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Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Moscow, Russia, August 1923, 2012 191

Analysis of Contactless Power Transfer Systems for Maglev


S. Hasanzadeh and S. Vaez-Zadeh A Center of Excellence on Applied Electromagnetic Systems and Advanced Motion Systems Research Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Abstract In high power applications of contactless power transfer systems like Maglev, a
conict exists between high eciency and high transfer power. An equivalent circuit analysis conrmed by FEM, is presented to nd acceptable operating frequencies which results high transfer power with improved eciency. 1. INTRODUCTION

Maglev systems with linear synchronous motors are practical now. They require primary windings distributed along the track, resulting in substantial increase in the construction and maintenance cost. Placing windings on the mover plus a proper contactless power transfer (CPT) system considerably reduces the cost. A suitable structure for CPT system should be designed to satisfy the best performance and meet the requirement of the system. The simplicity of implementation taking into account the practical limitations are essential in selecting the CPT structure. In the contactless operation, the power transfer apparatus includes a small air gap along the main ux path that links the two coils. The primary coil is located on the stationary base unit while the secondary coil is located on the vehicle. The latter coil eectively receives the power of primary through the air gap and delivers it to the vehicle. The power can be used immediately by the traction motor or can be stored for later use. Coaxial CPT systems including strait primary wires passing through the center of a cylindrical secondary core with an air gap have already been recognized [1]. Their design and applications has gained attention recently [2]. Needless to say that a solid system design must be established based on a systematic modeling and analysis. The literature lacks such an analysis. In this work, a coaxial CPT system as in Fig. 1 is chosen for maglev applications with some considerations such as providing high linkage ux and having low volume. A mathematical model is used for the system analysis including the compensating capacitors. Using the model, the analysis including the calculation of power transfer eciency is carried out. The system parameters can also be obtained based on the system physical specications. Analytical results are veried by 3D FEM simulations to conrm the modeling and the analysis.
2. CPT MODEL

A physical model of the coaxial CPT system is presented in Fig. 1, where the primary side is a straight wire supplied by a high frequency source on the ground. The secondary side consists of an open hollow cylindrical core of ferrite material and a pickup winding, all mounted on the maglev vehicle. A radial air gap takes the two sides apart. The system is represented by an equivalent circuit of Fig. 2. The primary wire and the secondary winding are modeled by two coupled RL circuits of impedances R1 + jL1 and R2 + jL2 where:
b Pickup Winding a Pickup Core Airgap d Primary Wire
V1 L1 L2 RL C1 R1 R2 M C2

crack l

Figure 1: A schematic view of the coaxial CPT system.

Figure 2: Circuit model of the coaxial CPT system.

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PIERS Proceedings, Moscow, Russia, August 1923, 2012

R1 = pcu R2 = L1 = L2 = M =

N1 l 57 S1 N2 2(a + b) pcu 57 S2 f (N1 , l, S1 ) f (N2 , S2 , a, b) f (N1 , N2 , S1 , S2 , a, b, d)

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

and a, b, d and l are shown in Fig. 1 with their values given in Table 1 along with N1 , N2 , S1 and S2 . The series compensating capacitors C1 and C2 are connected to the primary and secondary sides respectively. The capacitances are determined such that a common resonance frequency of 0 is provided in two sides as: 1 1 0 = = (6) L1 C1 L2 C2 The transferred power passing through the air gap is readily obtained from the equivalent circuit [3]: 0 M 2 2 P2 = I (7) RL 1 Also, the system eciency can be calculated as follows: = RL RL + R2 1 R1 (RL + R2 ) 1+ 2 0 M 2 (8)

3. SYSTEM ANALYSIS

A CPT system for Maglev applications is analyzed in this section where the system rated values and parameters are listed in Table 1. The input and transfer powers of the system, plus the system eciency are plotted in Fig. 3. Based on the equations mentioned above, it is seen that the input and transfer powers show the same shape, where their eciencies at each frequency shows the system loss. There are two frequencies, L and H , over which the input and transfer powers reach their maximum values: 0 0 L = , H = (9) 1+k 1k The transfer eciency is maximum at the resonance frequency, 0 , located in a frequency boundary of L < 0 < H . If coupling coecient, k, is high, the frequency boundary will be wide. A FEM analysis is carried out on a certain resonance frequency as in Fig. 4. The system analysis on several resonance frequencies are also done by both analytical method and FEM. The corresponding eciencies at these frequencies are plotted in Fig. 5 for the sake of
120 Input Power 100 Efficiency 0.9 0.8 0.7
Power (kW)

0.6 0.5 0.4

60 Transferred Power

40

0.3

20 340
L

H 440

0.2 460 0.1 480

360

380

400 420 Frequency (Hz)

Efficiency

80

Figure 3: Eciency, input and transfer power versus frequency.

Figure 4: 3D-FEM simulation.

Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Moscow, Russia, August 1923, 2012 193 Table 1: Electrical and geometrical parameters of the CPT system. f0 (Hz) eta (%) Pout (kW) V2 (v) I1 (A) I2 (A) L1 (mH) L2 (mH) M (mH) C1 (F) C2 (F) Parameter Value 400 80 50 600 140 84 1.026 16.2 0.6455 154 9.75 Parameter Width Length Gap Distance Primary Turns Secondary Turns Wire Area Wire Area Current Density Core Material: Maximum Flux Density Relative Permeability Value a = 10 cm b = 24 cm d = 5 cm N1 = 1 N2 = 10 S1 = 30 mm2 S2 = 16 mm2 J = 4 A/mm2 Ferrite Bsat = 0.4 T r = 5000

Figure 5: Eciency versus resonance frequencies.

Figure 6: Eciency versus output power in dierent operating frequencies.

comparison. The gure conrms the validity of the analytical results as they are close to the FEM results. It also shows that the system eciency is improved with an increasing resonance frequency. The system eciency at the same resonance frequencies is plotted versus the transfer power in Fig. 6. It is seen that almost for all plots, the transfer eciency drops gradually with the increasing transfer power. Therefore, there is a conict between high eciency and high transfer power. However, in high power applications like Maglev both high eciency and high transfer power are essential. As a result, a compromise between high eciency and high transfer power is needed. It is wise to consider the knee of the ecency locus of Fig. 5 as an acceptable operating region, highlighted in Figs. 5 and 6 by a hatched zone. Choosing a desired frequency on the acceptable region, the primary and secondary capacitances are obtained from (6) where L1 and L2 are known.
4. CONCLUSIONS

Using a simple equivalent circuit model for a capacitor compensated contactless power transfer system, the transfer power and eciency are analyzed for Maglev. The model is veried by FEM results. It is shown that a conict exists between high eciency and high transfer power. To solve the problem, a compromise is required. A graphical determination of acceptable operating region is also presented. The proposed analysis can be used as a tool for further studies including system design and optimization.
REFERENCES

1. Klontz, K., D. Divan, and D. Novotny, An actively cooled 120-kW coaxial winding transformer for fast charging electric vehicles, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 31, No. 6, 12571263, 1995. 2. Lastowiecki, J. and P. Staszewski, Sliding transformer with long magnetic circuit for contact-

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less electrical energy delivery to mobile receivers, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 53, No. 6, 19431948, 2006. 3. Villa, J. L., J. Salln, A. Llombart, and J. F. Sanz, Design of a high frequency inductively a coupled power transfer system for electric vehicle battery charge, Applied Energy, Vol. 86, No. 3, 355363, Mar. 2009.