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- VTU 8TH SEM CSE ADHOC NETWORKS NOTES 10CS841
- 311678204 Adhoc Question Bank EC2050
- Thesis on Aodv Energy
- A Multi-path Misbehaviour Aware Routing Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
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- Design a Hybrid System Geno-Neuro-Fuzzy Controller for Dynamic Load Balancing in Wireless Ad- hoc Networks
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- Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: A Review
- A Survey on Effect of Multiple Black Hole Attack in AODV Protocol in MANET
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- EJSR_50_1_01

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Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering & Institute for Systems Research

University of Maryland at College Park

College Park, MD 20742

fjhchang,leandrosg@isr.umd.edu

it arises in a rapidly deployed, sensor based, monitoring system. Informa-

tion is generated in certain nodes and needs to reach a set of designated

gateway nodes. Each node may adjust its power within a certain range

that determines the set of possible one hop away neighbors. Traffic for- monitoring nodes

warding through multiple hops is employed when the intended destination

is not within immediate reach. The nodes have limited initial amounts of

energy that is consumed in different rates depending on the power level gateways

and the intended receiver. We propose algorithms to select the routes and

the corresponding power levels such that the time until the batteries of the

nodes drain-out is maximized. The algorithms are local and amenable to

distributed implementation. When there is a single power level, the prob-

lem is reduced to a maximum flow problem with node capacities and the al-

gorithms converge to the optimal solution. When there are multiple power

levels then the achievable lifetime is close to the optimal (that is computed

by linear programming) most of the time. It turns out that in order to

maximize the lifetime, the traffic should be routed such that the energy

consumption is balanced among the nodes in proportion to their energy re-

serves, instead of routing to minimize the absolute consumed power. Fig. 1. A multi-hop wireless ad-hoc network is depicted where the nodes are

Keywords— energy-sensitive routing, wireless ad-hoc networks, sensor randomly distributed and the information generated at the monitoring nodes

networks are to be delivered to the gateway nodes.

C

I. I NTRODUCTION

acoustic, magnetic, or seismic information and send the infor-

ONSIDER a group of wireless static nodes randomly dis-

mation to its gateway node which has more processing power

tributed in a region as in Fig.1, where each node has a lim- for further processing of the information or has larger transmis-

ited battery energy supply used mainly for the transmission of

sion range for the delivery of the information to a possibly larger

data. Assume that at each node some type of information is

network for retrieval by a remote user.

generated as it monitors the data such as sound or vibration in

its vicinity using the sensor, and the information needs to be Most of the previous works on routing in wireless ad-hoc net-

delivered to a set of gateway nodes. These wireless nodes are works deal with the problem of finding and maintaining correct

assumed to have the capability of packet forwarding, i.e., relay- routes to the destination during mobility and changing topology

ing an incoming packet to one of its neighboring nodes, and the [1], [6], [11]. In [1], [6], the authors presented a simply imple-

transmitted energy level can be adjusted to a level appropriate mentable algorithm which guarantees strong connectivity and

for the receiver to be able to receive the data correctly if the re- assumes limited node range. Shortest path algorithm is used in

ceiver is within the transmission range. Upon or before a new this strongly connected backbone network. However, the route

arrival of information either generated at the node itself or for- may not be the minimum energy solution due to possible omis-

warded from the other nodes, routing decision has to be made so sion of the optimal links at the time of the backbone connection

that the node knows which of its neighboring nodes to forward network calculation. In [11], the authors developed a dynamic

its data to. Note that the routing decision and the transmission routing algorithm for establishing and maintaining connection-

energy level selection are intrinsically connected in this power- oriented sessions which uses the idea of predictive re-routing

controlled ad-hoc network since the power level will be adjusted to cope with the unpredictable topology changes. Some other

depending on the location of the next hop node. routing algorithms in mobile wireless networks can be found in

An example scenario for this type of wireless ad-hoc network [15], [12], [9], [14], which, as the majority of routing protocols

may include a wireless sensor network where the sensors gather in mobile ad-hoc networks do, use shortest-path routing where

the number of hops is the path length.

Prepared through collaborative participation in the Advanced Telecommuni- The problem of minimum energy routing has been addressed

cations/Information Distribution Research Program (ATIRP) Consortium spon-

sored by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory under the Federated Laboratory before in [1], [6], [16], [10], [8], [18], [17], and [7]. The ap-

Program, Cooperative Agreement DAAL01-96-2-0002. proach in those works was to minimize the total consumed en-

ergy to reach the destination, which minimizes the energy con- O(c) where the information is generated, i.e.,

sumed per unit flow or packet. If all the traffic is routed though

through the minimum energy path to the destination the nodes O(c) = f i j Q(ic) > 0; i 2 N g; (3)

in that path will be drain-out of batteries quickly while other

nodes, which perhaps will be more power hungry if traffic is and a set of destination nodes D(c) among which any node can

forwarded through them, will remain intact. Instead of trying be reached in order for the information transfer of commodity c

to minimize the consumed energy, the performance objective of be considered done.

maximizing the lifetime of the system[3], which is equivalent to The lifetime of node i under a given flow q = fqij g is given

maximizing the time to network partition[18] has been consid- by

Ti (q) = P EiP (c) :

ered. In [18], the problem of maximizing the time to network

partition was reported as NP-complete. In [3] we identified the (4)

eij qij

maximum lifetime problem as a linear programming problem. j 2Si c2C

Therefore, it is solvable in polynomial time. The work in [3]

considered the single destination version of the problem, while Now, let us define the system lifetime under flow q as the length

here we extend the problem to the multicommodity case, where of time until the first battery drain-out among all nodes in N ,

each commodity has a its own set of destinations. which is the same as the minimum lifetime over all nodes, i.e.,

