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Heart

It is defined as central pumping station of CVS It is situated in middle mediastinum The weight of heart in male is about 300 gm. in female is 250 gm. Human heart has two chambers 1. Two atria receiving chamber 2. Two ventricles distributing chamber These two chambers are separated from each other by an atrio-ventricular sulcus or coronary sinus Two atria are separated from each other by a septum known as interatrial septum Two ventricles are separated from each other by a septum called as interventricular septum RT side of heart is responsible for receiving & pumping deoxygenated blood Lt Side of heart is responsible for receiving & distributing oxygenated blood In bet RT atrium & RT ventricle there is tricuspid valve

In bet LT atrium &LT ventricle there is bicuspid or mitral valve Blood vessels supplying heart is known as coronary artery, coronary veins or sinus Heart normally beats at the rate 72/min Contraction of heart is systole & relaxation of heart is diastole Blood vessels opens in RT atrium are 1. Superior vena cava (SVC) 2. Inferior vena cava (IVC) 3. Coronary sinus Blood vessels open in LT atrium are1. Four pulmonary veins Blood vessels arising from RT ventricle are known as pulmonary trunk or artery Blood vessels arising from LT ventricle are known as an aorta Two atria shows an extension or projection called as auricle RT atrium has RT auricle LT atrium has LT auricle

Borders of heart- it has four borders 1. RT border - it is formed by RT atrium 2. LT border - mainly formed by LT ventricle 3. Upper border it is formed by base of vessels arising from heart the vessels which are arises from heart are known as great vessels 4. Inferior border - it is formed by RT ventricle and LT ventricle 5. Apex - it directed downwards it is formed by LT ventricle ,it lies in 5th intercostal space on LT side approximately 9cm from midline Surfaces of the heart it has Anterior or sterno-costal Inferior or diaphragmatic Posterior or base of the heart 1. Anterior - it is formed by RT atrium ,RT ventricle and LT ventricle

2. 3.

Inferior it is formed by RT and LT Posterioror base of the heart - it is

ventricle formed by LT atrium and four pulmonary veins RIGHT ATRIUM - It is receiving chamber. It is situated on the RT side forming RT border and anterior surface of the heart. - It is separated from RT ventricle by atrioventricular sulcus or coronary sulcus RT atrium shows an appendages or projection called as auricle - On external surface corresponding to RT border, it shows thickening known as sulcus terminalis - On the upper side it receives opening of SVC on lower side IVC and posterior side it has opening of coronary sinus

- SVC brings back blood from upper part of body; IVC brings back blood from lower part of body - Coronary sinus from heart Interior of RT atrium - it shows three parts 1. Rough part 2. Smooth part 3. Septal wall A) Rough part - it is separated from smooth part by a thick band of fibers known as crista terminalis which corresponds with sulcus terminalis which are seen on the RT border of heart ,from crista terminalis there are multiple mucosal bands arises ,and extended laterally known as musculi pectinity B) Smooth part - it corresponds with in flow part of right atrium , on upper side there is an opening of SVC , on lower side opening of IVC an which is guarded by rudimentary valve which is functional in

fetal life also opening of coronary sinus is guarded by a rudimentary valve C) Septal valve- it is formed by inter-atrial septum. This septum separates RT atrium from LT atrium. on interatrial septum there is inverted U shaped impression known as limbus fossa ovalis .this is remnant of fossa ovalis in fetal life Tricuspid valve - it is biggest valve it has got three cusps it has got diameter of 4cm it is unidirectional valve i.e. from RT atrium to RT ventricle Development of heart- rough part 1. It develop from primitive atrial chamber 2. The smooth part develops from absorbed part of right horn of sinus venosus 3. Left horn of sinus venosus forms coronary sinus veins of heart 4. The septal wall develops from by formation of two septa known as septum primum and secundum during fetal life in bet these two

septa there is an opening known as foramina ovale which permits the blood to go from RT atrium to LT atrium because fetal lungs are non-functional the function of lungs In fetal life is done by placenta 5. With first cry of baby after being born there is reversal of pressure in the two atria these causes closure of foramen ovale .it remains as a limbus fossa ovalis Applied anatomy 1. The pressure in RT atrium can be measured by looking at jugular venous pressure (JVP) 2. Stenosis ( narrowing ) of tricuspid valve causes enlargement of RT atrium called hypertrophy 3. ASD (atrial septal defect )- sometimes foramen ovale doesnt closed completely known as ASD ,if defect is minimal it is compatible with life ,if opening is big it

causes cyanosis in new borne baby this required surgical treatment

RIGHT VENTRICLE The RT ventricle is distributing chamber of heart it receives blood from RT atrium through tricuspid valve it distributes the blood to lungs Interior of RT ventricle It shows elevated muscular ridges & bridges and three papillary muscles The papillary muscles are attached to cusp or leaflet of tricuspid valve by tendineous band known as chorda tendneae the chorda tendinae prevents cusp of tricuspid valve not to go in to RT atrium One of the papillary muscles attached to interventricular septum known as septal papillary muscle, which contains moderator band in it.Moderator band, doesnt allow ventricles to get over full

walls of RT ventricle - the RT ventricle is less thicker than LTventricle. The LV is 3 times thicker than RT ventricle

Left ventricle It is distributing chamber of heart Interior to LT ventricle It shows muscular elevation known as ridges, bridges .two papillary muscles are attached to mitral valve by chorda tendinae same function as in RT ventricle Walls of heart - valves of LT ventricle 3 times thicker than RT because LT ventricle has pump to whole body Interventricular septum - it separates two ventricles It has two parts 1. Muscular part 2. Membranous part The interventricular septum slightly pushes towards RT ventricle because pressure in LT

ventricle is more than RT ventricle during contraction Development of interventricular septum - the muscular part develops as a muscular ridge bet two ventricles The membranous part develops from septal ridge or bulbar chordis and partly from atrioventricular cushion This part, the muscular part AV cushion, septal ridges fuse with each other forming interventricular septum Developmental anomaly VSD it is known as ventricular septal defect it is because of improper development of membranous part of septal wall This leads to cyanosis. This is because of mixing of blood from RT side of heart with that of LT side of heart through ASD or VSD VSD are corrected surgically Condition is known as fallots tetralogy this combine defect of developing heart it has four defect

VSD Pulmonary stenosis Enlargement of RT ventricle i.e. RT ventricular hypertrophy Overriding of aorta i.e. aorta arises from both ventricle

LEFT ATRIUM It is receiving chamber of heart it is situated on posterior surface of heart i.e. base of heart It shows opening of four pulmonary veins which brings oxygenated blood from lungs to heart Interior to LT atrium - it shows two areas 1. Rough area 2. Smooth area Rough area develops from primitive atrial chamber Smooth area develops from absorption of pulmonary vein LT atrium shows an appendage known as LT auricle

LT atrium is separated from LT ventricle by unidirectional valve known as bicuspid or mitral valve LA is separated from RA by interventricular septum Anomaly - ASD