E. [ 2. ocit.] Verb, ukt? (adj.) B . + ; o c i t u m E.+, o k t u m M. ; o c i t v E. [ucitvj; ucdhyi RV. Sec. Conj.: 1nt. u c a n etc. u c n a etc. V.B . Desid. [uucia, u o c i a ; ] u u k a (in d.) Caus. ocyati etc. v. + (ocyate c.); ucyant RV. kvan RV. oc v. k a v. + Deriv. : c v. + c i h a RV. u c i s RV.C o k AV. uc RV.C u u k v a n RV. cana AV.+ C0C8 V. + ka? v . + u u k v n i RV. u k t i s. + o c a n y a c. oca AV. o c i t a v y a E. + u u k i RV. okas RV. ocin c. ocayiu AV. ukr v.+ c i v. + o c y a E. + u k l AV.+ uj, Sec. Conj.: 1nt. ujna RV. u d h , u n d h , 'purify'.
Pres. [1.] undhati te etc.
V.B .S.

'swell'(?),

[4.] udhyati etc. B .+, te etc.

E.+

[2.] u n d d h i AGS.

175

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[L

[Perf. etc. u o d h a , u u n d h a ; a u d h a t , a u d h a t , aundht; ot syati undhiyati, oddh undhit.] Verb, uddh v. + Sec. Conj.: [ Int. o u d h . ] Desid. u u t s a t s. Caus. odhayati etc. B. + (odhyate E. +); undhayati V.B . Deriv.: odha c. odhana s. + u n d h y V.B . odhya c. odhaka E . + ndhana B . odhanya c. o d h a y i t a v y a c. ddhi B . + o d h i n c. u b h , u m b h , 'beautify'. Pres. [I.] bhate etc. v.+ (bhe 3s. RV.), ti etc. E. + ; mbhase etc. v., mbhati etc. AV. [6.] umbhti etc. v.c, mna RV.C Perf. u o b h a u u b h e E.+ [uumbha.] Aor. 1. aobhi c.; mbhna ubhn RV. [2. aubhat. ] 3. ubhan RV., bhanta B . [ 5. aobhia, aumbht.] Fut. I. obhiyati E. [umbhiyati. 2. obhit, umbhit.] Verb, ubhit B ., umbhita AV. ; u b h RV., obhse RV. Sec. Conj.: Int. oubhyate E. Desid. u o b h i a t e c. [uubhia.J Caus. obhayati etc. AV.+; ubhyati te etc. V.B . umbha E. + b h v a n RV. Deriv. : b h V.B . umbh B . umbhaka E. obhtha sv. ubha E . + bhiha RV. bhana v. + obha c. obhayit c. ubhr v. + obhan B . + obh B . + ubhr RV. mbhana AV.+ obhin E. + This root is, with considerable plausibility, divided by B R. into two: 1 u b h 'glide along', and 2 u b h 'beautify'; the former only in V.B . 1 u , 'dry'. Pres. [4.] y a t i etc. v.+, te etc. E . + [Perf. etc. u o a ; auat, a u a t ; okyati, o.] Verb, ya B . Sec. Conj.: [ Int. o u . Desid. uuka. ] Caus. oyati etc. AV. + , te E. (oyate c.) o a a E. + k a v. + Deriv.: ua? v. o i n E. + oaya c. a? V.B .S. o a E. + oya E. + uka B . oaka c. oayit c. 2 u , 'blow', see v a s . , v , v i , 'swell'. Pres. [1?] v y a t i etc. V.B . Perf. [uva, i v y a ] UVUS etc. ( u v a t v m a uy m a) u v e uvna RV. Aor. [I. yt. ] 2. v a t B . [ 3. a i v i y a t , a u v a t , a i v a y a t . 5. avayt.]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

176

[Fut. v a y i y a t i , v a y i t . ] Verb, n c . ; v y i t u m B . i RV. [Sec. Con;.: y a t e ; OU, e v i ; i v a y i a ; vyaya.] Deriv.: ? RV. i v v. + v i h a V.B . vayathu c . v a v. + otha c . va B . + v t r V.B . v a s AV. u n v.B .s. v n t RV. v a E. + n a, ny v.+ v y i n B . u v. + v a n v. + vayana c . v a n RV. r a v. + v a s v. + vaytha B . i v i RV. a v a s n RV. vra RV. The perfect forms in RV. are ascribed by BR. (perhaps with better reason) to a separate root 'prevail'. The connection of a part of the derivatives given here with one another and with any assignable root is open to much question.
1

1 , 'crush'.
1

Pres. [9.] t i etc. V.B.C ., n RV . [6.] a AV. [4.] r yate B. Perf. [ara aaritha a a r u s arus] a r AV. Aor. 1. ari V.B . [ryt. 3. aarat.] 5. aart etc. AV.B. (rit AV.) Fuf. 1. ariyate B . [ar yatI. 2. ar t .] Verb, r AV. + rta MS. , rt? R V . ; rtos RV., aritos A A . ; r ya B . Sec. Conj.: Pass, ryate etc. v.+, ti etc. U.E.+ [ 1nt. , erya. ] Desid. iaria (in d.), [iara, ira. Caus. raya.] rra v . + Deriv.: ir c . rti B . rya B .S. ar r u RV. alna AV. l a v. + ar AB . r i RV. arabh v. + araa c . ara v. + ru v.+ alala, l B . + ari v. ar v. + arv AV. + al k a B . + r aa RV. al AV.B . ruka B . C iariu c . arka AV. aly v. + Part of the derivatives are of very questionable belongings.
1

2 , see

y y

ra.
ri.

3 ,

see

d h , 'be defiant'. Pres. [1.] rdhati etc. v., te etc. B .C. [Perf. etc. a d h e ; adhat, adhat, a a r d h i a ; artsyati ardh iyate, ardhit.] Sec. Conj,: [ 1nf. ardh. Desid. iardhia, itsa. ] Caus, ar dhyati etc. R V . C ardhayit c . rdhya RV. ardhana c. Deriu, : rdha RV. rdhas V.B . dhy RV. ardhin v. Not worth dividing into two roots.

177

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[rath

cand, cand, 'shine'.


[Pres. etc. oandati, cacanda etc. etc.] Sec. Conj.: Int. cnicadat Rvl. Deriv.: candana? E. + candr v. + candr v. + The fuller form candra survives after v. only in the n. pr. hricandra.

cam.
The single doubtful form c m n a n RV. was entered above under 1 cam. c u t , 'drip'. Pres. [I.] c t a t i etc. v. + Perf. c u c o t a B .S. Aor. [2. acutat. ] 3. acucutat s. [ 5. acott.j [Fut. c o t i y a t i ; cotit.] Verb, cutita B . + Sec. Conj.: [ Int. cocut. Desid. c u c o t i a , cucutia. ] Caus. ctayati etc. B .S. (cotayitav B .) Deriv.: cut v. + cotana c. The forms are often, especially later, written with c y u , and sometimes with c y u . nath, 'pierce'. Pres. [2.] n a t h i h i n t h a t av. [ 1. nathati.] [Perf. antha.] Aor. 3. a i n a t i n t h a t etc. av. 5. nathiam ana RV. [Fut. n a t h i y a t i ; nathit.] Verb, nathit RV. ; nthas RV. Sec. Conj.: nathyati te etc. RV. Deriv.: nthana RV. nthit RV. i n t h a RV. Cy> C> 'coagulate'. Pres. [4?] y y ati B . , te o. [Perf. etc a y e ; a y s t a ; y s y a t e , yt.] Verb, t v. +, n vs., yna c. [yta.] Sec Conj.: Pass, yte etc B . [Int. y. Desid. iysa, ] Caus. [ypaya;] yyayati GB . Deriv.: y T s.c. yyas.+ ira?Av.+ rath, lath, 'slacken'.

Pres. [9.] rathnan rathns RV., rathnt etc v. [6?] nthati Tsl. [ 1 . ] [rathati ranthate;] lathati te etc c. Perf. arathe RV. [arantha a r a n t h u s rethus.]

rath]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

178

Aor. 3. irthat etc. V.B. ( i r a t h a n t u RV.) [ 5. arantht thia.] [Fut. ranthiyati, ranthit.] Verb, thit RV,, l a t h i t a c ; [rathitv, ranthitv;] rathya c Sec. Conj.: Caus. rathyati etc. V.B ., te RV. ; lathayati c. (lathyate c.) [rthayati, ranthayatI.] Deriv.: ratha v. rathar RV. latha E. +

ran, 'give'.
[Pres. etc. raati etc. etc.] Sec. Conj.: Caus. rayati etc. s.+ [airaat, a a r a t ; raayatl.] Deriv.: rana c. rika c. Only with prefix v i . ram, 'be weary'. Pres. [4.] r m yati etc. v.+ [I.] ramati te etc. E. + Perf. a r m a a r a m u s v.+ (remu8 KB .), a r a m RV. A or. [1. ar m i. ] 2. ramat etc. v. 5. ramima RV.B . Fut. [I. ramiyati. ] 2. ramit M. Verb, r t v. + ; rmya B. + Sec. Conj.: Pass, r a m y a t e E . + Desid. i r a m i a (in d.). Caus. ramayati etc. s. + ; rmayati etc. E.+ (rmyate E . + ) Deriv. : rma v. + rama B . + rti E . + i r a m i u c. rma E. + ramaa v.+ ramiha RV. r a m b h , 'trust'. Pres. [1.] rambhate etc. E. + [Perf. etc. a r a m b h e ; arabhat, arambhia; rambhiyate,rambh it.] Verb, rabdha E . + ; rabhya c. Sec. Conj.: Caus. rambhayati etc. s. + Deriv,: mbh RV. rambhana c. rambha E. + rabdhi c. rambhin c. rambhanya c. r, 2 r, 2 , 'boil'. Pres. [4?] r y ati etc. V.B . [9.] r t i etc. V.B . [ 2. rti.] [Perf. etc. a r u ; r y t reyt, a r s t ; rsyati, rt.] Verb, r t V . B . S . ; t v.+ [ra.] Sec. Conj.: [ Int. r. Desid. irsa. ] Caus. rapyati etc. A V . + , te etc. E. (airapat etc. B . ; rapyte etc. B . + ) Deriv. : r? RV. rpaa B . + ras ? E. rpa B . rapayit B . rpin s.

179

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES. ri, 3 , 'resort'.

[ru

Pres. [I.] ryati etc. AV.+, te etc. v.+ Perf. ir y a i r i y etc. v. + Aor. I. ret riyan etc. RV.; [ryt;] ryRv. 3. i r i y a t etc. AV.+ (airet V.B ., rema s,, rayus RV. ; riyus E., riyan c.; irt? RV.) 4. arit A v. [ 5. ar y ia.] Fut. 1. rayiyati te etc. B. + [ 2. rayit.] Verb, rit v. + ; rayitum E , , tav B .S.; rayitv E.+ [ r i t v ] ; rtya B . + Sec. Conj.: Pass, ryate etc. B.+ (riyate etc. B.s.) [ 1nt. eri. Desid. i r a y i a , ira. ] Caus. rpayati vsl. [ryayati, aira yat.] ara v.+ Deriv.: r B .u. ra AV. ret E. raya AV. + rit v. + l AV. + r i v. + rayin c. rit RV.C rayaa B . + rman v. + ry v. + rayaya c. rayitavya c. rra? v.+ The derivatives from the rootform are probably best referred to a sepa rate root r or ar, al, meaning 'cover' or the like.

ri, see li. 1 r, , 'mix'.


Pres. [9.] r t i rt etc. V.B . Perf. i r i y e v. Aor. 3. a i r a y u s RV. Verb, rt RV., rta RV. Deriv.: ir V.B .S. ira s. + r v. rayaa s. Is probably only a form of r i , from which it is at some points hardly separable. The interrelations of the roots , r, ri, r are intricate, and not yet fully worked out. Especially doubtful is it what is the connection with them of the noun r v.+ *fortune', and the related riys RV., r y a s v.+, rha v.+, remn B .

2 r l , see r.
ru, 'hear'. Pres. [5.] t i etc. v. + , u t etc. v.+ ( v i vir R V . ) [2.] r i RV. Perf. ur v a u r u v e etc. v.+ ( u r u m a s u. + ; uravat ury s y t am u r a v i R V . ) Aor. I. r a v a m rot ravan V.B . (rvat vathas etc. V.B .S. ; ry s am etc. v.c.; rudh rtu etc. V.B .); arvi r v i v.c. 2? r u v a m TA. 3. a u r u v a t B ., ravus RV. [airavat.] 4. arut etc. B . +

ru]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

180

Fut. 1. royti etc. B.+, te E. 2. r o t M. Verb, rut v.+; r o t u m E.+; rutv v.+; rtya AV.+; rvam s.c. Sec. Conj.: Pass, r y t e etc. v.+, ti etc. E. [1nt. o r u . ] Desid. rate etc. v.+, ti etc. E.+ ( u r y a t e etc. E . + ) Caus. rvyati etc. v.+, te etc. E.+ ( r v y a t e etc. E.+) ; r a v y a t i etc. RV.
Deriv.:

rtra v.+ r B . r v aa B .S. r v i t E. rva B . + rvaya E . + rudhi RV. r a v y a E. + r v a s v.+ ra RV. rav y ya RV. l k a v. + rmata RV. r v a v.+ rut v. + rviha AV.+ r v a k a c. r t i v. + ra V.B . r v i n c. rtya v.+ uruka? E. rvya E . + rtu RV. u r s E. r v a a v. + rotavy B . + u r s. + r a v a y a B . + rot v.+ Compare r u ; for 2 r u , see sru. r u , 'hear'.

uraka E.+ u r i n E. u r y a E. + u r a a E. + u r y a B .S. u r B. + u r i t E. uritavya B . rvayit u. rvayitavya c.

Pres. [I.] roan B V., r o a n t u v., r a m a RV. Deriv.: r u RV. r i AV. ri V.B . A secondary root, growing out of the saoriststem of ru.

lath, see rath.


l a 'dissolve' (?). Pres. [4.] l y a t i JB . Only in the passage t a s m t . . . v 'va lyanti taruam i v a h i tarhi reto b h a v a t i JB . ii. 23. Probably a variant to r.

lgh, 'extol'.
Pres. [I.] l g hate etc. B .B .+, ti B .

Perf. alghire c. [Aor. etc. a a l g h a t , alghia; lghiyate, lghit.] Verb, lghita c. Sec. Conj.: Pass, lghyat etc. B. + Caus. lghayati etc. B . + lghana E. + lghiha B . Deriv. : lgh B . + lghin B. + lghanya E . + lghya B . + l i , r i , 'clasp'. Pres. [4.] l y a t i etc. B.+, te u. [I.] rema v. ( ri?) Perf. i l a B . + Aor. 2. a l i a t B .+, r i a t RV. [ 3. a i l i a t . 7. alikat.]

181

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[hv

[Fut. lekyati, le.] Verb, l i a B . + ; l e u m c ; l i v c.; liya E. + ; ras v. Sec. Con;.: Pass, l i y a t e etc. c. [ 1nt. e l e . ] Desid. i l i k a (in d.)? Caus. leayati etc. B.+, te c. reman AV. Deriv.: ri AV. l e i n B .c. reia AV. lemn B. + Cli B .C. l e a Av.+ leaa B . + i l i k u ? AV. ra AV.B . l e a k a c. vac, Pres. [I.] v c a t e etc. v. (^mac TA.) Aor. 3 ? a v a c RV. See. Conj.: Caus. v a c y a s RV. Deriv. v a k a B . v a s , u , 'blow'. Pres. [2.] v a s i t i etc. v.+ (vasih AV.+; a v a s t B .+, a v a s a t E.+); u ntam u e u RV. [I.] v s a t i te etc. AV.+ Perf. a v s a etc. E. + Aor. [3. a i v a s a t . ] 5 (or pres.). v a s s c. Fut. 1. v a s i y a t i E. [ 2. v a s i t . ] Verb, v a s i t a B . + , v a s t a E. + ; v a s i t u m E , ; v a s y a s. + ; v s a s RV. See. Conj.: 1nt. vasat B V. [ Desid. i v a s i a . ] Caus. v s a y a t i etc. v. + (vasayati c . ?) Deriv.: v a s a AV. vsana B . + V.B .8. v a s t h a V.B . v s a v.+ vsanya c. m a V.B . a? v s . vsin B . + u m a n c. v s i RV. vasan v.+ vsya B . + v a s a n y a c. v a s i t a v y a B . +
1

'spread'.

v 5 , v i , see . v i t , 'be bright'. [Pres. etc. v e t a t e ; i v i t e . ] Aor. 1. a v i t a n v i t n RV. 3. i v i t a t RV. 4. a v i t B V. [ 5. avetia.] [Fuf. etc. v e t i y a t e , v e t i t ; v i t t a . ] v e t v. + Deriv.: v i t v.c. v i t i RV. v t n a RV. vetan RV. v i t r v. + h l v , 'spew'. Pres. [I.] h v a t i etc. AV. + [ 4. hvyati.] Perf. t i h e v a B . [iheva.] A or. 5. ahaviam? GB .S. [ahevt.] [Fut. heviyati, h e v i t . ]

hv]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,


;

182

Verb, hyta B .+, h v i t a c. hutv? s.; hvya c. [Sec. Conj.: int. tehv, ehv. Desid. tihvia i , t u h y a u . Caus. hevayati.]

sak.
For the participle skant, see sah.

sagh, 'be equal to'.


Pres. [5.] saghnos RV. [Perf. sasgha.] A or. I. sghat RV. ; saghysam B .S. [ 3. asaghat. 5. as g ht.] [Fut. etc. saghiyati, saghit; ssagh, sisaghia, sghaya.] Deriv. sghan B . Doubtless another form of sah.

sac, 'accompany'.
Pres. [1.] scate etc. V.B., ti RV . [3.] s a k t i etc. RV.; scati(3p.) RV., sacata (3p.) RV. [1.] scasi etc. s a c e RV. Perf. secire AV.; s a c i m a V.B ., s a c u s etc. RV., sacir RV. Aor. 1. sacn RV. 4. asakata etc. (sakat mhi) RV. [ 5. asacia.] [Fut. saciyate, sacit.] Verb, sacdhyi RV. ; saki? RV. Deriv. : sc v.s. sc? V.B . sakra RV. s c ya RV. skhi? v . + saki RV. saca V.B . sacan RV. sactha RV. s a c t v. sc RV.B . sacas RV. skman, mya RV. scay B . scin B . + sci v. + s a j , s a j , 'hang'. Pres. [I.] sjati etc. v.+, te s. Perf. sasaja B .+ ([sasajus] sasajus c , sasajjatus? M., sejus B.) Aor. I. asaji B . [sajyt. 3. asasajat.] 4. s k t etc. u.+, sak ths ta V.B . [Fut. sakyaU, sakt.] Verb, sakt v. + ; s a k t u m E., s a k t o s B . ; sajya B . + ; sgam B .S. Sec. Conj.: Pass, sajyte etc. B.+, ti E . ; sajjate etc. E.+, ti etc. E . + [Int. ssaj, ssaj. ] Desid. s i s a k a t i B. [siaka.] Caus. sajayati etc. E. + ; sajjayati etc. E.+, te E. sakti v.+ sajana B . + Deriv. : saj v. saga v. + sktu'? v . + sajanya c. saja RV. sagin AV. + saktavya c. sajjana c. sajya c. sagya B .S. s a n k t a v y a c. saja c.
1

183

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES. sad,


1

[san

'sit'.

Pres. [1.] s d ati etc. v.+ te etc. R v . E . + [2.] ptsi v.

Perf. sas d a seds etc. v. + (sasttha RV. ; sasadyt AV. ; sdatus E . ) , sedir RV. Aor. 1. sdi sdi RV. 2. sadat etc. v. + (sdathas RV., sadas etc. v.+, sadeyam etc. V.B .S., sadatuetc. sdatam V.B.S., sdantRv., sadantm AV., sdat RV.) 3. asadat etc. B. 4. stsat RV. 5. asdt TA. Fut. 1. satsyati etc. B .S.; sdiyati c. [ 2. satt.] Verb, sann AV.+, satt v.; sattum B ., sditum E . ; sdya v.+; sdam RV., sde V.B .; sdam B. Sec. Conj.: Pass, sadyate B . [ Int. ssad. Desid. siatsa. ] Caus. sdyati etc. v.+, te etc. v.+ (sadyate etc. B. + ; sisdayisa in d.) sdi E. Deriv.: sd v . + sdn AV.+ sanni c. sedi AV.B .S. sdya E . + sdman v. + sada B. + sand? AV.B .S. sadmn RV. sdya V.B .S. sdana v. + seduka E. sdvan v.s. sdya n. V.B . s d ana v. + sdanya E . + satti v. + sadvar B .S. sady B . stt V.B .U. sdas v. + satsnu RV. sd v.+ sattr v. + sdayitavya E . + sdaka E . + sdi A v. s i s d a y i u E. The stem sada, so far as accented sda, is perhaps rather a presentstem.

san, 2 s, 'gain'.
Pres. [8.] santi etc. V.B .S. [1 ?] snat etc. snema sna snant RV.

Perf. sas n a RV. (sasav s v., s a s a n B .S.) [sene.] Aor. [I. asta; sanyt, syt. ] 2. asanam etc. V.B . (sanyam etc. B .S. ; sanem B .S.) [3. asaat. ] 4? seam s e t B . 5. asniam RV. (saniat etc. v., sniantu sv.), [asania] (sanimahe snian ta R V . ) Fut. 1. saniyti V.B . [ 2. sanit.] Verb, st V.B . Sec. Conj.: [ Pass, sanyate, syate. ] Int. [sasan, ss,] saniata v,. Desid. ssati etc. V.B. [sisania. Caus. snayati.] sani V.B . sanit V.B . sanru? RV. Deriv. : san RV. sni v. + sanitra RV. snyas B . sna RV. snuk RV. sniha RV. snut RV. sina? RV. sniti RV. snas RV. snin c. s a n i t v a n RV. Bnitva RV. ssni V.B . sanana RV. stvan? v.+ s i u RV. s V.B . sistu RV. sya v. s t u? RV. sisni RV. sa RV. st v. s m an? v.+ s i s V.B . Different from this is the root seen in sna 'old' v.+ and the related words.
B

sap]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

184

sap, 'serve'.
Pres. [I.] spati te etc. Perf. sepus RV.
V.B .