In our study the topology of the network is static and the rout-

ing accounts to finding the traffic splits that balance optimally Tsys (q) = min T (q)

i2N i

the energy consumption. Hence the results are applicable to

= min P e EiP q c : (5)

networks which are either static, like the sensor networks we i2N ij ( )

ij

mentioned earlier, or whose topology changes slowly enough j2Si c2C

such that there is enough time for optimally balancing the traffic

in the periods between successive topology changes. Our goal is to find the flow that maximizes the system life-

This paper is organized as follows: In section II, the problem time under the flow conservation condition. The problem can be

is formulated. In section III, we propose a class of flow aug- written as follows:

mentation algorithms that use the shortest cost path. In section

Maximize Tsys (q) = min P e EiP q c

IV, we extend the flow redirection algorithm to cover the multi- i2N ij ij

( )

order to evaluate the performances of these algorithms. Finally

in section VI, some concluding remarks are made. s.t. qij(c) 0; 8i 2 N; 8j 2 Si ; 8c 2 C;

P (c) (c) P (c)

II. ROUTING FOR THE M AXIMUM S YSTEM L IFETIME qji + Qi = qik ; 8i 2 N ? D(c) ; 8c 2 C:

j : i2Sj k2Si

The wireless ad-hoc network in consideration is modeled as a (6)

directed graph G(N; A) where N is the set of all nodes and A

is the set of all directed links (i; j ) where i; j 2 N . Let Si be

Fig.2 illustrates the flow conservation condition for commod-

ity c at node i, and it should be noted that the condition applies

the set of all nodes that can be reached by node i with a certain

power level in its dynamic range. We assume that link (i; j )

to each commodity separately.

exists if and only if j 2 Si . Let each node i have the initial

In the following we show that the problem is a linear pro-

(c) gramming problem[13]. The problem of maximizing the system

battery energy Ei , and let Qi be the rate at which information (c)

lifetime, given the information generation rates Qi at the set of

is generated at node i belonging to commodity c 2 C , where

origin nodes O and the set of destination nodes D(c) for each

(c)

C is the set of all commodities. Assume that the transmission commodity c, is equivalent to the following linear programming

energy required for node i to transmit an information unit to its

neighboring node j is eij , and the rate at which information of

problem:

commodity c is transmitted from node i to node j is called the

(c) Maximize T (7)

flow qij . Further, let Qi and qij be the aggregate flows of all

s.t. q^ijc

0;

( )

8i 2 N; 8j 2 Si ; 8c 2 C; (8)

commodities, i.e.,

X P e P q^(c) E ;

Qi = Q(ic) ; (1) ij ij i 8i 2 N; (9)

c2C j 2Si c2C

P q^(c) + TQ(c) = P q^(c) ; 8i 2 N?D(c) ; 8c 2 C; (10)

and X ji i ik

j : i2Sj k2Si

qij = qijc

( )

: (2)

c2C c c

where q^ij = Tqij is the amount of information of commodity

( ) ( )

We are given, for each commodity c, a set of origin nodes c transmitted from node i to node j until time T .

the third is the residual energy at the transmitting node i which

(c)

Qi qik(c) is denoted by Ei . A good candidate for the flow augmenting

path should consume less energy and should avoid nodes with

small residual energy since we would like to maximize the mini-

qji(c) k Si mum lifetime of all nodes. In [18], each of these were separately

considered, which falls short of optimizing the system lifetime.

i Obviously, both of these can’t be optimized at the same time,

j

which means there is a tradeoff between the two. In the begin-

ning when all the nodes have plenty of energy, the minimum

total consumed energy path is better off, whereas towards the

Fig. 2. The conservation of flow condition at node i for each commodity c end avoiding the small residual energy node becomes more im-

requires that the sum of information generation rate and the total incoming portant. Therefore, the link cost function should be such that

flow must equal the total outgoing flow. when the nodes have plenty of residual energy, the energy ex-

penditure term is emphasized, while if the residual energy of a

The linear program given above can be viewed as a variation node becomes small the residual energy term should be more

of the conventional maximum flow problem with node capaci- emphasized.

ties[5]. If the transmitted power level at each node is fixed re- With the above in mind, the link cost cij is proposed to be

gardless of its next hop node, i.e., if there is no power control, 1 2 3

(13)

eij = ei ; 8j 2 Si ; (11)

where x1 , x2 , and x3 are nonnegative weighting factors for each

and the problem is equivalent to the maximum flow problem item. Note that if fx1 ; x2 ; x3 g = f0; 0; 0g then the shortest

with node capacities given by cost path is the minimum hop path, and if it is f1; 0; 0g then

XX

q^ij(c) Ei =ei ; 8i 2 N: (12)

the shortest cost path is the minimum transmitted energy path.

If x2 = x3 then normalized residual energy is used, while if

j 2Si c2C x3 = 0 then the absolute residual energy is used. Let’s refer

When the capacity of a a node is a fixed quantity as in (12) to the algorithm as FA(x1 ; x2 ; x3 ) in the rest of the paper indi-

then the problem can be converted to a link capacity version by cating the parameters, and the meanings of the parameters are

replacing the node with two nodes and a link having the same summarized in Table I for reference.

capacity[4], and the max-flow-min-cut theorem[5] can be used. The path cost is computed by the summation of the link

However, in our problem, unlike the above, the amount of re- costs on the path, and the algorithm can be implemented with

source (or energy in this case) which a unit flow consumes de- any existing shortest path algorithms including the distributed

pends on the energy expenditure to the next hop node. There- Bellman-Ford algorithm[2], which will be used in our simula-

fore, it is not trivial to find the min-cut nodes, and even if they tion.

were found the traffic split at the nodes must also be identified.

