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A Single-Phase Voltage Controller with an Inductive Load The circuit of a single-phase voltage controller with an inductive load, which

may be a magnetic relay or an induction motor, is given below. The main requirement that must be met by the circuit is that the output voltage is a controlled version of the input voltage and has both positive and negative half cycles. Consequently, the average value of the output voltage should be zero.

The applied (input or source) voltage is assumed to be a sinusoid, which is given as v s ( t ) = Vm sin(t ) V (1)

Note that we have expressed the input voltage as a function of t instead of t because of the ease with which it can be sketched. We begin our analysis when the input voltage is going though its positive half cycle that begins at t = 0 . The SCR 1 is forward biased and ready to conduct as soon as a gating
pulse appears at its gate. Let us apply the gating pulse at t = . As soon as the gating pulse is applied the SCR 1 begins to conduct and an expression for the current in the circuit may be written as

di o ( t ) + Ri o ( t ) = Vm sin(t ) dt

(2)

This equation can be solved using the classical method of differential equations by decomposing it into two differential equations: one for the natural response and the other for the forced response. The differential equation for the natural response is L di oN ( t ) + Ri oN ( t ) = 0 dt (3)

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Its solution is
i oN ( t ) = K e R t / L = K e t / where = L R (4) (5)

The equation for the forced response and its solution using the phasor analysis are L di oF ( t ) + Ri oF ( t ) = Vm sin(t ) dt Vm sin(t ) Z (6) (7)

i oF ( t ) = where

and or

The complete response for the current is i o (t ) = Vm sin(t ) + K e t / tan( ) Z

Applying the initial condition, that is i o () = 0 , we obtain the constant of integration as K= Vm sin( ) e / tan( ) Z (11)

Hence, the final expression for the current during the conduction of SCR 1 is i o (t ) = Vm sin(t ) sin( ) e ( t ) / tan( ) Z

(12)

Let be the extinction angle at which SCR 1 ceases to conduct as the current goes to zero. Setting the current in (12) to zero when t = , we obtain e / tan( ) sin( ) = sin( ) e / tan( ) (13)

This is a transcendental equation that can be solved using any numerical method. This equation, however, offers three possibilities. Case 1: When = . In this case, the right-hand side of (13) is zero, which implies that sin( ) = 0 . We expect the extinction angle to be greater than . Ruling out the possibility of = , the next possible solution is = + = + . Note that + is also

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the firing angle of SCR 2 . It simply means that when SCR 1 ceases to conduct, the

SCR 2 begins to conduct. The current in the circuit is continuous and switches
from one SCR to another. From (13), the current in the circuit is i o (t ) = Vm sin(t ) Z (14)

This is the stead-state expression of the current without any transient component. It can be obtained even when there are no SCRs in the circuit. Since the two SCRs do not help us exert any control on the current in the circuit, it is not a desirable option. The continuity of the current is clear when we plot (14) as shown below where I m = Vm / Z .

Case 2: When < . In this case, sin( ) < 0. To satisfy this condition, sin( ) must be a negative quantity. This can only happen when > or > + . This simply means that SCR 1 is still conducting when the gating pulse is applied to SCR 2 . Although, the SCR 2 is ready to conduct but it cannot because SCR 1 is still carrying the current in a direction opposite to that of SCR 2 . By the time, the current in

SCR 1 becomes zero and SCR 2 is ready to conduct, the gating pulse of short
duration has come and gone. Therefore, SCR 2 will not conduct at all. The negative cycle of the output current, thereby the output voltage will be zero. For

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all practical purposes, we have an inductive circuit fed by a sinusoidal source via

SCR 1 . This is a circuit of a half-wave rectifier and, therefore, is undesirable for

ac-to-ac conversion purposes. The current waveform is shown below along with the input voltage to highlight the phase shift.

Case 3: When > . In this case sin( ) > 0 . Therefore, sin( ) > 0 . In other words, < or < + . This condition ensures that the current in one SCR goes to zero before the other SCR is turned on. This is the condition that provides us the control on the operation of the circuit. Hence, in our applications of ac-to-ac converters with an inductive loaf, it is our responsibility to check that the firing angle is greater than the phase angle of the inductive impedance. The following example helps up plot the input voltage, the output voltage, and the output current for the case when > . Example: _____________________________________________________________ A 120-V, 60-Hz, single-phase source is used to control the voltage across and the current through a single-phase induction motor having an equivalent resistance of 50 and an inductance of 100 mH. If = 1.5 , sketch the input voltage, the output voltage, and the current intake of the motor. Also compute the rms and average values of the current through the motor and through each SCR. Also compute the power consumed by the motor and its power factor.

Solution: From the given information, we have Vm = 120 2 = 169.7 V

= 120 377 rad/s Z = 50 + j(377)(0.1) = 50 + j37.7 = 62.62 / 37.02 o Thus, Vm 169.7 = = 2.71 Z 62.62 = 37.02 o = 0.646 rad tan( ) = 0.754 = 1.5 = 55.52 o = 0.969 rad sin( ) = 0.317 e / tan( ) = 3.616 Vm sin( ) e / tan( ) = 3.11 Z The current in the circuit during the conduction of SCR 1 is i o (t ) = 2.71 sin(t 0.646) 3.11 e t / 0.754 A The extinction angle at which the current goes to zero is determined by setting the current to zero when t = as sin( 0.646) 1.148 e / 0.754 = 0 or sin( 0.646) = 1.148 e / 0.754

Note that has to be less that + = 4.11 rad = 235.49 o . We can compute by iteration method as follows: Assume 3.8 3.7 3.75 3.78 Hence, the extinction angle is = 3.78 rad = 216.58 o sin( 0.646) -0.0124 0.0875 0.0376 0.0076 1.148 e / 0.754 0.0074 0.0085 0.0085 0.0076

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We could have also plotted the current waveform and determined when the current is passing through zero. We can now sketch the voltage and current waveforms as shown below.

The effective current through the inductive load is

I o,rms =

2 2 i o ( t ) d ( t ) = 1.728 A 2

Po = I 2,rms R = (1.728) 2 (50) = 149.3 W o

The apparent power input is S input = Vs,rms I s,rms = Vs ,rms I o,rms = 120 1.728 = 207.36 VA The power factor can now be computed as

pf =

Po 149.3 = = 0.72 Sinput 207.36

Since each SCR conducts only during the one-half cycle, the effective current through each SCR can be computed as

I SCR ,rms =

I o,rms 2

= 1.22 A

The average current through each SCR can be computed as

I SCR ,avg =

1 i o (t ) d ( t ) = 0.74 A

The maximum current through each SRC is approximated as I SCR ,max = Vm 169.7 = = 2.71 A Z 62.62

For a continuous safe operation, we can select each SCR on the basis of its maximum current-carrying capability.