Aor. 3. sapanta RV. [Fut. sapiyati, sapit.]


Sec. Conj.: Caus. spyant? B . Deriv. : sp RV. sapa B.s.

sapar v.+

spti v. +

sapin RV.
The relations of part of these forms are very doubtful.

saj, 'creak'.
Pres. [1.] srjati etc.
V.B .

Does not appear to admit of connection with sj.

sac, see s a c
sas, 'sleep'.
Pres. [2.] ssti etc. (sasts sasnt etc.) v. [3.] sassti TS., ssasti vs.,

sasat c .
[Perf. etc. sassa; asasat, asst; sasiyati, sasit; ssas, sisasia,

8saya.]
Deriv. sas? RV. The single later occurrence is doubtless artificial.

sah, 'prevail'.
Pres. [I.] shate etc. v.+, ti etc. E.+ (shant RV.); shati etc. avl.El.

[4.] sahyami Ml. [2.] saki skva skva RV.


Perf. [sehe] (sehn RV. ; sasahe AV. ; sash etc. v.; ssahn v., s

sahhas Rv.), sehima hus B. (ssha v.; sshat etc. v., s sahyma etc. RV., ssahvs RV., sasahvs TA., shvs RV.) or. 1. sahn RV.; 8hyma v., sahys etc. BV. [3. asahat. ] 4. aski ski RV. asakmahi B . (skate RV.; skya etc. A V . B . ) , skt GB . (sakati AV., sakat RV., skma RV., skat pple. RV.) 5. sahia RV., shimhi etc. v. Fut. I. sakyati etc. E . , te B., s&kye? AV.; sahiyati te etc. E.+ (asah iyat B .) 2. soh E.+ [sahit.] Verb. sh v.+, soha c.; sohum E. +, sahitum B . ; [shv, sahitv;] shya v. + ; sham B . ; shadhyi RV.K. Sec. Conj.: Pass, sahyate etc. c. [Int. sfisah. ] Desid. 8kati te etc. RV.TS. [sisahia.] Caus. shayati etc. E. +
}

185
Deriv.

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES. sh v.+ sha V.B . sah v . + sahaka c. sahya sv.+ shya n. R^ sh v. + sha RV. shin c. sahya v. + sabha? E . + sih? v . + shan? RV. sahana c. sahanya E. + shana E. + shantya V.B . shas v. + sahasn RV. shi c. shu? AV.K. s hi MS. s o h a v y a c. sahitavya E. sh RV. soh E. shuri v. s h y a s v. + Bhyas RV. shiha V.B .

[sSdh
shyu RV. sahiu E . + s h v a n B .S. saka B. s a k i n RV. s a k a RV. saki v. ssah v.

1 s , si 'bind'.
V.B .U. [5.] asinot JB,, sinvant RV.? [1?] smi santi seyam set M. Perf. sasu c.; siya RV. (siet? RV.) [siye.] Aor. I. ast etc. V.B. (shi sitam RV., smhi RV.TS.?) [seyt. 3. as ayat. 4. asit, asea. 6. asst.] Fut. . [ssyati] siyati M. [seyati te. 2. st, set.] Verb, sit v.+; stum JB ., s t a v e AV., situm c ; s i t v s . ; s y av.+, sya B . +; s RV. Sec. Conj..- Pass, syate etc. E . + [ Int. ss, sei. Desid. sisa, 8isa. ] Caus. syyati etc. B . + Deriv.: s? R V . + sya E . seya c. s e t a v y a c. sya E . + siti v. ? c. 8na v. + set RV. syin B . + s t u v.+ st RV.O, sinva? RV. It is not practicable to separate the two forms of this root. Its prevailing use with ava has led to its reduction to mere s in some of the forms made from it.

Pres. [6?] syti etc. v.+, te etc. v.+ [9.] sin t i etc.

2 s S , see s a n .
sdh, sadh, 'succeed'.

Pres. [I.] s d hati te etc B V. [5.] sadhnoti etc J ^ . ; [sdhnoti. 4.

8dhyati.]
[Perf. sasdha.] Aor. 3. sadhti dhas etc dhema dhtu V.B . [ 4. astst.] [Fut. stsyati, sddh.]
Verb, s d h i t u m (caus. ?) c.

Sec Con;.: [ Int. ssdh. Desid. sitsa. ] Caus. te etc E.+ (sdhyate etc E. + ; sidhayiati etc Deriv.: sdh RV. sdhy v. + s d h v. + s d ha RV. s d hana v. + s d hu RV. sdhaka E. + sdhanya E . + saddhi JB. sdhin c. s d has v. sdhyas B. +
sdhihaRv.u.

sdhyati etc v.+, sisdh c.) sdhayitavya c. sdhayit c. sidhayi c. sidhayiu s. +

si]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS, si, 'bind', see 1 s .

186

From a root or roots si or s appear to come sundry doubtful derivatives, as s y aka E . +, sn v. +, s t v. +, smn mant m AV. +, sr v. + sic, 'pour out'. Pres. [6.] sicti etc. v.+, te etc. v.+ [1.] scate RV . Perf. sieca siice etc. v.+ ( s i s i c u s RV., sisice av.c.) Aor. 1. sicyt B . (sicyt? AS.); aseci B .S. 2. asicat etc. v.+, cata etc. V.B . (sicmahe V . B . ) [3. asicat, assicat. 4. asikta.] Fut. 1. s e k y a t i te etc. B .E.
Verb, s i k t v. + ; s e k t u m E . , t a v i B .; s i k t v B . + , s i c i t v c ; scya
1

AV. + ; secam s., sekam s. Sec. Conj.: Pass, sicyte etc. v.+, ti E. [Int. sesic. Desid. sisika, siika. ] Caus. s e c a y a t i etc. s.+, te s. + ; sicayati E . Deriv. : s c V .B . S . s e k i n c. scana v.+ skt v. + scya B . seky B . + secan y a B . secit E. sieya n. B . secaka E . sikt V.B . siktha o. ska v. + secya E . s e k t a v y a c.
1

1 sidh, 'repel'.

Pres. [I.] sdhati etc. v.+, te etc. s.+ Perf. siedha etc. v.+, siidhe E. Aor. 1. asedhi c. [3. asidhat. 4. asitst. ] 5. asedhs etc. RV.E. Fut. 1. s e t s y a t i E . , sedhiyati c. [ 2. seddh, sedhit.] Verb, siddha B . + ; seddhum B . + ; sdhya A V . + Sec. Conj.: Pass, sidhyate etc. E. + int. sidhat RV. [Desid. sisedh ia, s i s i d h i a , siitsa. ] Caus. sedhayati etc. s. +
Deriv.:

sedha AV. + sedhaka E. + sedhin c.

sedhya c. sedhana E. + sedhanya c.

siddhi c. seddhra B . seddhavya E.+ sidhm, man? B. + seddh B . + sedhayit c.

See the following root. 2 sidh, 'succeed'.

Pres. [4.] s i d h y a t i etc. R V . U . S . + , te etc. E . +

Perf. siedha RV? Aor. [I. s i d h y s a m ; asedhi. 2. asidhat. 3. asidhat. ] 4. sit st c . Fut. I. s e t s y a t i te etc. E.+ [ 2. seddh.] Verb, siddha B l.E.+ [sedhitv, sidhitv, siddhv.J [Sec. Conj.: s e i d h ; s i i t s a ; sedhaya.]
1

187

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[sul

sidhm RV. sidhvan RV. sidhr RV. Appears to be a weakened form of sdh. Grassmann, however, con siders 1 sidh and 2 sidh as one root, and there are in fact some difficulties in their separation. s i , see

Deriv.:

sidh RV.

siddhi u.+

si.

s v , s y u , 'sew'. Pres. [4.] s v yati etc. v.+, te v. [Perf. etc. s i e v a ; asivat, a s e v t ; seviyati, sevit.] Verb, syt v. + ; sytv s.; svya AV. Sec. Conj.: [ Int. sev, Desid. sisevia, susya.] Caus. [sevayati;] svayati c . s y u m a n V.B . sevitavya c . Deriv. : seva B . sy B . s t ra AV.+ syon? V.B .S. sevana B . + svaka c. sn V . B . S . svana B . + The noun sc (of which Bcay 'point out' is a denominative) can hardly be connected with this root. s u , 'press out'. Pres. [5.] sunti etc. v. +, sunute etc. v. + (sunvir RV.) [3.] suvati (3p.) RV. Perf. su v a suum etc. V.E., s u v RV. Aor. 1. s t u sutm etc. RV., suvn s v n v . ; svRv. 3. asuavus AB. [asavat. 4. asut, asoa. 5. asvt, asavia.] Fut. 1. soyatiKS.,saviyati B. 2. sot AB . Verb, sut v.+; stave RV., tos V.B. ; stya B .+; sya E.
Sec. Conj.: Pass, s y t e etc. v.+ [int. s o u . Desid. s u s a . ] Caus.

svya c.

svayati s.
Deriv. : suva B .

stu RV. savana v. + s t v a RV. sav V . B . S . sut v. + sot RV. sv RV. suti v. s t v a n v. svin RV. sutya s.+ sma v. + svya s.+ suty B .S. Doubtless the same with s , and the forms and uses ways clearly distinguishable.

soman RV. sya B . s r ? v. + sunva RV. s v i RV. of the two not al

Va(T).
Only in the single form pr sulmi TS.TB ., for which vs. has pr tilmi: see til.

subh]

ROOTS, VERBFORMS,

188

subh, sumbh, 'smother' (?). Pres. [9.] asubhnan TS. [6?] sumbhan K. Verb, subdha TS. Deriv. sbhar? v.

s, su, 'generate, enliven, impel'. Pres. [2.] s t e s v a t e etc. v. + ( s u v n svn? RV.), suti B . +, shi s. [6.] s u v t i etc. V.B .U. ( s v a AV.TA.), suvate etc. B. [4.] syate etc. B . + , t i etc. E . + [I.] s a v a t i etc. E . + Perf. s u v a etc. E. +, s u u v etc. AV. + (sas v a v.) Aor. [I. asvi.] 3. [asavat,] asuot MS., avus TB . 4. [asut,] asoa u . + 5. a s v t etc. V.B . (sviat V.B .) [asavia.] Fut. I. soyti te etc. B. + (s yant R V . C . ) , s a v i y a t i t e etc. E . + [ 2. sot, savit.] Verb. s t v . + , suta B . + [ s n a ] ; [sotum,] s t ave v., tav AV., svi t a v e AV. ; stv B . + ; sya E . + ; s t y a B . Sec. Conj.: Pass, syte etc. v.+ Int. s o a v t i RV. [Desid. susa. Caus. svaya.l Deriv. : s a v a s B.s. str AV. s y a A V . + 8 v.+ s t i v. + tr ? v.+ s r a ? v. s a v v. + suti RV. s a v a t h a ? c. sr ? v. + svya? n.pr. RV. s t u AV. sna s.+ s v m a n V.B .S. s a v i n c. savit v. + s n v. + s v an v. svana v. + savt RV. s m a v. s AV. svana AV. san? AV. Usually divided into two roots, 1 s 'impel', and 2 s 'give birth' (the verbforms of the former, with three or four sporadic exceptions, limited to the older language); but their forms and meanings are mixed beyond the possibility of successful separation.
1 1

s d , 'put in order'. [Pres. sdate.] Perf. [sude,] s u d i m a RV. (sdati etc. sdat etc. RV., sud ta A V . ) Aor. 3. asudanta TS. [Fut. sdiyati, sdit.j Sec. Conj.: [ Int. sod. Desid. sudia. ] Caus. sdyati etc. v.+, te etc. E. + s u d a y i t n RV. Deriv. : 8d RV. sdaka E. + s d ana v. + s d a v. +

8din B .

189

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[s?j

s r k , 'heed'. Pres. [I.] srkati etc. B.S. [Perf. etc. s u r k a ; asrkt; srkiyti, srkit.] Deriv. s r kya B . s , 'flow'. Pres. [3.] ssarti ssrat etc. RV., ssrate (3p.) etc. v. (ssratus Rv .) [1.] sarati etc. s . E . + , te etc. E . + Perf. sas r a sasr etc. v . + (sasva CB ., sasv s v.+, sasr RV.; sas m RV.) Aor. I. asri B . [sriyt.] 2. asarat etc. V.B . (srat etc. sra RV.) 4. [asrt,] sarat AV. Fut. I. sariyti etc. v.+ [ 2. sart.] Verb, st B .+; sartum c , srtave RV., tav R V . ; stv B . + ; s t ya B. +; s r am B . Sec. Conj.: Int. sarsr etc. RV. (srsra v.) Desid. sisrati etc. B. Caus. srayati te etc. v . + (sryate etc. B . + ; sisrayia in d.); saryante RV. sarm? v . + Deriv. : sar v. + saraa v. + s t ya AV. smar B . + saraka E. + sarai c. sty JB . saryu v. + srin? RV. s r aa B . + srtu RV. sra v. + sraya c. sartavy B . C sarir B . salil v. + sraka B . + sras v . + srt B. sarala? E. + srin B . + sart v. + s t van V.B . sasr RV. srya c. sru? AV. stvara c. ssri RV. sir v . + st v. + srma RV. sisrayiu c. sr RV. st AV. + sarman RV.
1

srman RV. s k , 'be pointed' (?). A root sk or sc inferable with plausibility from the derivatives: sk
V.B .

srakt

V.B .S.

skva c. srkva RV.

s k van v. + skvi E. +

s j , 'send forth'. Pres. [6.] sjti te etc. v. + [I.] srjatas AV., anti c. (sarjant Rv ?) Perf. sasarja sasj etc. v. + (sasarktha c. [sasarjitha sasraha], sasj mhe jrire RV., sasgmhe sv.; sasjyt asasgram RV.) Aor. I. sgran r a m R v . ; sarjivB .; sjn RV. [3. assjat, asa sarjat. ] 4. asrkt etc. v.+ (asrk V.B .O ., asr B . , srs A v.; srakat B .), ski sa etc. V.B . Fut. I. srakyati te etc. B. + 2. sra? PB .
1 1

8j]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

190

Verb, s v. + ; sraum E. + ; sv B . U . ; sjya B . + ; srgam B,, srjam B . Sec. Conj.: Pass, sjyte etc. v.+ [ 1nt. sarsj. ] Desid. siskati etc. B . + (siskmas el.), te GB . Caus. sarjayati te etc. B . + Deriv. : sj v.+ sargin s. + sjay y B. s i v. + srj v.+ sarj B. + 8isk c. 8 CB . sjya B. + sarjya E. 8isku E. + sraavya c. srga v. + srjana v.+ sarjayitavya u.+ sra v. +
1

sp 'creep' . Pres. [1.] srpati etc. v.+, te etc. B . + Perf. sasarpa etc. B . + Aor. 2. aspat etc. AV.B . 3. asspat B . [asasarpat.] 4. [asrpst, asrpst;] aspta B .S. Fut. I. srapsyati etc. B .+, sarpsyati B . [ 2. sarpt, srapt.] Verb, spta B . + ; sarpitum E.+; sptv B . ; s p ya AV.B .S. ; s p as B . ; srpam B .S. Sec. Conj.: Pass, spyate etc. E . + 1nt. sarspant c , pyate B . Desid. sspsati etc. v.+ Caus. sarpayati etc. s.+ Deriv. : 8p B . S . spr RV. sarpaka s. sarpi B. sarpin B . + sasarpar RV. sarps v. + spya c. srpaa v. + sarsp v. + spti c. sarp v.+ sev, 'attend upon'. Pres. [1.] s v a t e etc. v.+, ti etc. R V . E . + Perf. s i e v e etc. E. +, va c. [Aor. asievat, asevia.] Fut. 1. seviyati E. [te. 2. sevit.] Verb, s e v i t a B . +; s e v i t u m c.; s e v i t v E. ; sevya c. Sec. Conj.: Pass, sevyate etc. B . + [Int. seev. Desid. sisevia. ] Caus. sevayati c (sievayia in d.) Deriv. : sev E. + sevitavya B . + s e v i n E. + sevana B. + sevit E.+ sevaka E . + s e v y a E. + sevanya c. s i e v a y i u c. skand, 'leap'. Pres. [I.] skndati etc. v. +, te c. Perf. casknda v.+, de B . + Acr. I. askan s k n V.B . [skadyt.] [2. askadat. 3. acaskandat. ] 4. askntst B . (skn skn B . S . ) Fut. I. skantsyati B . [ 2. skantt.] Verb, skann v. + ; [skanditum; s k a n t t v ; ] skndya B . +, skdya B . ; skde skdas RV.; skndam AV.B .

191

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[stan

Sec. Conj.: [ Pass, skadyate. ] int. knikan eanikadat RV. [ Desid. ciskantsa. 1 Caus. skandayati etc. B . + skandya B . skdvar B . skandh AV.+ Deriu. : skanda v. + skndhas? V.B . skandana B . + skandin B . +

skambh, skabh,

'prop'.

Pres. [9.] skabhn t i etc. V.B . (skabhna B . ) [5.] skabhnuvnt B . [ 1. skambhate.] Perf. caskambha c . (cskmbha skambhthus bhus RV.), [caskam bhe] caskabhn AV. [Aor. etc. acaskambhat, askambht; skambhiyati, skambhit.J Verb, skabhit v . ; [skambhitum;] skabhitv RV. ; skbhe RV. Sec. Conj.: Caus. [skambhayati] (skambhita c ) Deriv. : skabha V.B . skambhaka c. skmbhana V.B . skbhyas RV. skambh v. + skambhin E. +
l

s k u , 'tear'. Pres. [2.] skuti B . [5.] skunoti AV. [skunute. 9. skunti, skunte.] [Perf. etc. cuskva c u s k u v e ; acuskavat, askut a s k o a ; skoyati te, skot.] Verb, skuta RV. sk v am B .
Sec. Conj.: Pass, s k y t e MS. 1nt. c o k y t e etc. RV. [ Desid. c u

ska. Caus. skvayati.] Deriv.: skava AV. skavana s. The doubtful form s k u p t v in Ap. Dh. S. (i. 31. 24) perhaps belongs here; compare dantaskavana ib. ii. 5. 9. s k , see 1 k . s k h a l , 'stumble'. Pres. [I.] skhalati etc. E.+, te AB . Perf. caskhla caskhalus E. + [Aor. etc. askhlt; skhaliyati, skhalit.] Verb, skhalita B . + Sec. Conj.: Caus. skhalayati etc. c. [skhlayati.] Deriv.: skhala B . + skhalana E. + s t a n , 'thunder'. Pres. [2.] stanihi stan RV. [1.] stanati etc. AV.E.+, se cl. [Perf. tastna tastanus.] Aor. [2. atianat. ] 5. a s t n t AV [Fut. staniyati, stanit.]

stan]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

192

Verb, stanita s.+; s t a n i t v c. Sec. Conj.: Int. tastanhi AV. [ Desid. tistania. ] Caus. stanyati etc v. + Deriv. ; stana V.E. stantha RV. stanana c. ini? RV. stnaka? c. stm? RV. stanthu AV. stanayitnv.+ Compare 2 tan. s t a m b h , s t a b h , 'prop'. Pres. [9.] stabhn t i etc v. + (stabhn V.B .) [5.] stabhnoti etc. B . [I.] stambhant c , stambhate etc c.; stabhamfina A A. Perf. tastmbha tastabhs etc v. (tastmbhat RV.), tastambhe etc. B .+ (tastabhnv.B.) Aor. 1. [stabhyt;] astambhi c. [2. astabhat. 3. atastambhat. ] 4. astmpst TB . 5. stambht stmbht RV. [Fut. stambhiyati, stambhit.] Verb, stabhitv., stabdhaB . + ; stabdhum c.; stabdhv AV.E., stambh i t v E. ; stbhya B .+; stambham B . Sec Conj.: Pass, stabhyate c. [Int. tstabh. Desid. tistambhia. ] Caus. stambhayati te etc E.+ (stambhayia? in d.) stambha v.+ stmbhana B . + stabha RV. stambhaka E . + stabhya c. stambhanya E . + s t a m b h i n E. + stabhu RV. stabdhi B . + Compare the parallel and equivalent root akambh. s t , 'be stealthy'. Is inferable from the derivatives: stya v. + s t y vs. stmn? AV. styt AV.GB . ty? v. sten v. + styt JB . GB. reads stay an; JB . has n a styd b h a v a t i if. 24 (ter). Y s t i g h , 'mount'. Pres. [5.] stighnoti nuy t MS. [stighnute.] [Perf. etc t i i g h e ; atiighat, asteghia; steghiyate, steghit.] Verb, stgham MS. Sec Conj.: [ 1nf. teigh. ] Desid. tiighiati MS. [tistighia, tiste ghia. Caus. steghayati.] These forms are somewhat amended from the MSS. (which have stinoti tc): see Schroder in ZDMG. xxxiif. 195. y s t i m , s t l m , 'be stiff'. [Pres. etc st m yati; tiema, tima; etc etc] Verb, atimita B . + Compare sty. stambhayit c .

stambhayiu E.