IV. F LOW R EDIRECTION A LGORITHM

III. F LOW AUGMENTATION A LGORITHMS

In this section, we extend the flow redirection (FR) algo-

In this section, we propose a class of flow augmentation (FA) rithm[3] to the multicommodity case.

algorithms which use the shortest cost path. This algorithm is based on the following observation. If we

The general description of the algorithm is given in the fol- have a single origin and a single destination or if we have mul-

lowing. At each iteration, each origin node o 2 O(c) of com- tiple origins and destinations but without any constraints on the

modity c calculates the shortest cost path to its destination nodes information generation rates, then under the optimal flow, the

(c)

in D(c) . Then the flow is augmented by an amount of Qi on minimum lifetime of every path from the origin to the destina-

the shortest cost path, where is the augmentation step size. tion with positive flow is the same. Note that the latter case can

After the flow augmentation, the shortest cost paths are recalcu- be converted to a single origin and a single destination version

lated and the procedures are repeated until any node i 2 N runs by adding a super origin and a super destination connected to

out of its initial total energy Ei . As a result of the algorithm, we the origins and the destinations respectively with zero energy

obtain the flow which will be used at each node to properly split expenditure links.

incoming traffic. The above fact can be shown as follows. Assume that the

Our objective is to find the best link cost function which will flow is optimal, i.e., minimum lifetime over all nodes is maxi-

lead to the maximization of the system lifetime. There are three mized. If we further assume that the minimum lifetimes of the

parameters to consider in calculating the link cost cij for link paths with positive flow to the destination are not all identical

(i; j ). One is the energy expenditure for unit flow transmis- then there is a set of path(s) with positive flow whose minimum

sion over the link, eij , the second is the initial energy Ei , and lifetime is the shortest. We can always increase the minimum

TABLE I

elements are the lifetimes of all the nodes in the path be-

T HE MEANINGS OF THE PARAMETERS IN THE ALGORITHM FA.

fore reaching any of its destination nodes D(c) . For exam-

(c)

ple, if path p 2 Pi starting from node i traverses nodes

FA(x1 ; x2 ; x3 ) Meaning

j1 ; j2 ; ; jm before reaching any node in D(c) , then Lp (q) =

FA(0; 0; 0) Minimum hop path [Ti (q) Tj1 (q) Tj2 (q) Tjm (q)]. The length of path p,

FA(1; 0; 0) Minimum transmitted Lp (q), is said to be shorter (longer) than the length of path p0 ,

energy path Lp0 (q), if the smallest element of Lp(q) is smaller (larger) than

FA(; x; x) Normalized residual that of Lp0 (q). We compare the smallest element first since it

energy is used is the minimum lifetime of all nodes in the path. In case they

FA(; ; 0) Absolute residual are the same, the next smallest elements are compared, and so

energy is used on. If there are more than one smallest elements with the same

value then each one is compared separately. Using this so-called

lexicographical ordering, the shortest length path from any node

lifetime of this set of path(s), which is also the system lifetime, to the destination is defined. We modify the distance compari-

by redirecting an arbitrarily small amount of flow to the paths son part of the Bellman-Ford algorithm [2] to obtain the shortest

whose lifetime is longer than these paths such that the minimum length paths distributively. Let’s denote the shortest length path

(c) (c)

lifetime of the latter path after the redirection is still longer than in GF (N; AF ) from node i to the destination node d~(c) by

the system lifetime before the redirection. This contradicts our sp(c)(i). Note that the shortest path, sp(c)(i), passes through

assumption that the flow is optimal. the node which has the minimum lifetime of all downstream

In this algorithm we redirect a portion of each commodity nodes of node i. The other path calculation is to find the longest

flow at every node in a way that the minimum lifetime of ev- length path in G(N; A) using the same path length vector. If

ery path with positive flow from the node to the destination will two path lengths are the same, choose the one with less number

increase or at least will stay the same. of elements in the path length vector. The longest length path

In the following, we describe the implementation of FR. Let’s is the path whose minimum lifetime is the longest. Let’s denote

use an imaginary super destination node d~(c) where d~(c) 2 Sd the longest length path in G(N; A) from node i to the destina-

and edd~(c) = 0 for all d 2 D(c) . Let the initial flow be such tion node d~(c) by lp(c) (i). Note that the longest length path is

that from o 2 O(c) to d~(c) the minimum total transmitted energy the path which, in some sense, has the largest capacity since we

(c)

path is used with a flow value of Qo . Note that any path to the will need to assign more flows to this path than any other path

destination can be used as the initial flow. Each node i 2 N ? in order to make the minimum lifetime of the path to equal the

D(c) redirects its outgoing flow of commodity c by subtracting minimum lifetime of the other paths.

Let g denote the next hop node of node i from which path the

(ic) from the flow of a certain path to d~(c) and by adding the flow will be subtracted, and let t denote the next hop node of

same amount to the flow of another path to d~(c) . It is possible

node i to which path the flow will be added, where g 2 Si , the

giver, and t 2 Si , the taker, are to be carefully chosen among

that the flow can be re-routed to a different destination node in

D(c) . The steps to be taken at each node i 2 N ? D(c) for each (c)

the neighbors of node i. Note that notations such as gi and ti

(c)

commodity c are as follows:

could be used, but we use g and t instead for simplicity since

1. (Determine the Two Paths) Determine the two paths to the

there is no ambiguity.