193

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[St

1 stu, 'praise'.
1

Pres. [2.] stti stuvnti etc. v . + , stute stuvte etc. v . + (stavmi c . , s t o i RV., s t u v n v., stvna v . , s t a v n RV.) [1.] stvate etc. (stave 3s.) RV. [6?] astuvat E., stuvate etc. AV.E. [ 5 . ] stun v a n t i etc. u . c , stunvna u. s t u (1,3s.) v. Perf. t u v a t u u v s etc. v . + [tuuva ma], t u u v etc. v . + Aor. I. [styt;] stvi RV. 3. tuavam RV., uvam JB . (tuvat RV.) 4. astut etc. B. + (stoat etc. stoi RV.), stoa etc. V.B . 5. astvt etc. B .S. Fut. 1. stoyati etc. B. + (astoyat etc. B.U.) , te etc. B. + ; staviyati te etc. v. [ 2. stot.] Verb, stut v. + ; stotum B .+, sttave RV.; stutv AV. + ; sttya B . + , stya E. +; stavdhyi RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, styte etc. v. + [Int. tou. ] Desid. tuita c. Caus. stvayati etc. B.+, te c,; stavayati el. stt v.s. stvya s. stotr v. + Deriv. : stu RV. stuti v. + stva v. + stavana s. + stavtha RV. sttya v. + stavya E. stavanya s. stma v. + stotavya B . + stva B . + stavana E. + stav n ? RV. stot v. f stvaka c. stuyya RV. 2 stu, 'drip'. Such a root is with probability inferable from the derivatives: stk V.B .S. stup AV.B . stva AV. stu RV. stupa v. + stok v. +

stubh, 'praise'.
Pres. [1.] stbhati V.B .S. [te]. [2.] stobdhi (3s.) JB ., stubhn RV.

[Perf. etc. tuubhe; atuubhat, astobhia; stobhiyate, stobhit.] Verb, stubdha B .S.
Sec. Conj.: Caus. stobhayati Rv.c .
1

stobha B. + Deriv. : stbh v. + stubha E. Seems related with 1 stu. st,

stobhana c. stobdhavya JB .

stbhvan RV.

'strew'.

Pres. [9.] st t i stt etc. v . + [5.] stti stute etc. v . + [1.] starati etc. E. + Perf. tastra tastarus B , +, tastare rire c. (tastrir AV. , tistir 3s. r RV.) Aor. 1. star star RV., astta AB . (strate starmahe RV.); [staryt;] stri RV. [3. atastarat. ] 4. [astrt] asti B . ; stya AV. 5. astars AV. [astaria, staria.]

st]

ROOTS, VERBFORMS,

194

Fut. I. stariyati te B . C [ 2. start.] Verb, stta v.+, str v. + ; strtave B ., tavi B ., staritavi B . , str t a v e AV.B ., startav B , ; sttv B .S., strtv B . S . ; sttya E., st r ya B . +; stre RV. ; sti RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, stryate etc. s . + , ti M.?; striyte B. [staryate. Int. testrya, tastarya. ] Desid. tistrate JB . ; tustrate B .U.S. Caus. strayati etc. E. + strya B . strin AV.+ strtu RV. Deriv. : st? RV. stary B . straa v. + starit c. stir RV. stra v. + st t i B . + strman RV. stur RV. straka c sttya B . sta c. stra v.+ sth, Pres. [6.] sthant s l . [Perf. etc. tastarha etc. etc.] Seems to be a variant o th. sty, stl, 'srush'.

'stiffen'.

Pres. [4.] styyate etc. B .C. [Perf. etc. t a s t y u ; styyt styeyt, a s t y s t ; stysyati, styt.] Verb, styna c. [stta, s t m a ] ; sty y a B . Deriv.: s t y RV. styya c. styyana c. stm AV. stmin AV.B . The last two derivatives perhaps rather from stm (or this from them). s t h a g , 'cover'. [Pres. etc. sthagati; tasthga; asthagt; sthagiyati, sthagit.] Sec. Conj.: Caus. sthagayati etc. c. Deriv.: sthagaka c. sthagana c. sth, 'stand'.

Pres. [I.] thati etc. v.+, te etc. v.+ (tihsam? GGS.) Perf. tasth tasthe etc. v. + Aor. 1. stht etc. v.+ (sthti sth t has stheyma sth n t RV.), sthiths ita v.+, sthiran V.B . ; [stheysam;] asthyi c. 2? sthat AV.K. 4. [sthsa;] stheam B ., us? AV. 5. asthii ata B. + Fuf. I. sthsyati t etc. B. + 2. stht etc. E . + Verb, sthit v. + ; sth t um B .+, tos B .S., sthitum R. ; s t h i t v E. + ; sth y a v. + ; sth y am V.B . Sec. Conj.: Pass, sthyate etc. B.+ (asthyii c .) [ 1nt. tsth, teh ya.<] Desid. tihsati etc. B. + (tih s et? B.) Caus. sthpayati etc. v.+, te etc. v.+ (tihipat etc. V.B .; sth p am B . ; sthpyate etc. B . +; sthpayiati B .)
1

195
Deriv.:

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[snu

sthu v. + sth v. + sth B. stha v. + sthyuka B . sthin AV. + sthiti B.+ sthya E. sthiti CBl. sthyaka c. sthtavya E . + sthyin B . + sthtr RV. sth n a v. + stht v. + sthi RV. sthtr v. stheya B . + sth v. + sthya n. B. A number of derivatives are also be only a form of sth. They are sthvira v. + sthur V.B . sth v ira RV. sthl AV. + sthva B .

tihs c. sth m an v.c. tihsu c. sthemn B . + sthpaka E. + sthyas v. + sthpin c. sthir v. + sthla, l? v,+ sth p ya B . + sthpana E. + sth v an V.B . sthpanya B . + sthvar B . + sthpit c. sthsnu s. + sthpayitavya E. + tasthu c. sthpayit E. + made from a root sth, which appears to sth v. + sth r i? V.B . sthviman B . sthvyas B . + sthviha B . +

s n , 'bathe'. Pres. [2.] sn t i etc. v. +, snyta E. [4.] snyate etc. E. Perf. sasnus c . Aor. 1. [snyt, sneyt;] asnyi c. [ 6. asnst.] Fut. 1. snsyati te etc. E. + [ 2. snt.] Verb, snt AV. + ; sntum B . + ; sntv AV.+; sn y a V.B . Sec. Conj.: [ 1nt. ssn. ] Desid. sisa (in d.). Caus. snpyati etc. R V . S . + , te GB .; snapyati etc. A V . + snya B . + Deriv.: sn v.c. snpaka E. + sn t va V.B . snna AV. + sna E. + snpana E. + sntavya E . + snt v.c. snyin E. + snpana A V . + sisu E. s n i h , 'be sticky'. Pres. [4.] snihyati etc E. +, te etc E. + [Perf. etc s i e h a ; a s n i h a t , asiihat; snehiyati, s n e k y a t i , sneh it snegdh sneh.] Verb, snigdha E.+ [snha; snehitv, snihitv, snigdhv, snhv.] Sec Conj.: [ Int. seih. Desid. sisnehia, sisnihia, sisnika. ] Caus. snehyati etc RV.C. snhn B . snehin c. Deriv. : snh TA. sn h iti v. snehana E. + sneha B . + snehya c. snhiti RV. snehaka c . snehayitavya c. snu, 'distil'. Pres. [2.] snuti etc. B . + [snute.] [Perf. etc suva s u u v e ; a s n v i , a s n o a , asnvt; snaviyati snoyate, snavit snot.]

snu]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

196

Verb, snuta s.? E . + [Sec. Conj.: s o u ; susna; snvaya.] Deriv.: snu RV. snava E. + snvin c. s p a n d , ' quiver'. Pres. [1.] spandate etc. v.+, ti etc. E. + [Perf. etc. p a s p a n d e ; aspandia; spandiyate, spandit.] Verb, spandita c.; spanditum c. Sec. Conj.: Int. panipad (in d.). [ Desid. pispandia. ] Caus. spand ayati te etc. B . + Deriv.: spanda E. + spandin c. spandanAv.+ panipad AV.

s p a , see p a . s p r d h , see s p d h . s p , 'win'. Pres. [5.] spoti spute etc. V.B .U.S. (spvat R V . ) [9.] spti JUB Perf. paspra B . Aor. 1. aspar etc. v. (sprat v., spdhi etc. RV.) 4. spram RV. [Fut. spariyati, spart.] Deriv. spt V.B B ; sptv B . ; sprase. RV. spraa AV.B spart RV. Verb, : spara . . sp t V. B . Sp t B .S. s p d h , s p r d h , 'contend'. Pres. [1.] sprdhate etc. v . + ti etc. E . + [6.] sprdhn RV . Perf. paspdh etc. V.B . (paspdhethm v . ) , paspardha E . + Aor. I. aspdhran spdhn RV. [ 5. aspardhia.] [Fut. spardhiyate, spardhit.] Verb, spardhita E. +; sprdhitum AV.B . ; sp d hya RV. ; sprdhse RV. [Sec. Conj.: pspdh; p i s p a r d h i a ; spardhaya.] spardhas v. + spardhin E. + spardhnya c. Deriv. : sp d h RV. spardh B. + spardhya E.
% 1

s p , 'touch. Pres. [6.] spti etc. v.+, te etc. AV.+ (spna E.) [I.] asparat o . Perf. p a s p u s e etc. B. + (pasparus? u.; pasprat RV.) Aor. I. spyt E. 3. pispas ati RV. 4. asprkam etc. B .E. [asprkt.] 7. spkat etc. AV.B . Fut. 1. sprakyati etc. B. [sparkyati. 2. spra, spar.]
1

197

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[sphu

Verb, sp AV.+ ; spraum E.+; spv B .+; s p y a B . + ; sp e RV., sp as B . Sec. Conj.: Pass, spyate etc. E . + [1nt. parsp. ] Desid. pispka (in d.). Caus. sparayati etc. B . +, te RV.
Deriv. :

sparit E. spara AV. + spi c. p i s p k u E. + sparin s.+ sp i B . + sparana u.s.+ spraavy B . + sparayitavya u. sparanya E. + spra B . + Compare p , p ; a part of the words there given may with consider able plausibility be connected with this root. sp v. + spa E. + spya E. + s p h , 'be eager'. Pres. [6.] sphant s.
Sec. Conj.: Caus. sphayati etc. v. +, te etc. E. + sphaa E. Deriv.: sph v. sprh v. +

sphaylu E. + sphaya E. + sphay y ya RV. sph E. + The noncausative form only in Ap. Dh. S. i. 31. 9 (perhaps an error?). spha, 'split'.

Sec. Conj.: Caus. sphita c.

Deriv. sphaika u. + No proper root; the participle probably a denominative formation.

sphar, see sph.


sphal,
Sec. Conj.: Caus. sphlayati etc. TA.C

'strike'.

Deriv. sphlana E. + sph, 'fatten'. [Pres. etc. s p h y a t e ; pasphye; apisphavat, a s p h y i a ; sphyiyate, sphyit.] Verb, sphta E. +
Sec. Conj.: Pass, sphyate B . Caus. sphvaya (in d.). spht V . B . S . Deriv.: sphaka AV. sphir RV. sphvayit AB .

sph n a v.c.

sphti c.

s p h u , 'burst'. Pres. [6.] sphuati etc. B . + [I.] sphati B .E. Perf. pusphoa c. [Aor. apusphuat, asphot.]

sphu]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

198

Fut. I. sphuiyati etc. E. [ 2. sphuit.] Verb, sphuita E. +; s p h u i t v c. Sec. Conj.: Caus. sphoayati etc. E. + Deriv.: sphua E. + sphoa E. + sphuana c. s p h u r , s p h u l , see s p h . s p h r j , 'rumble'.

sphoana E. +

Pres. [I.] sph r jati etc. AV. + [Perf. etc. p u s p h r j a ; apusphrjat, asphrjt; sphrjiyati, sphrj it.] Verb, sphrjita E. +; sphrjya E. ? Sec. Conj.: [ 1nt. posphrj. Desid. pusphrjia. ] Caus. sphrj y a t i etc. v . + sphrjana c. sphrjathu c. sphurji c . Deriv. : sphurja c. sph r jaka B . + s p h , s p h a r , s p h u r , s p h u l , 'jerk' etc. Pres. [6.] sphurti etc. v . + , te etc. B. + [Perf. pusphora pusphure.] Aor. [I. sphryt. 3. apusphurat. ] 5. sphars RV. [asphort.] [Fut. sphuriyati, sphurit.] Verb, sphurita E. +, sphulita c .; spharitv c. Sec. Conj.: [ 1nt. posphur. Desid. pusphuria. ] Caus. sphrayati etc. E. +; sphurayati c. [sphorayati.] Deriv.: sphur RV. sphara E. + sphuraa s . + sphulga v . + sphura v . + sphrti c. Does not seem worth the attempt to divide into different roots, as the whole considerable range of meanings appears in the forms of sphur.
1

smi,

'smile'.

Pres. [1.] smyate etc. v . +, ti etc. E. + Perf. s i m i y etc. V . B . ; s i s m i y e etc. E. + , sismya etc. E. + ; smaym sa E . Aor. [I. asmyi. 3. asimayam. 4. asmea. ] 5. asmayihs E. [Fut s m e y a t e , smet.] Verb, smita E. + ; s m i t v c , smayitv'B . ; smitya E. Sec. Conj.: [ 1nt. semi. Desid. sismayia. ] Caus. smpayati etc. E.+ (sismpayia in d.); smyayati c. Deriv. : smayana s. + smaya E. + smpanya c. smera RV.C, smay k a TA. smayanya E. + smpaka c. smpayanya B . smya c. s m e t a v y TA. smpana B . + sismpayiu E.

199

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[sras

s m , 'remember'. Pres. [I.] smrati etc. v.+, te etc. v.+ Perf. sasmra sasmarus E. Aor. [1. smaryt, asmri. 3. asasmarat. ] 4. asmrus M. Fut. 1. smariyati E. 2. smart E. Verb, smta v. + ; smartum E. smtv s.+, smaritv E. ; smtya s. + ; smram c. Sec. Conj.: Pass, smaryte etc. B. + [ 1nt. ssm. Desid. susmra. ] Caus. smrayati etc. E. +, te etc. E.+ (smryate etc. E.+); smara yati etc. c. smaraa E . + Deriv, : smar AV. + smti AV. + smraka c. smaraya E.+ smartavya E.+ smarya c. smrin c. smt c. smart c. smra B . + smraa E. + s y a n d , s y a d , 'move on'. Pres. [I.] syndate etc. v.+, ti etc. E . + Perf. siyanda siyads de AV.B .; sasyande c. [dimahe dmahe.] Aor. I. syndi B. [2. asyadat. ] 3. siyadat danta v. 4. asyn RV. [ 5. asyandia.] Fut. 1. syantsyti B . [syandiyate. 2. syantt, syandit.] Verb, syann v. + ; synttum B . ; syanttv B ., syattv B . ; syadya B , ; syde RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, syandyate c. 1n. sniyadat V.B . [ Desid. sisyan dia, sisyantsa. ] Caus. syandayati etc. B. + (syandaydhyi RV.) Deriv.: syad v. syandaka E. + syandan v. + syandr RV. syandin s. + s y d u AV. syda B . sasyd RV. syntt RV. syandya B .S. syanda B. + saniyad AV.

srans, sras,

'fall'.

Pres. [I.] srsate etc. B .+, ti etc. E . + Perf. sasrasus B ., srasire ? c. Aor. 1. asrat B . 2. asrasat etc. v.+ (srasema RV.) 3. asisrasat etc. AV.B. 5. asrasiata B . [Fut. srasiyate, srasit.] Verb, srasta AV.+; [srasitv, srastv;] srsya B .S. , srasya s^; srsas V.B .U. Sec. Conj.: [ Pass, srasyate. ] 1nt. sanisras (in d.). [ Desid. sisra sia. ] Caus. srasayati etc. AV.+ (srasyate E . ) Deriv.: sras V.B . srsya B . srsaka B . srasana E . + srs B .S. srasa AV.+ srasin c. sanisras AV.

sridh]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

200

sridh, 'blunder' (?). Pres. [I.] srdhati etc. RV. Aor. 2. sridhat sridhna RV. Deriv. srdh v. srv, 'fail'. Pres. [4.] srvyanti B . [Perf. etc s i s r e v a ; a s r e v t ; s r e v i y a t i , s r e v i t ; s r t a , s r e v i t v srtv.] Sec Conj.: [ Int. sesrv. Desid. sisrevia, susra. ] Caus. srev yant RV., rvayati AV. Deriv.: srv? B . sreman?Rv. Sometimes found written with for s. sru, 'flow'. Pres. [I.] srvati etc v.+, te etc E. + ; r v a t RV. Perf. susrva s u s r u v u s AV.+ [susruma], susruve etc. E . + Aor. 3. susot etc V.B . [asusruvat; asusravat asisravat.] 5. asr VS JB . Fuf. I. sraviyati etc E. [sroyati. 2. srot.] Verb, srut Av.+, ruta AV. srvitave RV., tav RV. Sec Conj.: [ 1nt. sosru. Desid. susra. ] Caus. srvayati etc AV.+, te etc B . ; sravayati c. srtas v.+ Deriv.: sravin B . + sravt v. sr RV. sroty V.B . srvya E. + src ? v. + sruv v.+ srvaa v.+ sravtha RV. srut v. + srava v.+ srvaa AV.+ srutya B . srvayitavy MS. sravin c. sravas E. sruti v. + srva AV. + Apparent forms and derivatives of this root are occasionally found with initial , even in v.; and BR. recognize a root 2 r u , equivalent in meaning with sru. svaj, svaj, 'embrace'. Pres. [I.] svjate etc v.+, ti etc. RV.E.+ (svajna E.) Perf. sasvaj etc v.+, jus c. [sasvanje.] Aor. 3. sasvajat (plpf.?) RV. [ 4. asvaki.] Fut. I. s v a j i y a t e E . [ s v a k y a t e . 2. svakt.] Verb, s v a k t a B .+ s v a k t u m E . ; svaj i t v E. ; svajya E. + ; svje v. [Sec Conj.: s v a j y a ; ssvaj, ssvajya; s i s v a k a ; svajaya.] svajalya AV. Deriv.: svaj AV.B . svaga E. + svajana c. svagin c. svajya E. svajyas AV.
1

201

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES. svad, svSd, 'sweeten'.


1

[svr

Pres. [1.] svdati te etc. v . + ; svdate Rv . Perf. sasvade c. [sasvde.] Aor. 3. asivadat etc. V.B . [Fut. sv d iyate, sv d it.] Verb, s v t t V.B . ; sde RV. ; svdam s. Sec. Conj.: [ Int. ssvd. Desid. sisv d ia. ] Caus. etc. V.B ., svdayati etc. E.+ (svdyate c.) svdya E. + s v d v. + Deriv.: svada? RV. sv d ana RV.C. sv d yas v. + svda c. svdanya E. sv d iha v.+ 8vdaka c. svdas RV. s v d i n c. Compare sud, which is perhaps related. svan, 'sound'.

s v a d y a t i te sv d man RV. s v d m n RV. s v d i m a n c. svadayit B .

Pres. [I.] svanati te etc. E. [2?] asvant RV. Perf. sasvna s a s v a n u s E.+ [svenus.] Aor. 1. svni? RV. [3. asisvanat. ] 5. svnt RV. [Fut. svaniyati, svanit.] Verb, svanita RV. Sec. Conj.: Int. sanivanat RV. [sasvan. Destd. sisvania.] Caus. svanayati etc. RV.C. Deriv.: svan RV. s v n v. + s v a n y a RV. svanas RV. s v a n v. + s v n n RV. s v n i RV. svap, 'sleep'.

Pres. [2.] s v a p i t i panti etc. v. + (svapihi c , s v p t u AV.), svapta E . [1.] svpati etc. v.+, te etc. E . + Perf. s u v p a s u u p u s etc. v. +, suup RV. (suupths B .S.) Aor. 1. supyt s.; a s v p i c. 3. s i v a p a s s v a p RV. [asupat.] 4. asvpsam etc. s. + Fut. I. s v a p s y a t i etc. B . + , te etc. E . + ; svapiyati AV. , te R. 2. s v a p t M. Verb, supt AV.+; s v a p t u m B . + ; s u p t v a AV.+; svapam RV. Sec. Conj.: Pass, supyate etc. E . + [ Int. ssvap, soup.] Desid. suupsa (in d.). Caus. s v p y a t i etc. v. +; evapayati o . svapan B . C Deriv. : SUP RV. s v a p t a v y a B. + suups E. svpana s.+ svpa E . + svapit c suupsu B . + svpin c. supti c s v p n a v.+
1

svar,
Pres. [I.] svrati etc. V.B .U.S.

'sound'.

Perf. [sasvra sasvarus] (sasvr? RV.)

svar]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

202

Aor. [3. asisvarat. ] 4. svr asvrm RV. 5. asvrs JB. [Fut. svariyati, svart svarit.] Verb, s v a r i t o s JB . ; svram s. Sec. Conj.: [ Int. ssvar. Desid. sisvaria, susvra. ] Caus. svar yati AV. + (svaryate c.) [svrayati.] Deriv. : var RV. svary RV. svrit RV. svraa RV. svra AV.B . svr v. + svart RV. svaras RV. svar v. + svrya c. svaryas c. svari? RV. svru? V.B .S. svarayitavya c. Hardly to be separated from this root are the derivatives showing the r a dical sense of 'brightness': namely. svr v. + sura V.B . srya v. + s r ta? v. svara u.c. sr ? v. +

svd, see svad. svid, 'sweat'.


Pres. [I.] s v e d a t e B .U. [4.] s v i d y a t i etc. E.+, te etc. c. Perf. s i v i d e E. dn RV. [siveda.] Aor. 1. s v i d y t s, [ 2. asvidat. 3. asisvidat.] [Fut. s v e t s y a t i , svett.] Verb, s v i n n AV. + ; s v e d a m B . Sec. Conj.: [ Int. s e v i d . Desid. s i v i t s a . ] Caus. svedayati etc. B . + Deriv.: svda v . + s v e d i n E . + s v e d y a c. s v e d a n a c. s v d u ? R v .

had, 'cacare'.
Pres. [I.] hadati c. [te.] [Perf. etc. j a h a d e ; a h a t t a ; hatsyate, hatt.] Verb, hanna c. [Sec. Conj.: jhad; jihatsa; hdaya.] Deriv.: hda E. + hadana a

han, 'smite'.
Pres. [2.] hnti hats ghnnti etc. v.+, hate ghnate etc. v . + (hanma E. ; ghnya ta B .c ., hnta etc. B . ; jah v.+, handh TA. ; ahata 3p. AB.) [I.] hanmi TA., ahanat nan B . + [6?] aghnam E., ghnata (2p.) E . + , aghnanta ghnamna B . [8.] hanomi PGS. [I.] j ghnate etc. RV.B ., ti etc. B. ; jaghnant E. Perf. jagh n a jaghns etc. v.+ (jaghntha v.; jaghanv s V.B ., jaghni vs B . + ; jaghnat Rv.), jaghne etc. B . + Aor. [I. aghni,] 3. ajghanat etc. E . + 4. ghn? s. [ahasta.] 5. ahnt JB . Fut. I. h a n i y t i etc. v.+, te etc. B .+ (ahaniyat E.+); hasyati E. 2. hant E.
1

203

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[has

Verb, hat v. + , ghta B . ; hntum v.+ , tave V.B ., tavai V.B .S., tos V.B., hanitum c .; hatv v. + , tv R V . , tv y a v.; htya v.+, hanya E. +;gh t am B . + Sec. Conj.: Pass, hanyte etc. v.+, ti E. 1nt. jghanti etc. ananta V.B ., jaghanyate u.; ghnighnat RV.; jjahi? E. [jeghnya.] Desid. jghsati etc. v.+ (ajighss B .), te etc. E . + Caus. ghtayati etc. B . +, te etc. E. + (aghtayiths E.) [ajghatat.] Deriv.: han v. + hanas? V.B . hant v. + jighatn RV. hnu? v.+ htha RV. ha v. + jighs E . + hatn v. hat RV. hna v. + jighsu B . + hnman V.B . hati v.+ gha u.+ hta c. htya n. v.+ hnyas B . ghan v, + ghta B . + hniha RV. haty v.+ ghna v. + ghtaka E . + jaghna? v.+ hanti B . ghnya v. + ghtin AV. + ghanghan v.+ ghtya c. hntu v.+ ghni AV. jghni v.s. hntva V.B . ghn V.B . ghtana E. + hnana AV.+ hantavya E . + jgh v.+ gh t uka AV.B .
1

h a r , 'be gratified'. Pres. [4.] hryati te etc. V.B . [Perf. etc. jaharya; ajaharyat, aharyt; haryiyati, haryit; jharya, jiharyia, haryaya.] Deriv. haryat V.B . Perhaps a derivative from h. A conspicuous group of words show an inferable root har or hir 'be yellow': thus, hri v.+ hraya v.+ hrita v. + harimn v. harit v.+ hari v. + hiri RV.

h a s , 'laugh'. Pres. [I.] hsati etc. B.+, te etc. E . + Perf. jahsa jahasus E.+, jahase c. Aor. I. ahsi c. [ 3. ajhasat. 5. ahast.] Fut. I. hasiyati E . + [ 2. hasit.] Verb, hasita E. +; hasitum E. ; h a s i t v E. +; hasya B .+ Sec. Conj.: Pass, hasyate etc. c. 1nt. jhasyate E. [ Desid. jihas ia. ] Caus. hsayati etc. c. hsa B. + Deriv. : has RV. hasana RV. hasana c. hsaka E. hasana E. + hasr RV. hsa v.+ hsin AV.+ hasanlya c. hsvan RV. has AV. hsya E . + hsya AV. Compare the derivative root 2 jak.

1 h]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

204

1 h , 'leave'.

Pres. [3.] jhti jahati etc. v.+ (jahtam ta tt AV., jahhi c. [jahihi, jahhi], johimas etc. johitam ajahitm AV.B ,, jahyt etc. AV. + ) [I.] jahat AB ., hati etc. E . + Perf. jah'u jahs etc. v. + (jah RV. ?), jahe B . Aor. I. aht B .C. ; ahyi AV.B . [heyt.] 3. ajjahat c. 4. ahs (3s.) RV., ahsma hsus etc. V.B., hsi sths etc. AV.B . 6. hsiam etc. v.+ Fut. I. hsyati etc. AV.+, te etc. B. + ; jahiyati etc. E . + [ 2. ht.] Verb, h n v. +, hta c , hna AB ., jahit v. +; htum B . +; hitv v. +, tv RV., tv y a RV. [htv]; hy a B . + ; h y am TS. Pass, hyte etc. v. + (h y ate etc. TS.B .) , hyanti E. [ 1nt. jh, jehya. ] Desid. jihsati etc. c. Caus. hpayati etc. E . + , te c. (jhipas RV. [ajhapat.]) jihs c. Deriv. : h V.B . hi? c. hyya B . j ih su c. heya c. hna B . + ha E. + jh k a B . hvar MS. hyas v. + hyaka E. jahana c. hpana c. htavya E. + hyin JB . hpanya c. hni U . S . +
Sec. Conj.:

Compare the next root. Two or three of the forms given above show the establishment of a secondary rootform jah.

2 h , 'go forth'. Pres. [3.] jhte jhate etc. v.+ (jihthm CB .) Perf. jahir AV. Aor. 4. ahsta etc. v. + Fut. I. hsyate etc. B .E. [ 2. ht.] Verb, hna B . ; h t um B .E. ; [htv;] hya v. +
Sec. Conj.: [ Pass, h y a t e . Int. jh. ] Desid. j i h a t e AV. ? Caus.

hpayati etc. AV.B . [ajhapat.] This is only the middle conjugation of 1 h, with the signification slightly weakened or generalized. The forms of the two cannot everywhere be distinctly separated, and one or two of the derivatives given under 1 h have an equal or better claim to be placed here. Compare also hB , which is a secondary form of h (doubtless through the aoriststem).

h a s , 'go emulously'. Pres. [I.] h s ate etc. v.


Sec. Conj.: Caus. h s a y a n t i RV.

A secondary form of I. 2 h (h s ante AV. iv. 36, 5 is omitted in the AtharvaYeda Index).

205

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

Lhi

h i , 'impel'. Pres. [5.] hinti hinvnti etc. v. + h i n v etc. v. (hinvir RV.) [1.] hinvati etc. v.+ jighyati tu AB . hyant RV.TS. h i e (Is.) RV. Perf- jighya jighyus B . + Aor. I. hema hetana ahyan heta RV., hiyn RV.S. [hyt.] 2. ahyam? AV. [3. ajhayat. ] 4. ahit B . (hit AV.), aheata RV. Fut. I. heyati etc. E . + [ 2. het.] Verb, hit v. + ; hy RV.
Sec. Conj.: Pass, hyate c. [ 1nt. jeghya. Desid. jigha. Caus.

hyaya.] heti v. + hya v.+ h i n v RV. het RV. hya AV.B . het v. + has? RV. hman V.B . hit B . htva RV. hyy AV. hemn RV. hiti RV. hetavya c. h i t v a n RV. Probably another form of h, with causative value. Some of its uses are equivalent with those of h ; and the stem jighya perhaps belongs directly to the latter.
Deriv.:

his, 'injure'. Pres. [7.] hinsti hsanti etc. v.+ (hisyt etc. B.+; ahinat 3s. B,; hisi 2s. E.), hste etc. V.B. [I.] hisati te etc. B . + Perf. jihisa sim AV.B .S. Qhiss A V . ) Aor. [3. ajihisat. ] 5. ahist etc. v.+ Fut. 1. hisiyati te etc. B. + [ 2. hisit.] Verb. hisitAv. + ; hisitumB . + , hsitos B . ; hisitv AV.B . ; his ya E. Sec. Conj.: Pass, hisyate v.+ [ 1nt. jehis. ] Desid. jhisiati B. Caus. hisayati E. hisaka E. + hisana E. + Deriv. : hisa B . + hisitavy AV. hisya s.+ hisanya E. + hisr v. + Probably an abbreviated desiderative of han. hikk, 'soh.

Pres. [1.] hikkati te etc. c. [Perf. etc. jihikka k e ; ajihikkat, ahikkt h i k k i a ; hikkiyati te, hikkit.] Sec. Conj.: [ Int. jehikk. Desid. jihikkia. ] Caus. hikkayati c. Deriv.: h i k k E. + h i k k i n c. h i , 'be empty' (?). Pres. [I.] ahianta cK [Perf. etc. j i h i e ; ahiia; hiiyate, hiit.]

hi]

ROOTS, VERB FORMS,

206

Deriv.: hiaka E.+ hiukaE.+ The single occurrence is probably artificial. h, hel, 'be hostile'. Pres. [I.] heant RV., heamna RV., helamna E., hamna B . ; ahiat? GB . Perf. j i h a RV. (jha AV.), j i h etc. V.B . Aor. 3. ajhiat AV. [ajiheat.] 5. hitm TA. [Fut. heiyate, heit.] Verb, h i t V.B . Sec. Conj.: Caus. heayant RV. (helaym sa a), helayate E. Deriv. : h? RV. hel E. + helana E. + has V.B . h a v. helanya c. hana v. helitavya E. hu, 'sacrifice'.
1

Pres. [3.] juhti j h v a t i etc. v. + , juhut jhvate etc. v.+ (juhudhi B .S., j u h v a n t E.+, ajuhavus V.B ., huvus B .?) [2.] h o i Rv . Perf. j u h v a j u h u v u s E., j u h u v e E., juhvire B . (juhv juhur R V . ) ; juhav cakra etc. B .U. Aor. 1. hvi RV. [hyt. 3. ajhavat.] 4. ahut etc. B . + Fut. I. hoyti etc. AV.+, te E . (ahoyat B .) [ 2. hot.] Verb, hut v. + ; h t u m B .S., tav B .S., tos B .S. ; h u t v B. + Sec. Conj,: Pass, hyte etc. v . + 1nt. johavti c. Desid. juhati etc. s.+ (juhuet? GGS.) Caus. hvayati etc. s.+ ht ? v. + h a v i s v. + Deriv. : hava E. + h m a n RV. hotr v. + hut V. .S. B h a v y v.+ hoa RV. htr v. + huti V.B . hva RV. juh v. + hma A v. + hvana V . B . S . h o t a v y B . + j u h u c.

hur, see hv.


h, hv, 'call'. Pres. [4?] h v y a t i te etc. v.+ (hvayna E.) [I.] hvate etc. V.B. [6?] h u v etc. V.B . (huvya etc. huve etc. h u v n V.B . ; h v e AV., hv mahe vs.), h u v a t vma vnt RV. [2.] hma RV., hvat KS., hte K,, hmhe RV. [3.] juhmsi RV. Perf. juh v a j u h u v u s v.+, juhv juhr RV., j u h u v e vire B .; h v a y m sa E., h v a y cakre E. Aor. I. a h v i AV,, hmahi RV. [hyt; ahvyi.] 2. hvat etc. V.B., ahvata etc. V.B. [3. ajhavat. ] 4, ahata RV. [ahvsta.] 6? a h v s t GB . Fut. I. h v a y i y a t i te B ., h v s y a t e s. [ 2. hvt.] Verb, ht v . + ; h v t a v e RV., h v y i t u m B ., tav B .S., h v t u m o.; htv c.; h y a B . + ; h u v d h y i RV. ; hvam B .S.

207

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[2h

Sec. Conj.: Pass, hyte etc. v . + Int. j h a v t i etc. v . c , johuvanta jhuvna V.B . Desid. juhati B . Caus. h v y a y a (in d.). hvyana E. Deriv.: h v. + htr v. + huvana RV. h v n a B. + hvana v. + h m a n RV. h y a V.B . havs RV. h v m a n RV. h v t a v y a c. h v a v. + hti v. + hvayitavya E. haviha? c. h a v i n AV.B . hvtu RV. h v t E. + h v c. h v y a v. + htavya c'. jihv ? v. + hva A V . C h v y RV. ht v. + joh t ra RV. hvaya E . + hva B . + hvyayitavya c. hvyaka c. h r c h , 'fall away'. Pres. [1.] hrchati etc. B .U. [Perf. etc. juhrcha; ahrcht; h r c h i y a t i , hra.]
Sec. Conj.: Caus. hrchayati B.

hrchit;

hrchita

Probably related with hv. 1 h, 'take'. Pres. [I.] hrati etc. v.+, te etc. v. + [2.] harmi RV, [3.J jiharti sK Perf. jahra jahrus etc. AV.+ (jahrtha B .+; jaharus? AV.), jahre etc. B.+ Aor. 1. ahths JB . ; ahri c. [hriyt. 3. ajharat.] 4. ahrt etc. V.B.U.S.E. (ahr AV.B . ; hrit sl.), ahata RV. [ha.] Fut. 1. hariyati te etc. B.+ (ahariyat etc. B .U.) 2. hart B .E. Verb, ht v. + ; hrtum B .+ tave c ., tav B .S., tos B .S., haritum R . :
1 1

h t v B .S. ; h t ya AV.+; h r am B . + Sec. Conj.: Pass, hriyte etc. AV.+, ti etc. E. + Int. jarharti c. [jarh, jehrya.] Desid. jhrati etc. AV.+ (yate c.) Caus. hrayati etc. B .+, te etc. B .S. (hryate etc. E.+); harayanta RV . hraa AV. + ht v. + Deriv.: hara u.s. + jihr E . + haraya E. + hti B . + hra v. + jihru E. + hraka E. + hraa c. h t ya B . hrayitavya c. hras v. + hrin E. + hartavya E. + h r uka B . hry AV. + hart B. +
1

Apparently a variant to b h ; making a very small figure in the oldest language, it gains rapidly in use, and becomes extremely common. 2 h, 'be angry'. Pres. [9.] ht etc. v. (aht KB . ?) Deriv.: hy hy v. Compare the bhur beside bh.

ROOTS, VERB FORMS, h , 'be excited'.

208

Pres. [4.] hyati etc. V.B.+, te etc. E. + [I.] hrate etc. v.c ., hrant Rvl. Perf. jahara johus E.+, jahe ire E.+ (jh RV.) Aor. 2. ahat E. [ 3. ajhat, ajaharat.] [Fut. hariyati, harit.] Verb, hit v. +, ha E. +; hya E. + Sec. Conj.: 1nt. jarhanta RV., jrha V.B . [jarh. Desid. jihar ia.] Caus. haryati etc. v. +, te V.E. Deriv.: hara B. + hraa AV. + har RV.E. + gh u RV. haraka E. + hi c. h R V . E . + gh vi RV. harin v. + hri RV. heh. The apparent derivative vihehaka (or aka) M . is probably oily a misreading for aka; and viheh c . a like case or artificial.
1 1

h e , h e l , see h . h e , 'whinney'. Pres. [I.] hati etc. v.+, te etc. E . + Perf. jiheire c. [Aor. etc. a h e i a ; heiyate, heit.] Verb, heita E. + Deriv.: he ? RV. he c has ? RV. h n u , 'hide'. Pres. [2.] h n u t etc. v.+, hnuti (hnoti?) E., hnutas RV., hnuyt c. [1.] h n a v e B .S., hnavanti El. [Perf. etc. j u h n u v e ; ahnoa; hnoyate, hnot,] Verb, hnut AV. + ; hnotum c.; hnutya c. [Sec Conj.: johnu; j u h n a ; hnvaya.] hnavyya RV. Deriv.: hnava B . + hnuti c. hnavana s.+ hnot c. hnuvana s. hras, 'shorten'.

Pres. [1.] hrasati te etc. s.+ [Perf. etc. jahrsa; ajihrasat, ahrst; hrasiyat, hrasit.] Verb, hrasta s., hrasita c. Sec. Conj.: [ Int. jhras. Desid. jihrasia. ] Caus. hrsayati etc. s.+ Deriv.: hrasa s. + hrsiha B . hrasv B . + hrsana c. hrsyas B . + hrsanya c.

209

AND PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.

[hval

h r d , 'make a noise'. Pres. [1.] hrdate etc. s.+ [Perf. etc. jahrde; ahrdia; hrdiyate, hrdit.] Verb, hrdita c.
Sec. Conj.: Caus. hrdayati etc. B . + Deriv.: h r d a B . + hrdinE.+ hrdanaE.+ h r d i U.E.

h r , 'be ashamed'. Pres. [3.] jihreti etc. B.+ (jhriyat MS.) Perf. jihrya c. [jihraym sa.] Aor. 1. hraya? RV. [hryt. 4. ahrit.] | Fut. hreyati, hret.] Verb, hrta B . +, hra E. Sec. Conj.: Int. jehryate c. [Desid. jihra. ] Caus. hrepayati etc. c. [ajihripat.J hraya RV. hrti E. Deriv. : h r B . + hrepaa c.
h r i RV.

h r u , see h v . h r e , 'neigh'. Pres. [1.] hreati te etc. E . + | Perf. etc. j i h r e e ; ahreia; hreiyate, hreit.] Verb, hreita E. +
Sec. Conj.: Caus. hreayati etc. E.

Deriv.: hrein E.

hreuka E.

h l d , 'refresh'. Pres. [1.] hldate etc. c. [Perf. etc. jahlde; ajihladat, ahldia; hldiyate, hldit; hlanna.] Sec. Conj.: Caus. hldayati te etc. TA.E. + (ahldayiata c.) hldaka v.c. hlduka TA. Deriv. : hrad v. + hldayit c. hldin E. + hlduni c. hlda u.+ hldana E. + hrdni V . B . U . Only one or two late sporadic forms outside the causative conjugation ; and the proper form of the root seems to be hlad (or hrad). h v a l , 'go wrong'.
Pres. [I.] hvlati etc. C B . E . + , te E.

[Perf. etc. jahvla; ajihvalat, ahvlt; h v a l i y a t i , hvalit.] Verb, hvalita E. + ; h v l i t o sB hv l am B .S. ., Sec. Conj.: Caus. hvalyati B. [hvlayati.] Deriv.: hvala E.+ hval B. . hvalin c. hvla s. Is only a specialized form of the following root.

hv]

ROOTS, VERB-FORM S, AND PRIM ARY DERIVATIVES. h v , h r u , h u r , 'be or make crooked'.

210

Pres. [1.] -hvarant hvrate RV. [9.] hruti RV. [hvti.] [3?] juhuras RV., juhrths juhuranta -r RV. [Perf. jahvra jahvartha jahvarus.] Aor. [I. hvaryt; ahvri. ] 3. jihvaras v., -ratam vs. (jhv- TS.TA.) 4. h v r t etc. B. (hvr B., hvrius K.) Fut. 1. hvadiyati? TA. [ 2. hvart.] Verb, hvta RV., [hvarita,] hrut v.+ Sec. Conj.: [Pass, hvaryate. 1nt. jhv-, jarhv-. Desid. juhvra-. ] Caus. hvrayati etc. B. Deriv. : -hurya RV. hvr v. -hvt RV. -hvti v.+ -hvara v . + hurs RV. hrt V.B. -hruti v.c. ? hvaraka c. hvras V.B.

INDEXES
OF

TENSE AND CONJUGATIONSTEMS.


The following lists give t h e stems o f t h e various tense a n d conjuga t i o n s y s t e m s , e a c h m o d e o f f o r m a t i o n b y itself. M o d e s t e m s a r en o t a d d e d , except i n t h e case o f t h e aoristoptatives, among which t h e socalled prec atives are included. F o r t h e sake o f illustrating more clearly t h e history of t h e l a n g u a g e , t h e stems o f each formation a r e presented i n three divisions. A. S t e m s f o u n d o n l y i n t h e e a r l i e r l a n g u a g e ( o f V e d a , B r h m a a , Upanishad, Stra); B. S t e m s f o u n d i n b o t h t h e e a r l i e r a n d t h e l a t e r l a n g u a g e ; C S t e m s f o u n d i n t h e later (epic a n d classical) l a n g u a g e only. In these divisions t h e stems follow o n e another n o t alphabetically, but i n t h e order o f t h e roots aspresented above. T h e references t o periods a r e i n a n a b b r e v i a t e d f o r m : o n l y t h e five p r i n c i p a l p e r i o d s a r e n o t e d n a m e l y , V e d a , B r h m a a , Stra, epos, classics (theVedas are n o t separ a t e d , a n d U p a n i s h a d i s i n c l u d e d i n Br h m a a ) ; a n d , i n e a c h d i v i s i o n , a l l references are omitted if t h e stem is found through t h e whole division ( t h a t i s , i n A . i s o m i t t e d t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f v . B. s . ; i n B., t h a t o f v . + ; i n C , t h a t o f E.+). A l s o , a l l a c c e n t s , q u e s t i o n m a r k s , v a r i e t y o f s t e m f o r m s , and t h e like, are left o u t ; forsuch details, w h e n desired, t h e b o d y o ft h e work m a y b e consulted. F u r t h e r particulars a s t o s o m e o f t h e lists a r e g i v e n u n d e r t h e diffe rent heads below.

I. P R E S E N T S T E M S .

[use]

1. Rootclass (adclass, second class). [143.]


A. E a r l i e r L a n g u a g e . [80.]

am V.B . V . B . r V . B . u v. h v. B.

k v . 1 k i V.B . 2 ki v . ku gam v . ci v .

chand V.B . 2 jak V.B. jan V.B . ji v . ju v . tak v .

tak V.B . ta v . tu v . tur v . tvak v . tvi v .

212
dan v . dah v . 1 d v . 2 d di B . d v . d v . dbh B . 1 dr v . dh v . dh B . dh v . nis v. n v . s . 2 nu s . 1 p v . p v . P v . pr v . ps V . B . bhaj v . bhiaj v . bh v . mad v. yaj yam V.B . yu yuj v .

INDEXES. yudh v . rad v . randh v . rj v . rih V . B . 2 ru v . ruj B . rudh v . 1 vas B . v a h V.B . v V.B . vt v . cam B . S . 1 s undh s . nath v . ru v . u v . sad v . sas v . sah v . sku B . stan v . stubh V.B . svan v . hu v. h h v .