Depending on whether or not the lifetime of node i, Ti (q), is

destination which are to be involved in the redirection.

(c) (c)

2. (Calculate i ) Calculate the amount i of redirection.

3. (Redirect the Flow) Properly increment and decrement the the minimum in the shortest length path sp(c) (i), two different

(c)

flows of the two paths determined above by an amount of i .

measures are taken.

If Ti (q) min[Lsp(c) (i) (q)] then the lifetime of node i is the

The first step of the algorithm at each node i for commodity

c, (Determine the Two Paths), is described in more detail. The minimum over all nodes in the subnetwork consisting of node

i and all its downstream nodes, and hence we would like to in-

crease the lifetime of node i. This can be achieved if we redirect

goal of this step is to identify the ascent direction.

a flow at node i to the direction where the required transmis-

We will need two different path calculations for each com-

(c) (c)

modity. Let’s first form a subnetwork GF (N; AF ) of G(N; A) sion energy per information unit is smaller. In other words, if

(c)

where AF A consists only of edges with positive flow, i.e., we choose a flow passing node g we redirect the flow to node t

where eit < eig . This can be done in many different ways. One

A(Fc) = f(i; j )jqij(c) > 0; (i; j ) 2 Ag: (14) such choice will be to redirect the flow whose energy expendi-

ture to the next hop is the maximum to the direction of minimum

c

( ) c

( ) c

Let Pi be the set of all paths in GF (N; AF ) from node i

( ) energy expenditure to the next hop, i.e.,

(c)

to any of the destination nodes in D(c) . For a path p 2 Pi ,

define its path length Lp (q) under flow q as a vector whose g = j : j2argmax

Si ; qijc >0 eij ;

( ) (15)

and of the lifetimes in the path lp(c) (t) should become shorter than

t = j : j2Si eij :

argmin

(16) Ti (q), i.e.,

Another possibility for the taker is to choose the longest length

1 + ejk (ic) 1 ;

path whose path length is the longest among all the next hop Tj (q) Ej Ti (q) (22)

nodes that has smaller energy expenditure than eig , i.e., for each link (j; k ) in the path lp(c) (t). On the other hand if

Ti (q) > min[Lsp c (i) (q)] then we need to consider two things.

( )

t = j : j2argMAX

Si ; eij <eig Llp c (j ) (q);

( ) (17) First, none of the lifetimes in the path lp(c) (t) should become

shorter than the minimum lifetime of the path sp(c) (i), i.e.,

where MAX denotes the maximum in the lexicographical order-

ing. The giver doesn’t have to be the node with the maximum

1 + ejk (ic) 1

energy expenditure. In fact we can choose any node with non-

minimum energy expenditure. In our algorithm, all these possi-

Tj (q) Ej min[Lsp c (i) (q)] ;

( )

(23)

for each link (j; k ) in the path lp(c) (t). Second, if eit > eig then

bilities are used alternately.

On the other hand, if Ti (q) > min[Lsp(c) (i) (q)] then we

the lifetime of node i may decrease due to the redirection, but

would like to increase the lifetime of the minimum lifetime node

in the path sp(c) (i) by redirecting some of the flow to another

it should not become shorter than the minimum lifetime of the

path sp(c) (i), i.e.,

path since the lifetime of that node is the minimum lifetime over

all nodes in the subnetwork consisting of node i and its down-

stream nodes. The giver g is the next hop node of node i in the

1 + (eit ? eig )(ic) 1

shortest length path sp(c) (i), and the taker can be either the node Ti (q) Ei min[Lsp c (i) (q)] :

( )

(24)

Finally, the value of i should be chosen among the values

( )

t = argMAX

j 2Si Llp c (j ) (q); (18) that meet all the constraints stated above. We could either use

(c)

the maximum i that meets all the constraints or just a fraction

( )

or the node with the minimum energy expenditure whose of it. To avoid possible oscillations and for faster convergence,

(c)

longest length path is longer than the shortest length path of we choose the half of the maximum i that meets all the con-

node i, i.e., straints except (20) and (21).

The third step of the algorithm at each node i for commodity

t = j : j2Si ;min[Llp c argmin

j (q)]>min[Lsp c i q

( ) ( ) ( )]

eij : (19) c, (Redirect the Flow), is described in more detail.

(c)

Subtracting i from the path sp(c) (g ) is simple. We made

( )( )

(c)

In fact, it suffices to find any node whose path length of the sure that i is less than or equal to what is available in each

longest length path is longer than that of the shortest length path edge in the path in (20) and (21).

of node i. In our algorithm, all these possibilities are used alter- (c)

Adding i to the path lp(c) (t) is also simple, but there is a

nately.

Given the two nodes g and t, the flow of the path composed

possibility that one or more loops of positive flow value can be

of (i; g ) and sp(c) (g ) will be re-routed to the path composed of

formed. These loops should be removed in order to avoid unnec-

(i; t) and lp(c)(t). essary energy consumption and to ensure that the path indeed

(c)

leads to the destination. After adding i to the path lp(c) (t),

The second step of the algorithm at each node i for commod-

(c)

ity c, (Calculate i ), is described in more detail. The aim of

the formation of one or possibly more loops is checked and the

loop(s) are removed link by link along the path. For instance,

if link (j; k ) in the path lp(c) (t) is checked by calculating the

this step is to determine the amount of redirection that guaran-

shortest hop distance from node k to node j in the subnetwork

tees monotonic non-decrease of the system lifetime. The con-

(c)

straints that i should meet are as follows. First, it should be

less than or equal to the flow in the path of giver node, i.e.,

G(Fc) (N; A(Fc) ) of G(N; A). If the distance is finite then at least

one loop exists. Remove the loop flow and then repeat the pro-

cedure until all loops involving the link (j; k ) is removed and

i qig(c) ; (20)

then proceed to the next link.

and In the following it is shown that FR can have arbitrarily poor

(c)

i qjk ; (21) performance. For the performance comparison, let’s denote the

X,

maximum system lifetime obtained using algorithm X by Tsys

for each link (j; k ) in the path sp(c) (g ).