B. E a r l i e r a n d L a t e r L a n g u a g e . [ 4 9 . ] ad an as s i ku B . + g B . E . ghr B .E. cak 1 jak B . + tr k c . khy gl E. caks c . dih duh 2 dr B . + dvi dh B . + dhy B . + nij v . c . 1 nu 2 p p l u S.E. br bh m mj y r 1 ru B . + rud lih B . + vam va 2 vas v 1 vid 2vid 2 s Cij 9 vas s stu sn snu B svap han hnu

.+

0. L a t e r L a n g u a g e . [14.] dad mn c. dyu c. ml E. dhm c . l c . pad E.

vac vind u c E.

2. Reduplicatingclass (huclass, third class). [ 4 9 . ]


A. E a r l i e r L a n g u a g e . [ 3 3 . ] iyar V.B . cak v . jig V.B . jigh V.B . ciki V.B . didi v . dd ddh V.B . ninij v . n i n l V.B . pip V.B . pp V. . B pipc V.B . mamad v . maman v . 2 m i m V.B . mimik v . m i m l V.B . yayas v . y u y u V.B . rar v . vivac v . v a v a , v i v a v. vivic v .

I . PRESENTSTEMS. v i v i v. v a v t V.B . v i v y a c v. siac v. s u s u v. sis v. j u h v. jih s. juhur v.

jighr tit v.c. dad dadh

B. Earlier and Later Language. [16.] bibh 1 pip v.c. jah 1 mim jih 2 pip i juhu babhas V . B . C . jihr B . + sasas B .C. bibh

3. Nasalclass (rudhclass, seventh class). [ 2 9 . ]


A. Earlier Language. [16.] unad unabh V.B . j v. adh v. kat gath v. chad B . tanac B .S. tuj v. t u n d v. tad V.B . tah V.B . pac V.B . bhiaj v. maj V.B . rinac V.B .

anaj inadh chinad pinas

B. Earlier and Later Language. [13.] bhanaj yunaj ruadh bhinad vinac bhunaj

vaj ina B . + hinas

4. nuclass (suclass, fifth class). [50.]


A. Earlier Language. [24.] a k u V.B . i n u v. u n u v. u v. ku kubhnu B . j i n u V.B . t a k u B .S. daghnu B . dabhnu V.B . dnu v. p i n u V.B . 1 pu s. p r u u v. riu B . l u n u B .S. saghnu v. s i n u V.B . sadhnu B . skabhnu B . s k u n u v. stabhnu B . stighnu B . spu

B. Earlier and Later Language. [22.] anu pnu dhnu kiu 1 cinu tpu, nu V.B .C dunu dhinu B . + dhnu dhu 1 minu 2 m i n u v.c. rdhnu B . + 1 v ru 2 vu B . + aknu u sunu s t u n u B .C. stu hinu

C. Later Language. [4.] 2 cinu jaghnu c. t i n u c. 2 pu c.

214

INDEXES. 5. uclass (tanclass, eighth class). [s.]


T h e s t e m s o f t h i s class are too f e w t o b e w o r t h d i v i d i n g b y p e r i o d s .

kuru v . + kau B . +

tanu v . + taru v .

manu v . + v a n u V.B .S.

sanu V.B .S. h a n u s.

6. nclass (krlclass, ninth class). [ 5 3 . ]


A. E a r l i e r L a n g u a g e . [ 3 1 . ]

in v . is ubhn v . u v . k i V.B . 2 g v . s . gbh V.B . jun v .

jin d B dr V.B . p pru B . bhr v . mn V.B . m v .

ram V.B . ri 1 v v . vl n B . amn B . camn v . rathn v . 1 r V.B .


[17.]

2 r V.B . sin V.B . subhn B . skabhn V.B . sp B . h V.B . hrun v .

B. E a r l i e r a n d L a t e r L a n g u a g e .

2 an kr 1 g grathn B . + gh 1 a n E.

jn pun pr badhn

mathn mu mdn s . + lun B . +


[5,]

2 v stabhn st

C. L a t e r L a n g u a g e .

k u a c.

klin

dhuni c. pu
[529.]

7, a(unaccented)class (bhclass, first class).

A.
aka V.B . aca aja s . ata v . ana V . B . ama V . B . inva v . a v . s . ra v . rya B .S. a V.B . a V . B . 2 ea v . oha v .

E a r l i e r L a n g u a g e . [175.]

arc a B . ara V.B . ja v . kara v . kpa v . kraka v . klatha B . kada V.B . 1 kaya v . koda v . kobha u . kveda B . kharja s . gama v .

garda B . grda B. cata v . cya V.B . 1 cay a v . 2 caya V.B . ceta v . coda v . jana V.B . jasa v . jinva java V.B . jrva v . 2 jara v .

jeha v . jraya v . taa B . tanda v . tva v . teja V.B . tuja v . tunda v . trva V.B toa v . tsara thrva B . daka V.B . dabha V.B .

I. PRESENTSTEMS. dsa cla v. dodha v. darpa s. dha V.B . dhanva V.B . dhava v. dhrva V.B . dhrja v.B . dhvara B . naka V.B . nabha v. 2 n a a v. nasa v. ndha v. n i k a v. 1 nava v. 2 nava v. neda B . patha s. pana v. pya B . paya v. pinva pibda V.B . pya V.B . pya B .S. para B . pca v. prava protha V.B . bha B . bhana v. bhanda v. bharva v. bhasa v. bhaya v. bha V.B . bibhra v. bhyasa v. bhrea V.B . maha V.B . manda V.B . metha megha v. m l v a V.B . m o a v. mara v. mcha B . mrada V.B . mardha v. m y a k a RV. mroca V.B . mrea B . yabha V.B . yea V.B . yda v. yucha v. yodha V.B . raha v. rava B . rada V.B . 1 raa v. rapa V.B . rapa v. ramba v. 1 rsa repha B . rea v. 2 rava B . 1 rodha v. roa V.B . reja V.B . rea B .S. laya V.B . u k a v. vaca v a t a v. vadha V.B . v a n a v. 2 vapa valha B .S. v a a v. v e n a V.B . vrada v. vrdha v. 1 cam a v. y a v. undha u m b h a v.
[212.

215

v a y a V.B . roa v. rea v. v a c a v. maca B . saca V.B . saca v . sna v. sapa V.B . 1 sarja V.B . sdha v. s e c a v. srka B .S. stabha B. stava v. stobha sredha v. svda v. svara sveda B . jighna V.B . hsa v. jighya B . haya V.B . hea v. ha B . hava V.B . hrcha B . hvara v.

B . Earlier and Later Language.

aca aja area arha ava asa aya ka kha B . + ha B . + oa 1 ha arja B . +

arda eja edha kampa B .H kasa kasa v.c. kka B . ka B . + kuja karsa kalpa kranda kr m a

kra kroa kvatha B . + kapa kama kara khana khda gada s . + gacha garha gha gha

gha B . + grasa ghoa jighra caka cma B . + cara cala cea cyava cyota s. + chanda B .E. jaka.+

216
japa B . + jalpa B . + jay a jva 1 jar a jmbha jna B .E. jyota B .E. jvara B . + jvala B . + taka tapa tara tyaja s . + trasa tvara B . + daa daya daha dada dka B . + dyota drava paa B . + pata piba pava pratha plava bdha bodha bhaj a bhaa B . + bhartsa bha B . + bhsa bhika bhuja B . + bhava bhara bhraa bhrama B . + bhrja maha V.E. majja mantha matha mada m a ya V . E . meha mla B . + moda mrcha mana s. + mloca B . + mlecha B . + y a k a V.E. yaja yata yacha yca raka rabha

INDEXES. rama rasa B . + rja rebha 1 rava B . + roca roda s. + roha lapa labha lamba B . + loka B .C. vada vanda 1 vapa valga vasa vaha vcha va v e d a B .E. vepa v e a V.E. vea vara v . c . varta vardha vara vyatha vraja asa aka B . + apa asa B . + aya oca obha ardha cota raya
[142.]

dhama
dadha 1 dhva 2 dhva dhra S.E. dhara B .E. dhvasa B . + nada nanda nama narda B . + 1 naa ntha B . + ninda naya paea paha B . +

lgha B . + vasa hva saja sda saha sha V.E. sedha sara s. + 2 sarja v . c . sarpa seva skanda skhala B . + stana tiha spanda spardha sphoa B .E. sphrja smaya smara syanda srasa B . + srava svaja svada svapa hana B . + hasa B . + jaha B . + hinva hisa B . + hara hara v . c . hea hnava B . + hrasa s. + hrda s . + hvala B . +

C . Later Language.

aga c . aa aha c .

ada E. a a E. cha c.

sa iga 1 ea

2 ha kattha ksa c .

I. PRESENTSTEMS. kuca c . kuja c . ka c. krda karta E. klanda c. klinda c. k v a a c. 2 ksaya kvea k v e l a E. khaca c . khaj a c . khalla c . khela garja gala c . galbha c . guja c . gopa c . gumpha c . glaha E. ghaa ghra ghara caka c . caka caca c . caa c . cinva c . copa E. cumba chaya c . chinda c . jhaa c . jhara c . ala c . ka c. ama c . amba c . aya c . huka c . tarj a tarpa E. trapa tvaga c . daa c . dala deva dunva E. dhuka E. dhvana c . naa c . naha E. paa c parda c . poa c . pja E. ploa c . phakka c . phaa c . 1 phala 2 phala bandha badhna E. bhaksa bhas a bibhya mathna E. mrga moa c . mraka c . mrja marda yama raga c . raja raa c . 2 raa c . 1 rambha 2 rambha c . 2 rsa rikha c . riga c . roha E. 2 rodha E. laksa laga lagha c . laa c . lambha E. lala lasa lasa luha E. lobha c . lola c . vama vala c . vha c . veja E. vja vyaja c . vha vella c. 1 vyaya c. vraa c . vraca c. vra 2 ama E. ala c . aa c. sa ea c. latha c . rama rambha sa E. sava stambha c . stara spara c . svana E. hada c . jaghna E. hikka c . hia c . hela E. hrea hlda c .

217

8. (accented)class (tudclass, sixth class).


A. Earlier Language. [72.]

[142.]

ana v . ia V.B . 2 ia v . unda B .S. ubja umbha V.B . va v . ra v . ja V.B . da v .

a kuva B . kiya V.B . khada B . khuda v . ga v . cta chya V.B . jura v . tila B .

tuja v . tira tura V.B . tmpa tvia v . 1 dya 2 dya V.B . dbha B . dha v . d h v a V.B .

pia V.B . pa v . pa V.B . prua v . bha V.B . bhura v . mima B . mitha v . mina v . m u c a V.B .

218
ma V.B . mka v . ma mdha v . s . meda v . 1 y u v V.B . 2. y u v a rikha v . ripha ria v . rudha v . lia B . uka v . v a n a V.B . ua v . ucha

INDEXES. ua v . vindha v . va v . s . vha ia s. ya ia B .S. a v .


[53.]

ntha B . sumbha B . sula B . su v a , sva V.B . stha s . sprdha v . spha s . h u v a , h v a V.B .

B . Earlier and Later Language.

icha uka ucha s . + cha archa B .E. kuca s.c. kira knta ka kipa khida gura 2 gira gila B . + ila c . 1 ia ujha kua c. kupa E.

jua tuda dia duha dvia B . + nuda pia V.E. pcha bruva B .+ bhuj a bhjja mia muca
C

mja ma yuja B . + ruva ruja ruda s . + rundha B . + rua s . + lajja B . + likha limpa lumpa vija
[17.]

vida 2 vinda vidha via vca umbha v . c . sya sica sja s t u v a V.E. spa sphua B . + sphura

Later Language.

1 gira c . ghra trua c . p i a E.

pua c . mila c . m u a E. ruha

liha luha c . 1 vinda ghna

9. yaclass (divclass, fourth class).


A. E a r l i e r L a n g u a g e . [41.]

[133.]

rya v . ucya V.B . jya v . kya v . kya B . k y a B .S. k y a V.B . jasya v . jrya v . jya V.B . tanya v .

trya v . trya v . tya V.B . dmya B . dasya dya v . dhya v . pacya V.B . patya V.B . pisya B .

prya v . pruya B . bhjjya B . mcya B . medya V.B . mritya B . radhya V.B . raya v . rya V.B . rya V.B .

rupya B . amya B . imya B . ya ucya B . rya B . rya V.B . lya B . srvya B . harya V.B .

II. PERFECTSTEMS.
B. E a r l i e r a n d L a t e r L a n g u a g e . [64.]

219

asya ya 2 iya dhya krudhya kudhya gya gdhya glya jya jrya tapya B . + tmya B . + tuya s . + tpya trya

dpya dvya duya B . + dpya druhya B . + dhaya dhyya B . + naya nahya ntya padya paya puya pyya prya B . + budhya

bhraya s . + mdya B . + manya mya muhya mya mlya B . + yasya yudhya rajya rdhya ricya B .E. riya lya lubhya vya

vaya v y a V.E. vidhya 2 vyaya mya B . + udhya B . + uya yya B .C rmya liya B . + sidhya svya sya B , + styya B .C hvaya hya

C. L a t e r L a n g u a g e . [ 2 8 . ]

sya E. 1 iya kupya klmya c . klidya kliya kamya

kubhya ghuya c . ya c . timya c . trasya truya, ya c . tviya c .

dahya E. 1 dya E. 2 dya c . d i y a E. duhya drya dhya E.

bhrmya ruya lapya E. sahya E. snya E. snihya svidya

II.

PERFECTSTEMS.

[473.]

T h e v a r i e t y o f s t e m f o r m s i s n o t g i v e n , e x c e p t i n t h e c a s e o f m e d i a l e f r o m a. T h e rare i n t e n s i v e a n d d e s i d e r a t i v e s i m p l e perfects are i n c l u d e d i n t h e l i s t .

A.
k v . ac B . aj v . naj V.B . n v . m, em V.B . nh V.E. 1 v . dh V.B . 2 v . r v . v .

Earlier Language.

[169.]
cicyu v . cachand v . jajas v . jijinv v . juju v . jaj v . jujur v . jijy B . tatas RV. tat am B . titij B .S. ttu v .

3 v . c v . d v . uvo B . h v . nj v . ndh V.B . n B . c k an RV. cak cakp v . cak v .

cikr s . cakad v . jugur v . 1 jag B . jagbh jagras v . jaghas V.B . jughu B . 1 ciki B . cikit cact v . cucyu v .

220
tutuj v. paspa v. titir, tutur v. pp v. t t v. p i p i n v v. tath v. p i p i v. tityaj v. pipis B . tatr V.B . p i p v. t i t v i v. p u p B .S. tatsar v. pap B . dadak B . papc V.B . dadabh, debh v. p i p y v. dadambh v. papr v. dadas v. pipr 2 dad B . pupru B . dids desid. B . babh v. dad V.B . bibhik B . dd 1 bubhuj v. d i d v v. jabh V.B . d d h v. m m a h V.B . dodru int. B. mamad V.B . didvi B . m a m a n d v. dadhan v. 1 m i m V.B . dadhanv v. m i m i v. 2 dadh v. m i m i k v. ddh V.B . m i m i t h v. davidhu int. v. m u m u r v. d d h V.B . mimk v. nanak v. mamr v. n o n u int. v. m i m i k v. ppaj v. mumluc B . papan v. y e t V.B .

INDEXES. y u y u v. y o y u int. B. y u y u p v. rrah V.B . rarad v. rradh v. rran V.B . rarap v. rar v. rardh V.B . riric V.B . ririp v. riribh v. ririh v. lili B . lel int. B . v a v a k v. v a v a c v. v i v a c v. v v a c v. d V.B . v v an v. uvam B . 1 v v a RV. 1 u v a s V.B . v v. v i v i c v. v i v i p v. v i v i v. v i v v. vvj v. v i v y a c V.B . v i v i d h V.B . v i v y v. v a v c v. a d v. aad, ed B . 1 a a m V.B . a v. ii B . a a y v. v. a v. c u c u t B .S. arath v. i r v. tihv B . s a c , sec V.B . sasan sep v. s i i v. 2 siidh sas v. s u d v. tistir v. pasp B . siyand V.B . 2 jah v. jihis j h V.B .

B.
nc v na 2 1 s 2 s h p y
1 S
B. +

Earlier and Later Language.

[191."
2 ciki 3 ciki cichid B . + jajan jigi jijv B . + juju jaj jajval B . + tatak tatan, ten tatap, tep tutud

n'
r cakam

cukup B .B . 1 cak cakt cak B . + c k lp v.c. cakrand v . c . cakram cikr B . + cukrudh B . + cakam cikip B . + cuku B .+ cukubh

cakhan cakhd cakhy jagam 1 jag 2 jag B . + jugup 2 jag jg int. j g dh jagh cacak cacar, cer

II. tat, ter tatd v . c . t t p V.E. dada V.E. dadah, deh B . + 1 dad didi didk B .C. duduh dad dad didyut 1 dadr v . c . dudru B .C. dudruh 1 dadh dudh ddh dadhy B . + dadhvas n n am, nem nana, n e ninind nin nunud papac, p e c papat, pet papad, ped pap pipi pupu paprach B . + paprath puplu B . + babandh, bedh

PERFECTSTEMS. lalabh, lebh lilikh B . + lilip B . + lil B . +


lulUp B .+

221
iri uru ili B . + sasaj, sej B . + sasad, sed

s s ah, seh siic 1 siidh suu su sas v v as v.c. sasj 2 uvas sasp B . + uvah caskand 2 mm v . c . vav B .+ caskambh v . c . mumuc 2 v v a tastambh mumud vivij tuu mumuh B .+ vid tast mam 2 vivid tasth mmj vivi paspdh m m 1 vav pasp mam V.E. 2 vav simi j. yej v v t sasras B .C. yayam, y e m v v dh susru yay v v sasvaj yayc B . + vavh suvap yuyuj vivyadh B .+ s i v i d V.E. yuyudh vavraj jaghan aas B . + r r ak 1 jah aak, ek r r abh, rebh jighi B . + r a r a m , rem B . + a a p , e p 2aam,emB.+ j u h u ruru B .E. juh as ruruc jah i B . + ruruj uuc rurudh j h aram, r e m ruruh C. L a t e r L a n g u a g e . [113.] jagarj jagarh jagalbh c . jagh c . jugh jajg jagha c . jagha E.

babdh bubudh babhaj, bhej babhaj babh B . + bibhid bbh 2 bubhuj babh babh mamath, m e t h maman, men 1 mam

lulubh s. + uvac vavand uvap v a v a m , v e m B .+

narch E. edh c . cakamp E. cakas c . cakk cak cukuc c . cukj c .

cukrd c . 2 cak E. cukru o . caklam c . cikli c . cakar c . cukud B . jagad

jughr jagh c . jaghr c . caca c . cacam, cem E cacal, cel cucumb cice E.

222
cachd c . jajap, jep E. jajalp E. jajmbh uhuk c . tata c . tutu tatyaj tatras, tres tutru c . tatvar didih E. didp c . 2 dadr c . dadhm B . dadhv c . dadhvan c . nanad, n e d nanand nanard E. nunu c .

INDEXES. nant papah c . pupj E. pupr c . paphal E. phel c . babha c . babh babhs babhram, bhrem babhrj mamajj mamanth mimil c . mimi c . miml c . mumu c . mumrch mamd maml raras, res rarj, rej rars c . rurud E. lalajj c . lalap, lep lalam c . lalamb lalas, l e c . lalas c . luluc luluh c . lul c . lulok c . luloc c . v a v a p E. vaval c . vavalg E. vavah 1 vivid c . vivyaj E. vavh c . vivyath
i i k desid, c . 3 em c .

a a s E. uubh algh c . avas sas s. siev caskhal sasn c . pusphu c . sasm E. sasyand c . sasvad c . sasvan jahas jihe c . jihr c .

III. AORISTSTEMS.

[73?;]

From stems with p . added, only optative or precative forms occur.

1. Rootaorist. [uo.]
Simply the root is given. The passiveaorist third persons will be found further on, under VII. A. Earlier Language. [ 1 1 2 . ] dyut V.B . bh ad p. B . 1 ci v. 2 dh v. bhuj v. av p. 2 ci v. dh v. bhram p . s. a Ct V.B. na V.B . bhrj v. p p. B . c y u v. majj p . B . nas p. v. idh v. chid v. mand v. nid V . B . u h p. B . jan B .S. man V.B . nt v. V.B . jvp. muc V.B . pad v. dh j p. v. m u d p. v. s p a v. kp v. tan V . B . m p i v. kram v. tap v. m p. B . gam P v. td v.s. md p. B . S . gur v. pc v.s. tp p. B . mdh p . v. g v. prath v. dagh v. m v. pr V . B . grabh V.B dabh v. m y a k v. budh v. ghas dB. yat v. g h r p . s. 2 dB. bhid V.B .

III. yam v. y u V.B . yuj V . B . ram v . rj p . s . rdh ric v . ri B . rue V . B . ruj B . vac p . B . v a d p . B .S. vadh p . van v. 1 vas v. 2 vas van p . s . vij V . B . vip v . vi v. vi v. 1 v v. vj v . Vt V .B .

AORISTSTEMS. as V.B . ak v. v . ubh v. ri v . vit v . sagh v . sac v . sah v . s, s V . B . sic p . B . S . su v . [18.] 2 v ru sth h B . C . sj v . skand V.B . st V . B . sp v . spdh v . sras B . svap p . s . svidp. s. hi v . s . h v . h B . hr v .

223

B. E a r l i e r a n d L a t e r L a n g u a g e . i p. k ga ji p . ju
B .+

B .E.

d d 1 dh, dh, hi p pu p . B . C .

bh bh B .C. yudh v . c . rudh V . B . C

C. L a t e r L a n g u a g e . [ 1 0 . ] as p . E. kir p . c jp. dah p . E. 1 d p . c . nud p . pi c pr p . c . bru p . E. s p p . E.

2. aaorist. [sc.]
A. E a r l i e r L a n g u a g e . [61.] aa v . ara V . B . dha V.B . kara kta v . krada v . krama V.B . kudha v . khya guha v . gdha V.B . gha V.B . ghasa B . tasa V.B . tana v . tama tpa V.B . ta V.B . tha v . dagha B . dasa da V . B . dusa B . dpa B . da V.B . dha v . dha V.B . dhvasa v . nija v . s . nta v . pua budha v . bhida v . bhuja v . b h u v a V.B . bhraa V.B . muca v . muha B . mdha s . mruca B . radha v . ria ruda V.B . vida vdha va B . vya v. cam a B . 1 i a V.B . 2 i a V.B . va B . rama v . ruva B . ria v . sana sara V.B . spa V.B . stha V.B . sridha v . hya v . hva V.B .

224

INDEXES.
B. Earlier and Later Language. [ 1 8 . ]

astha pa krudha gama chida naa yasa c .

dyuta B . + druha V.E. ma yuja v . c . rudha rica c . ruca c .


3.

ruha voca vta aka


[7.]

uca sda sica srasa

C. Later Language.

lipa c . lia
[154.]

hrsa E.

Reduplicated Aorist.

A. Earlier Language. [ 1 0 1 . ]

amama V.B . pipa B . ckama B . ckta B . cka v . cikrada V.B . cukrudha v . cikipa v . jgama V.B . jgupa B .S. 1 jg v . 2j g v . jigrabha B . jghasa B . ccata B . cucyava V.B . cucyu v . jjabha v . jjasa B . jajas v . tatasa v . ttara v . tta V.B . titrasa v . dadaka B . didka B . eklpa ccara jjana ttapa V.E. ttpa

ddua v . didyuta V.B . dudru v . dadhv v . ddhara ddh v . n e V .B . nnu v . ppata v. papta ppada V.B . ppura V.B . 1 ppara v . 2 ppara V.B . papratha v . piplava B . bbudha v . babhaka B . bbhaj B. bbhaya v. bibha V.B . b b h u v a v. mmada V.B . mm v . mmisa B .

m m u h a V.B . mma v . mmja B . mma v . yyaja B . yyu v . yyupa B . 1 rradha v . rrama v . rrica B .S. rruca V.B . rrupa V.B . llikha B . llubha B . v a v a k a v. v v a t a v. vvasa B . v v a a v. vvija v. v v i p a v. vvara v . v v v. vvta v . vivyatha B . u c a V.B .

u b h a V.B . cucuta s . inath v . iratha V.B . ir v . u r u v a V.B . avaca v . ivita v . sada B . sapa v . sadha V.B . susu B . su B . suda B . sspa B . tuava V.B . pispa v . siyada v . sisrasa V.B . susru V.B . sasvaja v . sivada V.B . sivap v . jhia v . j h vara V. B .

B. Earlier and Later Language. [17.]

didpa v . c . ddipa B .E. dda B . + dudruva B . +

nnama v . c . nnaa mmara B .C 2 rradha B .C.

rria vvdha ama iriya

III. AORISTSTEMS.

225

C. Later Language. [30.] llupa E. titvara E. m m u c a c. ckasa c. v v i a c. ddaha c. mmda E. ckara c. v i v a E. dduha c. yyuja jigraha c. v v i d h a E. ddara yyudha E. ccuda E. a y a E. ppia E. rraca c. ccura c. jghana bbhara E; rruva c. cachada c. jjaha c. bibhrama E. rruja c. cichida E. mimla c. jjaya E. Here appended are the reduplicated aorists from causative stems in p . [6.] j i j a p a , j i j i p a irapa B . jhipa v. arpipa v. B.C. jjapa, jjipa B . tihipa V.B . 4 . saorist.
a k s V.B . kr B. 2 k r v. k r n t s V.B . kras k r v. 1 k e v. 2 ke khs B. g a s V.B . g s v. c a r s B .S. ci B. c i t s v. c y o V.B . c h a n t s v. js V B . . t a n s , t a s V.B . taps t r s V.B . t s r v. 2 d i p. v.
[145.]

3 di v.
d i k v. d h u k V.B .

A. Earlier Language. [99.] dar v. m a s p. v. dB. m s v. dyuts V.B . me 1 drs v. m k p. v. 2 drs B. marks B . dhs v. yaks dh v.s. yas dhr v. y s v. n a s V.B . yu n i k v. r a p s v. n V.B . r s V.B . n u t s V.B . rts p a k v. r i k V.B . pats V.B . ruk B. 1 ps v. l a p s B .S. 2 ps v. le B . par V.B . l o p s p. B . 1 prk v a s , v a s p. V . B . prs V.B . vs B. pri V.B . 1 v t s v. pro s. vak p l o B. v i t s V.B . bhits B . v i k v. bhr V.B . v a r v. mats v V.B .

vrk V.B . vyts B . v k B .S. v l e s. p s B .S. e v. ri v. v i t s v. 1 sak v. 2 sak V.B . satp v. sk V.B . sar v. sps B .S. sknts B .S. stamps B . st V.B . spr v. synts v. s v r v. ghs s. hi V.B . h v. hvr B .

1 kr B . + g a s s. +

g B .+ chits

B. Earlier and Later Language. [37.] ji dhak trs s. + ds, di

226
drk dhi^ B . + ni 2 prk bhuts bhak bhi ms ps E. c e c. tyk muk yok yots ras v.c. ruts lips v . c . vps B . +

INDEXES. 2 vts vts ru B . + sk B . + SO B . + srk stus


[9.]

sthi B . + sprk B .E. s v p s s.+


1 hs VB . E . .

2 hs hu B .+ hrs

C. Later Language.

drok E. dhys E.

bhk v i t s c.

sits c. smr E.

5. iaorist.
aki v. aji s. aji B . ani v. avi si B .S. indhi B . idhi s. 1 ii B . ki B . uki B . u i B .S. 1 hi B . 2 h i v. arti B . ardhi B . edhi p . V.B . k n i v. 1 kri v. 2 kri v. karti B . krapi v. kr m i V. B . k a i v. gami V.B . gri v. grabh V.B . cani v. cri cyi v. cayi v. codi v. japi B . jambhi v. j o i v. j r v i v. jri v. taki v.s. tni B . tri trsi B . tsri B, dambhi dsi v. dadi v. dki B . doi B . dhi B . dhanvi V.B . dhyi v. 1 dhvi B . 2 d h v i v. dhinvi B . dhrvi B . dhari B . dhrji p . B. d h v a n i v. nindi v.s. n a v i v. n u d i v. narti v. p a n i v.

[174.]

A. Earlier Language. [123.]

p a v i V.B . pri B . pri v. p y y i p . s. prathi v. bdhi V.B . bhavi B. mathi V.B . m a n t h i v. mandi V.B . m o d i p . v. m o i V.B . mrji B. mardhi V.B . mari v. yati B . y a m i v. 1 y v i v. 2 y v i v. y o d h i v. randhi v. r i v. rji v. rdhi V.B . 1 r v i v. 2 r v i V.B . lekhi B .S. lei B . uki v. v a n i V.B . v a n d i p . v.

v a s i v. vi B . v e p i B .S. v e i v. v e i v. vri B . v a r i V.B . barhi v. vrji B . a m i v. o c i B. ari V.B . nathi v. rami V.B . h a v i B ,S. sdi B. s n i v. s h i v. s v i V.B . s t n i v. stambhi v. s t v i B .S. stari v. sphari v. srasi B . srvi B. s v n i v. svri B . hni B. hi B .

HI.

AORISTSTEMS.

227

B. E a r l i e r a n d L a t e r L a n g u a g e . [21.]

ai grah jani jayi B.C. jvi jvli B . +

n y

v.s.c.

bodhi v . c . mdi yci rki


C

roci B . + vdi vadhi vedi B . + vardhi B . +

vyathi asi ayi sedhi V.B. hisi

Later Language,

[16.]

2ii

ujhi c . kopi B . krandi c .

grasi c . dali c . devi B . bhi c .

majji B . rudi c . vai B . varti B .

aki vasi c. sthyi c . smayi B .

H e e are a d d e d , w i t h o u t classification b y p e r i o d s , t h e i a o r i s t s from d e s i d e r a t i v e a n d c a u s a t i v e c o n j u g a t i o n s t e m s . [14.]

psi B . rtsi v . ilayi v . dhvanayi v .

cikri B . cikitsi v . pyyayi B . vyathayi v .

jijsi B . dhitsi B . ghtayi v .

mmsi B. jighsi B. hldayi c .

6. siaorist. [ 1 9 . ]
In this aorist a n d t h e o n e following, t h e numbers b e i n g so s m a l l , t h e h e a d i n g s o f t h e d i v i s i o n s a r e o m i t t e d . F r o m t h o s e o f t h e sisstems t h a t are followed b y a question, n o forms have b e e n m e t w i t h that m i g h t not belong t o t h e saorist ( 2 d a n d 3 d singular).

gsi V.B. jysi B . drsi? B. jsi B . + glsi? B.

dhysi B . pysip. v . B ysi v . + dhmsi? c .

.S.

bhuki p . B .S. rasi v. hsi v . + nasi? c . psi? c.

vasi p . v. vsi? B .
hvBi?B. [io,]
[3.]

mnsi o. [6.] mlsi ? B.

7 . saaorist. [ 1 9 . ] kka B . kruka V.B. ghuka V . B. dhika B . dika B.C. dka B . druka B . dvika v . dhuka, du v . + pika B . mika B . uka V.B .S. 1 mka v . + 2 mka V.B. lika s. 1 vka V.B. 2 vka B .
spkav.B. [i4
r

vika B.C.
[5;

228

INDEXES.

IV. F U T U R E STEMS.

[347.] [131.]

la. Sibilant Future without I.

If from any root there are made both a futurestem without and one with i, each of the stems has a + prefixed to it. A. Earlier Language. [46.] atsya B .S. + arkya B . + kartsya v . + krakya B .S. + klapsya B . kreya B .S. 1 keya v . + 2 keya B . cyoya B . jysya B . tasya B . trapsya B . 2 dsya s. + drapsya B . drsya B . droya B . dhrokya B . + nasya B . p e k y a B. ploya B . + bhantsya B .S. + bhakya B . bheya B . 1 meya B .
%

mekya 2 meya B . mrakya B . mrkya B .S. mlsya B . yapsya B .S. + yasya B . rtsya rekya B . + v a p s y a B .S. 1 vatsya B .

varkya B . vrakya B . vleya B . atsya v . ekya B . + satsya B .S. + 1 soya s. sarpsya B . skantsya B . syantsya B . + h v s y a s.

B. Earlier and Later Language. [59.] psya B . + + eya + krasya khysya B .+ gsya B . + gopsya 1 ceya B . + chetsya B .+ + jeya jsya B . + + tapsya B . + trsya B . + + dhakya 1 dasya dekya s. + drakya B . + 1 dhsya B . + + neya notsya B .E. pakya B . + patsya B . + psya B . + prakya B . + bhotsya B .E. bhsya B . + bhetsya B . + b h o k y a s.+ + makya B . + + masya B . + mokya B .+ yakya ysya yokya yotsya B . + rasya B . + rotsya B . + + rokya B . + + lapsya B . + 1 vakya + 3 vatsya B . + + 2 vakya 2 vetsya B .+ 2 vekya B . + 3 vekya B .+ + 1 vartsya akya B . + roya B . + + s k ya sekya B .E. + 2 soya B . + sya v . c . srakya B . + srapsya B . + + stoya B . + sthsya B . + + svapsya B . + 1 hsya 2 hsya B .E. hoya

0. Later Language. [26.] + k a s y a E. kepsya 2 ceya E. jsya E. + tyakya E. dhokya c . 2 dhsya E. dhysya E. + nakya E. + bhakya E. + rakya E. rapsya 2 vatsya c . vsya c . 1 vekya c. + 1 vetsya 2 vartsya c . 3 v e t s y a E. + e y a E. siya E. + 1 setsya E. 2 setsya snsya sprakya E. + hasya E. heya E. +

I V . FUTURE STEMS.

229^

l b . Sibilant Future with i. [lss.]


The prefixed sign + shows that from the same root is also made a future-stem without i. anisya B. aviya V.B. anuviya B. indhiya s. eiya B. i y a B. ukiya B.S. ariya B. artiya v . ardhiya B. kamiya B. A. Earlier Language. [44. + darpiya B. kaiya B. dyotiya B. + kariya B. dhaviya B.S. + khyyiya B. proiya B. 1 gariya s. manthiyaB.s. gardhiya B. granthiya B. + maniya V.B. mohiya B . japiya B. mardiya B. j i n v i y a B. mradiya B. dakiya B. v a n i y a s. daghiya B. v a y i y a v. dadiya B. B. Earlier and Later Language. [43.] aiya B. + asiya siya B. + + ayiya B. + kiya B . + 1 kariya + kramiya B. + + kamiya B. + khaniya B. + gamiya 2 gariya B.C. grahya B. + cariya B . + janiya + jayiya B.E. jviya B. + jvaliya B. + tariya s. + dkiya B. + dhariya + naiya + nayiya B . + patiya bhaviya bhariya mathiya B. +
m i l i y a B. + mariya yatiyaB.+

+ v e d i y a B. variya B. v y a y i y a s. asiya B.S.. asiya B. ariya B. saniya V.B. + 1 saviya B. + staviya v . + h v a y i y a B. h v a d i y a B.

yciya B. + lapiya B. + vadiya


v a r i y a B.E.

vrajiya B. + s i y a B. + + ayiya B. + rayiya B. + sariya stariya B.C. + svapiya V.E. + haniya hisiya B. + hariya B. +

C. Later Language. [71.] aiya E. + arciya e. 2 kariya E. + kartiya c. + kalpiya c. kriya c. + kayiya B. khdiya E. gadiya E. ghiya grasiya glahya B. ghaiya c. caliya jvariya E. + tapiya E. + tyajiya trasiya E. daiya E. daliya c. + dahiya deviya dhamiya dhviya c. nandiya E. + namiya c. nartiya c, phaliya + bandhiya bdhiya + bhajiya E. + bhiya c. bhikiya E. bhramiya c. bhrjiya B. + majjiya E. mrgiya E. modiya E. + yamiya c. + rakiya B. raciya c. rociya E. rodiya c. + rohiya E. lagiya c. + labhiya c. lambiya laiya c. likhiya c. luhiya c. vadhiya + vapiya + vasiya E. + vahiya vijiya, v e j + vartiya

230
apiya B . ociya obhiya E. v a s i y a E. + + + +

INDEXES. sdiya c. sahiya sedhiya c. 2 saviya s e v i y a E. sphuiya E. smariya E. sraviya E. svajiya i hasiya jahiya

2. Periphrastic Future. [ 5 8 . ]
A. Earlier Language. [18.] pt B . ardhit B . kamit B . jt B . dht B . dhyt B . pakt B . bhart B . mra B . ya B . yuvit B . yokt B . voh B . vedit B . vartit B . vra B . sot B . sra B .

et B . + kart s.+ gat B . +

janit B . + j e t B .E. dt B .E.

B. Earlier and Later Language. [10.] b h a v i t B .E. vakt B . +

a y i t B .C hart B .E.

C. Later Language. [30.] a v i t c. graht B . ghait E. cet E. t y i t c. t a p t E. dra E. dhart c. n a i t E. nindit E. net, nayit E. patit E. bhakt E. bhokt B . mathit E. yt yoddh E. rakit rt c. labdh B . v e t t E. v e E. v e d d h E. ramit E. rot E. soh stht smart E. s v a p t E. hant E.

V. S E C O N D A R Y CONJUGATIONSTEMS.
1. Passive Stems.
[259.]

[1153.]

For causative passives etc., see under VI. A. Earlier Language. [ 3 7 . ] 1 ajya v. amya B . cya v. udya v. krya B . gupya B . ghriya B . cyya B . ctya B . 2 jya V.B . tyya B . tujya v. thya v. dabhya v. dadya v. nidya v. panya v. p i y a v. psya B . madya v. 3 m y a v. 4 mya B . mrya B . riphya s. ribhya v. y a B .S. 1 v y a V.B . vjya vhya B . 2 vya B . v c y a V.B . vl y a B . 2 ya B . sadya B . skya B , striya B . sphya K.

V.

SECONDARY CONJUGATIONSTEMS,
B. E a r l i e r a n d L a t e r L a n g u a g e . [105.]

231

acya 2 ajya adya B . + aya asya pya B . + idhya k y a s.+ ukya B . + hya B . + dhya kriya krya B . + ktya kya B . + kramya s.+ krya B . + kya khya B . + khyya B . + gamya gya guhya ghya carya B . + 1 cya B . + chidya asya ya c. iya ya c. uya c. kucya c. k r u y a E. kamya kipya khanya khdya c . khidya gadya garhya c . ghya

jvya B . + jya tya tapya dahya 1 dya 2 dya dya B . + duhya drya B . + driya B .+ dya dhamya dhmya B . + dhya dhya dhriya dhvasya B .C. namya B . + nya pacya pya piya B . + pya prya B . + pcya

pchya badhya 1 bhajya 2 bhajya bhidya B . + 2 bhujya B . + bhya B . + bhriya mathya mucya mriya mjya mdya B . + yamya yujya rakya B . + ricya rudhya labhya B . + likhya s.+ lipya B . + lupya ucya vacya udya upya

uhya vicya 2 vidya viya B .+ 2 v r i y a s.c. 1 asya 2 asya B . + 2 iya rya r y a B . + rya sajya B . + sicya 1 sya 2 sya sjya stya strya s. + sthya B . + smarya B . + hanya 1 hya hisya 1 hya 2 hya hriya

0. L a t e r L a n g u a g e . [117.] jvarya c . grya E. ya c . grathya c . tanya c . grasya E. tudya ghuya trya E. ghya tyajya ghrya c . trya c . cakya daya E. carvya G. diya 2 cya c . dihya c . cumbya c . dhvya c. cya c . dhyya c . japya E. nadya E. jalpya c . nandya c . 1 jya nahya c . jrya c .

nthya c. nijya nindya c . nya ntya c . pahya paya E. puya c . puya c . priya pluya c. bdhya budhya c . bhaya c. bhya

232
1 bhujya c . bhjjya manya c . 1 mya 2 mya c . mlya c . muya mya mya E. mnya c ijya yatya c . y y a E. ycya yudhya rajya c . rabhya ramya rdhya c. rujya E. rudya c . ruhya E. lapya c . lambya lihya E. vaya c . vadhya vandya uya

INDEXES. vchya c . vya c . 1 vidya c . viya c. 1 vriya E. v i d h y a E. vrajya c . akya akya c apya c . amya sya 1 i y a c. 1 y a E. ramya lghya l i y a c. sahya c . sya sidhya spya sevya stabhya c . spya syandya c. supya hasya c . 2 hya c .

2. Intensive Stems. [167.] A + prefixed shows that there is another stem from the same root in another division.
A. Earlier L a n g u a g e . [105.

totudya s. b b a d h , bad t a r t , tartur, badh V.B . tart v. barbh v. ttrasya B . jarbhur v. V.B. danda v. + jarbh, bhar cark v. dedi, y a V.B . bh v. cark V.B . ded B . 1 m e m v. kanikrand, dard, dd V.B . m e m i h B . kradya V.B . d a v i d y u t V.B . 2 mem v. cankhud s. dandramya B . + m o m u h s. kankhun B . dodru B . marmj, jya, + gangam V.B . dedh B . marmjya + jgam v. + davidhu v. marmd v. + galgal B. dardh, ddh m a r m , mar jagah v. V.B. m y a V.B . j o g u V.B . m m s. n a n n a m , mya 1 jargur v. n a v n u , n o n u v. m a l i m l u c s. yayam v. 2 jargur, jal n o n u d y a B . ppat v. gul v. 1 y o y u v. panpan V.B . f carcar V.B . 2 y o y u V.B . calcaljCcalv.B. p e p i V.B . y a v y u d h v. jajapya B . y o y u p y a B .S. popruth v. + jajabh v.s. panpha, pam rraj v. tantas v. rrandh v . pha v.s. tetij V.B . rrap v. parphar v , t a v t u v. rerih, hya V.B . balbal B .

yy B . alar v. cka, y a karik, carik

2 roru v. roruc v. + llap V.B . lel B .S. v v a c v. v v a d , dya V.B .


v a n v a n v. + vanvhyaB .s.

+ v v a v. v e v i c s. v e v i j , jya v. v e v i d v. v e v i , ya V.B . v e v , ya V.B . v a r v V.B . varvj v. varvt, varvt, tya V.B . vevlya B . o u c V.B . u j v. c a n i c a d v. v a s v. sanan v. s e i d h v. s o v.

V . SECONDARY CONJUGATIONSTEMS,

233

sars v. + sarspya B . kanikand, ca n i k a d v.

cokya v. tastan v. panipad v. saniyad Y.B .

ghanghan v. sanisras v. jarh V.B . sanivan v. j a g h a n , nya


V.B.

B. Earlier and Later Language. [21.] cakram, mya + jagam B . + jg + carcrya cekit v.c. + jajabhya B . + daridr B .C. + dodh V.E. nnad, dya nenij nenya pepya B .C. poplya B . + bobudh B .C. bobh yyaj B . + yy B . + + 1 roru + lelih B . + lolup, pya B. + joh

C. Later Language. [41.] ddhmya c. jgadya c. + dodhya + galgalya c. dandhvan E. jeglya nnardya c. jgha c. narnt, tya c. jjam E. ppacya c. jarijmbh c. ppah, hya c. jjval, lya panpadya c. ttapya dandah, hya c. bobhuj, jya c. + barbh c. dedpya dardya c. bambhram, mya c. + momuhya B . marm c. rra rrsya E. + rorya rorud, dya rorudh E. + llapya + lelihya l o l u h c. lolubhya c. + v v a h c. + v v y a E. o u b h y a E. + sarsp c. jhasya B . j o h u c. jarh o. jehrya c.

3 . Desiderative Stems. [i62,] A prefixed + in either class indicates that from the same root is made also a stem of the other class.

a. Stems without i.
rtsa V.B . cuka B . jigsa B . j u g u k a v. + cicara B . 2 cika cika B . cichitsa B . +Jujya,jijyB. jijysa V.B . ttra v. tittsa V.B . titpsa v. dip,dhpsa V.B . dhka B . didsa didhia v. dha v. didhysa B . dudhra V.B . i n a k a v. n i n i t s a v.s. p i p a v. pipra v.