Furthermore, none of opt

and the optimum system lifetime by Tsys , and the ratio between

the lifetimes should become shorter than the currently minimum these two values is denoted by

lifetime of the subnetwork consisting of node i and all its down-

TX

stream nodes since this will lead us to the opposite direction to

that of our objective. If Ti (q) min[Lsp(c) (i) (q)] then none

RX = sys

opt ; (25)

Tsys

E =1.0

adding node 6 with e61 = =3, e65 = 1 + 5, and e64 = 1 + 6.

5

(5)

V. P ERFORMANCE C OMPARISON THROUGH S IMULATION

e15 = δ / 2

e52 = 1 + 3 δ

In this section, random graphs are generated in order to eval-

uate the performances of the proposed algorithms. The perfor-

E =1.0 mances are compared with that of minimum transmitted energy

q 54

2

(2) e =1+4δ

54

(MTE) routing algorithm in order to see how much we gain in

=0

8

.32

e12 = δ

.32

terms of the system lifetime compared to the conventional min-

15 =0

e23 = 1 + δ

8

imum transmitted energy routing algorithm. Comparison is also

q

q

13

24

.3

=0

=1+2δ made with the maximum residual energy path (MREP) routing

=0

.3

(3) 24

3

12

1

algorithm proposed in [3], where the path length was a vector

q

8 q

.33 E =1.0 34 =0

=0 3 .33

8 whose elements were the link costs given by

q 13 e =2δ e34 = 1

Q =1.000 13

1 (4)

(1) q =0.003 (26)

14

e14 = 1 / δ

E1=1.0 Ti=2.96, i = 1, 2, 3, 5

The lexicographical ordering was used in comparison of the two

(a) length vectors. The idea was to augment the flow on the path

whose minimum residual energy after the flow augmentation

E5=1.0 will be the largest.

(5)

It has been shown in [3] that MTE can perform arbitrarily bad

by an example. In the following example, it is shown that the

e15 = δ / 2

q 52=0.971

e52 = 1 + 3 δ minimum hop (MH) routing can perform arbitrarily bad. Fig.4

(a) shows the optimal solution and Fig.4 (b) shows the minimum

E2=1.0

e54 = 1 + 4 δ hop solution. The ratio between the system lifetime obtained by

MH and the optimal solution is RMH = . As > 0 approaches

(2)

1

.97

e12 = δ

zero, RMH approaches zero. Note that the example scenario is

15 =0

e23 = 1 + δ

q =0.980

23

q

10

.0

=1+2δ

=0

(3) e

24 tional to the square of the distance in free space and in higher

12

q

.0 10 q

34 =0 orders in urban area, which makes multihop transmission less

=0 E =1.0 .99

3

q 13 e =2δ e34 = 1 0 energy consuming then a single hop counterpart in many cases.

Q =1.000 13

1

(1) q =0.010

(4) Let there be 20 nodes randomly distributed in a square of size

14

e14 = 1 / δ 5 by 5. Assume that the transmission range of each node is

E =1.0

1 Ti=1.01, i = 1, 2, 3, 5 limited by 2.5, i.e., j 2 Si if and only if dij 2:5, where dij is

the distance between node i and node j . The energy expenditure

(b) per unit information transmission from node i to j is assumed to

be given by

Fig. 3. An example showing local optimum convergence of FR for arbitrary

positive constant . The flow values and lifetimes correspond to the case 1:0 10?8; dij 0:025;

opt 2:95; (b) local optimum

when = 0:01 : (a) global optimum with Tsys eij = ( dij )4 ; if

0:025 < dij 2:5: (27)

F R 1:01.

with Tsys 2:5

if

the origins and the destinations, although it is very rare in our

which will be used throughout the paper as the performance setting. We simply discard these cases to assume the connectiv-

measure. ity.

An example showing the convergence to a local optimum is Two different scenarios are simulated: i) single commod-

given in Fig.3, where a single commodity is originated from ity case where information generated at 5 origin nodes need to

node 1 and is destined for node 4. is an arbitrary constant reach any one of two destination nodes; ii) multicommodity case

while the values of flows and lifetimes in the figure are for where each of the 5 origin nodes has its own single designated

the case when = 0:01. When = 0:01, the optimum is destination node.

opt 2:95, but the maximum system lifetime obtained by

Tsys First of all, FA(x1 ; x2 ; x3 ) is simulated to find the best pa-

FR = 1:01. We can verify that RFR can be as small as

FR is Tsys rameters x1 , x2 , and x3 .

1/3 as approaches zero. Let node i have initial energy of Ei = 1 if i is even and

In the worst case RFR can be shown to be arbitrarily small Ei = 2 if i is odd. In the single commodity case, the ori-

by expanding the network in a similar fashion. For example, gin nodes are given by O = f1; 2; 3; 4; 5g and assume the in-

the ratio RFR reaches 1/4 if we expand the network in Fig.3 by formation generation rates are Q1 = Q2 = Q3 = 2 and

1

0.9

(2)

T2 = 1/δ E =1

2 0.8

0.7

average RFA

0.6 FA(1,x,0)

q =1 e12 = δ e23 = δ q =1 FA(1,x,x)

12 23 FA(0,x,0)

0.5

FA(0,x,x)

FA(x,x,0)

T = 1/δ 0.4 FA(x,x,x)

1

Q1 = 1

e =1 0.3

13

(1) (3)

E =1 0.2

1

(a) 0.1

0 1 5 10 20 30

x

(2)

E =1

2 1

0.9

0.8

e12 = δ e23 = δ

0.7

0.6

T1 = 1 FA(1,x,0)

Q1 = 1 0.5 FA(1,x,x)

e =1 FA(0,x,0)

13

FA(0,x,x)

(1) (3) 0.4

FA(x,x,0)

E =1 q =1 FA(x,x,x)

1 13 0.3

0.2

(b)

0.1

opt =

0

0 1 5 10 20 30

where > 0 is a positive constant : (a) optimum system lifetime Tsysx x

MH = 1:00.

1= ; (b) system lifetime obtained by MH, Tsys

Fig. 6. The worst case performances of FA (x1 ; x2 ; x3 ).

Q4 = Q5 = 1. The destination nodes are D = f19; 20g. In Figs. 7 and 8 plot the average and the worst case performance

the multicommodity case O(i) = fig and D(i) = fi + 15g for of the best FA(1; x; x) for various values of . We could observe

i = 1; 2; 3; 4; 5 with Q(ii) = 2 for i = 1; 2; 3 and Q(ii) = 1 for that as got smaller, the performance was better. Note that the

i = 4; 5. worst case of FA(1; 50; 50) when = 0:001 was 0.9929. The

Figs.5 and 6 show the results for single commodity case when curves weren’t monotonically increasing, but we can see that for

= 0:01. Multicommodity case results are not shown here smaller it is so up to a larger x than the curves of larger . This

since they were similar to the single commodity case. In all phenomenon can be best explained as follows. While the short-

cases, FA(1; x; x) was the best in terms of both average and est cost path may indeed be the optimal direction for the flow

worst case performance. It should be noted that even with augmentation, it is only so for a certain amount of flow. As soon

x = 1, RFA(1;x;x) was always over 0.8 of the optimal and about as gets larger than this amount, monotonicity of the conver-

0.98 of the optimal on the average. FA(0; x; 0) and FA(0; x; x) gence breaks. A somewhat similar behavior, though not exactly

was the worst with average performance of about 0.2, which identical, can be found in many optimization methods using de-

means that by considering only the residual energy without tak- scent direction [13], where a procedure called line search is done

ing the energy expenditure into account the system lifetime to guarantee monotonic convergence.

can’t be improved much. It’s better than the MH solution but Let’s compare the performances of the other algorithms. In

considerably worse than all the others which considers the en- both single commodity and multicommodity case, let each node

ergy expenditure term. The results also suggest that we use the i have initial energy Ei = 1 and assume that the information

(c)

normalized residual energy instead of the absolute residual en- generation rate at each origin node o 2 O(c) is Qo = 1 for

ergy, which can be more clearly seen in Fig.6 by comparing each commodity.

FA(1; x; x) with FA(1; x; 0). The single commodity case results are presented first. Be-

Average performance of FA(1,x,x) TABLE II

1

T HE PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF THE ALGORITHMS IN THE SINGLE

COMMODITY CASE .

0.995

33%

0.99

λ=0.001

MTE 0.7310 0.1837

average RFA

0.985

λ=0.005

λ=0.01

FR 0.9596 0.6878 88%

MREP 0.9572 0.8110 89%

0.98 FA(1; 1; 1) 0.9744 0.7347 94%

FA(1; 50; 50) 0.9985 0.9911 100%

0.975

0.97

1 5 10 20 30 50 70 : Origin

x T3=45.06

(19)

: Destination (8) (3)

(11)

sys

= 1.36

(13) (14)

RMTE = 0.22 (7)

(18)

1 (5)

(6)(10) T5=35.65

0.98 (17)

(20)

0.96 (15) (2)

T =36.66

2

(16) T =220.41

0.94 15

worst case RFA

(9)

0.92 λ=0.001 T9=20.26 T = 1.36

4

λ=0.005 (4)

λ=0.01 T1= 5.62

(1)

0.9 (12)

0.88

0.86 Fig. 9. An example showing the solution by MTE for single commodity case

where nodes 1 through 5 are the origin nodes, and nodes 19 and 20 are the

0.84 destination nodes where any one of the two nodes need to be reached.

0.82

1 5 10 20 30 50 70

x

Fig. 8. The worst case performance of FA (1; x; x) for various values of . RMTE , RFR and RMREP were 0.1837, 0.6878, and 0.8110,

respectively. Although it was shown earlier that both MTE and

FR can perform arbitrarily bad in the worst case, simulation re-

fore going into the statistics, let’s compare the algorithms by sults were in favor of FR. The average gain in the system lifetime

an example graph, where origin nodes are given by O = obtained by the proposed algorithms were between 49 % and 55

f1; 2; 3; 4; 5g and destination nodes are given by D = f19; 20g. % compared with MTE.