[122.]

A. Earlier Language. [48.] imika i y a k a V.B . yiyapsa s. yiyasa B . y u y a v. ririka v. 1 ruruka v. v i v s a v. vivatsa B . vivka B . v i v t s a V.B . vivyatsa B . u u k a v. u u t s a s. i l i k a v. sisaka B . sisa V.B . s k a V.B . sisra B . tistra B . tustra B .S. j i h a v. 1 j u h a s. 2 juha B .

234

INDEXES. B. Earlier and Later Language. [4 4.] bibhitsa V.E. titra B . + bubha ditsa d u d u k a , du bubhra B . + mmsa dhu v.c. mumuka didka d u d r u k a , du m o k a B . + mumra s.+ dhru B .C. yuyutsa dhitsa ripsa B .C. ninsa rurutsa B . + 2 pitsa B .C. 2 ruruka pipsa + bbhatsa C. Later Language. [30. didrsa c. bubhuka didhra c. mimaksa c. n i n a s a c. mitsa c. n u n u t s a c. y i y a k a E. + 1 pitsa c. yiysa p u p a c. yuyuka + pipka c. rirasa bubhutsa . b . S t e m s w i t h i. [40.]

psa cikra + jigsa 1 jiga v.c. + jugupsa B . + + jighka B . + jighatsa 1 cika B . + cikitsa 2 jiga jijsa titika

lipsa vivaka B . + 2 vivitsa B . + ika ura siska B . + sispsa tihsa B . + suupsa B . + jighsa jihra

cikra c. cikipsa c. cikhysa c. cica c. ^itsa c. tityaka c. didhaka didika c.

+ 1 v i v i t s a c. 1 vivika 2 v i v i k a E. t u a c. sisa E. pispka jihsa c.

A. Earlier Language. [12.] edidhia B . cikramia B . + jigraha B . + cicaria B . jijania B . didkia B . + pipatia V.B . rurucia B . v i v a d i a B .S. i s i a s. tiighia B . jihisia B .

aiia B .+ + jigamia B . +

B. Earlier and Later Language. [5.] + jijvia B . + + bibdhia B . C

+ vividia B . +

O. Later Language. [23.] bibhaia c. + jugupia B . eiia c. vivrajia c. mimardia B . cicalisa c. i a y i a c. c i k i a c. rirakia E. cucumbia c. u o b h i a c. cikartia c. rurudia c. ninartia c. i a r i a c. cikria c. v i v a n d i a c. + pipchia c. i r a m i a c. cikhdia v i v a r i a E. bibhaksisa B . jigadia E. For desideratives from causatives, see below, under VI.

V.

SECONDARY CONJTJGATIONSTEMS.

235

4. Causative Stems, [ses.] A. Earlier Language. [100.] maya V.B . vaya V.B . 2 saya B. ilaya V.B .S. iaya RV. kntaya s. kpaya V.B . krthaya B. kraya B . 1 kayaya v. gdaya s. gyaya B . gulphaya s. grdhaya v. gbhaya v. grsaya B .S. caksaya V.B . 2 ctaya V.B . citaya v. chadaya V.B . chyaya B . jambhaya V.B . jyotaya v. tasaya V.B . tamaya B .S. tuj ay a v. toaya v. tuaya v. turaya v. tardaya s. dasaya v. dakaya B . dambhaya V.B . d s aya V.B . daya B . dhaya dyutaya v. dhanaya v. dhvasaya v. dhvanaya V.B . nabhaya B . nambhaya B .S. nardaya B . nvaya B . pthaya B .S. panaya v. spaya pinvaya B . prothaya s. phaya bahaya B. barhaya v. bhraya v. mahaya v. maaya B. mandaya v. mekaya B .S. marcaya mradaya B. y v aya V.B . yopaya rahaya v. raj ay a v. 1 ranaya v. riaya v. rucaya v. 1 ropaya B . rejay a v. limpaya s. ukaya v. vakaya v. vjaya vtaya v. vnaya v. 2 vpaya s. valgaya s. 1 vsaya V.B . v a y a v.s. v i p a y a v. vaya barhaya v. ijaya B .S. ucaya v. undhaya V.B . ubhaya V.B . cotaya B .S. nathaya v. yyaya B. rathaya V.B . v a c a y a v. spaya B. svaya s. sphvaya B. srevaya v. r v a y a v. 2 hsaya v. heaya v. hrchaya K. hvalaya B . hvraya B .

B. Earlier and Later Language. [231.]

ajaya s.+ daya B . + naya arcaya arhaya s. + aya B . + 1 paya B . + igaya kaya khaya raya u k a y a s.+ arjaya s.+ ardaya ardhaya

ejaya B .C. edhaya s.+ kmaya kampaya B . + klaya B . + kaya kopaya kaya klaya s. + kraya B . + 1 kartaya s. + karaya kalpaya krandaya kr m aya B . +

kraya s. + krodhaya kledaya s. + k v t h a y a s.+ kraya B . + klaya B . + kodaya v.c. kh n aya s. + g m aya garhaya B . + ghaya s. + grhaya B . + ghoaya ghraya c m aya B . +

craya B . + cetaya cintaya B . + codaya ceaya B . + cy v aya chadaya chandaya chedaya s. + chardaya B . + janaya jsaya B . + jvaya joaya j r aya

236

INDEXES.

jv l aya B . + tnaya v.c. tpaya toaya B . + traya tarpaya taraya B . + trsaya tv r aya daaya s. + damaya dkaya B . + dpaya daya dohaya B . + d r aya daraya dyotaya dr v aya 1 dhvaya 2 dhvaya B . + dhraya dharaya B . + dhvasaya B . + dhvnaya v.c. nadaya V.E. nandaya B . + n m aya naya nhaya s. + nejaya B . + nodaya B . + nartaya pcaya B . + paya B . + p t aya pdaya pyaya peaya s.+ paya poaya p v aya B . + pjaya s.+

praya 1 praya pyyaya prathaya praya s. + pl v aya B . + bandhaya B . + bdhaya bodhaya bhakaya bhjaya bhlaya B . C bhaya B . + bhsaya B . + bhyaya B .C. bh aya B . + bhojaya bhvaya bhr m aya s.+ mahaya majjaya B . + manthaya s. + m d aya m n aya mehaya v.c. mlaya B . + modaya B . + mohaya v.+ mrchaya B . + mraya m r jaya maya maraya B . medaya yjaya B . ytaya y m aya ycaya yodhaya rakaya B .C. randhaya v. + r m aya rahaya s. +

rjaya rdhaya recaya B . + reaya rvaya s. + rocaya rodaya rohaya 2 ropaya B . + 1 lpaya lambhaya B . + lekhaya s. + lehaya B . + lopaya B . + lobhaya vcaya B . + vacaya B . + vdaya B . + 1 vpaya B . + 2 vsaya 3 vsaya 1 vhaya B . + vejaya B . + 1 vedaya vepaya veaya veaya 1 vraya varjaya vartaya vardhaya varaya vyathaya vy d haya B .C. vrjaya B . + asaya taya paya 1 m aya yaya s. + ocaya odhaya B . + obhaya

oaya ardhaya v.c. raya s. + r m aya s. + rambhaya s.+ r v aya leaya B . + v s aya sdaya syaya B . + sdhaya v. + secaya s.+ sedhaya s. + sdaya s r aya sarjaya sarpaya s. + skandaya B . + stanaya st v aya B . + stobhaya v.c. snehaya v.c. spandaya B . + sparaya sphaya sphlaya B . C sphrjaya syandaya srasaya sr v aya sv d aya s v a n a y a v.c. sv p aya svaraya svedaya B . + ghaya B . + h v a y a s. + h r aya haraya hrsaya s.+ hrdaya B . + hldaya B . +

V . SECONDARY CONJUGATIONSTEMS.

237

acaya c. 1 saya E. + yaya c. indhaya c. 1 eaya c. ichaya E. 2 eaya E.+ aya c. 1 uhaya c. 2 haya E. katthaya E. kalaya E. + k s a y a c. kkaya E. kucaya E.+ kocaya E. + kuaya c. kothaya c. kaya c. kraya E. 2 kartaya c. karaya B .+ kroaya klmaya c. k l e a y a E. + k v a a y a c. k m aya E. + 2 kayaya E . + kepaya E . + kobhaya E. + kveaya E. khdaya E. + khedaya E . + khelaya c. glaya c. ghaya c. guhaya c. gopaya E . + gumphaya c. graya c. giraya c. granthaya E. grathaya c. gh aya E. +

C L a t e r L a n g u a g e . [190.] ghaaya E. + darbhaya c. ghraya o. dveaya c. gharaya E. dhukaya caksaya c. dhnaya caya c. naya c. carcaya E. + ndaya carvaya c. nyaya c l aya E. + phaya c. cyaya c. paaya c. cumbaya c. pothaya coraya E. + 2 praya c. caya c. phlaya E. cyotaya c. bolaya c. choaya c. bhaya churaya E. + bhartsaya choraya c. bhikaya c. jvaya c. bhedaya jmbhaya c. bhaya jvaraya c. bhraya E. akaya c. bharjjaya c. ambaya c. bhraaya yaya c. bhrjaya vlaya c. maaya hukaya c. m t haya taya E. + mrgaya tarkaya E. + melaya c. tarj ay a E. + mocaya tejaya E . + moaya c. todaya E. + muaya c. tolaya E. + mrakaya c. tulaya E. + mkaya E. tyjaya E . + mardaya trapaya c. maraya troaya c. mreaya dayaya c. ysaya d l aya yojaya dhaya racaya deaya rajaya dehaya 2 raaya c 1 devaya c. rigaya c. 2 devaya rodhaya dvaya c. rundhaya E. dolaya c. 1 roaya darpaya 2 roaya c.

lakaya l g aya c. laghaya lajjaya c. lambaya l l aya lsaya lepaya lyaya c. 1 lohaya c. 2 lohaya c. luhaya c. loaya lolaya lokaya locaya vadhaya E. vandaya E. v m aya o. valaya c. v a a y a c. vchaya E. 2 vhaya c. v e c a y a c. 2 vedaya E. veaya vjaya 2 v r aya vedhaya E. vraya c. akaya c. 2 maya eaya lathaya c. lghaya sajaya sajjaya shaya sicaya E. svaya c. s e v a y a c. skambhaya c. skhalaya c. stambhaya

238
straya sthagaya c. sphaya c. sphoaya sphraya sphur ay a c. smyaya c. sm r aya

INDEXES. 1 hsaya c. hinsaya E. hikkaya c. helaya hvyaya c. hreaya E.

The causative stems showing a p added to a final vowel may be given by themselves, as follows (with headings of divisions omitted): [33.] jpaya B .S. drapaya B . kpaya rpaya B . 2 dpaya s. 2 dhpaya V.B . kepaya v. 2 hpaya V.B . gpaya B . + 2 paya B . + arpaya khypaya B . + gl p aya knopaya c. kapaya ghrpaya B . + jpaya 1 dpaya 1 dhpaya kmpaya c. dhmpaya 1 mpaya B . + ml p aya ypaya B . + 2 lpaya B . + 2 mpaya smpaya vpaya rapaya sthpaya sn p aya 1 hpaya hrepaya c.

Finally, the bastard stems with p added (as in Prakrit) to a final consonant: [11.] klpaya s. apaya s. krpaya E. kampaya c. jvpaya dkpaya E. bhidpaya c. bhujpaya c. melpaya c. likhpaya c. vardhpaya

VI. TERTIARY (derivative from secondary) CONJU GATIONSTEMS. [202.] la. Passives from Desideratives. [ n . ]
cikitsya E. + jijsya E. + jpsya c. dhitsya c. mmsya v.+ rurutsya B .S. lipsya B . v i v a k y a c. ikya c. urya B . + jihrya c.

l b . Passives from Causatives.


igya B k y a s. ghrya s. arcya B .E. rya B . + klya s. + kalpya B . + cintya B . + codya s.+ chdya s.+ A. Earlier Language. [9.] dohya B . jyotya B . pyya s . dhya B .

[147.]

bhajya V.B . vary a B .

B. Earlier and Later Language. [28.] jpya B . + pyyya B . + jv lya B . + bhakya B . + tpya B .E. bhraya s. + dpya B .E. bhr m ya B . + dhrya B . + ytya B . + pdya B . + vdya B . + pya B . + 2 vsya B .+

v e y a s. + veya B .+ vartya B . + rapya B . + sdya B . + srya B . + sthpya B . +

VI.

TERTIARY CONJUGATIONSTEMS.
C. L a t e r L a n g u a g e .
[110.]

239
lobhya l o k y a c. v c y a c. vacya 1 v s y a E. vhya vedya vjya vrya varjya v y a t h y a c. vrjya B . 1 mya 2 m y a E. e y a c. o c y a c. odhya o y a c. l a t h y a c. rmya rvya sdhya smrya srasya B . s v d y a c. svarya c. hrya

esya E. arpya c. ardya kampya c. k s y a c. kya B . krya krmya c. krodhya E. kvthya kobhya khypya c. gopya E. grhya c. gh ya ghaya c. ghoya c. ghrya c crya clya E. corya c. chandya j s y a E. ambya c. tya tarkya tarjya E. todya

tolya c. toya c. trya tarpya E. tyjya c. trsya E. tvarya E. d l ya c. dya drya dyotya c. drvya E. dhmpya B . dhpya c. dhukya c. ndya nmya nodya pcya E. pya c. phya c. ptya p v y a c. pjya prya prya c. p l v y a c. bodhya B .

bhartsya bhsya c. bhvya mnya m o c y a c. mohya c. mrya mrjya c. mardya c. y s y a E. yojya c. yodhya E. racya c. rdhya E. rocya B . rodhya E. roya ropya lakya laghya c. lambya llya c. lsya c. lpya c. luhya c. loya lopya c.

2. Desideratives from Causatives. [38.]


A. E a r l i e r L a n g u a g e . [12.]

pipayia B . cikalpayia B . jijanayia B .

titarpayia B .S. didrpayia B . pipyayia B .

bibhvayia B . mumodayia B. rirdhayia B .


[5.]

lulobhayia B . vivrayia B . sthpayia B .

B. E a r l i e r a n d L a t e r L a n g u a g e .

didarayia s. + didharayia s.c.

pipdayia B . + bibhakayia s.+ sidhayia s.+


[21.]

C. L a t e r L a n g u a g e .

cukopayia B . cikrayia cukobhayia E. cikhypayia c. jijvayia E. n i n a y i a c.

bubodhayia bibhedayia B . mimnayia B . mumocayia m u m o k a y i a R.

mimrayia c. mimardayia B . riramayia c. v i v e d a y i a E. vivardhayia

sisdayia E. sisrayia c. s i e v a y i a c. stambhayia E. sismpayia B .

240

INDEXES.

3a. Causatives from Intensives.


jgaraya B . + dandaaya c ddhraya B . varvarjaya v.

3b. Causatives from Desideratives.


cikraya c. ikaya E . +

VII. SUNDRIES. 1. Passive Aorists (third persons singular). [ 9 2 . ]


The unaugmented form is given, if the augmented does not occur. A. Earlier Language. [47.] rdhi B . k y i B .S. ghoi v. aceti v. achedi a j a m V.B . atyi B . atpi V.B . atari V.B . dyi V.B . adari v. apti B . apyi v. apryi v. abhri V.B . abhrji v. 2 amyi B . amyaki v. aymi V.B . ayvi B . ardhi V.B . areci aroci v. lopi s. avaci V.B . v a n d i v. vpi B . avedi v. avri v. varhi v. asi v. ei a o c i v. ari V.B . aryi v. asaji B . asdi v. aseci B .S. asvi v. asri B . asarji astvi v. astri v. syandi B . s v a n i v. ahyi V.B . ahvi v.

B. Earlier and Later Language. [12.] pi B . + akri agmi v.c ajyi adhyi apdi abodhi abhedi B .B . 1 amyi amoci ayoji v.c. arvi v.c.

C. Later Language. [33.] si c . iki c. ohi c. akji c. agdi c. aaki c. adhri c. apri c. abhaki c. abhji c. abhi c abhvi c. abhrmi E. omajji c. a m o i c. araci c. arambhi c. aropi c. alepi c. aloki c. avoci c. avdi c. avadhi c. avhi c. a v e i c. aobhi c. asedhi c. astambhi c. asthyi c . asnyi c. asvpi c. ahsi c. ahri c.

VH.

SUNDRIES.

241

2. Aorist Optatives (including Precatives). [us.]


Those stems from w h i c h actual precative forms ( w i t h sibilant between m o d e s i g n a n d e n d i n g ) a r e m a d e a r e t o b e r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e i r final s i b i l a n t . T h e o p t a t i v e s o f t h e a a o r i s t (2d f o r m ) a r e n o t i n c l u d e d ( e x c e p t i n g videa). T h e aoriststems here i n s t a n c e d have all b e e n g i v e n above, i n t h e aoristlists, w h e t h e r other t h a n o p t a t i v e f o r m s are m a d e from t h e m or n o t

a. Active Stems. [63.]


A. E a r l i e r L a n g u a g e . [48.]

adys K. avy, ys ay, ys pys B . iys s . uhy B . ary B . dhy, ys kriy, ys gamy, ys ghry s . jvys

jey v . tdy s . trpys B . daghys v . dahy E. dey v . ddys B .S. dhey v . nindy B . peys v . priys v . bhidy B .

bhriy, ys B . bhramy s . bhrjys v . majjy B . my B . mdys B .S. mdhy v . yamys v . yy, ys v . n . yujy v . rjys s . rdhys

ucys B . udy, ys B .S. badhy, ys uhy s . vjy, ys v . aky v . saghys B .S. s h y, ys v . sicy B .S. sthey v . supy s . svidy s .

B. E a r l i e r a n d L a t e r L a n g u a g e . [ 5 . ]

iya B . + jayy B .E. asya E. kry c. jy

pusya, ys B .C.

bhuya, ys
[10.]

r u y a , yas v.c.

C. L a t e r L a n g u a g e .

juy c. dry c nudy

prya c. brys E.

rudhy c. spy E.

b. Middle Stems. [ 5 5 . ]
A. E a r l i e r L a n g u a g e . [ 5 4 . ]

a idh v . i n d h , idhi
B.S.

ar v . dh v . edhi V.B . gm B . gmi B . cucyuv v . jani,

tri v . trs v . di v . dhuk B . dar v . dhi, dhe B .S. dhrji B . na v : nas v . pad v . pc v . s .

pyyi s . pysi bhak, bhuki B .S. mandi V.B . mas, v . mas v . muc v. m u k V.B . mud v . modi v .

mur v . mk v . yak B . yam v . ysis V.B . rs v . ruc B . roc, ruci V.B . laps s . lops B . vas, v a s v .

242
vani v. vasi v. v a n d i v.

INDEXES. v i d e v. vur V.B . vardhi B.S. sak v. sk V.B . s h i v. sasah v. st v.

B. Earlier and Later Language. [1.] r r ii v.c. Here may be added the problematical optatives in e from roots in : namely, k h y e B .S., ge V.B .S., je V.B ., de B .S., y e v., s e B ., sthe V.B .;
and je V.B .S. ( ji).

3. Periphrastic Perfects (primary conjugation).


The periphrastic perfects of secondary conjugation (very numerous for the cau sative, quite rare for the desiderative, unknown for the intensive, except jg) are not given. With vidm are made also a periphrastic aorist (B .) and present (c). The headings of the divisions are omitted. cya k B . ty k B . as k B . + ay k ujh k c. jgarm as c. bibhay k B . lay k B . ka k B. + jay am as c. daym as c. vyaya k B . vasa k B . juhav k B. vid k B.S. edha k, bh B .C. nayam as, k E. smayam as E. bibharm bh c. h v a y m a S j k E .

4 . Vedic Sibilant Presents (first persons singular).


arcase ohie jase ke gyie

ge pune yajase

stue hie

There are certain odd or questionable forms given here and there under the roots above, of which no account is made in the Indexes. Those most worthy of note are as follows: Pres. itat, ikva, inttm, kurmi, kmat, gh, glapet, jiharti, chyati, achinam atam abhanas, jajhat, jajat, ja, tandrat, ta rua vanua, dadyam, dadyant, dya, dughna, dhugdhvam, duhya, dart, dhunet, participles like namna,nahyus, pphi pipphi, apiprata, p k a s e , bhujyt yujyt asyt, bhuraja saraja, mint, rant, lyata ( i + nir ?), vda, ude upe ua, masi, avk sam, avstam, vema, tihsam, ruvat, jihthm, hisi. Perf. erire, jighre, jakyt, ddidya, dudhus, vavavruas, mmada vvdha v v a suda, sdatus, siet. Aor. p p i p a t , apriit, a k a t , ajgbham, cacrt, n e a p u a para, abhriam hrit hvrius, riries, v a m , avarvur. Fut. ghyati, grahiyati. Sec Conj. ajagrabhian, titikmahe siskmas, prathayi, jjahi. Sunds. cukryati.