Figs.9, 10, and 11 show the solutions of MTE, FR, and In the multicommodity case, commodity i 2 C where C =

FA(1; 50; 50) with = 0:001, respectively. The true optimum f1; 2; 3; 4; 5g is assumed to be generated at node i and its desti-

opt = 6:31. One can observe that the advantage of our algo-

is Tsys nation node is node i +15 among 20 randomly distributed nodes.

rithms over MTE lies in the fact that the traffic is more spread Figs.13, 14, and 15 show examples of multicommodity case so-

out. The system lifetime obtained by FA(1; 50; 50) and FR lutions by MTE, FR, and FA(1; 50; 50) with = 0:001 respec-

were more than four times as long as that of MTE in this ex- tively, where only the aggregate flows are depicted. In this ex-

ample, and both were close to the optimal. opt = 7:81, and the sys-

ample, the optimal system lifetime is Tsys

The performances of the algorithms are presented in Table tem lifetime obtained by FR and FA(1; 50; 50) were more than

II, and in Fig.12 average and worst cases of the algorithms are one and a half times as long as that of MTE, where both were

compared. Note that = 0:001 was used for MREP and FA. close to the optimal.

For each algorithm a total of 200 randomly generated graphs In the multicommodity case, the performances of the algo-

were simulated. RFA(1;50;50) was always over 0.99 of the op- rithms given in Table III and Fig.16 showed similar behavior to

timal, i.e., even in the worst case. FA(1; 1; 1)’s performance the single commodity case. = 0:001 was used for MREP

was comparable to MREP’s. While the average of RMTE was and FA(1; 50; 50). RFA(1;50;50) was always over 0.99 of the

about 0.7310, the average system lifetime of FR, MREP, and optimal, i.e., including the worst case, and again FA(1; 1; 1)’s

FA(1; x; x) for x 1 were above 0.95 of the optimal. RFR performance was comparable to MREP’s. While the average

and RMREP were over 0.9 in about 90 % of the case while that RMTE was 0.6982, those of RFR and RMREP were 0.8862

TABLE III

T HE PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF THE ALGORITHMS IN THE

: Origin T3=34.35

: Destination (8) (3)

(19) T =874.82

11 MULTICOMMODITY CASE .

(11)

TFR = 6.00 T8=13044.80 T =862.38

Algorithm X

sys 14

T =34.35 (13) (14)

13

RFR = 0.95 (7)

25%

(18)

T7=34.36

T =34.37 MTE 0.6982 0.2201

54%

18

(5)

FR 0.8862 0.4297

69%

T =210742.29

17

T = 6.01 (6)(10) T5=34.34

6

(17) MREP 0.9349 0.7298

T = 6.01

10

(20)

FA(1; 1; 1) 0.9565 0.7178 86%

FA(1; 50; 50) 100%

(15) (2)

(16) T = 6.01

15

T = 6.01

2 0.9974 0.9906

T16=29.83 (9)

T9= 6.00 T = 6.00

4

(4)

(1) T12= 6.00

T1= 6.01 (12)

(7) (17)

(20) (2) T = 23.11 (12)

(10) 12

T = 269703.97

2

T = 552.01 (4)

Fig. 10. An example showing the solution by FR for single commodity case 10

T4 = 1837790.53

T = 42.95 (11)

where nodes 1 through 5 are the origin nodes, and nodes 19 and 20 are the 11

(16)

(19) T = 39.10

destination nodes where any one of the two nodes need to be reached. 16 (18)

T = 4383.25 T = 71.48 18

19

(14) (8)

(15)

T = 4.71 (5)

14

T15 = 18.25

T = 4.71

: Origin T3=36.58 5

(19)

: Destination (8) (3)

(11)

TFA = 6.29 (9) (6)

sys T =33.98 (13) : Origin (13)

13 (14)

RFA = 1.00 (7) T9 = 9.15

: Destination

(18) T = 5.00

T7=34.85 TMTE

sys

= 4.71 13 (1)

T =37.17 (3) T1 = 23.36

18 RMTE = 0.60

(5) T = 43.14

3

6

(17)

(20)

Fig. 13. An example showing the solution by MTE for multicommodity case

T = 6.29

10

(15) (2)

where nodes 1 through 5 are the origin nodes and nodes 16 through 20 are

T = 6.29

(16) T = 6.29

2 the corresponding destination nodes, respectively.

15

T9= 6.29 T = 6.29

4

(4)

(1)

T1= 6.30 T12= 6.29

(12)

Fig. 11. An example showing the solution by FA(1; 50; 50) when = 0:001 RFR , and RMREP were 0.2201, 0.4297, and 0.7298 respec-

for single commodity case where nodes 1 through 5 are the origin nodes, tively. While the performances of MTE, FR, and MREP deteri-

and nodes 19 and 20 are the destination nodes where any one of the two

nodes need to be reached. orated compared with single commodity case, the performance

of FA(1; 50; 50) was still very close to the optimal. The average

gain in the system lifetime obtained by the proposed algorithms

were between 40 % and 62 % compared with MTE.

1

0.9

worst case

average

0.8 VI. C ONCLUSION

0.7

In power-controlled wireless ad-hoc networks, battery energy

0.6 at network nodes is a very limited resource that needs to be

utilized efficiently. One of the conventional routing objectives

R

0.5

0.4

tination. However, the conventional approach may drain out

0.3

the batteries of certain paths which may disable further infor-

0.2 mation delivery even though there are many nodes with plenty

0.1 of energy. Therefore, we formulated the routing problem with

0

the objective of maximizing the system lifetime given the sets

MTE FR MREP FA(1,1,1) FA(1,50,50)

Algorithms of origin and destination nodes and the information generation

rates at the origin nodes, and proposed a class of flow augmenta-

Fig. 12. The comparison of average and worst case performances of all three

algorithms are made in the single commodity case.

tion algorithms and a flow redirection algorithm which balance

the energy consumption rates among the nodes in proportion to

their energy reserves. The proposed algorithms are local and

amenable to distributed implementation and showed close to the

(7) (17) T = 37.72

T20 = 14.46

T = 6.99

17

optimal performance most of the time, significantly improving

the system lifetime, that is, as much as 60 % on the average over

(20) 7 (2) T = 36.47 (12)

(10) 12

T = 37.70

2

T10 = 37.71 (4)

T

11

= 6.99 (11)

(16)

T4 = 36.47 the conventional minimum transmitted energy routing.

(19) T = 37.70

16 (18)

(14)

T

19

= 6.99 T = 37.68

18 R EFERENCES

(8)

(15)

T14 = 6.99 (5)

T8 = 37.71 [1] Dennis J. Baker and Anthony Ephremides, “The architectural organization

T15 = 6.99

of a mobile radio network via a distributed algorithm,” IEEE Transactions

T = 6.99

5 on Communications, vol. COM-29, no. 11, pp. 56–73, Jan. 1981.

[2] Dimitri Bertsekas and Robert Gallager, Data Networks, Prentice-Hall,

T6 = 6.99

(9) (6) Inc., 2nd edition, 1987.

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[3] J.-H. Chang and L. Tassiulas, “Routing for maximum system lifetime

: Destination

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TFR = 6.99 13 (1)

sys

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RFR = 0.89

T = 37.43

3 Sept. 1999.

[4] Wai-Kai Chen, Theory of Nets: Flows in Networks, Wiley, 1990.

[5] T. Cormen, C. Leiserson, and R. Rivest, Introduction to Algorithms,

Fig. 14. An example showing the solution by FR for multicommodity case

McGraw-Hill and MIT Press, 1990.

where nodes 1 through 5 are the origin nodes and nodes 16 through 20 are

[6] Anthony Ephremides, Jeffrey E. Wieselthier, and Dennis J. Baker, “A

the corresponding destination nodes, respectively. design concept for reliable mobile radio networks with frequency hopping

signaling,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 56–73, Jan. 1987.

[7] M. Ettus, “System capacity, latency, and power consumption in multihop-

routed SS-CDMA wireless networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE Radio and

Wireless Conference (RAWCON) 98, Colorado Springs, CO, Aug. 1998,

(7) (17) T = 49.19

T20 = 613.61

T7 = 7.80

17 pp. 55–58.

(20)

(10)

(2)

T = 43.95

T

12

= 44.22 (12) [8] R.G. Gallager, P.A. Humblet, and P.M. Spira, “A distributed algorithm

T

10

= 43.26 2

(4) for minimum weight spanning trees,” Tech. Rep. LIDS-P-906-A, Lab.

T

11

= 7.80 (11) T4 = 44.41 Inform. Decision Syst., Massachusetts Inst. of Technol., Cambridge, MA,

(16)

(19) T = 35.48 Oct. 1979.

16 (18)

T = 7.80 T18 = 43.30

[9] D. Johnson and D. Maltz, “Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless

19

(14) (8) networks,” Mobile Computing, 1996.

(15)

T = 7.80 (5)

T = 48.93

8 [10] Teresa H. Meng and Volkan Rodoplu, “Distributed network protocols for

14

T15 = 7.79

wireless communication,” in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International

T = 7.80

5 Symposium on Circuits and Systems, ISCAS’98, Monterey, CA, June 1998,

vol. 4, pp. 600–603.

T6 = 7.80

(9) (6) [11] A. Michail and A. Ephremides, “A distributed routing algorithm for

: Origin (13)

T9 = 7.80

supporting connection-oriented service in wireless networks with time-

: Destination

T = 7.80 varying connectivity,” in Proceedings Third IEEE Symposium on Com-

TFA = 7.79 13 (1)

sys

(3) T1 = 7.80 puters and Communications, ISCC’98, Athens, Greece, June 1998, pp.

RFA = 1.00

T = 7.80

3 587–591.

[12] S. Murthy and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, “An efficient routing protocol

Fig. 15. An example showing the solution by FA(1; 50; 50) when = 0:001 for wireless networks,” ACM Mobile Networks and Applications Journal,

Special Issue on Routing in Mobile Communication Networks, 1996.

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[13] Stephen G. Nash and Ariela Sofer, Linear and Nonlinear Programming,

nodes 16 through 20 are the corresponding destination nodes, respectively.

McGraw-Hill, 1996.

[14] Vincent D. Park and M. Scott Corson, “A highly distributed routing algo-

rithm for mobile wireless networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM’97, Kobe,

1 Japan, 1997.

[15] C. Perkins and P. Bhagwat, “Highly dynamic destination-sequenced dis-

0.9

tance vector routing (DSDV) for mobile computers,” in ACM SIGCOMM,

0.8 worst case Oct. 1994.

average

[16] Volkan Rodoplu and Teresa H. Meng, “Minimum energy mobile wireless

0.7 networks,” in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Conference on

Communications, ICC’98, Atlanta, GA, June 1998, vol. 3, pp. 1633–1639.

0.6

[17] Timothy Shepard, “Decentralized channel management in scalable mul-

tihop spread spectrum packet radio networks,” Tech. Rep. MIT/LCS/TR-

R

0.5

670, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Computer Sci-

0.4 ence, July 1995.

[18] S. Singh, M. Woo, and C.S. Raghavendra, “Power-aware routing in mobile

0.3

ad hoc networks,” in Proceedings of Fourth Annual ACM/IEEE Interna-

0.2 tional Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, Dallas, TX, Oct.

1998, pp. 181–190.

0.1 ————————————————————————–

The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the au-

0

MTE FR MREP FA(1,1,1) FA(1,50,50) thors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either

Algorithms

expressed or implied, of the Army Research Laboratory or the U.S. Govern-

Fig. 16. The comparison of average and worst case performances of all three ment.

algorithms are made in the multicommodity case.

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