INDEX OF ROOTS.
Arranged in reversed alphabetical order.
T h e designation of periods i s according t o the verbforms only. Roots h a v i n g n o s u c h f o r m s are left u n d e s i g n a t e d . I t s e e m e d b e t t e r n o t t o classify by p e r i o d s ; b u t i t m a y b e a d d e d t h a t o f t h e m o r e t h a n 800 r o o t s h e r e r e c o r d e d a s m a k i n g f o r m s o f c o n j u g a t i o n , n e a r l y 200 o c c u r o n l y i n t h e e a r l i e r l a n g u a g e , n e a r l y 500 i n b o t h e a r l i e r a n d l a t e r , a n d l e s s t h a n 150 o n l y i n t h e l a t e r l a n g u a g e . k v.B .s. k h (khan) 1 g v. + 2 g v. + ch v. + jv.+ j v. + t (1 tan) st sth v. + 1 d v. + 2 d v. + 3 dv.+ 4 d B . + 1 dh v. + 2 dh v. + mn s . + sn v. + 1 p v.+ 2 p v. + sph B . + bh v. + 1 m v. + 2 m v.+ 3 m V.B . dhm(dham) km c y v.+ k h y v. +
jy V.B .S.

sty B .C. dhy B . + p y v.+ v y v. + y v. + 1 r v. + 2 r V.B . ghr v. + tr v. + 1 dr v. + 2 dr v. + daridr (1 dr) pr V . B . r v. + l c gl v. + m l v. + l B . 1 v v.+ 2 v v. + 3 v (van) v () h v (hu) v.+
k V.B .S.

p s V.B . 1 h v. + 2 h v. + 1 i v.+ 2 i V.B . 1 ci v. + 2 ci v.+ 1 ji v.+ 2 ji V.B . ti c di (3 d) dhi B . + pi v . + 1 mi v. + 2 mi (m) smi v. +


ri V.B .S.

st (sty) 1 d V.B .
2 d V.B .S.

dd (2 d) dh v.+ d d h (dh) n v.+ 1 p (pi) 2 p (py) b h v. + m v.+ r (ri) kr v.+ pr v. + bhr v. 1 r V.B . 2 r (r) hr v. + 1 l v.+ 2 l B .S. pl B . bl (vl)
Vl V.B .S.

si 1 u v. 2 u (2 v ) ku(k) s k u V.B . gU V.B . r u ( l v) k u V.B .S. t u v. 1 s t u v. + 2 stu du v.+ dhu (dh) 1 n u v. +


2 nu V. B .S.

jri v. ri v. + v i (2 v) v i () i () 1 ki V.B . 2 k i v. + si (1 s) h i v.+ j (jy) E . +

snu B . + h n u v.+ 1 y u v. +
2 yu V.B .S.

1 V V.B . 2 v (vy)
1 C V.B .S.

c y u v. + dyu c . 1 ru v. + 2 ru V.B . k;ru dru v. + dhru (dhv)


pru V.B .S.

1 s v. + 2 s (san)

2 v.+ 3 (y) k (2 k i )

1 r u v.+ 2 r u (sru)

244
sru v . + hru (hv) plu v . + ku B . + su v . + hu v . + k v.+ j v . + 1 d (du) 2 d dh v . + n (1 nu) k n B .C. p v . + bh v . + m (mv) s y (sv) dr V.B . br v . + l B . + v . + s v . + h v . + v.+ 1 k v . + 2 k v . + 3 k v . sk (I. 2 k) 1 g v . + 2 g v . + 3 g v . + jg (3 g) gh v . + 1 j v.+ 2 j v. t v . + st v. + 1 d v . + 2 d B . + dh v . + n 1 p v . + 2 p v . + 3 p B . +
sp V.B .S.

INDEX OF ROOTS. sph V. + bh V.+ 1 m V.+ 2 m V.B . sm V. + 1 v V. + 2 v v . + dhv v . + h v V. + 1 v. + 2 (r) 3 (ri) s V.+ 1 h v . + 2 h V . B . cak c . tak v . vak (vac) ak v . + k c . sk lok B . + hauk E. + phakk c . hikk c . ak c . ak B . + tark E. + rikh v . likh v . + rikh c . kh v. + sthag c . lag B . + vlag v . ag c . rag c . v l a g (vlag) tvag c. ig v . + rig c . mrg B . + valg v . + jagh c. dagh V.B . sagh V.B .S. lgh B . + stigh B . migh (mih) lagh s . + igh ac v . + khac E. + tac (tac) pac v . + v y a c V.B . rac E. + v a c v. + tvac sac V.B . yc v . + ric v . + 1 vic v. + 2 v i c (vyac) sic v . + uc v . + kuc s . + tuc muc v . + ruc v . + mruc v . + mluc (mruc) uc v . + c (arc) pc v . +
mc V. .S. B

gach (gam) yach (yam) prach v . + ich ( 1 i) uch ( 1 vas) y u c h (2 yu) ch () mch B . mlech B . + rach ch c . lch c . vch v. + u c h s. + mrch v . + hrch B . aj v . + paj v . bhaj v . + yaj v . + tyaj v . + vyaj (vj) 1 raj (j) 2 raj v . + bhuraj v . dhraj V.B . vraj v . +

kj v . + pj s . + 1 j v . + 2j mj v . + vj v . + sj v . + ej v . + rej V.B . majj v . + lajj B . + bhjj v . + aj v . + khaj c . jaj v . bhaj v . + raj (raj) svaj (svaj) saj (saj) ij v . + kuj c . guj c .

j (j)
ubj V.B .S.

loc E. + ac (ac) cac c . tac B .S. mac c . mac B . vac v . + vac v . kuc (kuc) luc E. + arc v . + carc E.+ vrac v . + s a c (sac)

arj (j) kharj s . garj E . + vaj V. .S. B tarj E.+ svaj v . + sarj V.B . bhiaj v . sphrj v . + saj v . + jajh v . rj v . + ujh E. + dhrj (dhraj) a E. + bhrj v . + gha E. + tij v . + ca c . nij v . + jha c . ta B . vij v . + na c . j (ej) Vj E . + pa B . + spha c . tuj v. bha c . 1 bhuj v . + ra E . + 2 bhuj v . + i V.B . yuj v . + ghu E. + ruj v . + chu c . uj v .

INDEX OF ROOTS. pu c sphu B . + mu c . tru c . gha E. + ku E. + ma B. va c . vi v. + ce v . + v e (vi) path B. + ruh E. 1 liih c . 2 luh E. + heh ah c . kuh c . guh s . + luh (luh) ta v . + la c . dr c . i k v i E. + v . + n p v . + kr v . + vr E. +
v V.B.S.

245
rdh v . + vrdh v . sdh v . + idh v . + sridh v . 1 vidh v. + 2 vidh (vyadh) 1 sidh v . + 2 sidh v . + dudh v . budh v . + yudh v . + 1 rudh v . 2 rudh v . + krudh v. + udh v . + kudh v . + dh v . + gdh v . + spdh v . + mdh V.B.S. vdh v . + dh v . + edh v . + bandh v . + randh(radh) indh(idh) vindh v. undh(udh) grdh v . sprdh (spdh) an v . + kan v . khan v . + can v . jan v . + 1 tan v . + 2 tan v . stan v . + dan v . dhan v . pan V.B. bhan v .

bha B.C. man c . kva c . k c. p (1 p) m (2 m) ghr E. + at v . + cat V.B. 1 pat v . + 2 pat V.B. yat v . + vat v . at v . + cit v . + mrit B.S. mlit (mrit) vit v . c u t v. + cyut s . c . jyut B. + dyut v . + t V.B. 1 kt v . + 2 kt v . +
ct V.B.S.

puth E. + pruth V.B.S. katth E. + manth (math) granth (grath) ad v . + kad E. khad B. gad s. + 1 chad v . + 2 chad (chand) dad (1 d) nad v . + pad v . + mad v . + syad(syand) rad V . B . mrad (md 1 vrad v . vad v . + svad v . + 1 ad v .

h v . + chu c . * vru c. lu s . + k v. + kr B. m v . + re B.S. mre B. + ma E. + hi c . jha c . pa B . + pha v . +

nt v . + pt vt v . + cint B. + art (t) nath v . path B.S. math v . + vyath v. + krath B. grath v . + prath v . + rath v . + klath B. lath c . k v a t h B. + nth v . + mith v . + kuth c.

khud V.B.S. cud v . + tud v . + nud v . + mud v . + rud v . + kud v . + sd v . + d v . + chd B . + td v . + md v . + ned B. med v . + skand v . + cand(cand) cand v . chand v . + tand v . nand v . + spand v . + bhand v . mand V.B. syand v . + krand v . + kland c . 2 ad V.B.S. vand v . + kad V.B. nind v . + sad v . + und (ud) had c . pibd V.B. khd v . + ard (d) yd v . gard B. hrd B. + nard B . + hld B . + svd (svad) pard c . kurd E. + khid v . + gurd B. chid v . + gadh v . nid (nind) dadh (1 dh) bhid v . + badh (vadh) mid (med) vyadh v . + klid s . + radh v . + 1 vid v. + vadh v . + 2 vid v. + sadh (sdh) kvid B.C ndh (nth) svid v . + bdh v . + ud v . +

246
man v . + 1 ran V.B. 2 ran c . vran c . ran s . + van v. + dhvan v . + svan v. + ksan v . +

INDEX OF ROOTS. umbh (ubh) ghar (gh) al c . umbh kal B. + car v . + (ubh) il v . + jhar c . sumbh phar v . gil ( 2 g) (subh) sphar (sph) til B. jmbh v . + jvar B. + mil B. + galbh c . tvar v . + mil v . + am V.B. dvar tul E. + kam v . + svar v . + dul c . gam v . + kar v . + sphul (sph) cam B. + tsar V.B.S. bul c . cam v . 1 har V.B. lul E. + jam E. 2 har, hir sul B. dam c . r v . kl s . + tam v . + kir ( 2 k) khel E. + dam B . + gir ( 2 g) k v e l E. + dham v . + tir (t) hl (h) nam v . + r v . + khall c . yam v. + gur v . + v e i l E. + ram v . + cur E. + av v . + kram v . + chur E.+ dhav v . dram B. klav c . jt--* (1 J) bhram B. + tv v . tur (t) ram v . + dhur (dhv) 1 dhv v . + lam c . sphur (sph) 2 dhv v . + klam E.+ div bhur v . vam v . + jv v . + hur (hv) 1 cam V.B.S. hv v . + pr (l p) 2 cam v . + mr(mrch) 1 dv v . + 2 dv B. + 3 cam s. + kal B. + m v V.B.S. kam v . + skhal B. + r v (srv) bhm V.B. gal B . + srv V.B. tim B . + cal v . + sv v. + stim E . + al c . dev ( 2 dv) i m (1 cam) dal E. + sev v. + ay (i) 1 phal E. + rav V.B. 2 phal E. + cay ( 2 ci) dhanv V.B. sphal B.C. day v . + i n v ( 2 i) bal B. vyay c. j i n v V.B.S. bhal B . C cy V.B. dhinv (dhi) lal E. + ty B. pinv v.B.S. val c . pay B. carv s . + jval B. + py V.B. bharv v . val c . p u y B.S. jrv v . h v a l B. + ry B . +

vep (vip) kamp B . + limp (lip) culump c . jalp B . + raph v . riph v . + guph c . gumph (guph) san V.B.S. gulph s . han v . + amb c . in ( 2 i) ramb v . v e n V.B. lamb B. + jap B . + cumb E. + tap v . + skabh rap V . B . (skambh) trap E. + gabh (gh) lap v . + jabh(jambh) 1 vap v. + stabh 2 vap V.B.S. (stambh) svap v . + dabh V.B. cap v . + nabh V.B.S. kap v . + yabh v . + sap V . B . rabh v . + p v . + grabh V.B.S. rip v . labh v . + lip v . + ribh v . + vip v. + ubh v . + ip stubh v . + kip v . + lubh v . + dip v . + ubh v . + kup v . + kubh v . + gup v . + subh B. cup E . + dbh B. + tup rebh (ribh) yup V.B.S. skambh v . + rup V.B. jambh v . + lup v . + stambh v . + mlup (mluc) dambh kup E. (dabh) kp V.B. 1 rambh tp v . + (rabh) dp v . + 2 rambh c . sp v . + rambh s. + kip v . +

INDEX OF ROOTS. turv V.B. thrv B. dhurv V.B. 1 a v . + 2 a v . + da (da) 1 na v . + 2 na V.B. 1 pa v . + 2 pa spa (pa) ra bhra (bhra) va v. + a c. k v. + d V.B. v v. + di v . + pi v. + m i (mik) ri V.B. li B . S . k l i B. + vi v. + v . + tu v . ru (ru) kru v . + B. k v . + d v . + P9 sp v . + m v . + a (1 a) da v . + na (2 na) bhra v . + rap v . ka v . + bha E. + la E. + bh 'B. + 1 i v . + 2 i v . + pi v. + mi v . + ri v . + ri (li) cli v . + vi v. + tvi v.c. dvi v . + 1 i v. + 2 i () V.B. bh (bh) 1 u v. + 2 u (1 vas) k u B.C. ghu v . + ju v. + tu v. + du v . + pu v. + mu v. + ru v. + pru V.B. ru v . p l u E. + 1 u v. + 2 u (vas) c c . bh v . + r E. +
V.B.S.

247
dah v . + nah v . + mah (mah) yah rah s. + grah (grabh) glah E. vah v . + sah v . + gh v . + vh c. dih v . + snih v . + mih v . +
rih V.B.S.

v v . + h v . + e () y e (yas) bhre V.B. hre E.+ he v. + 1 ak V . E .

k v . + gh s. + t v . + dh v . + P (P) m v . +

tas (tas) das v . + nas v . bhas v . + yas v . + bhyas v . ras B. + gras v . + tras v . + 2 ak V . B . S . sras (sras) cak v . + hras s. + 1 jak v . + las E. + 2 jak V.B. 1 vas v. + tak v . + 2 vas v. + dak V.B. 3 vas v . + nak V.B. dhvas bhak v . + (dhvas) yak V.E. vas v. + myak v . as v . + rak v . + sas v . + krak v . has B. + lak B. + s v . + vak v . ks c . tvak v . caks E. + sak (sah) ds (das) nik v . bhs v . + bhik v . + 1 rs E. + m i k V.B.S. 2 rs (r) ik (ak) 1 s v . + k v . + 2 s (as) dk v . + hs v . 1 uk v . + 2 uk (vak) pis B. tas V.B. dhuk E.+ das v . mk v . + mok (muc) sras v . + dhvas v . + kk B. + as v . + srk B.S. nis v . 1 as v . + his v . + 2 as v . + bharts v . + kas v . + ah v . + ghas v . + jah (h) jas v . +

lih B. + h B. + guh v . + duh v . + muh v. + ruh v . + druh v . + 1 h v . + 2 h v . + th V.B. sth s . dh v . + sph v . + 1 bh v . + 2 bh (vh) vh v. + jeh v . ah bah v . + mah v . + rah V.B.S. dh (dh) bh (vh) vh E . + arh v . + garh v . + valh B. +

ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS.


O f t h e f o l l o w i n g emendanda, s o m e are c o r r e c t i o n s o f d i s c o v e r e d o v e r s i g h t s , s o m e are t h e results o f continued collection, a n d a large part are g l e a n i n g s f r o m t h e l a s t i s s u e d p o r t i o n ( t o e n d o f 1) o f B htlingk's m i n o r d i c t i o n a r y . A few obvious m i s p r i n t s are p a s s e d u n n o t i c e d . T h e modifications a n d n e w m a t e rial here g i v e n are i n c l u d e d i n t h e I n d e x e s . p. c.
(B .)

1, 2, 2, 2, 2,

ac, 1.1 r e a d ancati etc. AV.B . 1. 1 r e a d acyate etc. V.B . aj, 1. 1 r e a d etc. V.B . a t o deriv. a d d ay c . b o t t o m a d d ah, ' v i s i t ' : pres. ahati c . ; verb, ahita

4, arc, 1. 7 r e a d (arcyate U . E . ) . 5, 1. 1 r e a d a t a etc. V.B .S. 6, p, 1. 3 r e a d 1. pysam AA. , pi; 1. 12. c o l . 3 r e a d payit u . c . 7, 1 i, 1. 6 r e a d y t etc. B . + ; t o deriv. a d d pin c . 9, 1 i t o deriv. a d d e i i u c . 9, 2 i t o deriv. a d d eit c . 14, , 1. 8 r e a d tv AV.B .U. 16, , p e r h a p s rat v s . ( x l . 4) b e l o n g s h e r e . 20, k, 1. 1 a d d [2.] kuti c . 26, krudh, 1. 8 r e a d krdhmi RV. 29, k i p , 1. 2 r e a d c i k e p a etc. U.E. + 34, gam, 1.4 a d d jagmytam RV. ; t o deriv. a d d jigami c . 38, y 1 g, 1. 6 r e a d g r ya B .S., a n d a d d gdhyi AA. 40, grabh, 1. 10 f o r agrabhia etc. r e a d agrabhata; t o deriv. a d d grhayitavya c . 45, 46, 47, 47, 50, 50, 54, 55, 56, 1.1 r e a d cmya B . + 1. 5 r e a d clayati s . + 1. 5, c o l . 4 r e a d c e y a S.E. cit, 1. 7 a d d a c i t e RV. chand, 1.1 d e l e MS. ( B . ) chut t o deriv. a d d choana c . j u , 1. 2 a d d jujuan RV. 1 j , 1. 2 r e a d te etc. B. + ; t o deriv. a d d jariu c . j, 1.11 a d d jpsyate c . ; 1.14, c o l . 3 r e a d japana AV.B.

ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. p . 5 6 , jy, 1. 1 r e a d jyate. 6 0 , tan, 1. 1 6 r e a d tanit c ; a d d titsu c .


6 1 , tap, l a s t 1. r e a d tpaka c . 6 3 , tuj, 1. 7 r e a d tj v . c . 6 3 , tud, 1. 8 r e a d tud S.E.C

249

6 5 , 1. 1 9 , c o l . 1 r e a d tur v . + 7 0 , dabh, l. 3 a d d dambhiak s . 7 2 , 1. 1 7 , c o l . 3 r e a d dda E . + 8 2 , dh, 1. 7 r e a d dhmahe V.B . ; 1. 1 6 a d d adhitsiam AA. 8 4 , dh, 1. 7 r e a d dhtv B .U. 8 7 , 1. 2 r e a d dhrt R V . M S . 8 8 , nam, 1. 1 0 r e a d namayati etc. v . + , te c . 9 1 , 1. 8 r e a d tav B ., tos B.S. 9 2 , ned, 1. 1 read ndati.
9 4 , 1 pat, 1. 1 4 , c o l . 4 r e a d p a t a y l A V . C ; 1. 1 6 , c o l . 3 r e a d

ptuka B . + 9 4 , pad, 1 . 3 r e a d Aor. 1. apadiB( 3 s . pass.?), apadmahi e t c . . 9 5 , 1. 6 , c o l . 3 r e a d p d uka B .C. 9 5 , pard pardate c . i s n o w q u o t a b l e (B .), 9 6 , 1. 2 r e a d tavi B .S. 9 9 , p, 1. 8 pupati c ' . i s n o w q u o t a b l e (B .). 1 0 1 , pc, 1. 1 0 , c o l . 4 r e a d prak? V.AA. 1 0 1 , py, 1. 3 d e l e 4 . apysam AA.
1

1 0 2 , y prach t o deriv. a d d pr AV. ( s e e J.A.O.S., v o l . x i i i . , p . x l i i . ) ,

pipku c 1 0 3 , 1. 6 a d d prayit c 1 0 3 , plu, 1. 5 r e a d plutya u . s . + 1 0 6 , bdh, 1. 8 r e a d bibdhiateB ; t o deriv. a d d bdh .C. ayit c . 1 0 7 , br, 1. 2 a d d bravths ta u . 1 0 7 , bhak, 1. 5 r e a d bibhakayiati s . + 1 1 1 , bhik, 1 . 5 r e a d bhikitv u . c 1 1 2 , 2 bhuj, 1. 9 r e a d b h u k t v B. + 1 1 8 , mad t o deriv. a d d mandayit c 1 1 9 , 1. 9 a d d mananya c 1 2 5 , mc 1. 3 r e a d mkt RV.AA. 1 2 5 , mj, 1. 1 1 r e a d mv AV.S. 1 2 6 , md t o deriv. a d d mdya c 1 2 9 , yaj, 1. 6 d e l e 7 . ayakata ( 3 s . ) AGS. 1 3 5 , ra, 1. 1 r e a d raati. 1 3 7 , ram, l. 2 r e a d remus etc B . + 1 4 0 , riph, 1. 1 r e a d at AV.B .S. 1 4 0 , ribh t o deriv. a d d rebhin c 1 4 1 , l. 3 , c o l . 2 r e a d rea B .C. 1 4 1 , rih, 1. 1 a d d reha s .

256

ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS.

p. 141, 1 ru to d e r i v . add ravan B .

142, 1. 2 read ruo v.; 1. 5 dd ruci MS. 142, rud to d e r i v . add rurudi c. 143, 2rudh to deriv. add, urutsu o.
143, ru to deriv. add roin c.

144, r, 1. 2 add ruita c. 145, 1. 2 read lig CB.U.+ 145, after lajj add la 'move about': p r e s . laati cl. (B .) 145, lap, l. 10, col. 4 read lpana B . + 147, likh to d e r i v . add likhit c. 48, 1. 2 read lepaka c and add lipti c. 148, lih, 1. 5 add leham s. 148, 1 l, 1. 6 add letum o., and read lya B .S. 149, lup, 1. 7 read lopam, s.c. 150, lubh, 1. 5 add lubhita s. 150, lul, 1. 1 read lolati te etc. 150, l, 1. 4 add lutv s.; to d e r i v . add lavitavya c. 151, y loc, 1. 6, col. 1 read locaka c. 151, vac, 1. 8 add vce RV. 153, 1. 8 add vivdi c. 156, 3 vas, I. 12, cl. 2 read vsya B . + 159, vij, to d e r i v . add vijitavya c. 163, vj, I. 1 add (at end) v.+ 166, vyath to d e r i v . add vyathin c. 168, vl, 1.1 read B .S. 169, as, 1. H, col. 4 read asit B . + 173, i, 1.1 read ini. 179, 1 r 1. 4 add rtv s. 183, sad, 1. 3 read sedire RV. 185, 1. 6, col. 3 read soh B . + 187, su, l. 1 read sunut. 189, sj, 1. 4 read ftarji V . B . S . 190, 1. 7, col. 1 read Bjya B . + 193, stu, l. 4 read stu (Is.), and, add in l. 12 stUJj *v. 194, 8th, 1. 5 dele 5. 200, sru, 1. 12, col. 4 read srvayitavy MS.B . 207, 1. 9, col. 4 read johtra RV.AA.

146, lal to d e r i v . add llin c.